<%BANNER%>
UFIR IFAS
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002382/00001
 Material Information
Title: Citrus Propagation For Homeowners
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Jackson, Larry K.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1992
 Notes
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "was published 6/92"
General Note: "HS-124"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00002382:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:

XC03000 ( PDF )


Full Text

PAGE 1

CitrusPropagationForHomeowners1 TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanEqualOpportunity/AffirmativeActionEmployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,ornationalorigin. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,DeanL.K.Jackson2Homefruitgrowersoftenwanttopropagatetheir owncitrustreesortheymaywanttochangevarieties bytop-workinganexistingtreewithanothervarietyor varietiesofcitrus.Seedsremovedfromcitrusfruits willgrowintotreesandproducefruit,thoughthe seedlingsdonotalwayscometrue.Treesgrownfrom seedmaynotproducefruitfortenormoreyears. However,plantspropagatedvegetativelywillbe identicaltothetreefromwhichthepropagation materialwastakenandwillfruitintwotothreeyears.SEEDPROPAGATIONCitrusseedlingsarenormallyusedasrootstocksfor themoredesirablevarietiesofcitrus.Common rootstocksinFloridaareroughlemon,sourorange, Trifoliateorange,Carrizocitrange,Swinglecitrumelo, Cleopatramandarin,andotherlesserusedvarieties. Unlessseedsarepurchased,theyshouldbe extractedfrommaturefruit,washedandplanted. Homefruitgrowersareadvisedtoplantinpotsof sterilizedpottingsoil.Mostcitrusseedswilldowell plantedatadepthof6mm(1/4inch).Theresulting seedlingscanbebuddedwhentheyreachthe diameterofapencilorlarger.LAYERAGEANDCUTTAGELayerageandcuttageareameansofpropagation wherebypartsofaplantareinducedtodeveloproots. Layeringiscommonlyusedonlargerbranchesand rootingoccurswhilethebranchisstillattachedtothe plant.Smallerbranchesuserforcuttingsformroots afterbeingremovedfromtheplant.Bothtechniques canbeusedwithcitrus,buttheresultingplantsgrow ontheirownrootswithoutusingtheadvantages offeredbycertainrootstocks.Arootedcuttingor layercanbeusedasarootstockfordesirablescion varieties,butthisisnotcommonlydone.GRAFTAGEGraftagereferstoanyprocessofinsertingapartof oneplantintoorontoanotherplantinsuchaway thattheywilluniteandgrowasasingleunit.The scionisthepartofthenewcombinationwhichis insertedintotheotherplantandtherebyproducesthe topoftheplant,includingbranches,leavesand, ultimately,fruit.Thestockorrootstockistheplant intowhichthescionisinsertedanditproducesthe rootsystemandlowertrunk.Therootstockmaybe grownfromseed,rootedcuttingsorlayers. Graftinginvolvestheuseofascionhavingtwoor morebuds.Therearenumeroustypesofgrafts includingwhip,cleft,bridge,inarch,stump,side, inlaybark,approachandothers.Graftingismost commonlyusedtorepairexistingtrees,totop-work existingtreestochangevarieties,andtoproducenew plants.Graftingisnotcommonlypracticedwith Floridacitrusbecauseitisamoredifficultmeansof propagationcomparedtobudding. Buddinginvolvestheuseofascionwithonlya singlebudattachedtoapieceofbark.Itmayormay notincludeathinsliverofwoodunderthebark. Buddingisthemostcommonlyusedtechniquefor propagatingnewplants,butitisalsousedtotop-work existingtreestoanewvariety.Itissimpleandeasyto do,soanyonecanbesuccessfulafteralittlepractice. Thereareseveraldifferentmethodsofbudding, includingT,invertedT,chip(hanging),patchand 1.Thisdocument,HS-124,waspublished6/92bytheFloridaCooperativeExtensionService.Formoreinformation,contactyourcounty CooperativeExtensionServiceOffice. 2.L.K.Jackson,Professor,CitrusSpecialist,CitrusResearchandEducationCenter,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,Universityof Florida,LakeAlfred,Florida. Tradenames,whereused,aregivenforthepurposeofprovidingspecificinformation.Theydonotconstituteanendorsementorguaranteeof productsnamed,nordoesitimplycriticismofproductsnotnamed.

