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Title: A Method of Presenting Key Concepts Regarding Positive Youth Development to Community Audiences
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Perkins, Daniel F.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1996
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Publication date: November 1996."
General Note: "FCS 2114"
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FCS2114 TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorWaddill,DeanAMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiences1 DanielF.Perkins2Haveyoueverbeenaskedtogiveapresentation aboutyouthtoagroupofteachers(orparents,or countycommissioners)andstruggledwithhowtobest presenttheinformation?Thepurposeofthisbrief articleistodescribesomewaysofpresentingkey conceptsregardingpositiveyouthdevelopmenttothe public.Insteadofafocusonproblems,onecanuse thesepresentationsasanopportunitytoeducate aboutapositiveapproachtoyouthdevelopment. Positiveyouthdevelopmentmeansprovidingyouth withthenecessaryopportunitiesforthemtoacquire abroadrangeofcompetenciesandtodemonstratea fullcomplementofconnectionstoself,others,and thelargercommunity(Pittman,1992;Pittmanand Zeldin,1994;Takanishi,1993). Thisarticleisbasedonmyexperiencein presentingkeyconceptsaboutpositiveyouth developmenttomanyexperiencedpractitionersand policymakers.Theresearchfindingsaboutpositive youthdevelopmentarequantitative,linear,andclear; thedailylivesofadolescents,whichthepractitioners viewed,werenonlinear,qualitative,andcomplex.As the``teacher''Ialsobecamethe``student''andthe students``teachers.''Thisexperiencehasledmeto concludethatinacommunitysettingwhenworking withpeopledirectlyinvolvedwithyouth,teachingis clearlyaniterativeprocess.Theprocessisvery excitingbecausethisreciprocalrelationshipcreatesa learningopportunityforallwhoareinvolved. Inthisarticle,Itacklethequestionof``Whatto present''and``Howtopresentit.''Ofcourse,there aremultipleanswerstothosequestions.Here, however,IwillprovideoneexampleofhowI answeredthosequestionsinapresentationthatI madeaboutkeyconceptsregardingpositiveyouth development.Thekeyconceptsare: 1.assetsarenegatively(inversely)relatedtorisk behaviorsand 2.thereisacumulativeeffectamongassets,thatis, themoreassetsayouthhas,thelesslikelyheor sheistoengageinriskbehaviors. Thereisanenormousamountofinformation aboutpositiveyouthdevelopmentcontainedinthe socialscienceliterature(see AppendixA ).Thus,itis importanttohaveasystematicandorganized approachtopresenttheimportantpoints.One organizationalapproachthatIhavefoundvery successfulwhenpresentingthefindingstoa communitygroupis: 1.toidentifya few clearconceptsusuallyno morethanthree;and 2.topresenttheconceptsusingavarietyoflearning styles. 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetFCS2114,aseriesoftheDepartmentofFamily,YouthandCommunityDevelopment,FloridaCooperative ExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.Publicationdate:November1996.Theauthorwishes tothankTheresaM.Ferrariforherreviewofandcommentsonthispublication. 2.DanielF.Perkins,assistantprofessor,HumanResourceDevelopment,DepartmentofFamily,YouthandCommunitySciences,Cooperative ExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611.

