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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida
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Title: Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Haynes, Jody
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2004
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Original publication date December 2001. Revised June 2004."
General Note: "ENH 854"
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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ENH854 Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida1 Jody Haynes, John McLaughlin, Laura Vasquez, Adrian Hunsberger2 1. This document is ENH854, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date December 2001. Revised June 2004. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Jody Haynes. FYN Program Extension Agent, UF/Miami-Dade County Extension; John McLaughlin. Urban Horticulture Program Assistant, UF/Miami-Dade County Extension; Laura Vasquez. FYN Program Assistant, UF/Miami-Dade County Extension; Adrian Hunsberger. Urban Horticulture Agent, UF/Miami-Dade County Extension The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean Introduction This publication was developed in response to requests from participants in the Florida Yards & Neighborhoods (FYN) program in Miami-Dade County for a list of recommended landscape plants suitable for south Florida. The resulting list includes over 350 low-maintenance plants. The following information is included for each species: common name, scientific name, maximum size, growth rate (vines only), light preference, salt tolerance, and other useful characteristics. Criteria This section will describe the criteria by which plants were selected. It is important to note, first, that even the most drought-tolerant plants require watering during the establishment period. Although this period varies among species and site conditions, some general rules for container-grown plants have been determined experimentally. They are as follows: 6 months for a 1-gallon plant; 1 year for a 3-gallon plant; and 6-12 months per inch of trunk diameter for larger trees. The term "low-maintenance" refers to a plant that does not require frequent maintenancesuch as regular watering, pruning, or sprayingto remain healthy and to maintain an acceptable aesthetic quality. A low-maintenance plant has low fertilizer requirements and few pest and disease problems. In addition, low-maintenance plants suitable for south Florida must also be adapted toor at least tolerateour poor, alkaline, sandor limestone-based soils. An additional criterion for the plants on this list was that they are not listed as being invasive by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC, 2001), or restricted by any federal, state, or local laws (Burks, 2000). Miami-Dade County does have restrictions for planting certain species within 500 feet of native habitats they are known to invade (Miami-Dade County, 2001); caution statements are provided for these species. Both native and non-native species are included herein, with native plants denoted by Some plants listed also tolerate wet soil conditions or even periodic flooding; these are denoted by Also, a variety of plants that are not commonly available in

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 2 south Florida nurseries or garden centers were intentionally included with the hope that increased demand will generate increased supply; plants that are commonly available are denoted by *. This list is also posted on the Miami-Dade County FYN website, at the following URL: http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/old/programs/fyn/ publications/dtpl.htm. Photos and more detailed information for each species can be obtained from this online version of the list. Categories Plants were evaluated according to their function or role in the landscape, and were then assigned to one or more of the following categories: A. Perennials; B. Annuals; C. Shrubs & Hedges; D. Flowering & Shade Trees; E. Fruit Trees; F. Palms, Cycads & Palm-like Plants; G. Ornamental Grasses; H. Groundcovers; I. Vines; J. Epiphytes; and K. Herbs & Vegetables. A definition of each category follows. A. Perennials. Perennials are typically herbaceous plants that live three or more years. They often bear attractive flowers, and many can be used as groundcovers (37 perennials are listed in Table 1). B. Annuals. An annual is a plant that typically lives for one year or less. Although most annuals require moist soil, a few are considered low-maintenance. In south Florida, many annuals are cool-season plants, and, thus, will not tolerate the heat and/or wet/humid conditions of summer. Only drought-tolerant annuals are included (18 annuals are listed in Table 2). C. Shrubs & Hedges. A shrub is typically a woody plant with several stems. However, a wide variety of plants can function as shrubs. A hedge is simply a row of closely planted shrubs that form a border or boundary; hedges may require some pruning to maintain proper form or function (117 shrubs and hedges are listed in Table 3). D. Flowering & Shade Trees. A tree is a woody plant that is usually very large (tall or wide or both) and usually bears a single trunk. Flowering trees are those that are cultivated primarily for their showy flowers, whereas shade trees often lack significant floral displays (59 flowering and shade trees are listed in Table 4). E. Fruit Trees. Fruit trees are typically grown or cultivated for their edible fruit. To ensure healthy, productive fruit trees, it may be necessary to feed and/or water them during fruit set (13 fruit trees are listed in Table 5). F. Palms, Cycads & Palm-Like Plants. Palms are predominantly tropical and subtropical evergreen trees, shrubs, or woody vines of the Family Palmae (also known as Family Arecaceae). Palm stems are generally unbranched, bear a single growing point, and are topped by a crown of pinnate (feather-shaped) or palmate (fan-shaped) leaves bearing conspicuous parallel venation. In a few cases, entire palm genera are considered low-maintenance, including Brahea, Coccothrinax, Copernicia, Livistona, Phoenix Sabal Thrinax, and Washingtonia. Although many palms require regular fertilization, the species listed herein require less than most (44 palms are listed in Table 6). Cycads are cone-bearing evergreen plants of the Division Cycadophyta; they are often mistakenly considered palms. Note, the cycads included on this list are resistant to the cycad aulacaspis scale, which is a serious pest of cycads in the genus Cycas which includes the sago palms (20 cycads are listed in Table 6). Palm-like plants are those that superficially resemble palms but belong to unrelated plant families (four additional palm-like plants are listed in Table 6). G. Ornamental Grasses. Ornamental grasses typically grow in tuft-like clumps and bear numerous small flowers on tall stalks that rise above the blade-like leaves. Many are quite showy and are welcome additions to a non-traditional landscape (14 ornamental grasses are listed in Table 7). H. Groundcovers. This category includes a diverse group of unrelated plants that are used to cover areas of ground for aesthetic purposes (e.g., in shady areas where grass will not grow). Groundcovers also function to stabilize soil, or to provide focal points at the front of planting beds.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 3 Generally planted in dense stands, groundcovers can be vines, small shrubs, annuals, perennials, or grasses (59 groundcovers are listed in Table 8). I. Vines. Vines are weak-stemmed plants that derive their support from climbing, twining, or creeping along a surface. Although most people think of vines as climbing vertically, a few species also grow horizontally and can function as groundcovers. Some vines have aggressive growth habits, so they need to be watched carefully to prevent them from growing out of control (25 vines are listed in Table 9). J. Ephipytes. Epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants (e.g., trees) or objects (e.g., rocks and boulders) for support or anchorage, but not for water or nutrients. This category includes orchids, ferns, bromeliads, and some cacti (11 epiphytes are listed in Table 10). K. Herbs & Vegetables. Herbs are plants whose leaves, stems, or roots are used as flavoring in food or as non-traditional medicines, while vegetables are plants that produce edible parts (roots, stems, leaves, or fruit) that are grown for food. Although not included in most landscapes, some herbs and vegetables have ornamental value (four herbs and two vegetables are listed in Table 11). Selecting the "Right" Plant Putting the right plant in the right place is of foremost importance in creating a healthy and successful low-maintenance landscape. However, this principle is dependent upon one's ability to accurately select the right plant species for a given location. Common names are often misleading, and sometimes more than one plant species may be referred to by the same or similar common name. Therefore, whenever possible it is best to refer to scientific names when researching and selecting plants for your south Florida Landscape. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following UF-IFAS Specialists for reviewing this article: Dr. Robert Black, Dr. Kimberly Klock-Moore, Dr. Kenneth Langeland, and Dr. Eva Worden. In addition, Roger Hammer, Head Naturalist for Miami-Dade County Parks & Recreation, contributed significantly to this publication, and we thank him also. References Austin, D.F. Pine Rockland Plant Guide. Miami-Dade County Department of Environmental Resource Management, Miami, FL. Black, R.J. 1997. Native Florida Plants for Home Landscapes. University of Florida-IFAS Publication ENH-25, Gainesville. Black, R.J., and E.F. Gilman. 1997. Your Florida Guide to Bedding Plants: Selection, Establishment and Maintenance. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. Broschat, T.K., and A.W. Meerow. 1991. Betrocks Reference Guide to Florida Landscape Plants. Betrock Information Systems, Inc., Hollywood, FL. Burks, K.C. 2000. Non-native Plant Species Restricted by Federal, State, or Local Law in Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Invasive Plant Management, Tallahassee, FL. FLEPPC. 2001. List of Floridas Invasive Species. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. Internet: http://www.fleppc.org/Plantlist/01list.htm. Florida's Water Management Districts. 2001. Water Wise Florida Landscapes: Landscaping to Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of XeriscapeTM. St. John's River Water Management District, Palatka, FL. Gilman, E.F., and R.J. Black. 1999. Your Florida Guide to Shrubs: Selection, Establishment and Maintenance. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. Haynes, J.L. 2001. Virtual Cycad Encyclopedia. Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, Inc. Internet: http://www.plantapalm.com/vce/vce_index.htm. Haynes, J.L. 2001. Virtual Palm Encyclopedia. Palm & Cycad Societies of Florida, Inc. Internet: http://www.plantapalm.com/vpe/vpe_index.htm.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 4 Hubbuch, C. 2001. Water shortage continues and not a drop to irrigate. Garden Views. Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, FL. Maidman, K. 1997. Ten great palms. Garden News. Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, FL. Meerow, A.W. 1991. Native Shrubs for South Florida. University of Florida-IFAS Publication EES-59, Gainesville. Meerow, A.W. 1996. Native Trees for South Florida. University of Florida-IFAS Publication EES-57, Gainesville. Meerow, A.W. 1999. Native Ground Covers for South Florida. University of Florida-IFAS Publication EES-60, Gainesville. Meerow A.W., and R.J. Black. 1993. Enviroscaping to Conserve Energy: Ground Covers for South Florida. University of Florida-IFAS Publication EES-39, Gainesville. Miami-Dade County. 2001. Dade County Landscaping Manual. Miami-Dade County, FL. Misitis, M. 1997. Salt Tolerant Plants for Dade County. UF/Miami-Dade County Extension publication, Homestead, FL. Osorio, R. 2001. A Gardener's Guide to Florida's Native Plants. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. Riffle, R.L. 1998. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Scheper. J. 2001. FloridataTM. Internet: http://www.floridata.com. Whistler, W. A. 2000. Tropical Ornamentals: A Guide. Timber Press, Portland, OR. Wilson, J. 1994. Landscaping with Herbs. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 5 Table 1. Low-Maintenance Perennials, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (inch) preference Aglaonema Aglaonema commutatum 18 Partial to full shade Low Small, herbaceous perennial with fleshy stems, branching from the base, and slender-stalked leaves up to about 12 inches long. Flowering stems have a narrow, pale green spathe enclosing a small white spadix. Other Aglaonema also drought tolerant. Scarlet milkweed Asclepias curassavica 36-48 Full sun to partial shade Low Erect, evergreen perennial with narrow, elliptical leaves and terminal clusters of scarlet and orange flowers spring to fall. Attracts butterflies Spring to Fall. Can tolerate wet soil. Butterfly weed Asclepias tuberosa 18-36 Full sun to partial shade Low Native perennial with orange, summertime flowers. Essential component of a butterfly garden. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Cast iron plant Aspidistra elatior 36 Partial to full shade Moderate Grown for its deep green foliage. Named for its ability to tolerate harsh, adverse conditions. Spreads to form clumps. Excellent for shady areas. Star begonia, winter begonia Begonia heracleifolia 24-36 Partial to full shade None Rhizomatous (spreads by rhizomes) begonia with large, hairy, deeply lobed, toothed, bronzy green leaves and fragrant, white to pink flowers on long, reddish stalks. Caution: Begonia cucullata is FLEPPC Category ll invasive.5 White begonia Begonia popenoei 24-48 Partial to full shade None Rhizomatous begonia with huge, round, dark glossy green leaves to two feet wide and large white, fragrant flowers held in large panicles well above foliage. Castor bean begonia Begonia ricinifolia 24-36 Partial to full shade None Rhizomatous begonia with apple green leaves shaped like stars and with rings of red hairs around leaf petioles. Winter blooms are deep pink. Strawflower Brachteantha bracteatum 36 Full sun Low Annual or short-lived perennial with erect habit. Weak, hollow stems. Thin green leaves bear golden yellow blooms up to two inches in diameter at branch tips summer to early fall. Good groundcover or small shrub. Spiral ginger Costus scaber 72 Partial shade Low Tall spiral ginger with attractive roundish jade green leaves with fuzzy underside, and long, hard, waxy 8" to 12" red bracts with small, yellow flowers that peek out as bracts open from bottom up. Long lasting flower; excellent cut flower.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 6 Table 1. Low-Maintenance Perennials, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (inch) preference Crossandra Crossandra infundibuliformis 12-36 Partial to full shade Low Simple leaves arranged in opposite pairs and bearing erect spikes of showy yellow to red flowers, with petals opened flat into a hand-like shape. African iris Dietes iridioides 24-36 Full sun Low Drought tolerant perennial, though extra water needed when in bloom. Easy to grow. Attractive white flowers with blue and brown shading appear in spring. Forms spreading clumps. Also known as D. vegeta; D. bicolor has yellow flowers. Twinflower Dyschoriste angusta 6-18 Full sun Low Native perennial with small, delicate, purple flowers. Grows best in dry sand. Plant close together for best cover. Dwarf crown-of-thorns Euphorbia milii 12-36 Full sun High Small Thai dwarf varieties used as bedding plants and groundcovers. See full description in Table 3. Indian blanket Gaillardia pulchella 12-24 Full sun High Colorful native annual or perennial. As easily grown as it is beautiful. Considerable variation in flower color; typical variety bears red flowers with yellow-tipped petals. Plant in open site with good drainage. Good for beach-front plantings. Whirling butterflies Gaura lindheimeri 24-48 Full sun to partial shade Low Herbaceous perennial that grows in loose, bushy clump. Stems slender, wiry, and covered with tiny hairs. Leaves spoon-shaped with toothed margins. Flowers above foliage on long spikes; open white at dawn, fading to rose-pink by day's end. Requires well-drained soil. Moss verbena Glandularia puchella 12 Full sun to partial shade Unknown Freely branching, sprawling perennial with 3-lobed, finely dissected, aromatic leaves and clusters of pink, lilac, purple or white flowers. Requires well-drained soil. Attracts butterflies. Good bedding plant. Tampa verbena Glandularia tampensis 18-24 Full sun Low Native, sprawling, short-lived perennial. Sometimes treated as annual. Flowers purplish-pink. Also known as Verbena tampensis. Rain lilies Habranthus spp. 24-48 Full sun Moderate Flowers yellow, pink, red or white produced spring/summer after rain. Goes dormant in cool season, requiring very little water. Flowers best when crowded. Beach sunflower Helianthus debilis 36-48 Full sun High Erect or prostrate, spreading plant with sandpaper-like leaves and 2.5 three-inch yellow flowers. Suitable for beach-front plantings. Good for attracting butterflies.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 7 Table 1. Low-Maintenance Perennials, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (inch) preference Daylily Hemerocallis spp. 12-24 Full sun or partial shade Moderate Clump-forming perennial with grass-like leaves and lily-like flowers from late spring to fall, depending on variety. Available in yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, and near-white. Only certain varieties succeed in south Florida (Evergreen, Semis). Amaryllis Hippeastrum spp. 24 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Spectacular trumpet-shaped, tropical lilies. Many species and varieties. Moderately drought tolerant. Beach elder Iva imbricata 24-36 Full sun High Scraggly, coarse, shrubby perennial. Good for beach-front plantings. Shrimp plant Justicia brandegeana 36-60 Full sun to full shade None Perennial or shrub with stems topped with 6'' spikes of red, rusty brown, or green brachts containing small, white, shrimp-like flowers. A related species bears yellow brachts. Unique, adaptable, easily grown plant. Also known as Beloperone guttata. Kalanchoe Kalanchoe blossfeldiana 12 Partial shade Moderate Small, shrubby African species. Multiple, upstretched branches covered with round to rectangular, deep green leaves with red margins and notched tips. Thick racemes of small, deep red, cylindrical flowers appear from winter to early summer; may also be pink, yellow, or orange. Can be weedy. Statice Limonium sinatum 18 Full sun Low Bushy, upright perennial. Dense rosettes of oblong, deeply waved, dark green leaves and masses of tiny, papery flowers on winged stems summer/ early fall. Fairly slow growing. Available in golden, lemon-yellow, white, cream, salmon-pink, purple or blue spikelets. Pennyroyal Piloblephis rigida 6-24 Full sun Low Low-growing perennial. Not picky about soil, but likes it dry. Small, shrimp-like flowers emerge from green, scale-like brachts. Attractive to butterflies. Also known as Pycnothymus rigidus and Satureja rigida. Plumbago Plumbago auriculata 36-72 Full sun Low Attractive light blue flowers in terminal spikes. Drought tolerant once well established. Prone to root and stem rots. Freely draining soil and good air circulation. Florida mountainmint Pycnanthemum floridanum 48 Full sun to partial shade None Erect, loosely-branched, shrublike perennial. Leaves smell like spearmint or camphor. Tiny, lavender flowers in dense terminal clusters. Attracts butterflies.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 8 Table 1. Low-Maintenance Perennials, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (inch) preference Firecracker plant Russelia equisetiformis 24-48 Full sun High Grown for weeping habit, masses of small, red tubular flowers, and scale-like leaves. Often used in planters. Requires freely draining soil. Russelia sarmentosa is similar, although with actual leaves and smaller red flowers that are highly attractive to butterflies. Stonecrop Sedum spectabile 24 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Hardy plant, well adapted for rockeries, with showy fall flowers. Many cultivars (white, pink or red); at least one with variegated leaves. Blue porterweed Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 12-36 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Native, small, shrubby perennial. Flowers highly attractive to butterflies--must for any butterfly garden. Name derived from traditional foamy, porter-like beverage brewed from the plant. Pink porterweed Stachytarpheta mutabilis 60-96 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Small, shrubby perennial with somewhat weedy habit. Flowers highly attractive to butterflies and hummingbirds. Variety violacea is violet-flowered form. Mexican sunflower Tithonia deversifolia 60-72 Full sun Low Warm-season annual or perennial. Leaves coarse, three-lobed, and covered in soft, downy fuzz. Flowers orange to red-orange. Society garlic Tulbaghia violacea 24-36 Full sun to partial shade None Clump-forming, herbaceous perennial with narrow, grayish leaves and large clusters of lavender flowers. Related to garlic. Purpletop verbena Verbena bonariensis 36-72 Full sun to light shade Low Erect, clump-forming perennial with stiff, widely branched stems. Small, purple flowers in clusters held high above foliage. Best when densely planted. Attracts butterflies. Verbena Verbena x hybrida 36-72 Full sun Low Erect, clump-forming perennial or annual with stiff, widely branching stems. Flowers purple and borne in rounded clusters. Treat as annual. Powdery mildew and whiteflies may be occasional problems. Good bedding plant. Rain lily Zephyranthes spp. 6-15 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Charming, clump-forming, flowering bulbs. Most species have open flowers like small Asiatic lilies and are deciduous. Can be white, yellow or various shades of warm pink. All bear one flower to a stem, and most close their petals at night. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s).

