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1.This document is FCS8709, one of a series of the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Exte nsion Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: April 2001. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.eduThe Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opport unity/affirmative act ion employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, se x, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension public ations, contact your county Cooperative Extension Servic e office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean 2.George O. Hack, MEd, Assistant In, Family Nutrition Program, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611. FCS8709An Instructional Development Model for the Cooperative Extension Service1George O. Hack2OverviewAs a partnership among County, State, and Federal governments, th e Cooperative Extension Service serves the citizens of each state by providing educational programs in natural resource conservation, su stainable agriculture, youth development, child and family development, nutrition, food safety, energy conservation, consumer credit counseling, and competitiveness in world markets. These educational prog rams make available to the public the latest in scientific knowledge and expertise in many fields, and while the source of this knowledge and expertise usually is the academic community of the university, the instructional development models appropriate for campus classrooms are insufficient for the unique needs in Extension. What is needed in Extension is an instructional development model that is primarily a product-oriented one, but that can lend itself to a system orientation as needed. The model presented here reflects this type of flexibility. The ten components, Assess Need, Analyze Audience, Establish Goals, Analyze Resources, Develop Objectives, Sequence Content, Design Learning Activities, Develop Evaluation Strategy, Collect and Analyze Data, and Implement Revision, are basic to a product orientation, yet are common to a system orientation. Figure 1. Extension Instructional Development Model.
An Instructional Development Model fo r the Cooperative Extension ServicePage 2 August 2001When the development of instruction is for creating a course more emphasis can be placed on the front-end analysis. When a product is created more emphasis can be placed on implementing revision. Finally, this model can also be used for Extension Agent training or for developing instruction with partne rs and clients as the audience.The Model as a PyramidThe first noticeable feature of this model is that it is in the shape of a pyramid. Many models incorporate some form of circular shape to illustrate the relationship among components, with arrows indicating directionality or a progression of steps. With a pyramid the linear progression is implied from left to right and from bottom to top, and the levels of the pyramid illustrate a dynamic relationship whereby each level is built upon the previous one. When the lower levels havent been fully accounted for, it becomes difficult to implement the components of the higher level. In order to fully understand this relationship a clos er look at each component is necessary.Level 1: Assess NeedWith instructional development the process is usually initiated with some sort of problem or need. A need is a discrepancy between what is and what should be. A needs assessment is the procedure where all the characteristics and symptoms of the need are analyzed to better understand the cause and define the need. There are several methods for conducting a needs assessment, the most common being the Delphi, Fault Tree Analysis, or Critical Incident Technique. Most techniques use some form of questionnaire, survey, or interview as their base instrument for collecting data, and they are subject to the criteria that research has determined as appropriate to such instruments (Gentry 1994, pp.16-17). Data can also be collected through objective observations of conditions and then used to systematically identify the need; or it can be used in combination with a survey or questionnaire. A major reason for conducting the needs assessment is to decide whether or not instruction should be a part of the solution (Kemp, Morrison, & Ross 1999). Not all needs require instructional intervention. An organization may be able to remedy their need through a change in personnel, an increase in funding, new equipment, etc., and recommending instruction when the need can be resolved by other means would waste valuable time, resources, and money. Another reason for conducting the needs assessment is that it helps both the client and the instructional developer come to an agreement on what the need is and how to go about fixing it, hopefully avoiding any argument over the value of the completed ID project (Gentry 1994). Other benefits to conducting a needs assessment are the establishment of data that can be used to evaluate the instruction, the discrimination of critical needs over other needs, and the identification of needs associated with certain tasks (Kemp et al. 1999).Level 1: Analyze AudienceAnalyzing the audience consists of gathering data so that the attributes of the learners can be accounted for in the design of instruction. This can partially take place during the assessment of the need, but it is crucial that a complete analysis take place. There are several sources of data that can be used: interviews, surveys, observation, academic or employee records, expert opinion, or achievement or aptitude tests are all good sources of data that can be used to analyze the audience (Gentry 1994). Heinich, Molenda, Ru ssell, and Smaldino (1996) describe three majo r categories of learner characteristics that can be used. 1.The first category is general char acteristics which is comprised of information such as gender, age, ethnic background, educational or work experience, and social experience.