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage2Gardner's(1983)theoryofmultipleintelligences suggeststhatusingmultiplestrategieswillenhance learning.Heproposesthatthereareseventypesof intelligence: verbal-linguistic mathematicallogical music bodily/kinesthetic visual/spatial,and thepersonalintelligences interpersonal(betweenpersons)and intrapersonal(withinoneself). Typically,werelyonverbal/linguisticand logical/mathematicalmethods.Howevertoenhance learning,oneshouldmakeuseofseveralmethods thattapintothevariousintelligences. ForthepurposesofthisarticleIwilloutline examplesofthetwoabove-notedkeyfindingsabout positiveyouthdevelopmentfromastudythatI conductedwithover13,000adolescents(Keith& Perkins,1995).Inaddition,Iwillprovideteaching strategiesthatIusedtoilluminatetheconceptsthat underliethesefindings.Thesestrategiesarenot comprehensivebutillustratetheapproachIhaveused successfullywithcommunityandstudentaudiences. Itispossibletoselectportionsofthisoutlineand formulatenewapproaches.FINDINGThegreaterthenumberofassets(protective factors)thatayouthhas,thelesslikelytheyouthis tobeinvolvedinriskbehaviors.BACKGROUNDINFORMATIONApositiveyouthdevelopmentorientationinvolves shiftingattentionawayfromconcentratingon problems,andmovingtowardincreasingyoung people'sexposuretothepositiveandconstructive activitiesthatnurturehealthy,responsible,and compassionateyoungpeople.Positiveyouth developmentisaboutbothinternalandexternal assets(seeTables 1 & 2).Internalassetsarethe commitment,valuesandcompetenciesofthe individual(e.g.,educationalaspirations,andsocial skills);externalassetsprovideyoungpeoplewith interlockingsystemsofsupport,control(boundaries), andstructurethatcompriseasupportivecommunity (e.g.,havingotheradultsasresourcesandhavinga supportivefamily). Researchhasprovideddatademonstratingthat assetsareinverselyrelatedtoriskbehaviors(Benson, 1990;Bernard,1991;Keith&Perkins,1995;Rutter, 1987;Werner,1990).Moreover,assetsappeartobe additive.Eachincrementofassetsgenerallyis accompaniedbyareductioninthenumberofrisk behaviors.Thuscommunitieswhowanttodecrease youth'sinvolvementinriskbehaviorswillfocustheir effortsonincreasingtheiryouth'sassets.TEACHINGSTRATEGY:THE``POPSICLE MODEL''OFYOUTHDEVELOPMENTThisstrategyuseskinesthetic,visual/spatial, interpersonal,andintrapersonalintelligencesin additiontotheverbal/linguisticand mathematical/logical.TimeNeededOnehour.Objectives1.Participantswillunderstandpositiveyouth development. 2.Participantswilllearnaboutthecompetencies andsupportsthatareassets(protectivefactors) andtherolethattheyplayinyouthdevelopment. 3.Participantswillunderstandthatassetsare negatively(inversely)relatedtoriskbehaviors. 4.Participantswilllearnabouttheimpactofassets whenaddedtogether,thatis,thecumulative natureofassets.MaterialsFourpopsicle(craft)sticksperperson.Method1.Havetheparticipantsbreakintosmallgroupsto answerthequestion``Whatisthedifference betweenintervention,prevention,andyouth development?''Aftertenminutes,bringthe smallergroupsbacktogetherandreachan overall,notspecific,agreementonthedefinitions.

