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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002669/00001
 Material Information
Title: Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied ''Atonik'' Biostimulant
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Csizinsky, A.A.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: <2001>
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "hs819"
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00002669:00001


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HS819 Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant1 A.A. Csizinszky2 1. This document is HS819, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Bradenton, Florida Cooperative Extension Serivce, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. A.A. Csizinszky, associate professor, Horticultural Sciences, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center Bradenton, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611 The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean. Introduction The effect of a foliar-applied Atonik biostimulant (Asahi Chemical Co., Mfg. Ltd. Japan) containing 0.6% mono-nitrophenolates as active ingredients was evaluated in replicated trials on Brigadier and X3R Camelot bell pepper cultivars in summer-fall (August-December) 2000 at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Bradenton. The effect of Atonik sprays on fruit size and earliness were of special interest. Materials and Methods Production system was the full-bed polyethylene mulch (Geraldson et al., 1965) with micro-(trickle) irrigation. Raised beds of Eau Gallie fine sand (USDA, 1983) were formed on 9 August 2000. The 32-inch wide, 8 inch high beds were formed on 5-ft centers with drainage ditches spaced every 6 beds (8,712 linear ft of bed per acre). Prior to land preparation, soil samples were taken and analyzed at the IFAS Analytical Research Laboratory at Gainesville, FL. The pH 5.9, total soluble salts (TSS) = 1400 ppm, NH4-N = 1.1, and NO3-N = 1.0 ppm were determined from the water extract. The P = 51.9 (high), K = 27.4 (low), Ca = 665 (very high) and Mg = 46.6 (high) were determined from the Melich-I extract (Hanlon et al., 1990). Pre-plant nutrients applied at land preparation in lb per acre were: 88N, 30.5P and 101K. Phosphorous source was a 0-8.74-0 (N-P-K) superphosphate that was placed in a 6-inch wide band on the pre-bed. The superphosphate also contained micronutrients (F503) at 80 lb per ton (10.4 lb per acre F503). The N and K source was an 18-0-20.75 (N-P-K) that was placed in the bed center in a 2-inch deep narrow furrow. The remaining amounts of N, 174 lbs per acre, and K, 145 lbs per acre, were injected through the microirrigation tubing from a liquid 8-0-6.64 (N-P-K) analysis fertilizer during the season. Soil was fumigated with Terr-0-Gas (66% methyl bromide and 33% chloropicrin) at 213 lbs per acre. Irrigation through a T-tape (8 inch emitter spacing, 0.67 gallon per minute at 8 psi) was applied at the previous days open pan evaporation. The T-tape was placed 2 inches deep in the soil, 3 inches from the bed center. Beds were covered with a white on black polyethylene film. On 6 September, five-week old Brigadier and X3R Camelot seedlings raised in 1-inch cell size