An Instructional Development Model fo r the Cooperative Extension ServicePage 3 August 20012.The second category is specific entry competencies. This category consists of the attitudes and prerequisite skills that a learner brings to the instruction. 3.The third category is learning styles Learning styles are the predispositions that learners have to ac quiring and processing information. In order for instruction to be successful, the audience must be successful at learning. This learning can be seriously hindered when the attributes of the lear ners are not taken into account. Factors such as age, gender, experience, learning style, or ability all affect how a learner interacts with the instruction and whether they master the instructional objectives. These factors must be taken into account so that the needs, interests, and abilities of the learner are met. The information gathered in an audience analysis will affect the selection of the topic, the introductory level of the topic, the formation of objectives, the sequencing of the material, the type of learning activities to be used, and the evaluation strategy (Kemp et al. 1999). Without sufficient data describing the audience, it would be impossible to make informed decisions regarding the instructional development process.Level 1: Establish GoalsGiven the needs identified in the needs assessment, the next step is to establish the goals for the instruction. These goals give intent and purpose to the instruction and are broad statements of the desired outcome. They are based on the needs of the organization and the needs of the audience. One commonly used method to establish goals is a goal analysis. Robert Mager (1984) iden tifies five steps to a goal analysis: 1) Write down the goal; 2) Write down everything someone would have to say or do for you to agree he or she represents achievement of the goal; 3) Sort the items listed in step two, deleting duplicates and abstractions; 4) Write a complete sentence to describe each of the items on your final list; and 5) Test the sentences for completeness. Other procedures that can be used in the establishment of goals are setting aims, which are intents that give dir ection, and the ranking of goals (Kemp et al .1999). Whichever method is used, the goals for instru ction should describe an end result and reflect the characteristics of the audience as well as the needs of the organization. The importance of establishing goals rests in the purpose and direction they give to instruction. There is no way to decide what action to take until we know what the purpose of the action is--until we know what we are trying to accomplish (Mager 1984, p. 3). Further, it is important that both the designer of instruction and the organization agree on the goals so that miscommunications about the end result can be avoided. It should be noted that if a task analysis is to be completed, the most logical place for it in this model is during the establishment of goals. It can identify the steps of a competent performance, which in turn aids in the identification of what a learner must say or do to represent achievement of the goal.Level 1: Analyze ResourcesAn analysis of the resources involves composing a list of resources that will be available to the instruction and the entire project. Once this list is completed it can be compared to the instructional goals, the characteristics of the audience, and the identified needs to determine how these resources can best be used for the successful completion of the project. The term resources typically incl udes the funds available, the facilities available, the materials, equipment, personnel, travel, communications, supplies, and the time frame allowed for completing the project. These items may all be necessary for the successful support of instruction.
An Instructional Development Model fo r the Cooperative Extension ServicePage 4 August 2001 Figure 2. The first level: the base of the pyramid.The rationale for analyzing the resources is that in order to make appropriate decisions regarding the development of objectives, the design of learning activities, the development of evaluation strategies, or th e collection of data for analysis, the resources required for these components must be considered. The designer of the instruction must be able to recognize the limitations and constraints under which the project will be developed and implemented (Kemp et al. 1999). Some sample questions the designer must consider are: Will the budget allow for certain activities or the purchase of certain materials? Will there be specific equipment on hand for the type of instruction prescribed? What will be the size and accommodations of the facilities? What is the deadline for completion of the project? These first four components comprise the first level of the model. While they are listed as separate components, this does not mean that they are isolated events. In many cases they can be analyzed concurrently. A designer might be able to analyze the audience and the resources while conducting the needs assessment, or the establishment of goals could easily be an extension of the needs assessment effort. It is important to note that the development of the next three levels is contingent upon how well this first level was completed. This level serves as the foundation; any weakness here will certainly show up later in the project.Level 2: Develop ObjectivesWhile the goals of the instruction give intent and purpose, it is the learner objectives that paint a clear picture of what changes will occur