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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002866/00001
 Material Information
Title: 2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Sprenkel, Richard K.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2000
 Notes
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Date first printed Jan. 2000."
General Note: "NFREC12"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00002866:00001


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NFREC12 2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton1 Richard K. Sprenkel2 1. This document is NFREC12, one of a series of the North Florida Research and Education Center, Florida Cooperative Extension Services, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date first printed Jan. 2000. Please visit the EDIS Website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Richard K. Sprenkel, Professor, Department of Entomology, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy FL 32351. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean. 1. Effective and economical cotton insect control involves the integration of many control techniques. These techniques include using beneficial insects and diseases and cultural control practices to the fullest extent possible. Chemical insecticides are important suppression tools but, they should be used selectively and at the proper rate and time. Use the insecticides listed below as a guide in selecting appropriate controls. How to Scout Cotton Insecticide treatments should be based on thorough inspections or scouting of the field. To make control decisions you should take random samples throughout the field on a regular, twice-a-week, basis. To take a sample in conventional cotton varieties, carefully examine the top 6-10 inches of the main stem terminal, including the small squares, for worm eggs (see note below on sampling Bt-cottons), small worms and whiteflies. Normally 10 plants should be examined per 5 acres of field. A minimum of 50 plants should be examined in each field. Beginning around August 1 or when terminal growth has ceased, whole-plant inspections should include every square, bloom and boll from the terminal to the ground. A minimum of 25 plants should be examined at this time over the entire field. Aphid and spider mite infestations can be determined by examining 1 leaf from each plant inspected. Examine leaves that are at least 2-3 inches in width. Record the degree of infestation according to the average number of aphids and spider mites estimated on each leaf. ttNone-----------0 ttLight----------1-10 ttMedium---------11-25 ttHeavy----------26 or more Sampling Bollgard Transgenic Cotton Bollgard cotton was first planted in Florida in 1996. Since then, up to 60% of Florida's cotton acerage has contained the Bollgard gene.This gene from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, is

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2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton 2 expressed in the cotton plant as a protein that is toxic to the tobacco budworm and cotton bollworm. Although the Bt-cottons provide nearly complete control of the tobacco budworm, observations in Florida and elsewhere indicate that economic populations of the cotton bollworm may be present on the transgenic cotton varieties. For this reason, it is necessary to monitor the Bt-cotton varieties for these "escapes". Studies have indicated that cotton bollworm larvae were most frequently found associated with white blooms, red blooms or bloom tags (dried blooms). Although research on sampling technique is very limited, experiences in 1996 and 1997 suggest that sampling efforts be directed toward the blooms (1 white, red and 2-3 brown blooms on each of 50 plants per field). The terminal portion of each plant should also be examined. Larvae 1/4 inch or larger should be counted and populations per 100 plants calculated. Since the toxin in Bt-cottons is not effective on the true bugs, sampling the plant bug and stink bug will become more demanding. This is because in the past these pests were frequently controlled with the pyrethroid treatments for the budworm/bollworm. To avoid unnecessary treatments which could lead to secondary pest outbreaks (beet armyworm, fall armyworm, looper, etc.), plant bug and stink bug populations will need to be estimated as accurately as possible through sampling. This will probably mean more time in the field surveying for these and other pests not controlled by the Bollgard gene. Sources of Supplies for Monitoring Insects From time to time, I have been asked about obtaining various supplies used in monitoring insects on cotton. Great Lakes IPM has an assortment of professional-quality sweep nets, traps, pheromones and other supplies. You can reach them at: Great Lakes IPM 10220 Church Road NE Vestaburg, Michigan 48891 517/268-5693 Some of the items offered are: 15 inch heavy-duty sweep net ($25.00) for monitoring plant bugs. Universal Moth Trap ($8.95) for monitoring the beet armyworm and fall armyworm. Heliothis trap ($45.00) for monitoring the cotton bollworm and tobacco budworm. Pheromone lures ($1.90-4.00, each) for baiting the traps. 10X hand lens ($5.50-10.00) Pyrethroid Resistance Management In 1987, a pyrethroid-resistant population of tobacco budworms was documented in Brazos County, Texas. Since then, resistant tobacco budworms have been identified in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, the Tennessee Valley of Alabama and southwestern Georgia. Because of field control failures and an increase in the levels of resistance, several states have implemented a Pyrethroid Resistance Management Plan. For a number of years, tobacco budworms at NFREC Quincy Florida have been screened for resistance using the 'vial test' developed at Texas A&M University. This test uses glass vials that are uniformly coated on the inside with a 10 microgram dose of cypermethrin (the active ingredient of Baythroid 2E). This rate was determined through several studies to be a 'discriminating dose' that killed nearly 100% of susceptible tobacco budworm moths but allowed pyrethroid-resistant moths to survive a 24 hour exposure. From 1988 through 1992, survival of the tobacco budworm moths exposed to the 10 microgram dose was rare at Quincy indicating no resistance. In 1993, low levels of survival at the 10 microgram rate were common. Testing in 1994 indicated that the population was

