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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002752/00001
 Material Information
Title: Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Buss, Eileen A.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "First Published: October 1993. Revised: November 2007."
General Note: "ENY-694"
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00002752:00001


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ENY-694 Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes1 E. A. Buss, L. S. Osborne, S. M. Dickerson and J. F. Price2 1. This document is ENY-694 (IG110), one of a series of the Entomology & Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First Published: October 1993. Revised: November 2007. For more publications related to horticulture/agriculture, please visit the EDIS Website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/. 2. E. A. Buss, assistant professor, Entomology and Nematology Department; L. S. Osborne, professor, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Apopka; S. M. Dickerson, DPM student; J. F. Price, associate professor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Balm; Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean As if growing plants outdoors wasn't hard enough, a whole industry has developed around maintaining indoor plantscapes or interiorscapes. The complexity of these indoor plantscapes varies from having a couple of foliage plants on a window sill in a home to elaborate arrangements in restaurants, malls, hotels, private businesses, and public conservatories. The number of arthropod pests in interiorscapes is considerably smaller than for outdoor plants, and typically include spider mites, fungus gnats, aphids, mealybugs, and scale insects. Some plants are particularly susceptible to infestation, like English ivy or Schefflera spp., so their use should be avoided. Of course, the biggest pests might have two legs, and use indoor plants as hiding spots for coffee, gum, cigarette butts, cleaning compounds, or other trash. Monitoring and proper identification of the problem is very important. Several factors should be considered, including plant location in relation to light and air flow, frequency of watering and fertilizing, and plant age. A list of plant symptoms and possible causes is provided in Table 1. Attempting pest control in these environments can be difficult. Insecticide use is often restricted because of the increased potential for human contact. A limited number of pesticides are labeled for ornamental use in interiorscapes, and pesticide odors may be offensive to folks using an area. The potential for arthropod pests to develop resistance to commonly-used pesticides is also real, so rotating products among different modes of action is important (for more information, see the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee website). Just remember, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. The best defense against ornamental plant pests is sanitation and isolation. If pests can be excluded, then populations can't build up and cause damage. When an infestation is initially found, separate and isolate the infested plants to prevent spreading the problem, and only treat the affected plants, if possible. Discard or destroy infested plant material quickly, preferably in an area that won't result in an additional outdoor plant infestation. Here are some ways that arthropods can infest indoor plants: Infested plant material is brought in from a nursery or garden center.

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 2 Arthropods can fly or walk in through open doors or windows. Personnel transfer pests with equipment or dust cloths used to clean plant foliage. Pests can be transferred among plants if ventilation blows through foliage or if pests are washed off during watering. Biological control can be very useful in interiorscapes. It has received more interest in recent years because of restrictions on indoor plantscape pesticide applications, pesticide costs, limited control with pesticides, phytotoxicity, and potential human health hazards. To implement a successful biological control program, knowledge of pest and natural enemy biology, a good monitoring program, patience, and commitment to the program are important. Most pest managers already realize that if a pesticide application is needed, it should be done when the fewest people are around. Those times are usually at night, during weekends, or in some cases, on holidays. Non-applicators should avoid treated plants until the pesticide on the foliage has completely dried, or is otherwise specified on the pesticide label. Examples of pesticides labeled for use in interiorscapes are listed in Tables 2 and 3. If a pesticide is needed, be careful of causing phytotoxicity, which is also described as a marginal burn, chlorosis, spotting of leaves, or distortion of new growth. Phytotoxic effects may occur if the temperature is too hot, if pesticides are applied too heavily or mixed with some adjuvants. Various pesticide formulations may have different phytotoxic effects. Wettable powders are considered safer to plants than emulsifiable concentrates, but frequently leave unwanted residues on the foliage. Although labels usually contain a list of plants that are sensitive to a pesticide, a trial spray application on a few plants under a particular condition is strongly recommended before treating all plants, regardless of the formulation or mixture. For More Information Interiorscapes: http://ipm.ncsu.edu/InteriorScapes/insect.html IPM: http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu/ Biological control and natural enemies: http://www.mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/SCOUT/ biological.htm Beneficial insect suppliers: http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/ipminov/ ben_supp/contents.htm http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/ pathogens/nematodes.html Photos of beneficials: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN002 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN003 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN012 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN013

