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FY591Elder Companion Lesson 5 Home Maintenance and Safety1Elizabeth B. Bolton21.This document is FCS5251FY591, one of a series of the Departme nt of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, UF/IFAS, Gaines ville 32611. First published: September 1999. Re vised: January 2004. Reviewed by: Mary Ch ernesky, M.S. extension agent IV, Hillsborough County, Seffner ; Audrey Norman, c ourtesy extension agent, Palm Beach County, West Palm Beach 33415; Meredith Taylor, M.S., extension agent IV, Suwannee County, Live Oak, 32064. Please visit the EDIS Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ 2.Elizabeth B. Bolton, Ph.D., professor, Leadership Development and Adult Education, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, UF/IFAS, Gainesville, 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sc iences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide resea rch, educational information and other services only to individuals and inst itutions that function without regard to race color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your count y Cooperative Extension Servic e office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill Dean.
Lesson 5 Pg. 2AGENTS TEACHING GUIDE Home Maintenance and Safety Part 1: What is Clean? Part 2: Organizing for Cleanliness Part 3: Managing the Laundry Part 4: Safety Time: 2 to 3 1/2 Hours Instructor: County Faculty and person who works doing home maintenance Equipment/ Supplies: Overhead Projector; Variety of cleaning and laundry products (boxes, bottles, etc.);Variety of cleaning tools (clean white cloths, sponges, squeegees, dust pan, etc);Variety of linens/garments for examples of care labels; Transparencies created from handouts: A, B, E, J, and L through Q Background Information Cleaning Laundry Handouts:Part 1 Handout A: Clean? Safe? Handout B: What Influences Your Standards for Comfort, Order and Cleanliness? Handout C: Keeping a Home Clean... How Much Does It Matter? Part 2 Handout D: Match the Tool to the Job Handout E: Cautions About Certain Cleaning Products Handout F: How to Clean? Handout G: House Cleaning Plan Handout H: Household Cleaning Schedule Handout I: Weekly Plan for Household Cleaning Tasks Part 3 Handout J: Nine Basic Steps to Good Laundering Handout K: What Is My Purpose? Handout L: Following Directions Handout M: Water Temperatures Handout N: Preparing Laundry Handout O: Sorting Laundry Handout P: Pre-treating Laundry Handout Q: A First Aid Kit for Clothing Part 4 Handout R: Household Safety Checklist Handout S: Check Sheet on Kitchen Hazards
Lesson 5 Pg. 3Objectives (Expected Outcomes): Participants will be able to: Identify a logical order for performing tasks to save time and energy. Demonstrate correct procedures for basic household cleaning tasks performed daily, weekly, monthly, and occasionally. Demonstrate correct procedures for selection, use, care and storage of supplies and equipment. Describe how the spread of disease is controlled in the home in relationship to kitchens, bathrooms, laundry, dusting and food handling. Identify safety measures necessary for maintaining a safe environment such as clear traffic, loose rugs, electrical and safety cords.
Lesson 5 Pg. 4BACKGROUND INFORMATION Cleaning Cleaning Tools Cleaning is made easier, as is any job, if you have the proper tools. Clean, soft white, cotton cloth. Especially useful are terry-cloth toweling and an old tee shirt. This type of cloth is more absorbent than others. You will also need sponges. Use these for cleaning sinks, windows, appliances, spills, etc. Scrub brushes with nylon bristles. This type of brush will be more durable and will dry quicker than a natural bristle brush. You may need different types of brushes for different tasks. The bristle length and width determine a brushs stiffness and softness. Scrubbing a wall would take a softer brush. You may need an old tooth brush to clean out hard to reach corners. A squeegee works well to clean windows. A dustpan in which to sweep spills and dust and dirt. Sponge mop to mop the floor. One or two plastic buckets large enough to get your sponge mop in so mopping the floor is easy. Whisk broom to sweep the floor. Dust mop to dust the floor or your ceiling and walls. Rubber gloves to protect your hands from chemicals. A vacuum cleaner is perfect to get the dust and dirt out of your carpet, chairs, and couch. A vacuum cleaner with attachments is handier if you have one. A cleaning caddy is to keep all tools together. A cleaning caddy is also helpful to put your cleaning supplies in so that you always have them together when you start to work. Cleaning products After you have your cleaning tools together, you are ready to select your cleaning supplies. But, have you seen how many different cleaning supplies are on the stores shelves? How confusing?! To make it less confusing and less expensive, I will show you some common ingredients that are used in cleansers. These products can be purchased at a lesser price compared to some brand name products and do a good job.