in the audience. Good learner objectives are statements that describe the audience, the desired behavior as a result of the instruction, the conditions under which the behavior is performed, and the degree to which the behavior is learned (Gentry 1994). Objectives are focused solely on the learner and provide the instructi onal designer a specific guide to what the instruction is to accomplish. They are grouped as either terminal objectives which reflect the outcome of the instruction, or as enabling objectives which reflect the skills needed to achieve the terminal objective. There are many advantages to developing good learner objectives. They provide the blueprint for the design of the instruction. Without them it would be impossible to efficiently evaluate an educational product or program, and there woul d be no effective basis for choosing materials, instructional methods, or content (Mager, 1962). Objectives communicate to the learner and the instructor just what is to be learned, which in turn a llows both parties to have the same expectations. Objectives guide the selection of evaluation items that measure the acquisition of desired information or the performance of desire d skills under specified conditions or degrees. Without this guidance evaluation items could be misleading, irrelevant, or useless. Objectives also allow the learner to evaluate their own progress at any time during instruction. A learner can view the enabling objectives, deciding whether or not he or she has achieved them, and then determine what work still needs to be done to achieve the terminal objectives.Level 2: Sequence ContentWhen an instructional designer orders the content of the instruction in such a way so as to assist the learner in achieving the objectives, it is called sequencing (Kemp et al, 1999). This can be done using several methods such as the Posner and Strike Sequencing Scheme, Elaboration Theory, Objective Trees, or Robert Gagnes Prerequisite Method. A basic method would be to establish a hierarchy of the content, which places all of the prerequisite competencies in an ascending order, with competencies that are
An Instructional Development Model fo r the Cooperative Extension ServicePage 5 August 2001 Figure 3. Level 2 builds on a strong foundation.dependent upon subordinate skills placed on higher tiers. If a task analysis has been done, this will make sequencing somewhat easier for instruction in the psychomotor domain, but just because an expert in a certain task performs it in a certain sequence does not mean that the instruction should follow that same sequence. Some simple guidelines to use would be to teach simpler procedures before complex ones, teach simple principles before complex ones, teach principles before their related steps, teach coordinate concepts together, teach prerequisites just before target cont ent, and have a Subject Matter Expert critique the sequence (Leshin, Pollock & Reigeluth, 1992). The argument for seque ncing content lies in the necessity, efficiency and convenience in designing instruction according to preceding, concurrent, and succeeding relationships. The process of sequencing will also aid the recognition of the need for additional objectives that have not been considered (Gentry, 1994). A disastrous situation could occur, if complex skills were taught by the instructor without having first established all of the prerequisite skills.Level 2: Design Learning ActivitiesAfter having developed the objectives and sequencing the content, it is time to design the learning activities. This includes reviewing each objective and its related content to determine the best instructional strategies and delivery methods. Decisions need to be made on how to present the information. Will the content be delivered through lecture, hands-on experience, small group interaction, or independent study? What visuals will be needed? Are two channel presentations more appr opriate? Decisions will also need to be made regarding the strategies used to make the learning more meaningful. What strategies will be incorporated into the instruction to assist the learner in making the connection between what he or she already knows and the new information? Will techniques such as recall, integration, organization, or elaboration be used? What types of instruction are most appropriate for teaching facts, concepts, principles, procedures, interpersonal skills, or attitudes? Once these decisions are made, the next step is to design the message so as to create the most efficient interface between the instructional materials and the learner. The message should be designed so that it communicates clearly to the learner (Kemp et al. 1999). The rationale for designing learning activities rather than relying solely on existing materials and methods is to create instruction that is reliable and effective. Th is is done by designing learning activities that meet the particular needs of the identified learner. This includes accounting for particular learning styles, backgrounds, motivations, or developmental levels (Willis 1993).Level 3: Develop Evaluation StrategyDeveloping an evaluation strategy means determining the methods to be used that measure the results of the instruction. Thus evaluation compares a measurement with a standard and passes judgment on the comparison (Mager 1984, p. 8). Ideally, evaluation should measure whether the learner demonstrated the performance identified in the objective, under the same conditions and to th e same degree. This can be difficult when objectives are fuzzy.