PAGE 2

CitrusPropagation Page2 others.Thosemostcommonlyusedincitrus propagationaretheinvertedTbudandthechipbud (hangingbud).TheinvertedTbudisusedwhenthe barkisslipping(easilyseparatedfromthewood), whereasthechip(hanging)budisusedatothertimes.SELECTINGBUDWOODBudsshouldbecollectedfromatreeortreesofthe desiredvariety.Budsticksarecommonlyselectedfrom thenexttolastgrowthflush(thewoodbehindthe currentflush)andfromthecurrentgrowthflushafter ithasmaturedandhardened.Oldergrowthflushes canbeusedifthebarkstillisgreen. Roundtwigsaboutthesizeofapencilare preferred.Thebudslocatedintheaxilsoftheleaves (wheretheleafisattachedtothewood)shouldbe welldeveloped,butstilldormant. Afterthebudwoodiscutfromthetree,the undesirablewoodand/orgrowthflushshouldbe removedandtheremainingbudwoodshouldbe trimmedtolengthsof20-25cm(8-10inches).The leavesshouldbecutoffleavingastubofthepetiole 3-4mm(1/8inch)longtoprotectthebuds. Trimmedbudsticksshouldbelabeledandused immediatelyorplacedinplasticbagsinacoolplace. Includeamoistpapertoweltomaintainturgidityand freshness.Thelabelshouldincludethevariety,date ofcollectionandsource.Budsticksareusuallytiedin bundlesforeaseofhandling.STORINGBUDWOODItisdesirabletousebudwoodassoonafter collectionaspossible,butitcanbestoredforseveral monthsunderproperconditions.Thebundled budsticksshouldbesealedinaplasticbagandstored inarefrigerator.Theoptimumstoragetemperatureis fivedegreesC(40degreesF);itshouldnotbe allowedtogobelowtwodegreesC(35degreesF). Thevegetabledraweroftherefrigeratoristhebest place. Storedbudwoodshouldbecheckedeverycoupleof weeksforthepresenceofmoldorexcessmoisturein thebag.Budwoodlightlyaffectedwithmoldshould becarefullywashedincoldmildsoapywater,rinsed, andrebaggedinacleanbag.Excessivelymoist budwoodcanbelightlyblottedonpapertowels. Moldy,shrivelledordarkenedbudwoodshouldbe discarded,asthebudsprobablywillbedead. Whenusingstoredbudwood,itshouldbekeptcool andmoist.Agoodideaistotakeenoughbudwood foracoupleofhoursusefromstorage.BUDDINGBuddingcanbedoneanytimethereisasuitable stockonwhichthebarkisslippingandwhensuitable budwoodisavailable.Usually,thebarkisslipping fromApriltoNovember,dependingonlocation.To producenewplantschooserootstocksofpencilsizeto 2cm(3/4inch)diameter,eitherseedlingsorrooted cuttings.Theareatobebuddedshouldbepruned cleanofthornsandtwigs.Thepreferredbudding heightis15cm(6inches)abovegroundlevel.PreparingtheRootstockAverysharpknifeisusedtomakeaverticalcutin asmoothareaoftherootstockabout2.5-3.5cm (1.0-1.5inches)longthroughthebark,deeplyenough intothewoodtobecertainthebarkhasbeen completelycut.Ahorizontalcutabout1cm(0.5inch) longismadethroughthebarkatthetop(T)or bottom(invertedT)oftheverticalcut,againcutting completelythroughthebark.Atthefinishofthis crosscut,theknifebladeisturnedslightlyupward andgivenaslighttwisttoopenthebarkattheT.The pointoftheknifecanbeusedtoliftthebarkalong theverticalcutifnecessary.CuttingtheBudCutabudfromthebudstickwhileholdingthe apicalendofthebudstickawayfromyou.Startthe cutabout1cm(0.5inch)abovethebudandfinisha littlelessdistancebelowthebud.Theknifeshouldbe heldalmostparalleltotheaxisofthebudstick, cuttingtowardsthethumb. Cutonlydeepenoughtotakeathinsliverofwood underthebark.Thebudshouldnotbescoopedout, asthiscausestoomuchwoodtobetaken.InsertingtheBudInsertthebudshieldunderthebarkflapsofthe stocksothatthecutsurfaceisflatagainstthewood. Thebudshieldshouldbecompletelyenclosedinthe T;ifpartofitprotrudes,cutitoff.

PAGE 3

CitrusPropagation Page3WrappingtheBudWrapthebudwithbuddingtape{polyethylene stripsabout1cm(1/2inch)wideand15-25cm(6-10 inches)long}. Startthewrapbelowthebudwith3-4turns, finishingwithseveralturnsabovethebud.Theendis securedbeneaththelastcircularturnofthewrap. Wrappingshouldbefirmwithoutbeingexcessively tight.ForcingtheBudThewrappingshouldberemovedafter2-3weeks, asunionwiththestockshouldhaveoccurredbythat time.Thebudisthenforcedintogrowthbylopping therootstock.Cutabout3/4ofthewaythroughthe stock,onthesamesideasthebudandabout4-6cm (1.5-2.5inches)aboveit;thenpushthetopovertolay ontheground.Theloppedtopportioncontinues nourishingtherootstockandincreasesthechancesof survivalofthenewplant. Afterthebudhasgrownseveralinches,the rootstocktopcanberemovedcompletelybymaking aslopingcut(highendonthesamesideasthebud) about1cm(1/2inch)abovethebud. Asthebudgrows,itwillneedtobestakedandtied atregularintervalstopreventbreakage.Removeall otherbudsandsuckersfromtherootstockasthey appear.TOP-WORKINGTop-workingistheprocessofchangingthetopof anestablishedplantfromonevarietytoanotherorto multiplevarietiesbybuddingorgrafting. Tbuddingcanalsobeusedfortopworkingto changevarietiesortoputmorethanonevarietyon thesametree.Prunethetreebacktoleaveonlyafew branchesof5-12cm(2-5inches)diameterorsmaller. Insert1-3budsontheuppersideoftheremaining scaffoldlimbsusingtheTbudmethod.Checkclosely toremoveunwantedbudsandsproutstoinsurethat onlythedesiredscionbudsgrow.Whensuchbuds havemadeadequategrowth,beginremovingthe olderlimbsoutfromthebuds. Ifthebranchesareverylargesuchthatbudding wouldbedifficultcutbacktothemainscaffoldlimbs removingallofthetop(Caution:severelypruned treesshouldbewhitewashedtopreventsunscald). Afterthelimbssproutbackandmatureabit(six monthsorso),thesproutscanbebuddedasinitially described,using4-6ofthestrongersproutsoneach limb.Thesamemethodcanbeusedforbuddingroot sproutsthatdevelopiftheentirescion(top)has declined.