Lesson 5 Pg. 5Cleaners come in two forms: liquid and powder. The compositions may be either alkali or acid. Alkalies are soluble in water, neutralize acids and form salts with them. Acids are chemical compounds that have a sour taste and are sometimes caustic. Acids neutralize alkalis. Some are mild for light cleaning jobs and some are heavy duty for tough cleaning jobs. Baking soda is a gentle multipurpose cleaner. It will not scratch appliances and counter tops. It removes oily dirt. It is known as an alkali. Baking soda can be used to: clean burned food spots on porcelain, enamel cookware clean ranges, refrigerators, and other appliances remove odors from carpets clean and deodorize cutting boards absorb odors from refrigerators clean and freshen drains put out kitchen fire Ammonia is a little stronger cleaner than soda. It is also an alkali. Household ammonia is used to clean kitchen range burners, ovens, windows and mirrors. Sudsy ammonia has soap or detergent added. You use this to clean garbage cans, kitchen range burners, and sinks. Another medium cleaner is Borax. This is an alkali and cleans woodwork, walls, and sinks Bleaches remove stains. Chlorine bleaches are also disinfectants; kill germs. Chlorine bleach is used in laundry as a fabric whitener, stain remover(for wh ite and light colored fabrics), and is also a disinfectant. White vinegar is a mild cleaner and is a good grease cutter. Lemon juice is similar to vinegar. Cream of tartar is also a mild cleaner. These three cleaners are mild acids. Vinegar can be used to clean windows, chrome and other metals. It removes rust from around sinks and bathtubs. To clear drains, heat 1 cup of vinega r, pour down drain, and flush down with hot water. It removes soap film on faucets. If used as a window cleaner, mix 2-4 tablespoons of vinegar to 2 quarts of water. Cream of tartar cleans coffee makers and aluminum. Sanitizers kill germs which can cause skin, respiratory, intestinal and kidney infections. They also kill odors. A common sanitizer is liquid chlorine bleac h. Other trade name sanitizers are Pine-Sol and Lysol Brand Disinfectant. Sanitizers are used when cleaning tubs, showers, toilet bowls, bathroom sinks, ceramic and plastic tiles.
Lesson 5 Pg. 6CAUTIONS ABOUT CERTAIN PRODUCTS When using alkalies, be careful. Some are POISONOUS some are CORROSIVE and others can IRRITATE and BURN SKIN AND EYES When using these to clean, WEAR GLOVES. SAFETY Most cleaning products today are not dangerous unless they are misused. Remember to : Keep out of reach of children. Keep in original containers. Follow directions. What and How to Clean Now that you know some of the household cleaners that can be used, you are ready to learn some things that are important to keep clean in your home. Keeping the following appliances and fixtures clean will help prevent spreading germs. If these germs are kept under control, a family has a better chance of staying healthy. Kitchens It is very important to keep the kitchen as clean as possible so that germs do not find a place to grow. To do this, you can clean as you go. The sink in your kitchen can be cleaned after each use by washing down the sides with your dish cloth and rinsing with cold water. Make sure you empty the drain plug and wash and rinse it. As needed, you should use sudsy ammonia or a brand name product to clean your sink. (At least once a week; preferably two or three times.) Cutting boards are a place where germs grow; especially after cutting raw meats. Clean cutting boards after each use with hot, sudsy water and allow to air dry. Can openers should also be washed in hot, sudsy water after each use. Food gets trapped around the cutting wheel. Remove the cutting wheel from electric can openers for cleaning. Another area to prevent germ (bacteria) growth is in the garbage can As soon as it is full, the garbage should be put outside in a trash can or bagged for disposal. In the kitchen it is best to use a plastic liner or paper sack to line the trash can. Lining the trash can makes cleanup easier. After each meal, dishes should be washed with hot, soapy water, rinsed and dried. Dirty dishes provide a place for germs to start to grow.
Lesson 5 Pg. 7Clean the cupboard at least every six months. To do this, use hot, sudsy water and a sponge, Take the sponge and wipe out every shelf and drawer, then with clear water, wipe the shelves and drawers again. By cleaning cupboards and drawers you are preventing a problem with unwanted bugs (insects). You should also throw out any containers that are infested. All foods should be sealed or in airtight containers. If you do not have airtight containe rs, plastic bags with twist ties work well. Refrigerators and freezers need to be cleaned periodically. You should clean your freezer when a build up of frost is 1/4 inch thick. By removing th e frost, your freezer will operate more efficiently. Most modern refrigerator/freezers are frost free. However, some older models may require you to manually remove the frost. To defrost a freezer you need to: Remove all contents from the freezer Turn off temperature controls put hot pans of water in the freezer and allow the heat from the water to thaw the frost (repeat if necessary). Place pans in the refrigerator to catch the melting water. After all the frost is thawed, empty the water and clean the interior of your refrigerator with hot, sudsy water and clean cotton cloth (remove the racks and hydrator drawers and wash in the kitchen sink, remembering to watch the door gasket.) Use clear water and wipe out again and towel dry. Once every six months you need to wash the drain pan, using the same procedure as above. Vacuum the refrigerators coils Wash exterior, including handles, with sudsy water. Rinse and towel dry. Weekly you should go through the foods in your refrigerator and throw out any food that is spoiling. Wipe up any spills that have occurred. To clean ranges, start with removing all cooking elements, drip pans, trim rings and control knobs. Wash drip pans, trim rings and control knobs in soapy water or if they are very dirty, use an ammonia solution. Cooking elements do not need to be cleaned. Lift the cook top and vacuum to collect crumbs and dust. Then use a sponge and soapy water to clean. If there are baked on spots, use a nylon scrub pad dampened in ammonia. To clean the oven remove the door for easier access if possible. Then remove the racks and wash the same as the drip pans. With sudsy ammonia solution, wipe out the oven ( cup sudsy ammonia and 1 gallon of water), and then wipe out with clear wa ter. Some newer model ovens are self-cleaning. Follow the manufacturers instructions to clean. Last, but not least, remove the bottom drawer and wipe out with soapy water and rinse. Remember to vacuum the floor. If you have a gas range, follow the same steps except wash the gas burner and let it dry completely before replacing. Remove the broiler and clean.