An Instructional Development Model fo r the Cooperative Extension ServicePage 6 August 2001 Figure 4. Level 3 builds on levels 2 and 1.Evaluation is an ongoing process. A diagnostic evaluation should be conducted prior to instruction so that an appropriate starting point can be determined a nd baseline data can be established for comparison. Formative evaluations should occur at regular intervals during instruction to aid the instructor in pinpointing any problems as they occur. Summative evaluations should take place after instruction has been completed to measure the achievement of the learner and the success of the instruction. Based on the length, breadth, and scope of the instruction, the strategy for evaluation can include items as simple as the instructor observing be haviors or something as complex as a multitask performance that is measured against a check list of competencies. The reasons for developing an evaluation strategy are many. The primary reason is to measure student success in learning (Kemp et al. 1999). However, evaluation is used to provide guidance for improving the instruction, to ascertain whether the instruction is teaching what was intended, to determine which elements of the instruction need improvement, and to pinpoint problems that learners may be encountering. Without a clear evaluation strategy the data collected from tests a nd assessment items cannot be interpreted effectively, thus the results of the instruction cannot be in terpreted effectively.Level 3: Collect and Analyze DataAfter having decided on an evaluation strategy, the collection and analysis of data generated from the evaluation begins immediately upon implementation of the instruction. The data ge nerated in diagnostic and formative evaluation is used to make decisions regarding starting points and the improvement of instruction while the process is ongoing. Data generated in the summative evaluation are used by decision makers to determine the instructions effectiveness. In general, data should be collected immediately to increase its chances of being used by decision makers. This gets results back to the people who will use it. Other guidelines for the collection of data include: 1) Collecting data at regular intervals to encourage consistent attention to the evalua tion process; 2) Making the findings easily accessible to people who will use them; 3) Providing clear suggestions regarding future actions that improve the instruction; 4) Individualizing the recommendations for the decision makers in order to increase the likelihood that they will be used; and 5) Eliminating all personal biases to ensure that recommendations are securely grounded in the data collection and analysis effort (Willis 1993). Typical sources of data can be portfolios, surveys, written tests, performance tests, observations, ratings, focus groups, interviews, and exhibitions (Kemp et al. 1999). In the analysis process several methods can be used to promote the in terpretation of the data. A quantitative analysis focuses on a statistical manipulation of the data. When large amounts of data are collected, this method can be particularly useful. Two types of evaluations that are commonly used are norm referenced (where students performances are measured against other students perfo rmances) and criterion referenced (where student performances are measured against an objective standard). A qualitative analysis consists of gathering detailed information and anecdotal data and focuses more on the depth of information. It is typically used when the number of responses or learners is small.
An Instructional Development Model fo r the Cooperative Extension ServicePage 7 August 2001 Figure 5. Level 4 reflects the components. Without the collection and analysis of data, it would be impossible to make decisions about the effectiveness of the instruction and what changes should be made to improve it. Further, in order to truly understand how learning is taking place, it is necessary to study learning as it is occurring. This allows the designer to interpret outcomes and processes, and is made possible through an analysis of the data.Level 4: Implement RevisionIf you have completed every component of the model without error or omission of detail, and if your product or sy stem has delivered an outcome that needs no improvement on the first try, then you can skip this component. However, unless you wear a cape and leap tall buildings, then you will need to revise like the rest of us mere mortals. Revision should be anticipated. It requires the development team to locate the source causing deficiencies in the system or product and make changes as necessary. Hopefully the analysis of the data will help to pinpoint the problem, but this may not always be the case. A good source for revision ideas is the instructors reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the pr oduct or system (Willis 1993). If you have given due attention to every component in the model, the revisions should be minor, but if the revisions become substantial, it is important to prioritize them. It is easy to justify revision as the process that makes the product or system better, but it goes further than that. The reason for revision is due to the dynamic relationship of all the components in the mode l. These components can change over time. The needs and goals may change over time. Also, the audience and resources may change frequently, especially in Extension. Every time one of these components is altered, the whole model is affected, and in order to insure that the effectiveness of the instruction is not lost, revision must occur.SummaryAdhering to a systematic approach for developing instruction can be a demanding task, but the results should justify the methods. In extension, where often times results can determine the allocation of funding and other resources, and where partners expect measurable outcomes, a systematic approach in the development of a product or system can be the difference in whether a program is continued or dissolved.ReferencesGentry, C.G. (1994). Introduction to Instructional Development: Process and Technique. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J., & Smaldino, S. (1996). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning New York, NY: Macmillan.
An Instructional Development Model fo r the Cooperative Extension ServicePage 8 August 2001Kemp, J.E., Morrison, G.R., & Ross, S.M. (1999). Designing Effective Instruction. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. Leshin, C., Pollock, J., & Reigeluth, C. (1992). Instructional Design: Strategies and Tactics for Improving Learning and Performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Mager, R.F. (1984). Measuring Instructional Results. Belmont, CA: David S. Lake Publishers. Mager, R.F. (1984). Goal Analysis Belmont, CA: David S. Lake Publishers. Mager, R.F. (1962). Preparing Instructional Objectives. Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishers. Willis, B. (1993). Distance Education: A Practical Guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.