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Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant 2 planter flats by a commercial company were transplanted at 12 inches between and 14 inches within-row spacing in the 12-foot-long plots (20 plants per plot). Biostimulant and control treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block experimental design and replicated four times. The Atonik biostimulant spray was applied at a rate equivalent to 6.84 fluid ozs per acre in 30 gallons of water by a portable backpack sprayer at 40 psi. A biodegradable sticker/spreader (Sun spray 11E) was added to the spray to facilitate better spray cover of the plants. Plants were sprayed four times: early bud stage [30 days after planting (DAP)] at first bloom (42 DAP), flowering and first fruits (49 DAP) and after the 1st harvest (64 DAP). In the last two applications the amount of water in the spray was increased to 60 gallons per acre as plant size increased. In the control plots, the plants were sprayed with water only. During the season plants were treated with approved pesticides on a preventive weekly basis to control pathogens and insects. Soil samples for pH, TSS, and macroand microelement analyses were taken after transplanting and after the last harvest. Plant heights were measured on 24 October (50 DAP). Shoot samples, fully expanded young leaves, were taken near first harvest (58 DAP) for dry matter determination and macroand microelemental analyses (Hanlon and DeVore, 1989). Fruit samples for dry matter and elemental analyses were taken at harvest. Fruits were harvested 6 times, on 7, 14 and 22 November and 6, 13 and 20 December. Fruits were graded according to USDA standards for sweet peppers (USDA, 1981). Results and Discussion In September, minimum daily temperature and rainfall were above the 45-year average (Table 1). For the rest of the growing season, maximum and minimum daily temperatures and monthly rainfall were below the 45-year average. Due to the favorable weather conditions and timely applications of pesticides there were no serious insect or disease problems that had adverse effects on the crop. Plant heights were not affected by spray treatments but Brigadier plants were taller than the X3R Camelot plants. Brigadier plants were 15.2 inches with Atonik and 15.1 inches with water sprays. X3R Camelot plants were 12.7 inches with Atonik and 12.6 inches with water sprays. In the first harvest U.S. Fancy and marketable total yields of Brigadier were higher (P< 0.05) with Atonik than with water treatment. Cumulative yield of U.S. fancy fruits in harvests 1-4 were also higher with Atonik than with water sprays (Table 2). Fruit yields of X3R Camelot peppers were similar with Atonik or water sprays (Tables 2). Number of fruits harvested had shown similar trends to the weight of fruit yields for both bell pepper cultivars (Tables 3). Dry matter (DM) content in the leaves and fruits of Atonik treated Brigadier plants were lower (P<0.05) than in the water treated plants (Tables 4 and 5). Macroand microelemental concentrations in leaves and fruits of both bell pepper cultivars were similar with Atonik or water sprays (Tables 4 and 5). The results of this study on the effect of Atonik foliar sprays on bell peppers are similar to our earlier studies on the effect of Atonik and several other biostimulant products on peppers: plants treated with foliar biostimulant sprays had slightly higher yields of U.S. Fancy or marketable grade fruits than plants sprayed with water only (Csizinszky, 1990; 1994; Csizinszky et al., 1990). The effect of biostimulant treatment in this study as reported in previous studies also depended on the cultivar (Csizinszky 1988; 1990; Csizinszky et al., 1990). Therefore, the beneficial effect of biostimulant products on pepper yields has to be weighed against the cost of biostimulant applications. Furthermore, it is advisable for the growers to test the effect of biostimulant sprays on a small area and preferably on a few cultivars before treating a large acreage of peppers with biostimulants. Relevant Publications Csizinszky, A. A. 1988. Yield response of green peppers to biostimulants. Florida Pepper Institute 1988. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Veg. Crops Extension Report SSVEC-802.

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Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant 3 Csizinszky, A. A. 1990. Response of two bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars to foliarand soil-applied biostimulants. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 49:199-203. Csizinszky, A. A. 1994. Yield response of Jupiter bell pepper to foliar biostimulant spray. Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA-1994-4. Csizinszky, A. A., C. D. Stanley, and G. A. Clark. 1990. Foliar and soil-applied biostimulant studies with microirrigated pepper and tomato. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 103:113-117. Geraldson, C. M., A. J. Overman, and J. P. Jones. 1965. Combination of high analysis fertilizer, plastic mulch, and fumigation for tomato production on old agricultural land. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 28:18-24. nHanlon, E. A., G. Kidder and B. L. McNeal. 1990. Soil, container and water testing. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. Circ. 817. Gainesville, FL. United States Department of Agriculture. 1981. United States Standards for Grades of Sweet Peppers. USDA Agric. Marketing Service, Washington, D.C.