Lesson 5 Pg. 8Bathrooms In the bathroom, clean the sink and bathtub/shower after every use. To do this, wipe down the walls with your wash cloth and rinse with clear water. Daily, the sink should be cleaned with a sanitizer and rinsed with clear water. A sponge works best in these areas. The previous procedure should be used on your bathtub or shower at least weekly or more frequently if it is necessary. A sanitizer should be used weekly to clean your toilet bowl Follow the directions that are given on your sanitizer container. After you clean the toilet bowl with a long-handled brush, use a sponge and soapy water to clean the toilet seat and exterior of the toilet. Rinse with clear water and towel dry. If you use a rubber or vinyl bath mat (to prevent slipping), clean with a brush and mild bleach solution. You can do this by hand or in the washing machine.
Lesson 5 Pg. 9LESSON PLAN Part 1: What is Clean? Introduction: Show overhead transparency created from Handout A, Clean? Safe? Distribute the handout and ask the class, If someone took a picture of your kitchen, how would it look? Like this? Would you want to share this picture with your best friend or relative? Why? Why not? Tell them today were going to talk about housecleaning. A clean and sanitary house is important to the health and well-being of an elderly person. DO: Ask the questions, "What influences how you keep your home?" "How orderly and clean do you keep it?" List the answers in a prominent place. Show overhead transparency from created from Handout B, What Influences your Standards For Comfort, Order and Cleanliness? Distribute the handout and discuss. Give each participant a copy of Handout C, Keeping A Home Clean... How Much Does It Matter? to complete. REFLECT: What are some things that influence your standards for comfort, order and cleanliness? Standards of relatives, friends, time, your hobbies, creative talents, human energy, home care skills, health and safety, money, media. How do your standards affect the cleaning you do as an elder companion? How do standards of the elder person affect you? What standards are probably of primary concern to the elderly person? What happens when you do not agree on the standards? How can it be resolved? APPLY Give each participant an additional copy of Handout C, Keeping A Home Clean for their elder to complete. Discuss the differences and make a plan to compromise.
Lesson 5 Pg. 10 Handout ACLEAN? SAFE?
Lesson 5 Pg. 11 Handout BWHAT INFLUENCES YOUR STANDARDS FOR COMFORT, ORDER AND CLEANLINESS?
Lesson 5 Pg. 12 Handout CKEEPING A HOME CLEAN ... HOW MUCH DOES IT MATTER?Strongly Agree AgreeStrongly Disagree DisagreeNo Opinion A home cant be too clean. Cleaning is fun. It is easier to keep a home clean today than it was several years ago. Some clutter makes a home look lived in and comfortable. Cleaning takes too much time. You can judge other people by the way they keep their home. Every person in a home should be allowed to decide how neat to keep his/her room. The homes shown on television shows are too neat to be comfortable. Every member of a family should help keep a home in order.
Lesson 5 Pg. 13LESSON PLAN Part 2: Organizing for Cleanliness Activity 1: Tools to Do the Job Introduction: Regardless of our standards for cleanliness, we have to be organized to get the job done in a reasonable amount of time. One key part of organization is having the correct tools available. DO: Display various cleaning tools and ask clients to use Handout D, Match the Tool to the Job sheet to identify use. REFLECT: Review each tool and its use using the Match the Tool to the Job sheet. Are there any tools that you have never used? If yes, involve participants in demonstrating the various tools. APPLY: How will you use this information for the work as an elder companion?
Lesson 5 Pg. 14 Handout DMATCH THE TOOL TO THE JOB Draw a line between the tool in the left column and its use in the right column. TOOLSUSE clean soft, white cotton cloth, such as terry cloth towels/old tee shirt carries supplies scrub brushes with nylon bristlesremoves dirt out of carpet/ chairs vacuum cleanercleans sinks, windows, spills plastic bucketprotects hands dust panwet and rinse mops wisk broomsweeps floors mopcleans vinyl or tile floors rubber glovescollects dirt and dust cleaning tray/caddycleans toilets
Lesson 5 Pg. 15LESSON PLAN Part 2: Organizing for Cleanliness Activity 1: Cleaning Agents to Do the Job Introduction: Keeping your home clean and free of household hazards is important to the health of your elder client. This involves knowing the correct cleaning agents to use. There are so many on the market that making a decision on the right product is difficult. DO : Match The Cleaner With Its Use Display various cleaning supplies which are used to do housecleaning and sanitation. Distribute cards with uses for the cleaners and have participants match with cleaner. REFLECT: Review the placements and be sure everyone has the correct information. DO: Distribute Handout E, Cautions About Certain Cleaning Products Use transparency created from Handout E to discuss the cautions about certain products and safety concerns. REFLECT:What are the precautions to be followed?Are there specific products which show extra danger? APPLY: How will you use this information in your work with elders?