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 9 Table 2. Low-Maintenance Annuals, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name Preference Scarlet milkweed Asclepias curassavica 3-4' Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 1. Orach, French spinach Atriplex hortensis 2-6' Full sun Unknown Usually grown for its tender, spinach-like leaves. Leaves can be green, yellowish-green, red or purple. Sometimes grown as bedding plant. Strawflower Brachteantha bracteatum 3' Full sun Low See description in Table 1. Cosmos Cosmos bipinnatus 5-6' Full sun Low Feathery-leaved annual from Mexico and far southern USA. Showy, daisy-like flowerheads in summer and fall, in shades of pink, red, purple or white. May require staking. May not survive rainy season. Indian blanket Gaillardia pulchella 1-2' Full sun High See description in Table 1. Gazania Gazania rigens 6-24" Full sun Moderate Mat-forming plant with crowded rosettes of mostly unlobed leaves that are green above and whitish beneath. Orange flowerheads with a black eye spot at petal bases. Moss verbena Glandularia puchella 12" Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 1. Tampa verbena Glandularia tampensis 18-24" Full sun Low See description in Table 1. Globe amaranth Gomphrena globosa 1-2' Full sun Low Small, branching annual with hairy leaves and bright purple, pink, or white, clover-like flowers. Benefits from mulching. Sunflower Helianthus annus 3-10' Full sun Low Fast-growing, upright annual. Large, daisy-like, 12" wide yellow flowerheads with brown centers borne in summer. Coarse, leggy plants with heavily veined leaves. Annual lion's ear Leonotis nepetifolia 8' Full sun to light shade Low Coarse-textured, rather gangly, erect, loosely branching summer annual. Smooth leaves with toothed margins. Bright red, tubular, downward-curving flowers encircle stem at intervals. Self-seeds easily, but not considered invasive. Attracts butterflies. Butter daisy Melampodium divaricatum 6-24" Full sun Low Small, summer annual with small, yellow flowers and bright green foliage. Prolific self-seeder. Great bedding and border plant. Also known as M. paludosum.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 10 Table 2. Low-Maintenance Annuals, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name Preference Moss rose, rose moss Portulaca grandiflora 4-8" Full sun High Small, annual, low-growing succulent with small, lance-shaped, fleshy, bright green leaves on reddish stems. Yellow, pink, red, or orange flowers in summer; close at night and on cloudy days. Suitable as groundcover, in rockery, or as border. Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta 3' Full sun to light shade Low Typical daisy-like perennial or annual (depending on variety). Large, yellow-orange to reddish-orange flowers with darker centers. Attracts butterflies. Does not tolerate prolonged, wet, humid weather. Ornamental sages Salvia spp. 1-5' Full sun Low Semi-woody, mostly herbaceous shrubby annuals with fuzzy leaves and spikes of blue, red, pink, or white flowers. Wilt and lose leaves during drought, but recover when rain returns. Attract butterflies and hummingbirds. Most do not tolerate prolonged wet, humid weather. Verbena Verbena x hybrida 3-6' Full sun Low See description in Table 1. Zinnia Zinnia elegans 30" Full sun Low Coarse, upright, bushy annual with lance-shaped leaves and daisy-like flowersin a rainbow of colors. Requires well-drained soil and good air circulation. Powdery mildew occasional problem when humid; newer varieties resistant. Leaf spot during rainy season possible problem. Also known as Zinnia violacea. Mexican zinnia Zinnia haaeana 1-2' Full sun Low Upright, bushy annual. Small, narrow leaves. Daisy-like flowers in white, orange, yellow, red, mahogany, or bicolor (gold, maroon, purple, brown, cream, and pink). Good annual groundcover. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s).

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 11 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Chenille plant Acalypha hispida 6-12 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Medium to large shrub with large, oval, evergreen leaves. Separate male and female plants. Females have long, velvety clusters of purple, bright red, or crimson flowers resembling fluffy cattail. Can wilt in full sun during drought. Copperleaf Acalypha wilkesiana 8-12 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Purple/red, green and pink foliage. Excellent for hedge or border, but can be over-powering. Desert rose* Adenium obesum 3-7 Full sun Moderate Very showy flowers year-round, particularly during hot, dry weather. Must have perfect drainage since this plant is very prone to root and stem rots. Will lose leaves during cool weather. Excellent for rock gardens. Scales occasional pest. Century plant Agave americana 6-8 Full sun High Dramatic foliage and form. Evergreen, silver/gray to blue-green foliage. Showy, green-brown fruit. Armed with spines. Gritty, free-draining soil required. Blooms anywhere from 12-20 years of age, then dies. Excellent for rock gardens. Many other agaves available; some are variegated; all are drought tolerant. Caution: Sisal hemp, A.sisalana, is a FLEPPC Category II invasive.5 Purple allamanda Allamanda blanchetii 10 Full sun None Evergreen, vining shrub with purple, tubular flowers. Attractive to butterflies and hummingbirds. Also known as Allamanda violacea. Bush allamanda Allamanda neriifolia 3-5 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Colorful, bright yellow, trumpet flowers. Glossy leaves in whorls of 3-6 on smooth stems, which bleed milky sap if cut. Attractive to butterflies and hummingbirds. Shell ginger Alpinia zerumbet 6-8 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Tall stems topped with drooping inflorescences bearing white, pink, red, and yellow, shell-shaped flowers. Forms dense clumps. Green and variegated forms. Best growth in moist soil, but can tolerate drought. Benefits from mulch. Bird's nest anthurium Anthurium salviniae 3-5 Partial to full shade None Large, herbaceous shrub or epiphyte consisting of majestic cluster of long, erect, tropical-looking leaves with wavy margins. Flowers relatively insignificant. Other bird's nest anthuriums are also moderately drought tolerant, but may require high humidity.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 12 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Marlberry Ardisia escallonioides 5-20 Partial shade High Native plant with attractive foliage and berries. Can be used as small specimen tree or barrier shrub. Attracts birds. Does poorly in full sun. Caution: The related shoebutton ardisia, A. elliptica, and coral ardisia, A. crenulata, are FLEPPC Category Iinvasive.5 West Indian sea lavender Argusia gnaphalodes 4-6 Full sun High Rounded shrub with fine, grayish-green leaves and small white flowers. Also known as Mallotonia gnaphalodes. Sea oxeye Borrichia arborescens 2-4 Full sun High Yellow, daisy-like flowers. Widely used on banks and slopes. Excellent for beach-front plantings in sand. Elsewhere, use freely draining soil to prevent root rot. Borrichia frutescens is a native silver oxeye, and has similar requirements. Bougainvillea Bougainvillea spp. 5-30 Full sun None Very showy, thorny vine-like shrubs with best bloom during dry season. Numerous cultivars available in a striking array of colors, magenta being the most common. Some with variegated foliage. Best effect as a vine but can be trained as a shrub. Caterpillars occasional pest. Requires freely draining soil. Do not over-fertilize. Yesterday-todaytomorrow Brunfelsia grandiflora 3-8 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Aptly named shrub with pansy-like flowers that open purple on the first day, then turn pale lavender on the second day, and finally white on the third day. Some leaf drop may occur during persistent drought. Butterfly bush Buddleia officinalis 6-12 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Fast-growing shrub with attractive pink, purple, or white flowers and gray-green leaves. Highly attractive to butterflies-hence the name. Nematodes occasional problem in sandy soils. Buddleia madagascariensis is also drought tolerant. Other Buddleia species typically do not grow well in south Florida. Locust-berry Byrsonima lucida 3-30 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Native shrub to small tree with spreading canopy. Attractive flowers are white/pink to yellow. Orange to yellow berries attract wildlife. Can be used as a hedge. Dwarf poinciana Caesalpinia pulcherrima 5-20 Full sun Moderate Large shrub to small tree. Showy, orange/yellow flowers during warmer months. Needs good drainage. Leaves and seeds poisonous. Beautyberry Callicarpa americana 6-8 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Native shrub. Flowers insignificant, though long-lasting purple berries are quite attractive, and provide a good food source for birds.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 13 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Giant milkweed Calotropis gigantea 6 Full sun Moderate Large, thick, grayish-green leaves and purple to white, crown-like flowers. Tolerates poor soil, but requires excellent drainage. Host plant for monarch butterfly larvae. Spicewood Calyptranthes pallens 5-25 Partial Shade Moderate Small, shrubby, native tree with burgundy-tinged new growth and insignificant white flowers. Can be sheared and grown as a hedge. Prefers moist soil. Jamaica caper Capparis cynophallophora 18 Full sun to partial shade High Native, slow-growing, undemanding plant with attractive, white, fragrant, spider lily-like flowers. With time, can be shaped into attractive hedge. Natal plum Carissa macrocarpa 3-12 Full sun to light shade High Large shrub to small tree with attractive, thick, glossy foliage, fragrant, jasmine-like flowers, and edible fruit. The spiny leaves and stems make this a good barrier plant once established. Web blight is a problem if kept excessively wet. Cat palm Chamaedorea cataractarum 3-8 Full sun to partial shade Low Mounding palm with elegant, dark green, glossy, feathery leaves. Can be used as a shrub or a hedge. Bamboo palm Chamaedorea erumpens 6-10 Partial to full shade None Heavily clumping palm with tall, slender stems resembling bamboo canes. Can be used as a shrub or a hedge. Also known as C. seifrizii. Cocoplum Chrysobalanus icaco 3-15 Full sun to partial shade High Native shrub with insignificant flowers, but new foliage is quite attractive. Often used as a hedge, but will thin if planted in too much shade. Spreading and erect forms available. Snowberry Chiococca alba 2-3 Full sun Low Native vining shrub with glossy green, elliptical to lanceolate leaves and tiny white flowers. Chiococca parviflora, the pineland snowberry, is a similar, but less common, native shrub. Fiddlewood Citharexylem spinosum 12-30 Full sun to partial shade High Native large, densely leafy shrub to small tree with glossy, ellipitical leaves and small, white, fragrant flowers followed by round, orange-brown berries on female plants. Attractive to birds and other wildlife. Also known as C. fruticosum. Pigeon plum Coccoloba diversifolia 5-30 Full sun to partial shade High Native evergreen large shrub to small tree with dense, narrowly rounded crown and attractive, peeling bark. Small, dark purple berries on female trees attractive to birds. Sea grape Coccoloba uvifera 10-50 Full sun High Native large shrub to medium tree with large, thick, saucer-like leaves bearing attractive venation. Also has edible fruit. On occasion, can be susceptible to a number of pests. Leaves can be messy. Good for beach-front properties.