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HS978 World Markets for Organic Fresh Citrus and Juice1 James J. Ferguson2 1. This document is HS978, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: May 2004. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. James J. Ferguson, professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean International markets for organic foods have increased from $16 billion in 2000 to $20 billion in 2001, with the International Trade Center, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the UN forecasting $23 to 25 billion in 2003 and $30 billion in retail sales by 2005. This rapid expansion, combined with price premiums for organic produce, has attracted farmers faced with declining prices for conventionally grown produce. However, with organic sales now less than 2% of the overall food market and estimated growth ceilings of 3.5 to 5% in developed countries by 2010, economic and market information is needed to guide grower decisions about possibly converting to organic production. Given the lack of official foreign trade data on organic sales, Pascal Liu, Commodities Specialist, The Food and Agriculture Organization, has interviewed trade and industry figures and reviewed available sources to develop a perspective on the current market situation and medium-term prospects for fresh organic citrus and juices. Information presented here is based on his May, 2003 paper on World markets for Organic Citrus and Citrus Juices, available at http://www.fao.org/es/ESC/common/ecg/ 28303_en_CitrusorganicEN.pdf. This fact sheet summarizes the above FAO publication as a general aid to Florida organic citrus growers and others in assessing their export potential for international markets. Fresh Organic Citrus Markets World production of organic citrus in approximately 30 countries was about 600,000 metric tons (661,200 US tons or 14,693,333 90-lb boxes) in 2001, 0.6% of total citrus production. The European Union (EU) market for both certified organic fruit and vegetables was estimated at $1.7 billion in 2002, with fresh organic citrus representing 5-7% of all fresh fruit and vegetable sales and 37% of all organic fruit sold. However, consumption of fresh organic citrus in the EU is still relatively low compared with overall fresh fruit use. Major constraints on additional market share include poor fruit quality and packaging, short shelf life, and inefficiencies in the marketing chain. Major exporters of organic fresh citrus to the EU include Italy, Spain, Argentina, the U.S., and Greece. Brazil, Israel, Costa Rica, the U.S., Italy, Mexico, and Cuba are major exporters of organic citrus juice (Table 1).
World Markets for Organic Fresh Citrus and Juice 2 According to 2001 FAO reports, Italy is the main supplier of fresh organic citrus for the EU, producing 222,000 metric tons (244,644 US tons or 5,436,533 90-lb boxes) of fresh organic citrus (oranges, tangerines, lemons) on approximately 10,800 ha (266,868 acres) in Sicily and Calabria. Spain produced 25 to 30,000 metric tons (27,550 33,060 US tons or 612,222 734,667 90-lb boxes) on 900 ha (2,224 acres) in Andalusia. Together, Italy and Spain supply over 95 percent of the fresh organic citrus consumed in the EU. The remaining 5 percent is imported from Mediterranean countries like Morocco (primarily oranges), Israel (primarily grapefruit), Argentina, South Africa, the USA, and Uruguay, especially during the EU off-season when citrus-producing member countries are not shipping fresh fruit. Although there is potential for expansion in this market, additional land in Brazil and Italy, totaling 13,376 ha (32,102 acres), is being converted to organic citrus production, with the potential for oversupplying markets. Other import constraints include a 10.4 percent ad valorem tariffs on imported fresh oranges, internal EU marketing and organic certification agreements, and an underlying assumption that EU organic certification programs are more strict and reliable than those of other countries. Selected EU countries in this survey imported approximately 53-55,000 US tons of fresh organic citrus in 2000, with Germany, France, the UK, and Austria being major importers (Table 2). Germany is the largest single market for organic foods in the EU and the second largest in the world, with Austria and Denmark having the highest per capita consumption of organic products in general. The fresh citrus import market in the Netherlands is unique in that this country is a key entry point, re-exporting imported citrus to other EU countries, partially due to less complicated organic import procedures than other EU countries. Prices for fresh EU organic citrus vary with seasonal availability of fruit, market location, and type of retail outlet. Prices for imported citrus are generally higher during the off-season for EU citrus production. Fresh organic citrus sells, on average, for 65 percent higher than conventionally grown citrus but premiums range from 17 percent in Greece to 144 percent in Finland. Organic citrus is also cheaper in countries where a substantial share of organic produce is sold in supermarkets rather than smaller health food stores. Market Prospects Consumption of organic citrus still remains low in the non-citrus producing countries within the EU. However, the integration of ten more central and eastern European countries into the EU in 2004 could increase markets. Decreasing prices along with increased production, and improved post-harvest and market efficiencies could also increase consumption. However, with Italy and Spain remaining the main supplier of organic citrus in the EU, other marketing opportunities will fall to those with preferential trade agreements with the EU, with fruit available from May to September when EU produced supplies are low and for organic grapefruit and limes. Temperate climate countries