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage3Youmaywanttorefertotheanalogypresented below. Analogytoexplainyouthdevelopment :In understandingpositiveyouthdevelopment,it maybebesttoexaminehowpositiveyouth developmentrelatestotwocommonlyused approaches:interventionandprevention. Interventionisdefinedasdiscontinuingor stoppinganalreadyexhibitedillness(ora problembehavior).Forinstance,whenan individualhasthefluandheorshegoesto thedoctortogetmedicinetohelpstopthe illnessfromprogressing,thatisamedical intervention.Prevention,ontheotherhand, meanstotakeadvancedmeasurestokeep something(e.g.,youthparticipationin problembehaviors)fromhappening.An exampleofthisiswhenapersongoestothe doctorandhasaflushot,thusbuildingup theimmunesystemtokeepfromcatchingthe flu.Positiveyouthdevelopmentisastep beyondprevention.Positiveyouth developmentisaprocessbywhichyouth's developmentalneedsaremet,engagementin problembehaviorsisprevented,andmost importantlyyouthareempoweredtobuildthe competenciesandskillsnecessarytobe healthycontributingcitizensnowandas adults.Intermsofamedicalexample,the individualtakesanactiveroleinhisorher healthbygettinganimmunizationandby strengtheningthebodythroughphysical exerciseanddietaryactions. Inyourpresentation,stressthatpositiveyouth developmenthasadualfocus.First,positive youthdevelopmentisaboutproviding opportunitiesandpositiverelationshipsthathelp youthgaintheskillsandcompetenciestheyneed tobesuccessful.Second,thisthenprevents involvementinproblembehaviorandenhancesa youth'sabilitytodealwithlifechallengesand stresses. 2.Oncetheaudiencehasabasicunderstandingof youthdevelopment,passoutfourpopsiclesticks toeachparticipant.Explaintotheparticipants thatyouwillbepresentingthecompetencies, assets,andexternalsupportsforwhichresearch hasprovidedevidenceoftheir negative association withriskbehaviorsandtheir positive association withpositiveyouthdevelopment.Tellthe participantstodrawafaceofa"typical"youthon thefirststick.Explaintothemthattheface shouldrepresenttheirviewof``typical''youth (e.g.,smile,frown,bewildered). 3.Oncetheyhavedrawnaface,youthe presenter,holdupasinglepopsiclesticksaying ``ThisisJohn/Susan,he/sheis14yearsold.''Then breakthestickwhilesimultaneouslysaying:``This iswhatcanhappenwhenayoungperson experiencesmultiplepressuresorhastoconfront achallengingsituation.However,youngpeople whohavedevelopedcertainskillsandhaveother externalsupportsarelesslikelytobreakunder pressure.''Thensay:``NowIamgoingtopresent thesixassetsthreeoftheseareexternal assets;thatis,theyareoutsidetheindividual's control.Theotherthreeassetsareinternal;that is,theyarewithintheindividual(e.g., competencies).Pleasebethinkingaboutthese assetsnotonlyintermsofhowyouthdevelop, butalsointermsofhowyourcommunityfosters andpromotestheseassets.''(Youmaywantto useTables 1 and 2 asahandoutstobe distributedattheendofthepresentation.) 4.Startbydescribingthesamplecharacteristicsof theresearchthatyoudrewonforthe presentation(see AppendixA forreferences).The mainpurposeofpresentingthesample characteristicsistoprovidecreditabilityforthe findings.Here,creditabilityisthoughtofinterms ofthesamplerepresentativenessofboth race/ethnicityandgeographiclocation.Ifthe datacharacteristicsarenotavailable,youshould citetheresearcherandhisorhercredentials. Wherepossible,youshouldemploylocaldatain yourpresentations.(SampleCharacteristicsfor thedataIhavepresentedareincludedinTable 3. However,whenImakethispresentation,I describethecharacteristicsinsteadofusingan overheadbecauseitistoomuchinformation.) 5.Now,describetheexternalassets.Afteryou describeeachassethavethemwriteoneasseton apopsiclestick.Thiswillrequirethreepopsicle sticks,oneassetononesideofeachstick.Below isthebasicoutlineofwhatassetstofocusonand whattosay.However,determiningwhichassetto focusonisdependentontheparticularresearch youciteandtheaudienceyouserve.Aftereach assetorfactorisstated,therearebriefreasons forthefactor'simportance.Eachsectionofthe