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2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton 3 susceptible to the discriminating dose with very low levels of survival of the moths tested. In 1995, field populations of tobacco budworms in the western panhandle of Florida could not be controlled with the maximum labeled rates of registered pyrethroids. Although not documented by laboratory tests, it is believed that these control failures in 1995 and similar field control failures in northeastern Jackson County in 1996 and 1997 indicate pyrethroid resistance in the tobacco budworm in Florida. Because of the demonstrated tobacco budworm resistance in several Florida cotton production areas a Pyrethroid Resistance Management Plan was recommended, beginning in 1996 for all cotton farmers in Florida not planting Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic cotton (Bollgard). 1. Manage crop for earliness 2. From planting to first bloom: a. Do not use pyrethroids.* b. Scout cotton and treat only on an as-needed basis. 3. From first bloom through the following 6 weeks: a. Scout cotton twice weekly. b. Treat on basis of bollworm/budworm eggs and small larvae. c. Use pyrethroid at mid-range rates in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) or non-pyrethroid ovicide. d. If control of a tobacco budworm generation using a pyrethroid plus B.t. or an ovicide is not satisfactory, use larvicidal rates of a carbamate or organophosphate insecticide for the next treatment of that generation. 4. During late season: a. Do not use pyrethroids.* b. Use larvicidal rates of an organophosphate or carbamate for tobacco budworm control if treatment is justified. c. Terminate all insecticides as soon as possible. *Plant bugs may be controlled using a carbamate or organophosphate insecticide. In field trials conducted for several years in Jackson and Santa Rosa Counties, bollworms and budworms have been successfully controlled using a Bt product plus a non-pyrethroid ovicide as a foliar spray. Florida Cotton Pest Hotline tLike the weather, cotton insect pest problems cannot be accurately predicted more than a few days to a week in the future. For this reason, cotton farmers in Florida need to keep up to date with current pest conditions throughout the panhandle and with management practices that are economical and effective. To assist Florida cotton farmers, the Cotton Foundation is funding the Florida Cotton Pest Hotline. The Hotline is a two-minute tape that is updated twice weekly from mid-May through the end of September. It is available toll-free to anyone in Florida and has information on pheromone trap catches, insect pest field reports, pest problems in southeastern states, updates on boll weevil eradication progress, new chemical registrations/cancellations, upcoming cotton meetings, etc. To call the Cotton Pest Hotline, dial: 1 800 654 8488