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 14 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Croton Codiaeum variegatum 5-10 Full sun Moderate Grown for the colorful, variegated foliage in greens, yellows, reds and pinks. Scales can be a problem. Can be leggy, especially if grown in shade. Coffee colubrina Colubrina arborescens 20 Full sun to light shade High Native large, course-leaved shrub or small tree with open crown of large, tri-lobed leaves with inconspicuous green flowers and 3-seeded capsules. Attractive to butterflies and many other beneficial insects. Buttonwood Conocarpus erectus 5-50 Full sun to partial shade High Native shrub or tree. Both green and silver leaved forms available; the latter is more attractive. Insignificant flowers followed by small, button-like seed pods. Scales can be a problem and foliage can be attacked by chewing insects. Can be used as a hedge but bottom is prone to thin out. Ti plant Cordyline terminalis 3-10 Full sun None Slender palm-like plant with unique long, narrow leaves in red, pink, white, or purple. Also known as "red sister." Spiral ginger Costus scaber 6 Partial shade Low See description in Table 1. Christmas berry, ground holly Crossopetalum ilicifolium 1 Full sun to partial shade Low Native, prostrate, evergreen shrub with small, holly-like, spiny leaves and attractive red berries. Desert spoon Dasylirion wheeleri 3-30 Full sun High Linear, grey-green leaves with toothed edges. Spectacular inflorescence bearing many creamy-white flowers may reach 30 inches after which the plant dies. Takes extreme drought, but must have excellent drainage and air circulation. Varnish leaf Dodonaea viscosa 18 Full sun to partial shade High Grown for its attractive, stiff, shiny green leaves. Showy, yellowish, 3-winged capsules produced in terminal clusters; brown, pink or purple at maturity. Dense and fast growing. Used as free-standing specimen or hedge. Excellent for beach-front. Dracaena Dracaena marginata 15 Partial to full shade None Narrow, sword-like leaves with red margins. "Tricolor" cultivar has a cream stripe and red edge. Commonly grown as a house plant. Golden dewdrop Duranta erecta 5-18 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Sprawling, sometimes vine-like, evergreen shrub or small tree. Beautiful purple flowers and yellow, grape-like, poisonous fruit. Also known as D. repens.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 15 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Lingaro Elaegnus philippensis 3-15 Full sun High Shrubby, evergreen vine with attractive light green foliage, the underside a reddish brown. Small, fragrant, white flowers followed by edible fruit. Grows well on poor/calcareous soils. Caution: E. pungens is FLEPPC Category II invasive.5 Beach creeper, golden creeper Ernodea littoralis 1-3 Full sun High Intolerant of over watering, but excellent as a ground cover for beach-front. Flowers insignificant. Coral bean tree Erythrina herbacea 3-15 Full sun Low Native perennial shrub to small tree. Deciduous, 3-lobed compound leaves. Showy scarlet blossoms on tall stalks in spring, followed by large beans that split to reveal bright red seeds. May grow into small tree in south Florida. All parts of this plant are poisonous. White stopper Eugenia axillaris 5-20 Full sun to dense shade High Native large shrub or small tree with pale, whitish bark and aromatic foliage that can be overpowering. Small, white flowers in midsummer followed by small, purplish berries. Attractive to birds. Redberry stopper Eugenia confusa 6-18 Full sun to partial shade High Slow-growing native plant with attractive glossy leaves and red berries. Used as a specimen plant or hedge. Upright growth suitable for a restricted site. Spanish stopper Eugenia foetida 18-36 Full sun to shade High Native large shrub or small tree. Densely clothed with small, rounded leaves. Smallest flowers and fruits of all stoppers, but still attractive to wildlife. Excellent foundation or specimen plant. Red stopper Eugenia rhombea 9 Full sun to shade High Native large shrub or small tree with reddish brown bark and elegant growth habit. Branches produced in flat sprays perpendicular to main trunk. Slow-growing and does not flower or fruit as a young plant. Scarlet plume Euphorbia fulgens 5 Full sun to partial shade High Evergreen, arching shrub. Very showy red flowers all year. Needs excellent drainage. Ideal for a rock garden. Crown-of-thorns Euphorbia milii 1-3 Full sun High Slow-growing, thorny, semi-succulent shrub with bright green, obovate leaves and small to medium yellow, orange, or red flowers. Excellent in rock gardens. Often used as low hedge in coastal areas. Smaller Thai dwarf varieties have more attractive foliage and much more showy inflorescences; often used as bedding plants and groundcovers.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 16 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Florida privet Forestiera segregata 10 Full sun High Native shrub with insignificant flowers. Wildlife attracted to black fruit. Very tolerant of alkaline soils. Can be used as hedge plant in place of ligustrum. Green aloe Furcraea foetida 3-8 Full sun High Large rosette of thin narrow leaves up to 8' long. Requires freely draining soil. Inflorescence borne on 15-30" stem; flowers pungent. Rosette dies after flowering. New plants arise from bulbils. Variegated form available. Thryallis Galphimia glauca 3-5 Full sun to partial shade Low Versatile, evergreen, tropical shrub. Non-stop yellow flowers bloom year-round. Excellent for low hedges. Wood brittle. Requires sheltered position. Star flower Grewia occidentalis 6-12 Full sun Moderate Adaptable evergreen shrub with deep green, oval, toothed, leathery leaves. Bears star-shaped, mauve-pink flowers about 1.5" across during spring and summer, followed by brownish, 4-lobed berries. Excellent plant for espaliers. Scale insects sometimes a problem. Lignum vitae Guaiacum sanctum 6-25 Full sun High Attractive, native, slow-growing large shrub to small tree, with blue flowers year-round but mostly in spring. Flowers followed by yellow seed pods which pop open to reveal shiny, bright red seeds. Extremely dense, prized wood. Guaiacum officinale is a larger relative with blue flowers that turn white, and light green leaves with yellow petioles. Firebush Hamelia patens 5-15 Partial shade to shade Low Produces attractive orange/red flowers at any time. Indifferent to soil, as long as drainage is good. Less shrubby and more tree-like in shade. Can be used as hedge, but pruning interferes with flowering. Highly attractive to butterflies. Heliconia Heliconia episcopalis 3-7 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Smaller heliconia with tight, arrowhead-shaped inflorescence bearing dense but colorful bracts which begin red then fade to orange then yellow toward the tips. Year-round bloomer. Heliconia Heliconia latispatha 6-15 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Tall heliconia with long-stalked, yellow-green, banana-like leaves with a red margin and erect inflorescence with widely spaced, triangular bracts that are yellow or orange at base, changing to scarlet at tips. Lobster claw heliconia Heliconia rostrata 3-20 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Tall heliconia with long-stalked, green to bluish-green, 5' long banana-like leaves, and pendant inflorescence with zig-zagging bracts of scarlet and yellow.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 17 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Chinese hat plant Holmskioldia sanguinea 3-6 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Unique flowers are main interest of this scrambling shrub/vine: each is a narrow, orange-scarlet tube backed by a circular calyx, appearing in dense terminal clusters fall-spring. Leaves oval and slightly serrated. Rampant growth can be contained by pruning after flowering. Old canes can be removed. Loses leaves during drought. Beach elder Iva imbricata 2-3 Full sun High See description in Table 1. Joewood Jacquinia keyensis 10 Full sun to partial shade High Very slow-growing, native shrub with attractive foliage and year-round, showy, fragrant blooms. Good resistance to wind and salt spray. Some shade from hottest sun beneficial. Primrose jasmine Jasmimum mesnyi 5-10 Full sun to partial shade Low Rambling, open, evergreen shrub with long, arching stems that will climb if given support. Without support, grows as fountain-like mound. Fragrant, yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers. Caution: J. dichotomum and J. fluminense are FLEPPC Category I.5 Downy jasmine Jasmimum multiflorum 5-10 Full sun to partial shade Low Evergreen, branching vine that can be trained as a shrub. Stems and leaves covered with downy pubescence, giving the plant a grayish-green appearance. Small, white, star-shaped flowers in clusters year-round. Caution: J. sambac is FLEPPC Category II.5 Peregrina Jatropha integerrima 15 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Deeply-lobed leaves and showy display of small red flowers throughout the year. Needs good drainage. Mites and scales can be problems. Poisonous. Coral plant, physic nut Jatropha multifida 6-20 Full sun to partial shade High Shrub to small tree with loose, spreading crown. Large, distinctive leaves with 7-11 narrow lobes, each divided into narrow, pointed segments. Flowers coral red, in flat-topped clusters on long stalks above foliage. All parts are poisonous. Chinese juniper Juniperus chinensis 2-50 Full sun Low-Moderate Evergreen groundcover, shrub, or tree, depending on variety. Both adult and juvenile foliage found on adult trees. Berries fleshy and glaucous white. Shrimp plant Justicia brandegeana 3-5 Full sun to partial shade None See description in Table 1. Crepe myrtle Lagerstroemia indica 8-25 Full sun None Grown for peeling bark and outstanding late spring to summer blossom in various shades of pink, red purple and white. Miniatures used for edging; standards used as specimen plants. Aphids and powdery mildew can be problems.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 18 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Barbados cherry Malpighia emarginata 5-12 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Attractive shrub. Produces clusters of small, pink flowers, followed by red, cherry-sized, edible fruit that is tart in flavor and rich in vitamin C. Makes good hedge. Nematodes problem on sandy soils; plant bugs spoil fruit. Also known as M. glabra. Monstera Monstera deliciosa 5-6 Full sun to partial shade Low Slow-growing vine or shrub with huge, broad, glossy, perforated and deeply cut leaves and woody stems with aerial roots. Mature plants bear thick, cream spathes followed by sweet-smelling, cone-like, edible fruit. Simpson's stopper Myrcianthes fragrans 6-20 Full sun to partial shade High One of the most beautiful and ornamental native woody plants. Densely branched, densely leafy large shrub to small tree. Pure white, puffy flowers followed by large, bright orange berries that contrast with dark foliage. Attractive to birds. Wax myrtle Myrica cerifera 10-25 Full sun to partial shade Low Native clumping, fast-growing shrub to small tree with small, evergreen leaves, inconspicuous flowers, and waxy gray fruit attached to twigs. Leaves and fruit smell like bayberry. Tolerates periodic flooding. Natural insect repellant. Attracts birds. Mazari palm Nannorrhops ritchiana 10-20 Full sun to partial shade None Medium-sized, shrubby palm with branching trunks and whitish-blue, fan-shaped leaves. Each stem flowers only once and dies back. Exceptionally cold-tolerant. Prefers cool, arid climate but tolerates south Florida quite well. Slightly susceptible to lethal yellowing disease. Firespike Odontonema strictum 6 Full sun to partial shade Low Small, showy, evergreen shrub with sparse, thick, upright branches, shiny, dark green leaves with wavy margins, and 9-12 upright panicles of brilliant red, tubular flowers in late summer to early winter. Tolerates all but most severe droughts. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Caution: Do not plant within 500 of native hardwood hammock in Miami-Dade County.6 Prickly-pear cactus Opuntia spp. 0.5-30 Full sun High Many species, from tiny plants with tuberous roots to over 30' tall trees. Branches constricted, forming broad/flattened or cylindrical "joints." Most have sharp spines and small bristles. Flowers generally yellow or red, followed by edible fruits (prickly pears). Caution: O. aurantiaca is a federaland state-listed invasive species (Burks, 2000).