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 3 Table 1. A general diagnostic guide for plants grown indoors. Symptoms Potential Causes Leaf tips are brown or scorched 1) Poor root health from overwatering, soil excessively dry (especially between waterings), excessive fertilizer or other soluble salts in the soil, or root rot disease. 2) Specific nutrient toxicities (e.g., fluoride, copper, or boron). 3) Low humidity. 4) Pesticide or mechanical injury. Leaf spots, blotches, blemishes, blisters, or scabby spots 1) Intense light (sunburn) associated with a recent move of the plant or excessive soil dryness and wilting. 2) Chilling injury (below 50F). 3) Pesticide injury. 4) Overwatering. 5) Fungal or bacterial infections (unusual, unless plants have recently come from a field or greenhouse). Older leaves are yellow-green: 1) Insufficient fertilizer, especially nitrogen. 2) Poor root health due to pot-bound growth, compacted soil, or poor drainage. 3) Insufficient light. 4) Senescence (natural aging process, individual leaves). Newer leaves are yellow-green: 1) Soil pH (acidity) imbalance. 2) Trace element imbalance. All leaves are yellow-green 1) Too much light. 2) Insufficient fertilization. 3) High temperatures, especially if associated with dryness. 4) Insect infestation or root rot disease. Leaf drop 1) Poor root health from overwatering, excessive dryness, excessive fertilizer or other soluble salts in the soil, compacted soil, or pot-bound roots. 2) Sudden change in light, temperature or relative humidity. 3) Root rot disease. Foliage is wilting or drooping 1) Poor root health from overwatering, excessive dryness, excessive fertilizer or other soluble salts in the soil, compacted soil, poor drainage, or root rot disease. 2) A toxic chemical poured into the soil. Roots are brown in color, soft or rotted; Roots have tissue that can easily be slipped off, leaving behind the string-like center tissues; roots massed at top or bottom of pot. 1) Poor root health from overwatering, excessive dryness, excessive fertilizer or other soluble salts in the soil, compacted soil, or a poorly drained container. 2) A toxic chemical poured into soil. 3) Over or underwatering. 4) Root rot disease. Leaves have yellowed with tiny speckling; leaves later are bronzed and dried out; webbing occurs near growing points 1) Spider mite infestation. Leaves or stems coated with a sticky substance; mold growing on leaves, tiny brown or white objects seen on leaves or in crotches of branches; leaf drop or branch dieback; leaf or growing point distorted. 1) Aphid, scale, or mealybug infestation. Information adapted from Michigan State University Extension Bulleting E-2308 Interiorscape Pest Management. A Training Manual for Commercial Pesticide Applicators. Julie Stachecki, Editor.

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 4 Table 2. Products available for interiorscape insect pest management. Active Ingredient Trade Name Pests Controlled Comment Azadirachtin Azatin XL, Ornazin Aphids, beetles, borers, caterpillars, flies, leafhoppers, leafminers, leafrollers, moths, psyllids, scales, thrips, and whiteflies Insect growth regulator disrupts molting; repels and deters feeding. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Gnatrol Fungus gnats Microbial gut disruptor. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Foray Caterpillars Microbial gut disruptor. Beauveria bassiana BotaniGard Aphids, beetles, mealybugs, psyllids, thrips, whiteflies Fungal biological control agent. Bifenazate Floramite Two-spotted spider mite, pacific mite, strawberry mite, European red mite, citrus red mite, southern red mite, spruce spider mite, and bamboo spider mite Use in conjunction with predatory mites and/or other miticides. Bifenthrin Talstar Aphids, broad mites, fungus gnats, grasshoppers, lace bugs, leafhoppers, leafrollers, leafminers, mealybugs, spider mites, and whiteflies Synthetic pyrethroid Cyfluthrin Decathlon, Tempo Aphids, caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers, lace bugs, leafhoppers, leafrollers, mealybugs, scales, thrips, whiteflies Synthetic pyrethroid Cyomazine Citation 75 WP Dipterous leafminers and fungs gnats Leafminers can develop resistance. Diflubenzuron Adept Armyworms, leafminers and fungus gnats Insect growth regulator little or no effect on bees or beneficials. Fenoxycarb Precision Fungus gnats, leafminers, shore flies, thrips, and whiteflies Insect growth regulator. Fenpyroximate Akari 5% SC Spider mites Stops mite feeding and egg laying. Horticultural oil Sunspray Ultrafine spray oilt Aphids, lace bugs, leafhoppers, leafminers, mealybugs, mites, psyllids, scales, thrips, and whiteflies Parafin-based oil. Imidacloprid Marathon, Merit Aphids, borers, lace bugs, leafhoppers, leafminers, mealybugs, psyllids, thrips, whiteflies, and white grubs A systemic insecticide; residual activity. Insecticidal Soap M-Pede Aphids, lace bugs, leafhoppers, mealybugs, psyllids, scales, spider mites, thrips, and whiteflies Contact insecticide; no residual activity. Powdery mildew curative. Kinoprene Enstar II Aphids, fungus gnats, mealybugs, scales, and whiteflies Insect growth regulator.