Lesson 5 Pg. 16 MATCH THE CLEANER WITH ITS USE CARDSBaking soda freshens drains, absorbs odors from refrigerator, put out kitchen fires Household ammonia clean kitchen range burners, ovens, windows and mirrors Sudsy ammonia clean garbage cans, ranges, sinks Borax cleans woodwork, walls and sinks
Lesson 5 Pg. 17 MATCH THE CLEANER WITH ITS USE CARDS (CONTINUED)Bleaches remove stains Chlorine bleaches disinfectant; in laundry as a fabric whitener, stain remover and disinfectant White vinegar cuts grease, cleans windows and chrome Sanitizers use on tubs, showers, toilet bowls, bathroom sinks
Lesson 5 Pg. 18 Handout ECAUTIONS ABOUT CERTAIN CLEANING PRODUCTS When using alkalies, be careful! Some are POISONOUS. Some are CORROSIVE. Some can IRRITATE and BURN SKIN and EYES. Wear GLOVES. Most cleaning products today are not dangerous unless they are misused. Remember to: Keep out of the reach of children. Keep in original containers. Follow directions.
Lesson 5 Pg. 19LESSON PLAN Part 2: Organizing for Cleanliness Activity 1: How to Clean Introduction: Now that you know some of the household cleaners that you can use to clean with, you are ready to learn about the two most important areas to keep clean....Kitchens and Bathrooms. If these areas are kept under control, your family has a better chance of staying healthy. DO: Take each area/equipment in the kitchen and bathroom, and have clients demonstrate the cleaning task, the cleaning agent/tool and tell the frequency. Participants can work in teams. Have the group complete Handout F, the How to Clean worksheet. REFLECT: What are the two most important areas to keep clean? Kitchens and Bathrooms What did you learn new about cleanliness and sanitation? APPLY: How will you use this information in your work with elders?
Lesson 5 Pg. 20 Handout FHOW TO CLEAN? Area/ Equipment What to be doneCleaning Agent/ Tool Frequency Kitchen SinkWash down sides and drain plug Sudsy ammonia and cloth At least once/week Cutting Boards Can Opener Garbage Can Dirty Dishes Refrigerator/freezer Range Oven Bathroom Sink Bathtub/shower Toilet Bowl Bath Mat
Lesson 5 Pg. 21LESSON PLAN Part 2: Organizing for Cleanliness (continued) Activity 2: Organizing to Get the Job Done Introduction: Now that we have some knowledge and experience with cleaning tools, products and the tasks to be done, it is time to talk about organizing to get the job done efficiently and correctly. DO : Use the General Guidelines information sheet to discuss some basic principles about getting the job done. Divide the group into teams of three or four. Give each group a set of Cleaning Task Cards and a diagram of the major cleaning areas. Have participants sort the cleaning tasks into daily and weekly jobs for each cleaning area. REFLECT: What are the daily and weekly jobs to be done in the kitchen? Bathroom? Living/ Dining room and Bedroom? APPLY: How will you use this information in your work as an elder companion? DO: Role Play Client meeting It is helpful to have some tools to establish the agreement with the elderly clients. Review Handout G, House Cleaning Plan Handout H, Household Cleaning Schedule and the Handout I, Weekly Plan for Household Cleaning Tasks Ask for two volunteers one to be the elderly client and one to be the companion/sitter. Have them use the House Cleaning Plan Household Cleaning Schedule, and the Weekly Plan for Household Cleaning Tasks for a discussion about a plan for cleaning.
Lesson 5 Pg. 22REFLECT: What did you observe? Would you pursue the conversation differently? How? Were they successful in reaching an agreement? APPLY: How will this help your work with elderly clients? How will this help you be better organized at home?
Lesson 5 Pg. 23HOUSEKEEPING TASKS RULE OF ORGANIZATION General Guidelines Cleaning is easier if you have a plan, but be flexible Not every job has to be done every day: some jobs are weekly; others are just once in a while. Dont try to do too many special jobs on the same day. Learn to do each cleaning job the right way basically top to bottom to prevent streaking. Try out little tricks to make cleaning easier for you. Take fewer steps, try to reach and bend and stoop as little as you have to. When you find the most comfortable way to do a job and still do it right thats the best way for you. Collect all the cleaning supplies and tools you will need for each job. Keep them handy to the place where you are working. A basic set of cleaning tools should include two types:Sthose needed to soften and remove soil that has dried and hardened on washable surfaces (wet mops, pails, toilet brushes, sponges.) Sthose needed for removing dry dirt and dust (vacuum cleaner and attachments, carpet sweeper, dust mop, dust cloths, floor broom, brush and dustpan.) Carry your cleaning supplies in a basket with a handle or in any cart that you can roll. Then they can be transported quickly and easily. Job Scheduling Daily JobsKitchenSWash dishes.SClean off tables and counters.SClean stove top and inside spills.SEmpty trash.SClean sink.SSweep floor.S BathroomSEmpty wastebaskets.SWash sinks and toilets.SWet-mop floor is necessary.