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 19 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Jacob's ladder Pedilanthus tithymaloides 6 Partial shade High Flowers insignificant; surrounded by showy, slipper-like red bracts. Zig-zag stems, with prominently keeled leaves. Well adapted to poor, dry soil. Variegated cultivars. Poisonous. Prune to avoid leggy appearance. Selloum, tree philodendron Philodendron selloum 5-15 Full sun to partial shade Low Prostrate to upright trunks. Huge, deeply divided, dark green leaves. Called tree philodendron because it does not climb. Also known as P. bipinnatifidum. Pittosporum Pittosporum tobira 10-15 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Broad-leaved, evergreen shrub with bright green, glossy leaves (can be variegated) and clusters of small, white flowers that smell like orange blossoms. Moderate to fast grower. Plumbago Plumbago auriculata 3-6 Full sun Low See description in Table 1. Podocarpus Podocarpus macrophylla 5 Full sun to partial shade None Evergreen shrub or tree with needle-like leaves. Makes an excellent hedge. Bears small, bluish berries. Aralias Polyscias spp. 2-25 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Many species and cultivars used as shrubs, hedges and groundcovers. Foliage differs in form (usually compound), and can be variegated. Elephant Bush Portulacaria afra 3 Full sun to partial shade High Grown for jade colored leaves and red stems. Rarely flowers in cultivation. Grow in gritty, freely draining soil. Provide good air circulation. Variegated form exists. Excellent for rock gardens. Bahama wild coffee Psychotria ligustifolia 6-9 Partial to full shade Low Small, understory shrub with dull green leaves. Related to gardenia and similar in overall appearance. Flowers abundant over much of the year, followed by decorative red berries. Wild coffee Psychotria nervosa 6-9 Partial to full shade Low Small, native, understory shrub similar to P. ligustifolia, but with distinctive, glossy, dark green leaves with deeply impressed side veins. Velvetleaf wild coffee Psychotria sulzneri 6-9 Partial to full shade Low Native small shrub similar in all respects to P. nervosa, but with velvety, deep blue-green foliage. White indigoberry Randia aculeata 1.5-10 Full sun to partial shade High Native shrub with no outstanding features. Fragrant flowers and white berries on female plants. Main attribute is ability to grow under adverse conditions.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 20 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Buckthorn Rhamnus spp. 15 Full sun High Deciduous plant with glossy, dark green, oval leaves up to 3" long. Insignificant green flowers followed by small fruit that change from red to black as they ripen. No outstanding landscape value, but well adapted to dry, infertile sites. Numerous spines make these plants useful as security screens. Lady palm Rhapis excelsa 5-10 Partial to full shade None Small, densely clumping fan palm with numerous slender, dark brown trunks bearing distinctive fibers and leaf scar patterns. Small, deeply segmented, glossy, dark green leaves on thin, delicate petioles. Often used as shrub or potted plant. Rosemary Rosemarinus officinalis 3 Full sun High Evergreen, woody shrub with aromatic, needle-like leaves and gray, scaly bark. Easy to propagate from cuttings. Widely used as herb or nontraditional medicine. Upright forms perform best in south Florida. Firecracker plant Russelia equisetiformis 2-4 Full sun High See description in Table 1. Scrub palmetto Sabal etonia 3-5 Full sun Moderate Small, native, trunkless, solitary, shrub-like fan palm. Bears large clusters of small, purplish black fruit. Grows best in sandy soils. Dwarf blue palmetto Sabal minor 2-4 Partial shade Moderate Small, native, trunkless, shrub-like palm resembling S. etonia, but smaller and with bluish-green leaves. Can tolerate wet soils. American elderberry Sambucus canadensis 10-15 Full sun to partial shade Low Native bushy, multi-stemmed, wide-spreading shrub with deciduous, compound leaves. Tiny, star-shaped, white flowers followed by shiny, blue-black fruit. Provides colorful autumn display of yellows, oranges, and reds in south Florida. Branches brittle. Caution: Forms dense thickets by suckering from roots. Inkberry Scaevola plumieri 2-4 Full sun to partial shade High Native plant with succulent leaves. Insignificant, small, pink/white flowers. Spreads by underground stems. Well-suited to sandy soils at beach-front. Caution: Scaevola sericea (=S. taccada v. sericea, S. frutescens) is FLEPPC Category I invasive.5 Dwarf schefflera Schefflera arboricola 6-15 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Many cultivars, some with variegated foliage. Used as specimen or informal hedge. Takes pruning well. Mealybugs and scales can be a problem. Caution: Schefflera actinophylla is FLEPPC Category I invasive5 and is prohibited in Miami-Dade County.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 21 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Candle bush Senna alata 8 Full sun Low Large, pinnate leaves. Terminal, 6 yellow flower spikes appear in late summer and fall. Also known as Cassia alata. Caution: Senna pendula is often sold as Cassia bicapsularis and is FLEPPC Category I invasive.5 Desert senna Senna polyphylla 12 Full sun Low Small tree with a beautiful cascading habit. Prefers well-drained soil. Small, yellow flowers mostly in dry season. Caution: Senna pendula is FLEPPC Category I.5 Cassia Senna spp. 5-15 Full sun Low to Moderate Spectacular flowering shrubs with yellow flowers. Several species available; once listed as Cassia, but all shrubs have been moved to Senna. Caution: Senna pendula is FLEPPC Category I.5 Saw palmetto Serenoa repens 3-8 Full sun to partial shade High Native clumping fan palm with subterranean, prostrate, or upright trunks. One of the most abundant native palms in Florida. Green and silver forms available. Spreading tendency can be a problem when left uncontrolled. Petioles are heavily armed. Necklace-pod Sophora tomentosa 6 Full sun High Large, densely branched, native shrub with natural rounded shape. Bears clusters of yellow flowers at tips of branches. Fast-growing and easily cultivated. Seeds poisonous. Blue porterweed Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 1-3 Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 1. Pink porterweed Stachytarpheta mutabilis 5-8 Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 1. White bird-of-paradise Strelitzia nicolae 8-20 Full sun to partial shade Low Named for the appearance of the spectacular flowers. Foliage dark green, banana-like. Drought tolerant once established. Orange bird-of-paradise Strelitzia reginae 3-5 Full sun to partial shade Low Named for spectacular flowers. Foliage gray-green, fan-like. Drought tolerant once established. Scales can be a problem. Marmalade plant Streptosolen jamesonii 6 Full sun Low Fast-growing, evergreen shrub grown for showy yellow to dark orange flowers produced winter to spring. Needs open, sunny site with excellent drainage. Sprawling growth benefits from support. Prune hard after flowering is complete. Bay cedar Suriana maritima 6-12 Full sun High Native, small-leaved, evergreen shrub or small tree. Clusters of small, leathery leaves and attractive, peeling bark. Will grow in sand or on bare rock. Good choice for ocean and beach-front sites.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 22 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference African milkbush Synadenium grantii 16 Full sun High Large shrub to small tree. Fleshy leaves and stems, becoming woody with age. Showy clusters of red flowers. Milky latex is poisonous. Cape honeysuckle Tecomaria capensis 2-10 Full sun to light shade High Sprawling, rampant, evergreen, sometimes vine-like shrub. Compound leaves with 5-7 toothed, diamond-shaped leaflets. Clusters of brilliant red-orange to scarlet, tubular flowers. Can be pruned to shrub, trained to espalier, or grown as vine or ground-cover. Requires well-drained soil. Tetrazygia, West Indian lilac Tetrazygia bicolor 6-12 Full sun to light shade Low Extremely ornamental native shrub or small tree. Beautiful white and yellow flowers followed by purple-black berries, highly attractive to birds. Elegant, glossy, dark green foliage. Cannot be used as hedge because branches die when pruned. Limeberry Triphasia trifolia 3-10 Full sun Moderate Small, glossy, trifoliate leaves. Fragrant, diminutive white flowers. Edible red berries. Well adapted to rocky, calcareous soil. Walter's viburnum, black haw Viburnum obovatum 12-30 Full sun to partial shade Low Native large shrub to small tree with attractive, pure white blossoms in spring, before leaves fully developed. Flowers followed by berries that turn from green to pink to red to purplish-black in the fall. Ideal as a hedge. Spanish bayonet Yucca aloifolia 5-20 Full sun or partial shade High Trunk-forming yucca with dangerously pointed, strap-like leaves. Trunks often topped with large, upright clusters of creamy white flowers. Spreads to form thicket. Bear grass, Adam's needle Yucca filamentosa 3-6 Full sun High Leaves resembling long green spears edged with white threads form basal rosette. White, bell-shaped flowers bloom in terminal spikes from mid to late summer. Spineless yucca Yucca elephantipes 12-15 Full sun High Attractive form. Leaves with soft spines. Showy, white, fragrant blooms. Requires freely draining soil. Spanish dagger Yucca gloriosa 3-4 Full sun High Stout, erect stem bears tufted crown of stiff, spear-like, gray-green to green leaves. White, bell-shaped flowers in long, terminal spikes--summer through fall. Caution: Leaves bear dangerously sharp pointed tips. Cycad Zamia amblyphyllidea 3-4 Partial shade High Mounding, clumping cycad with elegant leaves to 4' and bearing wide, paddle-shaped leaflets. Requires well-drained soil.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 23 Table 3. Low-Maintenance Shrubs and Hedges, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Florida coontie Zamia floridana 1-5 Full sun to shade High Florida's only native cycad. Host for rare atala hairstreak butterfly. Comes in a variety of sizes, narrow to wide leaflets. Separate male and female plants; both bear reddish-brown cones; male cone small, elongate; female cone larger and wider. Also known as Z. pumila, Z. integrifolia, Z. sylvatica, Z. umbrosa. Requires well-drained soil. Cardboard "palm" Zamia maritima 3-6 Full sun to partial shade High Medium sized cycad with broad, stiff, carboard-like leaflets. Commonly planted in south Florida as shrubs, specimen plants, or in large planters. Name recently changed from Z. furfuracea. Can be weedy if both male and female plants are in the same vicinity. Requires well-drained soil. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s). Table 4. Low-Maintenance Flowering and Shade Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Spineless acacia, cinnecord Acacia choriophylla 30 Full sun High Native tree with dense, rounded crown, long, bipinnate leaves, and tiny yellow to golden "pom-pom-like" inflorescences. Also known as A. choriophylloides. Sweet acacia Acacia farnesiana 15 Full sun High Small native tree with sweet-smelling, yellow, "pom-pom-like" inflorescences. Needs good drainage. Caution: Earleaf acacia, A. auriculiformis, is FLEPPC Category I.5 Pineland acacia Acacia pinetorum 4-12 Full sun High Dwarf, native, spiny shrub with delicate, gray to gray-green, bipinnate leaves and round, "pom-pom-like" inflorescences. Flowers have strong, sweet fragrance. Blue acacia Acacia sayel 35 Full sun High Medium-sized tree with bluish/silver, bipinnate leaves, reddish bark, and slightly fragrant yellow "pom-pom-like" inflorescences produced throughout the year.