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2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton 4 Table 1. Insect control in cotton. Insecticide lbs. AI/Acre Formulation Acres Covered/Gal.or Lb. BEET ARMYWORMS Bolstar 6E (sulprofos) 0.75-1.5 1-2 pts 8-4 Curacron 6E (profenofos) 0.5-1.0 2/3-1 1/3 pts 12-6 Dimilin 4L (diflubenzuron) 0.0625-0.125 4-8 ozs 32-16 Larvin 3.2F (thiodicarb) 0.6-0.9 1 1/2-2 1/4 pts 5.3-3.5 Lannate 2.4 LV (methomyl) 0.45-0.675 1 1/2-2 1/4 pts 5.3-3.5 Lorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) 0.75-1.0 1 1/2-2 pts 5.3-4 Tracer (spinosad) 0.067-0.089 2.14-2.9 ozs 60-45 BOLLWORMS, TOBACCO BUDWORMS Ammo 2.5E (cypermethrin) 0.04-0.08 2-4 ozs 62.5-31.3 Asana XL 0.99E (esfenvalerate) 0.02-0.05 3.9-9.7 ozs 33-13.2 Baythroid 2E (cyfluthrin) 0.025-0.05 1.6-3.2 ozs 80-40 Bacillus thuringiensis** See individual labels for rate. Bolstar 6E (sulprofos) 0.75-1.5 1-2 pts 8-4 Capture (bifenthrin) 0.04-0.1 2.6-6.4 ozs 50-20 Curacron 6E ((profenofos) 0.75-1.0 1-1 1/3 pts 8-6 Cymbush 3E (cypermethrin) 0.04-0.08 1.7-3.4 ozs 75-37.5 Danitol (fenpropathrin) 0.2-0.3 10 2/3-16 ozs 12-8 Fury 1.5EC (zetamethrin) 0.033-0.045 2.82-3.83 ozs 45.5-33.3 Karate 2.08 Z (cyhalothrin) 0.025-0.04 1.6-2.56 ozs 80-50 Lannate 2.4 L (Methomyl)* 0.113-0.45 3/8-1 1/2 pt 21-5.3

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2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton 5 Table 1. Insect control in cotton. Insecticide lbs. AI/Acre Formulation Acres Covered/Gal.or Lb. Larvin 3.2F (thiodicarb) 0.6-0.9 24-36 ozs 5.3-3.6 Lorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) 0.75-1.0 1 1/2-2 pts 5.3-4 Orthene 90S (acephate) 1 1.1 lbs 0.9 Scout X-TRA 0.9E (tralomethrin) 0.018-0.024 2.5-3.4 ozs 50-37.5 Tracer 4 SC (spinosad) 0.045-0.089 1.4-2.9 ozs 90-45 COTTON APHIDS Bidrin 8E (dicrotophos) 0.2 3.2 ozs 40 Capture 2EC (bifenthrin) 0.04-0.1 2.6-6.4 ozs 50-20 Cygon 4E (dimethoate) 0.2 2/5 pt 20 Lorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) 0.5-1.25 1/2-1 pt 8-3.2 Malathion 5E (malathion) 0.5-1.25 4/5-2 pts 10-4 Phaser 3EC (endosulfan) 0.375-0.75 1/2-1 qt 8-4 Provado 1.6F (imidacloprid) 0.047 3.75 oz 34 Thiodan 3EC (endosulfan) 0.375-0.75 1/2-1 qt 8-4 CUTWORMS Ammo 2.5E (cypermethrin) 0.04-0.10 2.0-5.0 ozs 62.5-25 Asana XL 0.66 (esfenvalerate) 0.02-0.05 3.9-9.7 ozs 33-13.2 Cymbush 3E (cypermethrin) 0.06-0.10 2.56-4.27 ozs 50-30 Lorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) 1 2 pts 4 FALL ARMYWORMS Bolstar 6E (sulprofos) 0.75-1.5 1-2 pts 8-4 Curacron 6E (profenofos) 0.75-1.0 1-1 1/3 pts 8-6

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2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton 6 Table 1. Insect control in cotton. Insecticide lbs. AI/Acre Formulation Acres Covered/Gal.or Lb. Lannate 2.4LV (methomyl)* 0.45 1 1/2 pts 5.3 Larvin 3.2F (thiodicarb) 0.6-0.9 1 1/2-2 1/4 pts 5.3-3.5 Lorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) 0.7-1.0 1 2/5-2 pts 5.3-4 Orthene 90S (acephate) 1 1.1 lbs 0.9 Tracer 4SC (spinosad) 0.067-0.089 2.14-2.9 ozs 60-45 FLEAHOPPERS, PLANT BUGS Bidrin 8E (dicrotophos) 0.1-0.2 1/6-3.2 ozs 80-40 Cygon 4E (dimethoate) 0.125-0.25 1/4-1/2 pt 32-16 Dylox 80SP (trichlorfon) 1.0-1.5 20-30 ozs 6.4-4.3 (fleahoppers) Dylox 80SP (trichlorfon) 0.25-1.0 5-20 ozs 25.6-6.4 (plant bugs) Lorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) 0.2-0.5 2/5-1 pt 20-8 Orthene 90S (acephate) 0.37 0.4 lb 2.5 LOOPERS Ambush 2E (permethrin) 0.1-0.2 0.4-0.8 pt 20-10 Bacillus thuringiensis** See individual labels for rate. Larvin 3.2F (thiodicarb) 0.6-0.9 1 1/2-2 1/4 pts 5.3-3.6 Monitor 4E (methamidophos) 0.5-1.0 1-2 pts 8-4 Orthene 90S (acephate) 1 1.1 lbs 0.9 Pounce 3.2E (permethrin) 0.1-0.2 4-8 ozs 32-16 Scout X-TRA .9E (tralomethrin) 0.018-0.024 2.56-3.33 ozs 50-37.5