with already established large organic markets like the UK, Germany, and Austria may also remain good import markets, as could countries with small but growing organic markets like France and the Scandinavian countries. In the 1999-2000 season, 35 percent of all Florida grapefruit was exported to Japan. However, until the adoption of legislation defining organic standards under the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) in 2000, it has been difficult to assess the Japanese market for imported organic citrus, primarily grapefruit. Phytosanitary restrictions, JAS organic standards, and high ad valorem tariffs have also limited imports of fresh citrus, currently about 0.1 to 0.2 percent of the total citrus market. Given its large population with a relatively high per capita income and focus on health concerns, conservative estimates predict Japan's organic market for fresh organic citrus fruit could grow to mature market potential of 3 to 5% of the total citrus market by 2010. Organic Juice Markets The major organic citrus juice market is for orange juice, with recent sales for Not From Concentrate (NFC) increasing more than for Frozen
World Markets for Organic Fresh Citrus and Juice 3 Canned Orange Juice (FCOJ). Smaller markets also exist for grapefruit juice produced in the USA, Cuba, and Israel and lemon juice in Argentina and Spain (Table 3). The main markets for all organic fruit and vegetable juices combined are the UK, Germany, Italy, France, and Scandinavian countries, with retail sales increasing more than 20 percent per year since 1998. The present EU market for organic juice in general is only 0.57 percent of the total EU juice market. Organic citrus juice by itself accounts for only 0.3% of total citrus juice consumption within an average 2% market share for organic produce generally. This small current market share, combined with large supplies, decreasing prices, and increased availability in supermarkets, suggests considerable growth potential. Israel (5-6000 metric tons or 5,510 6,612 US tons), Brazil (1,500 metric tons or 1,653 US tons), the USA (1000 metric tons or 1,102 US tons), Costa Rica (1000 metric tons or 1,102 US tons), and Argentina (114 metric tons or 126 US tons) were the major NFC suppliers of NFC for the European Union in 2001-2002. Mediterranean countries, with closer proximity to EU markets than Florida or Brazil, have a decided advantage in exporting NFC organic juice to the EU. Brazil is the largest supplier of FCOJ for the European Union, followed by the USA, Cuba, Israel, and Costa Rica. Highly competitive in the conventionally produced FCOJ market, Brazil is expected to maintain this lead in the organic FCOJ market. With additional acreage coming into production and considerable storage capacity, international organic citrus producers have anticipated significant growth in this market, without increased demand actually occurring yet. As a result 60 and 35 percent price premiums for FCOJ and NFC, respectively, in 2002 are declining and the market appears to be awaiting greater demand. The major consideration, according to Pascal Liu, for Florida growers planning to ship to developed countries include: Ability to meet specific requirements of the target market (phytosanitary requirements, quantity and quality, packaging, consistency, and scheduling deliveries) Profit margins in terms of production costs and various price premium scenarios Targeted market tariffs and preferential market access agreements Target market acceptance of organic certification
World Markets for Organic Fresh Citrus and Juice 4 Table 1. Main European Union suppliers of certified organic fresh citrus and juice in 2001. Production Area Estimated Production Main Export Products Industry status Metric tons US or short tons (90-lb boxes) Fresh fruit Juice European Union 290,000 319, 580 (7,101,778) oranges, tangerines, lemons --stable Untied States 100 120,000 110,200 132,204 (2,448,889 -2,938,667) oranges orange juice output growing Brazil 100,000 110,200 (2,448,889) --orange juice (FCOJ, NFC) output growing Costa Rica 50,000 55,100 (1,224,444) --orange juice (NFC) output stable Israel 15 -20,000 16,530 22, 060 367,333 490,222 grapefruit orange and grapefruit juices output stable Argentina 7,000 7,714 (171,422) oranges, lemons --output growing Cuba 6,000 6,612 (146,993) --conc. oranges and grapefruit juices output growing South Africa 4,000 4,408 (97,956) oranges, grapefruit --output growing Morocco 3-5,000 3,306 5,510 (73,467 122,444) oranges --output growing Mexico not available --oranges, limes orange juice --Source: Pascal Liu. 2003. World Markets for Organic Citrus and Citrus Juices Table 2. Estimated net imports of fresh organic citrus in selected EU countries (2000). Importing country Exporting country Metric tons US or short tons Equivalent 90-lb boxes Austria Spain, Greece, Israel 7-8,000 7,714 8,816 171,422 195,911 Belgium 500 1,000 551 1,102 12,244 24,289 Denmark Spain, Italy 2,000 2,204 48,978 France Italy, Spain, Israel, South Africa 9,000 9,918 200,000 Germany Italy, Spain 13,000 14,326 318,356 Netherlands 7,000 7,714 171,422 Sweden Spain, Italy 500 1,000 551 1,102 12,244 24,289 UK Italy, Spain 8,000 8,816 177,718 Finland Spain, Italy 500 551 12,244 Ireland, Luxembourg 500 551 12,244 Total 48 50,000 52,896 55,100 1,175,467 1, 224,444 Source: Pascal Liu. 2003. World Markets for Organic Citrus and Citrus Juices.
World Markets for Organic Fresh Citrus and Juice 5 Table 3. Estimated European Union imports of organic FCOJ in 2002. Supplying country Product Imports Metric tons US or short tons Brazil orange 2,000 2,500 2,204 2,755 USA orange and grapefruit 1,000 1,102 Cuba orange and grapefruit 350 386 Israel orange, grapefruit and mandarin 100 110 Costa Rica orange 200 220 Argentina (2001) lemon 28 31 Source: Pascal Liu. 2003. World Markets for Organic Citrus and Citrus Juices.