Lesson 5 Pg. 24BedroomSAir beds and make them up.SPut clothes away or into wash.SStraighten room and empty trash.SDry-mop floor.SDust furniture and window sills. Living and Dining Room(s)STidy up; throw out papers; empty wastebaskets.SDust furniture and window sills.SClean up crumbs under and around table. Weekly Jobs: KitchenSClean out refrigerator and wash inside and outside. Do this the day before weekly shopping.Sgive the stove a thorough washing, inside and outside.SScrub the floor with hot, sudsy water and hot rinse water. BathroomSUse toilet-bowl cleaner, then scrub toilet bowl with the toilet brush and hot, sudsy water.SWash mirrors.SClean tub and/or shower.SRemove any accumulated mildew with mild bleach/water solution and scrub brush.SCheck soap dishes and replace as needed.SWash and scrub the floor.SLaunder the bath mat and the bathroom rug. BedroomsSOpen the closet doors, so the clothes can air out.SPut clean linens on the bed.SVacuum rugs, carpets and floors.SUse sponge or cloth squeezed out of sudsy water to clean fingerprints off walls, woodwork, and light switches.SDust furniture, light fixtures, lamps, books, and small things. Living and Dining RoomsSSweep or vacuum carpet or rug.SUse sponge or cloth squeezed out of sudsy water to clean fingerprints off walls, woodwork, and light switches.SDust furniture, light fixtures, lamps, books, and small items such as knick knacks.
Lesson 5 Pg. 25 CLEANING TASKS CARDS wash dishesclean off tables and counter clean sinkempty trash sweep floorclean sinks air beds and make them up put clothes away or in wash tidy up/throw out papersclean up crumbs around table clean out refrigeratormop the floors (vinyl or tile) clean the stoveclean bath tub/shower scrub the toilet bowlwash mirrors dust furniture put clean linens on the bedvacuum rugs and carpets Dust furniture, light fixtures, lampsopen closets to air clothes
Lesson 5 Pg. 26 CLEANING AREAS KitchenBathroom BedroomLiving/Dining Room
Lesson 5 Pg. 27 Handout GHOUSE CLEANING PLANHousecleaning Jobs I Have Been Asked to DoJobs I Can Do Most Important Home Maintenance Jobs Estimated Time to Complete Jobs How Often Jobs the client can help complete?Supplies/Equipment Needed If Available
Lesson 5 Pg. 28 Handout HHOUSEHOLD CLEANING SCHEDULE Along with your employer, identify the areas which are to be cleaned and indicate the frequency. Area to be cleaned DailyWeeklyAs NeededSeasonallyKitchen Bathroom Living room Bedroom Other
Lesson 5 Pg. 29 Handout IWEEKLY PLAN FOR HOUSEHOLD CLEANING TASKSDay Task When to be doneWhen completed
Lesson 5 Pg. 30LESSON PLAN Part 3: Managing the Laundry Introduction: As an elder companion, sitter or homemaker you may be asked to do the laundry on a regular basis and/or in emergency situations. Doing the laundry is important to stopping the spread of germs and keeping linens and/or garments useable in the future. Today, we are going to learn some of the basic principles of doing laundry, stain removal and the products available to assist you. Doing laundry involves a whole system. The interacting parts are the operator, the fabrics or clothing to be washed, the soil to be removed and the water, detergent and machine in which the clothes are washed. Your part as the operator is the most important because you are the one who makes the decisions about all the other factors. DO: Review the Laundry background information and discuss with participants. Ask the class to identify what are some of the steps that they follow to get the best results from their laundry. Record their answers on a chalkboard and/or flip charts. Show transparency created from Handout J, Nine Basic Steps to Good Laundering to summarize their responses. Distribute Handout J to participants. Divide the group into teams of 2 or 3 and give them the General Laundry Procedures Sequencing Cards. Ask them to put the cards in the correct order then let each group share their sequence and display the correct sequence. REFLECT: How does your usual practice in doing laundry compare with what you do? Are there practices that you need to change? Preparing and pre-treating linens and clothing is essential to successfully doing the laundry. It is a step that we are often tempted to omit but is worth the time.
Lesson 5 Pg. 31DO: Have a variety of linens and/or garments available for clients to look at the care labels. Make a listing of what they find and discuss how they will be important to doing the laundry. Give the participants a copy of Handout K, What Is My Purpose? and have them identify the product and its use. Review their decisions and discuss each item noting any corrections which need to be made. Display the various types of laundry products discussed in the background basics. Give each participant or team a different product. Have them Read Directions Carefully and have them identify what is on the label. Show transparency created from Handout L, Following Directions. Give each participants a copy of Handout L and discuss their findings. Using the same items of linens/garments, have the participants determine the laundry products needed to properly wash each piece. Discuss their choices. Along with laundry products there is the decision of water temperatures. Show transparency created from Handout M, Water Temperatures to discuss different water temperatures and why each is used. Give each participant a copy of Handout M. Have them consult their garment labels to determine the correct temperature. Preparing clothes for laundering is a step many of us are tempted to omit, but its well worth the time it takes. Mending rips and tears before washing prevents further damage. Show the transparency created from Handout N, Preparing Laundry Distribute a copy of Handout N to each participant and discuss preparing clothes for laundering. Sorting is an important step in the process of doing laundry. Show transparency created from Handout O, Sorting Laundry to highlight the important reasons to sort clothing. Give each participant a copy of Handout O. Using the same items of linens/garments, have the participants sort the items for doing the laundry. Check their sorting against the reasons presented. Improper stain removal can ruin linens and/or garments and make them no longer useable. This step is often called pre-treating. Show transparency created from Handout P, Pre-treating Laundry to discuss the three general ways of doing stain removal. Distribute a copy of Handout P to each participants. The secret with most stains is to treat them immediately. Use the linens/garments and have the participants look for stains which might be present. Create a new stain with grape juice and help them remove it. Show transparency created from Handout Q, A First Aid Kit for Clothing. Distribute a copy of Handout Q to each participant and discuss the products listed that will be useful in the stain removal process.