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 5 Table 2. Products available for interiorscape insect pest management. Active Ingredient Trade Name Pests Controlled Comment Permethrin Astro Aphids, caterpillars, fungus gnats, thrips, lace bugs, leafhoppers, leafminers, leafrollers, mealybugs, and whiteflies A synthetic pyrethroid. Pymetrozine Endeavor Aphids and whiteflies A systemic insecticide; residual activity. Low toxicity to beneficials. Pyriproxyfen Distance IGR Aphids, fungus gnats, scales, shore flies, and whiteflies Insect growth regulator, not effective on adults. Table 3. Insect and mite pesticide options for interiorscape plants. (Be sure specific plant and site are listed on the label). Pest Pesticide Active Ingredient Trade Name and Formulation Aphids F, G acephate 1300 Orthene TR, Acephate Pro 75 or WSP, Orthene Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray or 97 F, G acetamiprid TriStar G bifenthrin Talstar Flowable, Attain TR F, G cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP G cyfluthrin + chlorpyrifos Duraplex TR F, G endosulfan Endosulfan 3 EC, 50WP F, G fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC F, G fluvalinate Mavrik Aquaflow F, G horticultural oil Sunspray Ultra Fine, Ultra-Fine Oil F, G imidacloprid Marathon II, 1% G, 60 WP G insecticidal soap M-Pede, Insecticidal Soap 49.52 CF G kinoprene Enstar II F malathion Malathion 57% EC F, G pymetrozine Endeavor F, G pyrethrin 1100 Pyrethrum TR F, G thiamethoxam Flagship

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 6 Table 3. Insect and mite pesticide options for interiorscape plants. (Be sure specific plant and site are listed on the label). Pest Pesticide Active Ingredient Trade Name and Formulation Beetles (including weevils) F, G acephate 1300 Orthene TR, Acephate Pro 75 or WSP, Address T/O or WSP, Orthene Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray or 97 F, G azadirachtin Azatin XL F bifenthrin Talstar Nursery Granular, Talstar GH, Talstar N F carbaryl Sevin 80 WSP F, G cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP F diazinon Diazinon 50W, 50 WSP F, G fenpropathrin Tame 2.4 EC F, G imidacloprid Marathon II, 1% G, 60 WP F, G permethrin Astro F, G spinosad Conserve SC Caterpillars F, G acephate 1300 Orthene TR, Acephate Pro 75 or WSP, Address T/O or WSP, Orthene Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray or 97 F, G B. thuringiensis Dipel DF, Xentari, Xentari DF F, G bendiocarb Closure 76 WP G bifenthrin Talstar Flowable, Attain TR F carbaryl Sevin 80 WSP F, G tebufenozide Confirm T/O F, G cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP G cyfluthrin + chlorpyrifos Duraplex TR G diflubenzuron Adept F, G spinosad Conserve SC Remarks: Apply when larvae are small. They are more difficult to control as they approach maturity. It is especially important to use a speader-sticker with B. thuringiensis; this material is not suggested for armyworms beyond the second instar. To reduce phytotoxicity, apply bendiocarb only to point of glisten. Fungus Gnat Larvae F, G azadirachtin Azatin XL F, G B. thuringiensis Gnatrol F, G cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP G cyfluthrin + chlorpyrifos Duraplex TR G cyromazine Citation 75 WP G diazinon Knox Out 2 FM G diflubenzuron Adept G kinoprene Enstar II

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 7 Table 3. Insect and mite pesticide options for interiorscape plants. (Be sure specific plant and site are listed on the label). Pest Pesticide Active Ingredient Trade Name and Formulation F, G fenoxycarb Precision 25 WP, Preclude TR F, G pyrethrum 1100 Pyrethrum TR F, G pyriproxyfen Distance IGR, Pyrigro F, G resmethrin (adult gnats only) SBP-1382 F, G thiamethoxam Flagship Lacebugs F, G acephate 1300 Orthene TR, Orthene Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray G bifenthrin Talstar Flowable, Attain TR F carbaryl Sevin SL, 80 WSP F, G imidacloprid Marathon II, 1% G, 60 WP; Merit 75 WP, WSP F malathion Malathion 57% EC F, G permethrin Astro F, G thimethoxam Flagship Leafminers F, G abamectin Avid 0.15 EC F, G acephate Orthene Turf, Tree and Ornamental Spray F, G azadirachtin Azatin XL G bifenthrin Talstar Flowable, Attain TR F, G permethrin Astro F, G spinosad Conserve SC Mealybugs F, G acephate 1300 Orthene TR, Acephate Pro 75 or WSP, Address T/O or WSP, Orthene Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray or 97 F, G acetamiprid TriStar F, G azadirachtin Azatin XL F, G bendiocarb Closure 76 WP G bifenthrin Talstar Flowable, Attain TR F, G cyfluthrin Decathlon 20 WP G cyfluthrin + chlorpyrifos Duraplex TR F, G imidacloprid Marathon II, 1%G, 60 WP F, G insecticidal soap M-Pede, Insecticidal Soap 49.52 CF G kinoprene Enstar II F malathion Malathion 5EC F, G neem oil Triact 70 F, G other oils Organocide, Sunspray Ultra Fin, Ultra-Fine Oil F, G pyriproxyfen Distance IGR, Pyrigro Mites, Spider F, G abamectin Avid 0.15 EC G bifenthrin Talstar Flowable, Attain TR