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage4outlinecontainsaquestionthatshouldbeposed totheaudiencesaboutactionsthatneedtobe taken.Groupsolutionsshouldbethefocusofthe discussion.Duringthediscussion,youcanlist importantpointsonnewsprintoranoverhead transparency. Statethat, ``Youthwhodowelleventhoughthey areinverystressfulenvironmentshaveexternal assetslike...'' a.Closerelationshipswithanadult(not necessarilyaparent) Thepersonisarolemodelfortheyouth. Youthhavetheopportunitytodevelopa senseoftrustandasenseofsecuritywith someoneolderthantheyare. Discussionquestion: Howdoweincrease youngpeople'sopportunitytointeractwith adults? Asktheparticipantstotakeanewpopsicle stickandwritethewords``closerelationship withanadult.'' b.Parentalmonitoring Parentsask: Who willyoubewith? What willyoubedoing? Where willyoube? When willyoubehome? Parentalmonitoringdemonstratestoyouth thattheirparentsareconcernedaboutthem. Inaddition,thisenablestheparentstostayin touchwiththeirchild'slifeandfriends. Discussionquestion: Howcanweprovide opportunitiesforparentstogaingood parentingskills? Asktheparticipantstotakeanewpopsicle stickandwritethewords``parental monitoring.'' c.StructuredTimeUse Structuredtimeusemeansinvolvementin extracurricularactivities,suchasband,sports, andclubsororganizationsinoroutofschool (e.g.,4-H,Scouts,BoysandGirlsClubs.) Theseactivitiesprovideopportunitiesfor youthtosucceedandtodiscovertheir individualtalents. Cooperativeworkandsocialskills developmentaremajorfunctionsof extracurricularactivities. Discussionquestion: Howcanyouencourage andsupportyouthparticipationin extracurricularactivities?Whatcanthe communitydotosupportstructured activities? Asktheparticipantstotakeanewpopsicle stickandwritethewords``structuredtime use.'' Youthwhodowelldespitelivinginverystressful environmentshaveinternalassetslik e... d.PlanningSkills Youthknowhowtoplanandmakedecisions. Youthhaveanunderstandingofthe consequencesoftheiractions. Discussionquestions: Howdoweprepareour youngpeopletoplanbutalsobeflexible? Whatthingscanadultsandcommunitiesdo? Asktheparticipantstowritethewords ``planningskills''ontheothersideofa popsiclestick. e.SocialSkills Youthiscomfortableinvarioussocial settings.Heorsheknowstheappropriate behaviorandhowtocarryonaconversation. Youthknowshowtonegotiate,to compromise,andtocometoaconsensus. Youthdemonstratestheabilitytoinitiateand maintainrelationships,suchasfriendship. DiscussionQuestion: Whattypesof opportunitieswouldenableyouthtotestand

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage5developsocialskills?Whatthingscanadults andcommunitiesdo? Asktheparticipantstowritethewords ``socialskills''ontheothersideofapopsicle stick. f.Problem-solvingskills Youthcandevelopcreativesolutionsto problems. Youthhasdevelopedbothlinearand nonlinearthought. DiscussionQuestion: Howdoweencourage thedevelopmentofproblem-solvingskills? Whatthingscanadultsandcommunitiesdo? Asktheparticipantstowritethewords ``problem-solvingskills''ontheothersideof apopsiclestick.