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 24 Table 4. Low-Maintenance Flowering and Shade Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Baobab Adansonia digitata 70 Full sun Low Strange African tree with massive trunk shaped like a bottle that is used to store water during dry periods. Deciduous in dry season. Large, white flowers hang on long stalks; open at night; bat-pollinated. When pollinated, produce large, football shaped (and sized), velvety seed pods. Not suitable for small lot. Marlberry Ardisia escallonioides 5-20 Partial shade High See description in Table 3. Strongback Bourreria succulenta 30 Full sun to partial shade High Native, rapidly growing, evergreen tree. Many small white flowers. Orange berries attract birds. Name commonly mistaken as "strongbark". Black olive Bucida buceras 30-40 Full sun to partial shade High Widely used as a shade tree. Fruit stains masonry. Leaves can be disfigured by mites, and caterpillars can be a nuisance. Roots not as invasive as many other trees. Gumbo limbo Bursera simaruba 20-50 Full sun to partial shade Moderate Grown for attractive, peeling, bronze bark and appealing form. Cuttings take easily but are weak rooted. Not a strong tree. Flame of the forest Butea monosperma 50 Full sun High Large, tropical, deciduous tree with large, 3-lobed, pinnate leaves. Crooked, sinuous trunk with gray bark. Spectacular, vivid reddish-orange to red flowers shaped like a claw or parrotbeak. Bluish-green, 5" long pods follow flowers. Locust-berry Byrsonima lucida 3-30 Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 3. Spicewood Calyptranthes pallens 5-25 Partial Shade Moderate See description in Table 3. Cinnamon bark Canella winterana 10-30 Full sun to light shade High Small, slow-growing native tree with a dense, broad crown; thick, aromatic leaves; fragrant, purplish flowers; and red berries. Flower aroma resembles daffodils; inner bark aroma resembles cinnamon. All parts poisonous, except berries. Requires well-drained site and protection from cold. Also known as C. alba. Ceylon senna, red cassia Cassia roxburghii 20-30 Full sun Low Fairly large "shower" tree with feather-like, pinnately compound leaves and twigs covered with fine, soft hairs. Produces clusters of pink, rose, or orange flowers in late spring and summer. 'Golden' and 'Apple blossom' cassias very similar, differing primarily in flower color.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 25 Table 4. Low-Maintenance Flowering and Shade Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Floss silk tree Chorisia speciosa 30-60 Full sun Low Awkwardly branched tree with 5-lobed leaves and swollen, spiny trunk. Drops leaves just prior to flowering. Flowers are large, pink to white, and produce a spectacular display. Not suitable for small lots. Satinleaf Chrysophyllum oliviforme 30 Full sun Moderate Very attractive native tree. Tops of leaves glossy, vivid green; underside covered with soft, coppery brown hairs. Can be difficult to establish. Fiddlewood Citharexylem spinosum 12-30 Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Pigeon plum Coccoloba diversifolia 5-30 Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Sea grape Coccoloba uvifera 5 Full sun High See description in Table 3. Coffee colubrina Colubrina arborescens 20 Full sun to light shade High See description in Table 3. Buttonwood Conocarpus eretus 5-50 Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Mexican calabash Crescentia alata 30 Full sun Moderate Large lobed leaves. Insignificant flowers. Interesting form and fruits. Rough bark makes a good support for orchids. Royal poinciana Delonix regia 20-30 Full sun Moderate Large savanna-type tree with bipinnately compound leaves and brilliant red/yellow flowers in late spring. Requires plenty of room and freely draining site. Deciduous during winter. Roots can lift sidewalk. Limbs prone to break in storms. Sometimes called flamboyant tree. Coral tree, tiger claw Erythrina variegata 60-80 Full sun Low Broad, spreading, deciduous tree with many stout branches armed with black spines. Leaves large, and may be variegated green and yellow. Spectacular display of bright crimson flowers in dense clusters late winter or early spring. Coral bean tree Erythirina herbacea 3-15 Full sun Low See description in Table 3. White stopper Eugenia axillaris 5-20 Full sun to dense shade High See description in Table 3. Redberry stopper Eugenia confusa 6-18 Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 26 Table 4. Low-Maintenance Flowering and Shade Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Spanish stopper Eugenia foetida 18-36 Full sun to shade High See description in Table 3. Red stopper Eugenia rhombea 9 Full sun to shade High See description in Table 3. Shortleaf fig Ficus citrifolia 25-50 Full sun to partial shade Unknown Medium-sized, fast-growing, attractive, native ficus tree. Lacks aerial roots, but still requires adequate room for root development. Also known as wild banyan tree. Fern tree Filicium decipiens 20-35 Sun or Shade None Striking, albeit slow-growing, evergreen ornamental with dense, rounded crown. Small, white flowers. Compound leaves resemble fern fronds. Purple, olive-like fruit in clusters. Often two or three trunks. Lignum vitae Guaiacum officinale 10-30 Full sun High See description in Table 3. Lignum vitae Guaiacum sanctum 6-25 Full sun High See description in Table 3. Longleaf blolly Guapira discolor 30 Full sun to light shade High Attractive native shade tree, especially for beach-front. Hardy and adaptable. Greenish flowers insignificant. Female trees bear small, red berries. Krug holly Ilex krugiana 30 Partial shade High Native tropical holly with glossy foliage and black fruits. Well adapted to south Florida. Small, reddish berries ripen to black. Jacaranda Jacaranda mimosifolia 30-50 Full sun None Outstanding, showy, lavender-blue, trumpet-shaped flowers in late spring, followed by lacy, fern-like foliage. Will succeed on poor soils if freely draining. Can be susceptible to root rot. Roots can lift sidewalk and wood may break in storms. Chinese juniper Juniperus chinensis 2 Full sun Low-Moderate See description in Table 3. Black ironwood Krudiodendrum ferreum 30 Full sun to light shade Low Native evergreen tree with dark, emerald green, glossy leaves and small black berries. Narrow crown allows it to be planted in tight spaces. Wild tamarind Lysiloma latisiliquum 40-60 Full Sun Moderate Attractive native, fast-growing tree, providing broken shade. Bipinnately compound leaves and small, white/pink, "pom-pom-like" inflorescences, followed by long, brown seed pods. Horseradish tree Moringa oleifera 25 Full sun Low Attractive panicles of fragrant, cream-colored flowers, particularly when climate is dry. With prolonged drought, can lose leaves, but recovers. Needs good drainage.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 27 Table 4. Low-Maintenance Flowering and Shade Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Simpson's stopper Myrcianthes fragrans 6-20 Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Wax myrtle Myrica cerifera 10-25 Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 3. Fried egg tree Oncoba spinosa 10-25 Full sun Moderate Spiny shrub or small tree. Finely serrated, dark green leaves. Prominent, sharp 1-2" spines. Showy 3" flowers with white petals surrounding prominent array of bright yellow stamens and bearing melon like fragrance. Large, hard-shelled berries. Allspice Pimenta dioica 40 Full sun Low Attractive, peeling bark and edible fruit. Glossy, deep green, oblong to elliptical leaves with prominent veins on undersides. Crushed foliage has clove-like scent. Slash pine Pinus elliottii var. densa 30-60 Full sun Moderate South Florida's only native pine. Difficult to establish. Best when planted in a group. Will not survive compacted soil. Borers and rust can be problems. Jamaican dogwood Piscidia piscipula 30-50 Full sun High Attractive, deciduous, native tree with dark green leaves and masses of white flowers prior to leafing out in spring. Poisonous. Rusty pittosporum Pittosporum ferrugineum 20 Full sun Moderate Insignificant flowers, but colorful orange berries. Relatively pestand disease-free. Frangipani, plumeria Plumeria spp. 25-40 Full sun High Unusual form and very showy, fragrant flowers. Good for sheltered coastal locations away from beach-front. Roots brittle. Larger trees more difficult to install. Leaves prone to rust (fungus) during wet season. Podocarpus Podocarpus macrophylla 5 Full sun to partial shade None See description in Table 3. Live oak Quercus virginiana 40-50 Full sun High Impressive, undemanding, native tree--but not for small lots. Caterpillars, insect galls, and root rot sometimes problems. Rain tree Samanea saman 30-40 Full Low Impressive tropical tree resembling live oak in form but faster growing. Attractive pink flowers with prominent red stamens, mostly spring to summer, followed by seed pods. Needs plenty of space for extensive roots; not for small lots. Soapberry Sapindus saponaria 20-60 Full sun High Native tree with broad crown, dense foliage, and attractive yellow fruit. Excellent shade tree for small yards. Seeds poisonous.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 28 Table 4. Low-Maintenance Flowering and Shade Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference False mastic Sideroxylon foetidissimum 50-70 Full sun Moderate Large tree with pale, bright yellow, fragrant flowers in summer. Fruit ripen in late winter. Principal landscape attributes are ability to thrive on infertile, alkaline soils and excellent resistance to storms. Also known as Mastichodendron foetidissimum. Mahogany Swietenia mahagoni 40-75 Full sun Moderate Attractive, storm-resistant tree. Prized, deep reddish-colored wood. Foliage and stems can be disfigured by insect pests. Falling woody cones can damage vehicles. Tamarind Tamarindus indica 50-90 Full sun Moderate Attractive feathery foliage, fissured bark, and yellow/red flowers. Pods contain edible pulp. Highly wind-resistant. May need chelated iron on limestone soils. Tetrazygia, West Indian lilac Tetrazygia bicolor 6-40 Full sun to light shade Low See description in Table 3. Walter's viburnum Viburnum obovatum 12-30 Full sun to partial shade Low Native large shrub to small tree with attractive, pure white blossoms in spring, before leaves fully developed. Flowers followed by berries that turn from green to pink to red to purplish-black in the fall. Ideal as a hedge. Wild lime Zanthoxylum fagara 20 Full sun Moderate Attractive tree with recurved spines, lime scented foliage, and insignificant yellow flowers. Attracts butterflies. Indian jujube Zizyphus mauritiana 40 Full sun Moderate Attractive weeping habit and fissured bark. Scattered small spines. Light green, miniature, apple-like fruit. Withstands drought and temporary inundation. Grows well on limestone soils. Rust disfigures leaves but not seriously. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s).