Lesson 5 Pg. 32REFLECT: We have spent time on all the steps leading up to doing the laundry. What is left is actually using the washing machine and dryer to do the laundry. What are some things that you have learned today? What are the general procedures you need to remember in doing the laundry? APPLY: How will you use this information as an elder companion, sitter or homemaker? How can you use this information with your own family?
Lesson 5 Pg. 33BACKGROUND INFORMATION Laundry Home laundering has become physically easier over the years, but the mental side of laundering has become more difficult. The amount of information to be considered is increasing and what was once thought to be the correct way to launder clothes may no longer work. Many people who have been doing laundry for years are wondering why they are having problems. Laundering involves a whole system. The interacting pa rts are the operator, the fabrics or clothing to be washed, the soil to be removed and the water, detergent and machine in which the clothes are washed. Operators are the most important because they are the ones who make the decisions about all the other factors. As we get ready to do the laundry, what are some of the steps we take to get the best results: Sort carefully Pre-treat before washing Use correct wash temperature Use right type and amount of laundry products Know the washer and how to use it Use correct washing action Rinse clothes thoroughly Dry clothes properly Hang or fold clothes neatly Preparing and Pre-treating Clothes Preparing clothes for laundering is a step many of us are tempted to omit, but its well worth the time it takes. Mending rips and tears before washing prevents further damage. Pre-treating spots and stains has become a necessity because of the changes in detergents and the increased use of synthetic fabrics that do not release soil easily. To prepare clothes for laundering: close zippers, hooks and eyes shake out loose dirt; check pockets and cuffs mend rips and tears turn permanent press garments inside out to prevent pilling and linting remove nonwashable items, such as belts To pre-treat clothes before laundering: Always remove spots and stains. Use a pre-wash spray for some or refer to a stain removal chart for more difficult ones. Rub liquid detergent into heavily soiled areas. Pre-soak heavily soiled items. Use a pre-soak product for 30 minutes or overnight. Drain the soak water and wash as usual.
Lesson 5 Pg. 34Sorting clothes Sorting clothes can help avoid some laundry problems. Group items together that can be washed in the same water temperature and agitation. Sort by: Color separate whites from all colors Fabric, construction, texture read care instructions. Delicate fabrics need gentle agitation. Permanent press need special cycles to prevent wrinkling. Separate lint givers such as terry cloth from lint takers such as synthetics or corduroy. Degree of soil wash lightly soiled items separately from heavily soiled ones Choosing Laundry Products Detergents serve three main purposes: to make water wetter, to loosen and remove soil from clothes and to hold soil and lint in suspension in the wash water until it is drained away. Laundry Products Always use the recommended amount found on the package and follow directions for use of the product. Also, carefully follow the directions found on the care label of the garment. Soap: Use only if very soft water (in Florida you wont have soft water unless it has been treated, since we have hard to very hard water). Soap combines with hard water minerals and forms a lime curd. Cleaning is reduced and a dingy buildup occurs. Check label on garments to see if it negates flame retardant finish. Detergent : Adjust amount used for degree of soil, water hardness and load size. Detergents come in both liquid and powder form. Check label concerning which will maintain the flame retardant finishes. Bleach : Used to whiten, deodorize and disinfect. Use bleach to kill bacteria. Removes some stains. Always check label as to whether to use chlorine or oxygen bleach. Enzyme Presoaks : Used for presoaking prior to washing. They are effective on stains such as milk, eggs, vomit and urine. Pre-wash : Helps remove oily stains Fabric Softeners : Softens fabrics, eliminates static electricity, but reduces absorbency of towels so only use every third or fourth time. Stains in Washable Garments Always treat stains immediately by flushing with cool water. Be sure stains are completely removed before drying, since heat can permanently set stains.