(Now,youshouldhavethree popsiclestickswiththreeexternalassets writtenononesideofeachthemandthree internalassetsontheothersideofeach them.) 6.Aftergoingthroughthesixassets,stateagainthat youthdevelopmentisaboutgivingyouththe opportunitytobuildtheircompetenciesandskills andprovidingasupportiveenvironmentforthem togrow.Thenwhileyouareholdingupasetof fourpopsiclestickssay,``Youthdevelopmentis notaboutinsulating,butaboutstrengthening youngpeople.Itisalothardertobreakthe popsiclestickswhenthereareseveralofthem; certainlyyoucan,butitwouldtakealotmore pressure.Thisisalsotrueforyouthwhohave beengivensupportandopportunitiestodevelop theirskillsandcompetencies.Theseyouthare morelikelynottobreakunderthepressure. Theseyoutharemorelikelytomakethehealthy choice.(SeeFigures 1 and 2;thiscouldbeused asavisualaidwiththeaudience.)Youcannot totallyprotectyoungpeoplefromstress; eventuallytheywillencounterit.Thus,itisbetter toprepareyouth,byprovidingthemopportunities todevelopthecompetenciesandskillsnecessary forsuccessfuladulthood.''(Youmaywanttouse Figure 1 and 2 asahandout.) 7.ThispastexerciseandFigures 1 and 2 demonstratethatassetsarecumulativeand inverselyrelatedtoinvolvementinriskbehaviors. Thusthemoreassets,thelesslikelytheyouthis toparticipateinriskbehaviors. 8.Finally,statethat``Competence,inandofitself, isnotenoughskillbuildingisbestachieved whenyoungpeopleareconfidentoftheirabilities andarecalledupontousethemintheir communities.Thedevelopmentofconfidence, commitment,caring,character,andconnection areessential.''CONCLUSIONSThisexampledemonstratesonewaytopresenta fewofthekeyconceptsandfindingsfromthepositive youthdevelopmentliterature.Themeaningand applicationofpositiveyouthdevelopmentisenhanced bypresentingtwoorthreekeyconceptsorfindings throughmultiplestrategiessuchasvisualimagesand metaphors.Thesestrategieshelpengagethethinking andproblemsolvingoftheparticipantsaround applicationstotheirownlivesandcommunity.REFERENCESBenson,P.L.(1990). Thetroubledjourney:Aportrait of6th-12thgradeyouth. Minneapolis,MN:Search Institute. Bernard,B.(1991). Fosteringresiliencyinkids: Protectivefactorsinthefamily,school,and community. Portland,OR:NorthwestRegional EducationalLaboratory,WesternRegional CenterforDrug-FreeSchoolsandCommunities, FarWestLaboratory. Gardner,H.(1983). Framesofmind.Thetheoryof multipleintelligences. NewYork:BasicBooks. Keith,J.G.,&Perkins,D.F.(1995). 13,000 adolescentsspeak:AprofileofMichiganyouth. EastLansing,MI:InstituteforChildren,Youth, andFamilies.

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage6Pittman,K.J.(1992). DefiningthefourthR: Promotingyouthdevelopment. Washington,DC: AcademyforEducationalDevelopment,Center forYouthDevelopment. Pittman,K.J.,&Zeldin,S.(1994).Fromdeterrence todevelopment:Shiftingthefocusofyouth programsforAfrican-Americanmales.InR.B. Mincy(Ed.), Nurturingyoungblackmales: Challengestoagencies,programs,andsocialpolicy (pp.45-58).WashingtonDC:TheUrban Institute. Rutter,M.(1987).Psychosocialresilienceand protectivefactors. AmericanJournalof Orthopsychiatry, 57,316-331. Takanishi,R.(1993).Theopportunitiesof adolescenceresearch,interventions,and policy:Introductiontospecialissue. American Psychologist, 48,85-87. Werner,E.(1990).Protectivefactorsandindividual resilience.InS.J.Meisels&J.P.Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbookofearlychildhoodintervention (pp.97-116).NewYork:CambridgeUniversity Press.