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Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant 4 Table 1. Temperature and rainfall at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center during the fall of 2000 and the 45-year average (fawn.ifas.ufl.edu). Maximum Minimum Rainfall (in.) Month 20001 45-yr avg. 20001 45-yr avg. 20001 45-yr avg. September 90 90 73 71 9.63 8.03 October 83 85 62 64 0.14 3.02 November 77 79 55 58 1.33 1.99 1Transplanted 6 September 2000. Last harvest 20 December 2000. Table 2. Cumulative yield (28 lb cartons/A) of 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell peppers. Fall 2000. Cultivar Brigadier X3R Camelot Harvest Grade Atonik Control Atonik Control cnt/A1 1 U.S. Fancy 144 a2 90 b 111 a2 U.S. No. 1 89 a 89 a 61 a 68 a U.S. No. 2 8 a 4 a 9 a 13 a Marketable Total 241 a 183 b 181 a 209 a Cull 3 a 3 a 0 a 2 a 1-2 U.S. Fancy 353 a 338 a 296 a 302 a U.S. No. 1 421 a 414 a 217 a 309 a U.S. No. 2 30 a 30 a 24 a 25 a Marketable Total 804 a 782 a 537 a 636 a Cull 16 a 8 a 4 a 3 a 1-3 U.S. Fancy 430 a 364 a 418 a 400 a U.S. No. 1 569 a 541 a 272 b 367 a U.S. No. 2 41 a 46 a 27 a 27 a Marketable Total 1040 a 951 a 717 a 794 a Cull 18 a 12 b 7 a 3 b 1-4 U.S. Fancy 470 a 391 b 540 a 493 a U.S. No. 1 669 a 634 a 328 b 394 a U.S. No. 2 64 a 58 a 30 a 35 a Marketable Total 1203 a 1083 a 898 a 922 a Cull 22 a 18 a 9 a 4 b

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Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant 5 Table 2. Cumulative yield (28 lb cartons/A) of 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell peppers. Fall 2000. Cultivar Brigadier X3R Camelot Harvest Grade Atonik Control Atonik Control 1-5 U.S. Fancy 524 a 460 a 612 560 U.S. No. 1 746 a 682 a 408 a 436 a U.S. No. 2 68 a 69 a 33 a 36 a Marketable Total 1338 a 1211 a 1053 a 1032 a Cull 24 a 19 a 8 a 5 a 1-6 U.S. Fancy 539 a 468 a 619 a 575 a U.S. No. 1 774 a 742 a 419 a 460 a U.S. No. 2 78 a 74 a 36 a 38 a Marketable Total 1391 a 1284 a 1074 a 1073 a Cull 26 a 30 a 9 a 6 a 1Acre=8712 linear bed ft. (14, 935 plants/A). 2Mean separation between columns of the same cultivar by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, P<0.05. Table 3. Yield (number per acre x 1000) by harvest of 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell peppers. Fall 2000. Cultivar Brigadier X3R Camelot Harvest Grade Atonik Control Atonik Control no/A (x1000)1 1 U.S. Fancy 10.3 a2 6.4 b 8.4 a2 9.3 a U.S. No. 1 8.5 a 8.3 a 6.3 a 6.5 a U.S. No. 2 0.9 a 0.4 b 1.1 a 1.3 a Marketable Total 19.7 a 15.1 b 15.8 a 17.1 a Cull 0.4 a 0.4 a 0.0 a 0.2 a 1-2 U.S. Fancy 24.9 a 23.2 a 22.7 a 22.9 a U.S. No. 1 40.6 a 40.8 a 23.1 a 33.2 a U.S. No. 2 3.5 a 3.9 a 3.3 a 2.5 a Marketable Total 69.0 a 67.9 a 49.1 a 58.6 a Cull 1.8 a 1.3 a 0.5 a 0.5 a 1-3 U.S. Fancy 30.0 a 24.9 a 31.2 a 29.8 a U.S. No. 1 53.1 a 51.5 a 28.3 a 38.8 a