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 29 Table 5. Low-Maintenance Fruit Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Sugar apple Annona squamosa 10-20 Full sun None Popular, semi-deciduous fruit tree with pale green flowers. Well-adapted to alkaline soils of Miami-Dade County. Large fruit has custard-like texture and is delicious when eaten fresh. Hand-pollinate to increase fruit set. Atemoya Annona squamosa X A. cherimola 25-30 Full sun None Hybrid of the sugar apple and the cherimoya. Fast growing tree with a short trunk. Fruit similar to sugar apple. Hand-pollinate to increase fruit set. Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus 30-70 Full sun None Handsome and stately tree that grows to enormous size. Adapted to humid tropical and near-tropical climates. Produces enormous, green, pebbly fruit weighing up to 50 pounds each, inside which are small pieces of pineapple-tasting flesh surrounding numerous large seeds. Longan Dimerocarpus longana 30-40 Full sun None Smaller relative of lychee. Longan fruit is round or oval and larger than an olive. Thin, rough, caramel-colored shell is easily peeled. Longan pulp is transluscent white and sweeter than lychee, but not as juicy. More commonly known as Euphoria longana. American persimmon Diospyros virginiana 50 Full sun None Native, slow-growing, deciduous tree with elliptical, two-tone leaves (dark green top; pale green underneath) and black, textured bark. Females produce 2" fruits that ripen to deliciously sweet. Choose named cultivars. Loquat, Japanese plum Eriobotrya japonica 10-30 Full sun Moderate Attractive tree with showy, fragrant, winter-time flowers, followed by excellent fruit. Over-use of fertilizer increases risk of fire blight disease. Lychee Litchi chinensis 30-40 Full sun None Dense, round-topped, slow-growing tree with smooth, gray, brittle trunk and limbs. Leathery, pinnate leaves; foliage and branches to the ground. Fruit with leathery rind, pink to strawberry-red in color and rough in texture. Edible portion or aril is white, transluscent, firm and juicy. Can be unreliable in fruit production. Mammee apple Mammea americana 60 Full sun Moderate Form resembles large magnolia with thick, broad, elliptical leaves. Small, fragrant, white flowers. Edible fruit with apricot-like flesh and poisonous seed. Requires adequate water when in fruit.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 30 Table 5. Low-Maintenance Fruit Trees, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Mango Mangifera indica 40-60 Full sun None Attractive, reddish inflorescences with tiny white flowers produced in late winter/early spring. Requires dry season for flowering and fruit set. Large, excellent tasting green, yellow, or red fruit. Need for water increases during fruit development. Choose only known, grafted varieties. Spanish lime Melicoccus bijugatus 85 Full sun Moderate Upright, attractive tree ideally suited to oolitic limestone of Miami-Dade and the Keys. Withstands extended drought once established. Male and female trees required for reliable fruit production. Red mulberry Morus rubra 70 Full sun Low Spreading crown with serrated, heart-shaped leaves with a rough upper surface. Copious amounts of fruit are relatively tasteless. Attractive to birds and other wildlife. Can be disfigured by leaf spotting diseases. Avocado Persea americana 40-60 Full sun None Dense evergreen tree, shedding many leaves in early spring. Grown for fruit. Needs excellent drainage. Need for water increases during fruit development. Seed-grown trees slow to bear fruit and do not come true. Choose only known, grafted varieties. Not well-adapted to heavy marl soils. Canistel, egg fruit Pouteria campechiana 20-40 Full sun None Large, open-growing, evergreen tree. Leaves or branches, if cut, have clear, milky sap. Yellow to bright orange fruit matures September March. Flesh yellow, dry to moist consistency, depending on variety. Caution: Do not plant within 500' of hardwood hammock in Miami-Dade County.6 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s).

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 31 Table 6. Low-Maintenance Palms, Cycads, and Palm-Like Plants, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Macaw palm, gru-gru palm Acrocomia aculeata 30 Full sun High Extremely fast-growing palm similar in overall appearance to queen palm, except with denser canopy and 4-6" sharp, black spines on trunk, petiole, and leaf rachis. Seashore palm Allagoptera arenaria 5-10 Full sun to light shade High Clumping palm with short prostrate or subterranean stems and graceful pinnate leaves, green above and silver below. Fruit arranged spirally on long stalk; cluster resembles pineapple. Excellent for beach-front. Prefers sandy soils. Cohune palm Attalea cohune 20-50 Full sun Low Huge palm with extremely long pinnate leaves (to 33 feet each) that erupt from the trunk in a shuttle-cock shape. Cream-colored flower clusters followed by huge clusters of brownish yellow, woody fruits. Prefers moist soil; can tolerate drought. Ponytail "palm" Beaucarnea recurvata 10-30 Full sun to partial shade High Often mistakenly called a palm, this member of the agave family requires excellent drainage. Can tolerate some shifting shade. Also known as Nolina recurvata. Bismarck palm Bismarckia nobilis 20-30 Full sun None Enormous palm with huge silvery-blue or green leaves. A native of Madagascar, this is an extraordinarily durable and highly adaptable palm. Blue hesper palm Brahea armata 50 Full sun High Tall palm with pastel bluish-white, palmate leaves. Trunk slightly swollen at base and up to 1.5 feet wide, bearing persistent leaf scars. Prefers well-drained soil and arid climate, but can tolerate south Florida's humidity. Not common. Sierra Madre palm Brahea decumbens 6 Full sun to partial shade High Low-growing palm with prostrate trunk and large, blue, fan-shaped leaves. Prefers well-drained soil and arid climate, but can tolerate south Florida's humidity. Bamboo cycad Ceratozamia hildae 5-7 Full sun to partial shade Low Trunkless cycad with upright, bamboo-like leaves. Extremely cold tolerant. Green or brown emergent leaf forms. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Ceratozimia kuesteriana 4-5 Full sun to partial shade Low Trunkless, shrubby cycad with brown emergent leaves. One of the few cycads that is completely spineless, making it a good plant for along sidewalks. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Ceratozamia latifolia 6-12 Full sun to partial shade Low Large cycad with brown, red, or green emergent leaves. May attain a spread of nine feet. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Ceratozamia robusta 6-8 Full sun to partial sun Low Large cycad with green emergent leaves. Cold hardy. Requires well-drained soil.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 32 Table 6. Low-Maintenance Palms, Cycads, and Palm-Like Plants, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Cat palm Chamaedorea cataractarum 3-8 Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 3. Bamboo palm Chamaedorea erumpens 6-10 Partial to full shade None See description in Table 3. Stolon chamaedorea Chamaedorea stolonifera 3-4 Partial shade None Sparsely clumping rainforest palm from Central America. Nearly entire leaves and raised annular rings on slender stems quite attractive. Grows best in well-drained soil. Drought tolerant. Forms large stands vegetatively by stolons. Red leaf palm Chambeyronia macrocarpa 20 Full sun to partial shade None Rainforest palm from New Caledonia. New leaf is bright red to maroon, fading to dark, glossy green. Requires shade when young and well-drained soil. Two forms: green crownshaft and yellow/cream crownshaft (latter often called C. hookeri). Silver palm Coccothrinax argentata 3-8 Full sun High Small, slow-growing native palm. Round, palmate leaves with silvery undersides. Numerous small, purplish-black fruit produced nearly year-round. Old man palm Coccothrinax crinita 8-12 Full sun High Slow-growing Cuban palm bearing characteristic dense "beard" of gray or straw-colored fibers on trunk. Leaves large, round, palmate. Fruit glossy purple-black. Coconut palm Cocos nucifera 30 Full sun High Popular tropical palm. "Maypan" and "Fiji Dwarf" varieties resistant to Lethal Yellowing. Select plants/trees grown only from certified seed. Do not grow from seed collected locally. Bailey copernicia palm Copernicia baileyana 30 Full sun High Slow-growing palm from Cuba. Huge, stiff, blue-green leaves top massive, slate gray trunk that resembles concrete. Cuban wax palm Copernicia hospita 25 Full sun High Handsome palm of moderate dimensions. Gray, waxy, fan-shaped leaves on spiny petioles. Prefers well-drained soil and arid climate, but can tolerate south Florida's humidity and short periods of inundation. Not common. Available in green and blue forms. Cuban petticoat palm Copernicia macroglossa 8-15 Full sun High Another Cuban palm. Old leaves retained on trunk form characteristic skirt or petticoat.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 33 Table 6. Low-Maintenance Palms, Cycads, and Palm-Like Plants, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Carnauba wax palm Copernicia prunifera 30 Full sun Moderate Moderately sized palm with open crown of silvery-white, fan-shaped leaves. Trunk smooth on top third, but bears persistent leaf bases on bottom two-thirds. Wax on leaves used to make heat-resistant carnauba wax. Prefers well-drained soil and arid climate, but can tolerate south Florida's humidity and short periods of inundation. Virgin's "palm" Dioon edule 3-6 Full sun High Medium-sized Mexican cycad. Similar in overall appearance to king sago, but with lighter green leaves. Very cold tolerant. Forms offsets at base that grow into separate trunks. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Dioon mejiae 5 Full sun to partial shade High Medium-sized cycad. Larger than D. edule, but smaller than D. spinulosum. New leaves bear soft, golden hairs. Suitable replacement for queen sago. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Dioon rzedowskii 5-10 Full sun to partial shade Low Rare, medium-sized cycad from Mexico. Similar to, but much smaller than, D. spinulosum. Use as specimen or accent plant. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Dioon spinulosum 8-30 Full sun to partial shade Low Largest American cycad. Similar in overall appearance to queen sago. Grows best in filtered sunlight. Requires well-drained soil. African oil palm Elaeis guineensis 30-50 Full sun to partial shade Low Tall palm with long, feathery, pinnate fronds. Trunk smooth on top, rough on bottom from persistent leaf bases. Fruit orange, ripen to black; held tight near trunk; high in oil content. Not suitable for small lot. Cycad Encephalartos ferox 6 Partial shade High Medium-sized South African cycad with subterranean trunk. Long, glossy, dark green, spiny leaves with leaflets resembling holly leaves. Impressive, large, bright red cones produced on males and females. Offsets form at base of plant. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Encephalartos gratus 15 Full sun High Large, trunk-forming cycad from South African. Long, glossy, dark green, spiny leaves. Offsets form at base of plant. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Encephalartos hildebrandtii 12 Full sun High Large South Africa cycad. Long, glossy, dark green, upright, spiny leaves. Smaller than E. gratus. Offsets form at base of plant. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Encephalartos villosus 6-10 Partial to full shade Moderate Medium-sized, clumping, trunkless cycad with long, graceful, glossy dark green leaves. Females bear large, orange cones. Not common. Requires well-drained soil.