Lesson 5 Pg. 35Fruits, fruit juices, vegetables: Flush, then soak in cool water. Rub with detergent and launder with detergent and appropriate bleach in the hottest water recommended for fabric. Air dry, until you know the stain has been removed. Mildew : Launder with detergent and chlorine bleach (unless contrary to care label on garment). Heavy mildew stains are often impossible to remove. Urine : Flush, then soak in cool water. Rub with detergent or laundry bar soap. Launder as usual. If stain remains, apply a few drops of household ammoni a in one cup warm water. Rinse thoroughly. Let dry. Soaking in an enzyme presoak may also help. Food: Flush, then soak in cool water. Rub detergent into stain while still wet. Launder in the hottest water recommended using bleach, unless instructions on garment label prohibit the use of hot water. Vitamins/medicines: Flush. Rub detergent into dampened stain or use a special pre-treat product. Launder in the hottest water safe for garment using bleach (if safe for garment). If stain persists, sponge thoroughly with a safe cleaning fluid. Rins e thoroughly. Let dry, then launder again. Dye Transfer : Sometimes color transfers from one garment to another. If this happens then you immediately need to remove it. DO NOT dry. Immedi ately flush with cool water. Rub with heavy duty detergent. Soak in detergent and appropriate bleach. Launder as usual. An enzyme presoak may help. On whites items, a color remover may be useful. NEVER MIX AMMONIA OR DRY-CLEANING FLUIDS WITH CHLORINE BLEACH BECAUSE THEY WILL RELEASE HAZARDOUS GASES. ALWAYS USE DRY-CLEANING SOLVENTS ON DRY GARMENTS IN A WELL-VENTILATED AREA. Sanitizing Laundry Is your laundry as clean as it can be? Research has shown that a suitable disinfectant used during home laundering can prevent or reduce bacterial infections originating from clothing or household textiles. Such a disinfectant is often necessary because bacteria can remain alive through home laundering. Bacteria can remain alive through home laundering. They also can remain alive on the inside of a washing machine and can be transferred from one load of wash to another. Therefore, if many families are using one washer, it is possible for the bacteria to spread. When there is sickness in the family or you share laundry facilities, it has been suggested by microbiologists, (scientists), to use a disinfectant with every load of wash. Note: Chlorine bleach cannot be used with colored or certain types of synthetic fabrics. Use another type of disinfectant such as lysol. When using a disinfectant always: -read the label -follow directions and precautions -measure carefully -add disinfectant to recommended wash or rinse cycle
Lesson 5 Pg. 36Other Laundry Hints Sanitize washing machines occasionally. If you use a Laundromat, sanitize before each use. To sanitize home washer, pour disinfectant ( cup) into washer and wash for 15 minutes in hot water. Complete cycle. In Laundromat washers, wipe out with cloth using chlorine bleach and rinse with or wipe with water after about 10 seconds. This will prevent the bleach from coming in contact with colored clothes or linens. Wear gloves. Wash your lint traps frequently with hot water and soap. Bacteria can build up here. Sort dirty clothes and clean clothes at different times and different areas. Try not to shake dirty clothes-this spreads bacteria. Wash clothes at the hottest temperature recommended for the fabric. Automatic dryers and line drying kill some but not all bacteria. All measures that reduce the number of bacteria in laundering and drying will automatically improve sanitation of linens and clothing.
Lesson 5 Pg. 37 Handout JNINE BASIC STEPS TO GOOD LAUNDERING1.Sort Carefully 2.Pre-treat before washing 3.Use correct wash temperature 4.Use right type and amount of laundry products 5.Know the washer and how to use it 6.Use correct washing action7.Rinse clothes thoroughly 8.Dry clothes properly 9.Hang or fold laundry neatly
Lesson 5 Pg. 38 GENERAL LAUNDRY PROCEDURES SEQUENCING CARDS Read labels on clothingRead labels on laundry products Carefully sort as to color, soil, fabric type and tendency to lint Check for stains and pre-treat According to labels decide on wash and rinse water temperatures and wash cycle Add laundry products and let agitate a few seconds Add clothes-do not overloadPromptly remove from washing machine Read labels on clothing concerning drying If using dryer-promptly remove and fold neatly or hang
Lesson 5 Pg. 39 Handout KWHAT IS MY PURPOSE? Match the laundry product to its purpose Soapin soft water removes soils and stains Detergent removes, emulsifies, dissolves and suspends soil in a washing solution Chlorine Bleach helps to remove soil and stains and serves as a deodorizer and disinfectant Oxygen Bleach helps to remove soil and stains and can be used with all fabrics Enzyme Presoak helps remove heavy soils and stains, effective in removing protein stains Fabric Softeners decreases static cling, softens fabrics and reduces wrinkling
Lesson 5 Pg. 40 GENERAL LAUNDRY PROCEDURES SEQUENCING CARDS Read labels on clothingRead labels on laundry products Carefully sort as to color, soil, fabric type and tendency to lint Check for stains and pre-treat According to labels decide on wash and rinse water temperatures and wash cycle Add laundry products and let agitate a few seconds Add clothes-do not overloadPromptly remove from washing machine Read labels on clothing concerning drying If using dryer-promptly remove and fold neatly or hang
Lesson 5 Pg. 41 Handout LFOLLOWING DIRECTIONS Always use the recommended amount found on the detergent package. Adjust the amount for degree of soil, water hardness, and size of load. Carefully follow the directions found on the care label of the garment.