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 8 Table 3. Insect and mite pesticide options for interiorscape plants. (Be sure specific plant and site are listed on the label). Pest Pesticide Active Ingredient Trade Name and Formulation F, G bifenazate Floramite 50% WP G chlorfenapyr Pylon 2% EC F, G clofentezine Ovation SC G cyfluthrin + chlorpyrifos Duraplex TR F, G etoxazole Tetrasan F, G fenbutatin-oxide Vendex 50WP G fenpyroximate Akari 5% SC F hexythiazox Hexygon F, G horticultural oil Sunspray Ultra Fine, Ultra-Fine Oil F, G insecticidal soap M-Pede, Insecticidal Soap 49.52 CF F, G neem oil Triact 70 G pyridaben Sanmite 75 WP F, G spinosad Conserve SC G sulfotepp Plantfume 103 Mites, Broad & Cyclamen F chlorfenapyr Pylon G endosulfan Endosulfan 3 EC, 50WP Thiodan 3EC Scales F, G acephate 1300 Orthene TR, Acephate Pro 75 or WSP, Address T/O or WSP, Orthene Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray or 97 F, G azadirachtin Azatin XL G cyfluthrin + chlorpyrifos Duraplex TR F, G oil Sunspray Ultra Fine, Ultra-Fine Oil, Organocide F, G imidacloprid Marathon II, 1% G, 60 WP F, G insecticidal soap M-Pede, Insecticidal Soap 49.52 CF G kinoprene Enstar II F malathion Malathion 5EC F, G pyriproxyfen Distance IGR, Pyrigro F, G thiamethoxam Flagship Shoreflies G cyfluthrin + chlorpyrifos Duraplex TR G cyromazine Citation 75 WP G diflubenzuron Adept F, G fenoxycarb Precision 25 WP, ME, Preclude TR F, G pyriproxyfen Distance IGR, Pyrigo

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Managing Pests of Indoor Plantscapes 9 Table 3. Insect and mite pesticide options for interiorscape plants. (Be sure specific plant and site are listed on the label). Pest Pesticide Active Ingredient Trade Name and Formulation Silverfish (Sweetpotato) Whitefly and Other Whiteflies F, G abamectin Avid 0.15 EC F, G acetamiprid TriStar F, G azadirachtin Azatin XL G bifenthrin Talstar Flowable, Attain TR F, G endosulfan Endosulfan 3 EC, 50WP Thiodan 3 EC F, G fenpropathrin + acephate Tame 2.4 EC + orthene F, G horticultural oil Sunspray Ultra Fine, Ultra-Fine Oil F, G imidacloprid Marathon II, 1%G, 60 WP F, G insecticidal soap M-Pede, Insecticidal Soap 49.52 CF G kinoprene Enstar II F, G pymetrozine Endeavor F, G pyriproxyfen Distance IGR, Pyrigro G sulfotepp Plantfume 103 F, G thiamethoxam Flagship Remarks: Unlike other whiteflies, the silverleaf whitefly is very difficult to control. To minimize additional resistance problems, one of the above insecticides should be applied two times per week throughout one life cycle (3 weeks) to control an established infestation. (Does not apply to Marathon granules). Insecticidal soap is also effective; however, phytotoxicity may occur when applied repeatedly. Monitor the population to determine if the particular insecticide being applied is reducing whitefly numbers. Some populations may be resistant to one or more of these insecticides. If the infestation persists, use another compound from the above, following the same schedule. Do not apply tank mixes, (except Tame + Orthene) as they may enhance resistance. If low numbers of whiteflies persist, apply one of the above insecticides once per week for 3 weeks, then switch insecticides. Undersides of leaves must be covered thoroughly to achieve satisfactory control. Phytotoxicity of these insecticides has not been extensively evaluated. Plants may be damaged, sometimes severely, with any pesticide. Be sure the pesticide is labeled for your particular crop, and closely follow all label directions. Slugs and Snails F, G methiocarb Mesurol 75 W F, G metaldehyde Deadline Bullets, M-Ps, Metaldehyde 3.5G, 7.5G Springtails F, G insecticidal soap Insecticidal Soap 49.52 CF F, G malathion Malathion 5EC