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage7AppendixA:Referencesrelatedtopositiveyouthdevelopment. Benson,P.L.(1993).Thetroubledjourney:Aportraitof6th-12thgradeyouth.Minneapolis,MN:SearchInstitute. Benard,B.(1991).Fosteringresiliencyinkids:Protectivefactorsinthefamily,school,andcommunity.Portland,OR: NorthwestRegionalEducationalLaboratory,WesternRegionalCenterforDrug-FreeSchoolsandCommunities,Far WestLaboratory. BlythD.A.,&Roehlkepartain,E.C.(1992).Healthycommunities,healthyyouth.Minneapolis,MN:SearchInstitute. Brentro,L.K.,Brokenleg,M.,&VanBockern,S.(1990).Reclaimingyouthatrisk:Ourhopeforthefuture.Bloomington, IN:NationalEducationService. Furstenberg,F.F.,Jr.&Hughes,M.E.(1995).Socialcapitalandsuccessfuldevelopmentamongat-riskyouth.Journal ofMarriageandtheFamily,57,580-592. Garmezy,N.(1985).Stress-resistantchildren:Thesearchforprotectivefactors.InJ.Stevens(Ed.),Recentresearchin developmentalpsychopathology(pp.213-233).Oxford,England:PergamonPress. Garmezy,N.,Masten,A.S.,&Tellegen,A(1984).Thestudyofstressandcompetenceinchildren:Abuildingblockfor developmentalpsychopathology.ChildDevelopment,55,97-111. Hawkins,J.D.,Catalano,R.F.,&Miller,J.Y.(1992).Riskandprotectivefactorsforalcoholandotherdrugproblemsin adolescenceandearlyadulthood:Implicationsforsubstanceabuseprevention.PsychologicalBulletin,112,64-105. Keith,J.G.,&Perkins,D.F.(1995).13,000adolescentsspeak:AprofileofMichiganyouth.EastLansing,MI:Institute forChildren,Youth,andFamilies. Luster,T.,&McAdoo,H.P.(1994).FactorsrelatedtotheachievementandadjustmentofyoungAfricanAmerican children.ChildDevelopment,65,1080-1094. Luster,T.,&Small,S.A.(1994).Factorsassociatedwithsexualrisk-takingbehaviorsamongadolescents.Journalof MarriageandtheFamily,56,622-632. Luthar,S.S.(1991).Vulnerabilityandresiliency:Astudyofhighriskadolescents.ChildDevelopment,62,600-616. Luthar,S.S.,&Zigler,E.(1991).Vulnerabilityandcompetence:Areviewofresearchonresilienceinchildhood.AmericanJournalofOrthopsychiatry,61,6-22. Mincy,R.B.(Ed)(1994).Nurturingyoungblackmales:Challengestoagencies,programs,andsocialpolicy.Washington,DC:TheUrbanInstitute. Pittman,K.J.,&Zeldin,S.(1994).Fromdeterencetodevelopment:ShiftingthefocusofyouthprogramsforAfricanAmericanmales.InR.B.Mincy(Ed.),Nurturingyoungblackmales:Challengestoagencies,programs,andsocial policy(pp.45-58).WashingtonDC:TheUrbanInstitute.

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage8Previte,M.T.(1994).Hungryghosts:Onewoman'smissiontochangetheirworld.GrandRapids,MI:Zondervan PublishingHouse. Powell-Cope,G.M.,&Eggert,L.L(1994).Psychosocialriskandprotectivefactors:Potentialhighschooldropouts versustypicalyouth.InR.C.Moss(Ed.),Usingwhatweknowaboutat-riskyouth:Lessonsfromthefield(pp.2351).Lancaster,PA:Technomic. Small,S.A.,&LusterT.(1994).Adolescentsexualactivity:Anecological,risk-factorapproach.JournalofMarriage andFamily,56,181-192. Rutter,M.(1985).Resilienceinthefaceofadversity:Protectivefactorsandresistancetopsychiatricdisorder.British JournalofPsychiatry,147,598-611. Rutter,M.(1987).Psychosocialresilienceandprotectivefactors.AmericanJournalofOrthopsychiatry,57,316-331. Rutter,M.(1989).Pathwaysfromchildhoodtoadultlife.JournalofChildPsychologyandPsychiatry,30,23-51. Werner,E.E.(1989).High-riskchildreninyoungadulthood:Alongitudinalstudyfrombirthto32years.American JournalofOrthopsychiatry,59,72-81. Werner,E.(1990).Protectivefactorsandindividualresilience.InS.J.Meisels&J.P.Shonkoff(Eds.),Handbookof earlychildhoodintervention(pp.97-116).NewYork:CambridgeUniversity. Werner,E.E.(1992).ThechildrenofKauai:Resiliencyandrecoveryinadolescenceandadulthood.Journalof AdolescentHealth,13,262-268. Werner,E.,&Smith,R.(1982).Vulnerablenotinvincible:Alongitudinalstudyofresilientchildrenandyouth.New York:McGraw-Hill. Werner,E.,&Smith,R.(1992).Overcomingtheodds:Highriskchildrenfrombirthtoadulthood.Ithaca,NY:Cornell University.