Lesson 5 Pg. 42 Handout MWATER TEMPERATURES Use HOT water for: Non delicate whites 100% cotton items that will not shrink or wrinkle Heavily soiled items Use WARM water for: Colors Items that will not fade Use COLD water for: Permanent Press Delicates Wool Items that will fade
Lesson 5 Pg. 43 Handout NPREPARING LAUNDRY Close zippers, hooks and eyes Shake out loose dirt, check pockets and cuffs Mend rips and tears Turn permanent press garments inside out to prevent pilling and linting Remove nonwashable items such as belts
Lesson 5 Pg. 44 Handout OSORTING LAUNDRY Sort by: Color separate whites from all colors. Fabric, construction, texture Read care instructions. Delicate fabrics need gentle agitation. Permanent press needs speci al cycles to prevent wrinkling. Separate lint givers such as terry cloth from lint takers such as synthetics or corduroy. Degree of soil wash lightly soiled items separately from heavily soiled ones.
Lesson 5 Pg. 45 Handout PPRE-TREATING LAUNDRY Always remove spots and stains. Use a prewash spray for some or refer to a stain removal chart for more difficult ones. R ub liquid detergent into heavily soiled articles. Pre-soak heavily soiled items. Use a p re-soak product for 30 minutes or overnight. Drain the soak water and wash as usual.
Lesson 5 Pg. 46 Handout QA FIRST AID KIT FOR CLOTHING Alcohol Ammonia Amyl acetate or finger nail polish remover Bleach Detergent Dry cleaning solvent Enzyme pre-soak Glycerine Pre-wash product Rust remover Wet spotter White vinegar
Lesson 5 Pg. 47LESSON PLAN Part 4: Safety Activity 1: General Home Safety Introduction: Feeling safe to move around in their home is critically important to the well-being of elderly clients. As a companion, we can help check for safety hazards and seek ways to improve safety. DO:Give each participant the Household Safety Checklist (Handout R), to do at their house/apartment. REFLECT:What did you find? Were there areas which needed attention? APPLY:How would you handle areas which need attention when working with your elderly client?Distribute a second copy of Handout R, Household Safety Checklist from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Have participants work in teams to identify recommended changes or improvements in the safety of their homes.
Lesson 5 Pg. 48 Handout RHOUSEHOLD SAFETY CHECKLISTUse this sheet to determine if your home/clients home is safe. CHECKLISTYESNO 1. Do stairs/steps have a sturdy banister or handrail? 2.Are stairs, halls, and exits free from clutter? 3.Are stairs well lighted ? 4.Can you switch lights on at both top and bottom of stairs? 5.Are all throw rugs eliminated or tacked down completely? 6.Are all frayed spots in rugs mended? 7.Is there a flashlight or nightlight by the bed? 8.Is the kitchen well-lighted, particularly by the stove? 9.Do warning lights on stove indicate which burner is lit? 10.Do electrical appliances meet safety standards? 12.Are cleaning fluids, polishes, bleaches, detergents, and all poisons stored separately and clearly marked? 13.Is there a grab bar by the tub or shower and toilet? 14.Are non-slip rubber mats in the tub or shower? 15.Are electrical cords and plugs in good repair no worn places? 16.Are walkways free of electrical cords? 17.Is there an escape plan in case of fire, with alternate routes to safety? 18.Is furniture arranged in an uncluttered path within and between rooms? 19.Are medicines for external use stored separately from those for internal use? 20.Is there a first aid kit available at all times? 21.Are emergency numbers clear ly posted by the phones?
Lesson 5 Pg. 49LESSON PLAN Part 4: Safety (continued) Activity 2: Safety in the Kitchen Introduction: The kitchen is one room where there is a lot of potential for safety violations and injury. It is important to be alert to potential dangers and take steps to correct them. In general, these dangers can be eliminated without the expenditure of money. It only takes a few seconds to take the proper steps to eliminate potential hazards. DO: Show the transparency created from Handout A, Clean? Safe? and tell the participants to refer to it. Ask them to identify hazards which are shown. Make a listing on a chalkboard and/or flip chart. Ask clients to identify corrective measures which should be used to make this kitchen scene safer. Write the correction next to the hazard. Give each participant a copy of Handout S, Check Sheet on Kitchen Hazards, and ask them to answer the questions for themselves. REFLECT:Why is it important to take corrective measures to remove hazards in the kitchen?What are the areas where you personally need to improve your safety practices in the kitchen? APPLY:How will you put this information to use in your home?How will you use this information in your work as an elder companion?
Lesson 5 Pg. 50Handout SCHECK SHEET ON KITCHEN HAZARDSDo you? YesNo ( )( )1.Keep pot and pan handles turned toward back of stove. ( )( )2.Avoid clothes with long flowing sleeves that may easily catch on pot handles and/or cause burns. ( )( )3.Clean up spills on floors right away to prevent falling. ( )( )4.Avoid broken or chipped cooking utensils or serving pieces. ( )( )5.Turn off the range and oven when not in use. ( )( )6.Check electrical cords on appliances from time to time for worn places. Replace if needed. ( )( )7.Avoid overloading electric outlets. Unplug those appliances that are not in use. ( )( )8.Dry hands before using electrical appliances. ( )( )9.Have gas ranges checked by gas company from time to time. ( )( )10.Store knives with care? ( )( )11.Keep a box of baking soda near the stove to use in case of grease fire?