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2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton 7 Table 1. Insect control in cotton. Insecticide lbs. AI/Acre Formulation Acres Covered/Gal.or Lb. Tracer 4SC (spinosad) 0.067-0.089 2.14-2.9 ozs 60-45 SPIDER MITES Capture 2EC (bifenthrin) 0.06-0.1 3.8-6.4 ozs 33.3-20 Comite 6.5E (propargite) 1.0-1.6 1 1/5-2 pts 6.5-4.1 Curacron 6E (profenophos) 0.5-0.75 2/3-1 pt 12-8 Di-Syston 15G (disulfoton) 0.6-0.75 4-5 lbs 0.25-0.2 Kelthane MF 4E (dicofol) 1.0-1.5 2-3 pts 4-2.7 Lorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) 0.5-1.0 1-2 pts 8-4 Monitor 4E (methamidophos) 0.5-1.0 1-2 pts 8-4 Supracide 2E (methidathion) 1 2 qts 2 Temik 15G (aldicarb) 0.6 4 lbs 0.25 Thimet 20G (phorate) 0.5-0.75 2 1/2-3 3/4 lbs 0.4-0.27 STINK BUGS Bidrin 8E (dicrotophos) 0.25-0.5 4-8 ozs 32-16 Declare 4E (methyl parathion) 0.5 1 8 Orthene 90S (acephate) 0.72 0.8 lb 1.25 THRIPS Bidrin 8E (dicrotophos) 0.2 1/5 pt 40 Cygaon 4E (dimethoate) 0.2 2/5 pt 20 Di-Syston 15G (disulfoton) 0.6-0.75 4-5 lbs 0.25-.02 Guthion 2L (azinphos-methyl) 0.25 1 pt 8 Orthene 90S (acephate) Foliar 0.1875 0.2 lb 5

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2000 Florida Cotton Production Guidelines: Insect Management in Cotton 8 Table 1. Insect control in cotton. Insecticide lbs. AI/Acre Formulation Acres Covered/Gal.or Lb. Orthene 90S (acephate) Planter box 0.14-0.18 2.5-3.25 oz 6.4-5.9 Payload 15G (acephate) 0.75-1.0 5-6.7 lbs 0.2-0.15 Temik 15G (aldicarb) 0.525-0.75 3 1/2-5 lbs 0.29-0.2 Thimet 20G (phorate) 0.5-0.75 2 1/2-3 3/4 lbs 0.4-0.27 WHITEFLIES Danitol 2.4 EC (fenpropathrin) plus 0.2-0.3 plus 10.7-16 ozs plus 12-8 Orthene 90 S (acephate) 0.625 9 oz 1.78 Monitor 4E (methamidophos) 0.25-0.5 1/2-1 pt 16-8 Orthene 90 S (acephate) 0.5-1.0 0.55-1.1 lbs 1.8-0.9 Supracide 2E (methidathion) 0.25-0.5 1-2 pts 8-4 *CAUTION: Methomyl (lannate) may be phytotoxic to cotton under stress. Use in late season and do not exceed 3 applications, applied a minimum of 10 days apart. E=Emulsifiable concentrate, F=Flowable, G=Granules, L=Liquid, SP= Soluble Powder. For cost per acre, divide your cost per gallon or pound of material by acres covered. **Several products containing Bacillusthuringiensis are registered for use on cotton.