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage9 Table1.Definitionsofthe16ExternalAssets AssetTypeAssetNameAssetDefinition 1.FamilySupport Familylifeprovideshighlevelsofloveandsupport 2.ParentStudentviewsparent(s)asaccessibleresourcesforadvice andsupport 3.ParentcommunicationStudenthasfrequent,in-depthconversationswithparent(s) SUPPORT 4.OtheradultresourcesStudenthasaccesstonon-parentadultsforadviceand support 5.OtheradultcommunicationStudenthasfrequent,in-depthconversationwithnon-parent adults 6.Parentinvolvementin schooling Parent(s)areinvolvedinhelpingstudentsucceedinschool 7.PositiveschoolclimateSchoolprovidesacaring,encouragingenvironment 8.Parentalstandards Parent(s)havestandardsforappropriateconduct 9.ParentdisciplineParent(s)disciplinestudentwhenaruleisviolated CONTROL 10.ParentalmonitoringParent(s)monitor``whereIamgoingandwithwhomIwill be'' 11.TimeathomeStudentgoesoutfor``funandrecreation''threeorfewer nightsperweek 12.PositivepeerinfluenceStudent'sbestfriendsmodelresponsiblebehavior 13.Involvedinmusic Studentspends1hourormoreperweekinmusictrainingor practice STRUCTURED TIMEUSE 14.Involvedinschool extracurricularactivities Studentspends1hourormoreperweekinschoolsports, clubs,ororganizations 15.Involvedincommunity organizationoractivities Studentspends1hourormoreperweekinorganizationsor clubsoutsideofschool 16.Involvedinchurchor synagogue Studentspends1hourormoreperweekattendingprograms orservices

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage10 Table2.Definitionsofthe14InternalAssets AssetTypeAssetNameAssetDefinition 1.Achievementmotivation Studentismotivatedtodowellinschool EDUCATIONAL COMMITMENT 2.EducationalaspirationStudentaspirestopursuepost-highschooleducation(e.g., tradeschool,college,vocationalprogram) 3.SchoolperformanceStudentreportsschoolperformanceisaboveaverage 4.HomeworkStudentreports6hoursormoreofhomeworkperweek 5.Valueshelpingpeople Studentplaceshighpersonalvalueonhelpingotherpeople POSITIVE VALUES 6.Isconcernedaboutworld hunger Studentreportsinterestinhelpingreduceworldhunger 7.Caresaboutpeople's feelings Studentcaresaboutotherpeople'sfeelings 8.ValuessexualrestraintStudentvaluespostponingsexualactivity 9.Assertivenessskills Studentreportsabilityto``standupforwhatIbelieve'' 10.Decision-makingskillsStudentreports``Iamgoodatmakingdecisions'' SOCIAL COMPETENCE 11.Friendship-makingskillsStudentreports``Iamgoodatmakingfriends'' 12.PlanningSkillsStudentreports``Iamgoodatplanningahead'' 13.Self-esteemStudentreportshighself-esteem 14.Positiveviewofpersonal future Studentisoptimisticabouthis/herpersonalfuture

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AMethodofPresentingKeyConceptsRegarding PositiveYouthDevelopmenttoCommunityAudiencesPage11 Table3.SampleCharacteristicsfromthe13,000AdolescentSpeakStudy SampleSize PercentofTotalSample Total 13,532100 Gender1Male 6,412 47 Female7,14953 Race/Ethnicity1AsianorPacificIslander 137 1 AfricanAmerican 2,681 20 Euro-American 9,806 73 Hispanic 312 3 NativeAmerican 472 4 Grade1Seventh(12-13yearsold) 4,741 35 Ninth(14-15yearsold)5,14038 Eleventh(16-17yearsold)3,65127 GeographicLocation1Urban 5,137 38 Suburban2,12516 Rural6,27046 1Note:Maynotsumtototalof100%duetomissingdataorroundingerror.AdaptedfromKeith&Perkins(1995).

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