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Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant 6 Table 3. Yield (number per acre x 1000) by harvest of 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell peppers. Fall 2000. Cultivar Brigadier X3R Camelot Harvest Grade Atonik Control Atonik Control U.S. No. 2 5.8 a 6.0 a 3.6 a 2.7 a Marketable Total 88.9 a 82.4 a 63.1 a 71.3 a Cull 2.2 a 2.1 a 0.9 a 0.5 a 1-4 U.S. Fancy 32.6 a 26.9 b 39.6 a 36.5 a U.S. No. 1 61.0 a 59.6 a 33.4 a 41.4 a U.S. No. 2 8.1 a 7.3 a 4.2 a 3.5 a Marketable Total 101.7 a 93.8 a 77.2 a 81.4 a Cull 2.9 a 2.8 a 1.1 a 0.7 a 1-5 U.S. Fancy 36.4 a 31.9 a 45.4 a 41.2 a U.S. No. 1 68.9 a 64.1 a 42.1 a 45.7 a U.S. No. 2 8.6 a 8.7 a 4.7 a 3.6 a Marketable Total 113.9 a 104.7 a 92.2 a 90.5 a Cull 3.3 a 3.0 a 1.1 a 0.9 a 1-6 U.S. Fancy 37.6 a 32.5 a 46.1 a 42.3 a U.S. No. 1 71.5 a 68.8 a 43.2 a 47.9 a U.S. No. 2 10.0 a 9.3 a 5.1 a 3.8 a Marketable Total 119.1 a 110.6 a 94.4 a 94.0 a Cull 3.7 a 4.6 a 1.3 a 1.1 a 1Acre=8712 linear bed ft. (14, 935 plants/A). 2Mean separation between columns of the same cultivar by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, P<0.05. Table 4. Dry matter (DM) and elemental concentrations in 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell pepper leaves. Fall 2000. Cultivar and Element Treatment DM N P K Ca Mg -------------------------------------------------% ----------------------------------------------Brigadier Atonik 15.6 4.1 0.3 5.1 3.3 1.1 Control 16.6 3.8 0.3 4.9 3.3 1.1 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns

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Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant 7 Table 4. Dry matter (DM) and elemental concentrations in 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell pepper leaves. Fall 2000. Cultivar and Element Treatment DM N P K Ca Mg X3R Camelot Atonik 16.2 4.5 0.3 5.1 3.1 1.0 Control 16.6 4.3 0.3 5.0 3.1 1.0 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns ns B Cu Fe Mn Zn -------------------------------------ppm ---------------------------------------Brigadier Atonik 61.3 857.9 109.8 425.6 483.4 Control 58.1 862.5 106.9 422.3 485.9 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns X3R Camelot Atonik 58.5 788.8 107.3 376.1 489.1 Control 56.5 724.0 106.1 361.5 475.1 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns 1Signif.=mean differences are significant at P<0.05 (*) or non-significant (ns). Table 5. Dry matter (DM) and elemental concentrations in 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell pepper fruits. Fall 2000. Cultivars and Element Treatments DM N P K Ca Mg ---------------------------------------------------%-------------------------------------------------Brigadier Atonik 5.26 2.68 0.35 2.77 0.22 0.19 Control 5.80 2.89 0.36 2.64 0.22 0.20 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns X3R Camelot Atonik 5.07 2.63 0.34 3.18 0.19 0.19 Control 5.40 3.00 0.37 3.17 0.19 0.20 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns ns

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Yield Response of Bell Pepper Cultivars to Foliar-applied 'Atonik' Biostimulant 8 Table 5. Dry matter (DM) and elemental concentrations in 'Atonik' biostimulant treated bell pepper fruits. Fall 2000. B Cu Fe Mn Zn ----------------------------------------ppm---------------------------------------Brigadier Atonik 16.1 30.4 66.5 28.8 44.9 Control 15.4 31.5 71.6 27.0 49.5 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns X3R Camelot Atonik 14.0 29.9 60.6 27.0 40.9 Control 15.4 28.4 58.5 28.0 40.9 Signif.1 ns ns ns ns ns 1Signif.=mean differences are significant at P<0.05 (*) or non-significant (ns).