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 34 Table 6. Low-Maintenance Palms, Cycads, and Palm-Like Plants, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Cuban belly palm Gastrococos crispa 30 Full sun Moderate Graceful palm with spiny trunk and leaves. Slow-growing at first, increasing as trunk forms. Trunk distinctly swollen in middle. Orange, golf-ball sized fruit. Palm Guihaia argyrata 2-4 Partial to full shade Low Small, slow-growing, clumping, trunkless palm with fan-shaped leaves, green above and silvery brown below. Can be mistaken for Rhapis. Not common. Sagisi palm Heterospathe elata 30 Full sun to partial shade None Tall rainforest species from the Philippines and adjacent islands. Slow-growing when young; grows quite fast once trunk forms. Bears crown of gracefully arching leaves. Many small, white fruit produced nearly continuously upon maturation. Doum palm, gingerbread palm Hyphaene coriacea 20-30 Full sun None Coarse palm with arching, palmate, gray-green leaves that have spiny petioles. Trunk with persistent leaf bases. Unique among palms, in that it branches up to two or three times. Orange, pear-shaped fruit in long clusters. Cycad Lepidozamia peroffskyana 20 Partial to full shade None Tall Australian cycad. Elegant, glossy green leaves grow to 10 feet long, with narrow leaflets to 12 inches long. Use as specimen or accent plant. Requires well-drained soil. Chinese fan palm Livistona chinensis 15-40 Full sun to partial shade None Medium-sized palm with large, palmate, light green leaves split at the tips. Relatively fast growing. Produces large quantities of olive-shaped blue fruit. Petioles spiny. Australian ribbon palm Livistona decipiens 30 Full sun to partial shade Low Tall, slender palm with graceful, deeply segmented, fan-shaped leaves bearing long, thin ribbons. Best when protected from strong winds. Dwarf livistona palm Livistona muelleri 12-18 Full sun Low Medium-sized palm with stout trunk and crown of large, stiff, erect, bluish-green, deeply segmented, fan-shaped leaves. Striking red, branched inflorescences followed by equally striking blue, olive-sized fruit. Not common. Footstool palm Livistona rotundifolia 30-40 Full sun to partial shade Low Tall, slender, fan palm with broad, nearly symmetrical, shallowly segmented leaves. Bright red fruit borne on long, thin, arching, stalk. Mazari palm Nannorrhops ritchiana 10-20 Full sun to partial shade None See description in Table 3.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 35 Table 6. Low-Maintenance Palms, Cycads, and Palm-Like Plants, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Madagascar "palm"* Pachypodium lamerei 6-15 Full sun High Tall-growing, sparsely branching cactus look-alike. Spiny trunks bear showy white flowers upon maturity. Not a palm. Other Pachypodium also drought tolerant. Screw pine, screw palm Pandanus utilis 15-25 Full sun High Many-branched, palm-like plant with saw-toothed leaves that resemble pineapple. Prefers moist conditions, but can tolerate drought. Not a palm. Occasionally susceptible to Lethal Yellowing disease. Other Pandanus also drought tolerant. Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis 30-50 Full sun Low Tall, robust date palm with huge rounded crown of long, arching, pinnate leaves. Best for avenue plantings; not suitable for small lot. Caution: Phoenix reclinata is FLEPPC Category II invasive.5 Pygmy date palm Phoenix roebelinii 6-8 Full to partial sun None Dwarf date palm with elegant, pinnate fronds bearing impressive spines at base. Commonly planted in south Florida, often near the front door or in pool enclosures. Caution: Phoenix reclinata is FLEPPC Category II invasive.5 Cliff date palm Phoenix rupicola 20 Full sun to partial shade Low Medium-sized palm with gracefully arching, dark green, feathery leaves. Like all Phoenix, has large spines at leaf base. Fruit 3/4" long, purplish-red in color. Requires well-drained soil. Caution: Phoenix reclinata is FLEPPC Category II invasive.5 Palm Pseudophoenix lediniana 20 Full sun Moderate Medium-sized palm with long, graceful, pinnate leaves and smooth, gray trunk distinctly swollen in middle. Related to P. sargentii, but much faster growing. Buccaneer palm Pseudophoenix sargentii 10 Full sun High Slow-growing native palm. Grows naturally in sandy or limestone soils in areas that receive little rainfall. Gray trunk and prominent gray-green crownshaft, topped by sparse crown of silvery-blue-green leaves. Produces red, grape-sized fruit. Cherry palm, wine palm Pseudophoenix vinifera 20-30 Full sun Moderate Similar to P. lediniana, except slower growing and more robust overall. Produces many red, grape-sized fruit. Traveller's tree Ravenala madagascariensis 30 Full sun Low Bright green, banana-like leaves up to 10 feet long, forming two opposite rows and held on long, tightly overlapping stalks. Spreading form reminiscent of flat fan of foliage. Clusters of white flowers between leaf bases in summer. Not a palm.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 36 Table 6. Low-Maintenance Palms, Cycads, and Palm-Like Plants, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Lady palm Rhapis excelsa 5-10 Partial to full shade None See description in Table 3. Puerto Rican hat palm Sabal causiarum 50 Full sun Moderate Large palm with massive, smooth gray trunk up to 4 feet in diameter. Large, fan-shaped leaves up to 6 feet long, deep green in color, deeply segmented, drooping at ends. Not for small lots. Scrub palmetto Sabal etonia 3-5 Full sun Moderate See description in Table 3. Dwarf blue palmetto Sabal minor 2-4 Partial shade Moderate See description in Table 3. Cabbage palm Sabal palmetto 25-50 Full sun to partial shade High Common native palm with rounded crown of fan-shaped leaves and smooth or rough trunk. Highly adaptable. Florida's state "tree." Plant only from containers or known field-grown plants. Do not plant cabbage palms taken from natural stands. Saw palmetto Serenoa repens 3-8 Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Keys thatch palm Thrinax morrissii 15 Full sun to partial sun High Native to Florida Keys and the Caribbean. Grows naturally in alkaline soils, sometimes on limestone outcrops. Leaves are bluish-green above and silvery below. Small white fruit produced in the fall. Florida thatch palm Thrinax radiata 25 Full sun to partial sun High Native to Florida and the Caribbean. Grows naturally in sand or on limestone. Differs from T. morrissii by having leaves that are green on both sides. Veitchia palm Veitchia spp. 50 Full sun None Fast-growing palms from South Pacific. Widely planted in south Florida. High tolerance of hurricane-force winds. Wide adaptability to varying soil, water, and nutrient conditions. Caution: Avoid Adonidia merrillii (also known as Veitchia merillii), due to its high susceptibility to Lethal Yellowing disease. Washingtonia palm Washingtonia robusta 50 Full sun High Tall, common fast-growing palm. Leaves large, palmate, with toothed petioles. Caution: Do not plant within 500 feet of beaches or coastal wetlands in Miami-Dade County.6 Cycad Zamia amblyphllidea 3-4 Partial shade High See description in Table 3. Florida coontie Zamia floridana 1-5 Full sun to shade High See description in Table 3.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 37 Table 6. Low-Maintenance Palms, Cycads, and Palm-Like Plants, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name (feet) preference Cycad Zamia herrerae 3-4 Full sun High Medium-sized, rare, subterranean cycad from southern Mexico and Central America. Has good landscape potential, with long, stiffly erect, slightly twisting leaves and shrub-like appearance. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Zamia inermis 3-5 Full sun High Medium-sized, rare, stem-forming cycad from Veracruz, Mexico. Has good landscape potential, with long, upright leaves and shrub-like appearance. Requires well-drained soil. Cycad Zamia loddigesii 3 Full sun High Small, durable cycad from Mexicao. Similar in appearance to cardboard palm, but with narrower leaflets. Extremely drought tolerant. Requires well-drained soil. Cardboard "palm" Zamia maritima 3-6 Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Cycad Zamia vazquezii 3-4 Partial shade Low Small to medium fern-like cycad with delicate green or brown emergent leaves. Name recently changed from Z. fischeri. Requires well-drained soil. Zombie palm Zombia antillarum 8-20 Full sun High Tall, clumping palm with characteristic narrow trunks bearing rings of 2-3" yellow-beige spines attached to woven, fabric-like leaf sheathes. Leaves palmate and mid-green. Produces clusters of olive-sized, white fruit. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s). Table 7. Low-Maintenance Ornamental Grasses, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Big bluestem Andropogon gerardii 4-6' Full sun Moderate Perennial, upright, bunch grass forming large clumps. Stems with blue at base. Leaves blue-green in early summer, maturing to copper or orange-brown in fall. Bronze to purplish seed heads, to 3 inches late summer. Tolerates flooding in summer.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 38 Table 7. Low-Maintenance Ornamental Grasses, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Indian wood-oats Chasmanthium latifolium 2-5' Full sun to partial shade None Attractive, clump-forming grass with wide leaves and nodding, arching clusters of flat, oat-like seedheads. Resembles small sea-oats. Dried flowerheads highly prized. Also grown as groundcover in shaded areas. Pampas grass Cortaderia selloana 6-10' Full sun Low Impressive, graceful, fountain-like clumps. Large, 12-18" tall plumes erupt from foliage in mid-summer. Will tolerate poorly drained soil and brief flooding. Dried flowerheads highly prized. Caution: Purple pampas grass, C. jubata, is invasive. Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus 3-6' Full sun to light shade Low Elegant, fragrant, clumping grass with thin, strap-like, yellow-green leaves that release citrus aroma when crushed. Prefers moist soil; moderate drought tolerance. Lilyturf Liriope muscari 1-2' Partial shade Moderate Grass-like foliage and trumpet shaped flowers borne on erect stems in blue, purple, pink, or white, depending on species or cultivar. Cold tolerant. Needs freely draining soil. Mulch to control weeds. Variety 'Evergreen Giant' can take full sun. Creeping lilyturf Liriope spicata 6-18" Partial shade Moderate Similar to lilyturf, but with a creeping rather than upright habit. Pink muhly grass, hairgrass Muhlenbergia capillaris 2-3' Full sun to partial shade High Compact, tuft-forming grass with fine, pink feather-like flowerheads held high above the leaves. Blue muhly grass Muhlenbergia lindheimeri 1-2' Full sun High Similar to pink muhly grass, but with bluish-gray foliage and purplish to gray flowerheads. Prefers dry, but will tolerate wet soil. Excellent groundcover for poor, sandy soils. Mondo grass Ophiopogon japonicus 6-24" Partial to full shade High Dark green to blackish, glossy leaves. Small, lavender flowers followed by iridescent, blue-black berries. Good border plant, especially under trees where turfgrass will not grow. Beach panic grass Panicum amarum 1-2' Full sun High Clumping grass with flower stalks rising above foliage. Grows well in sand. Good for beach-front. Oriental fountain grass Pennisetum orientale 1-2' Full sun to partial shade High Low-growing, compact fountain grass with pink or white, fluffy inflorescence in summer and fall. Prefers well-drained soil. Caution: The related P. purpureum is a FLEPPC Category I invasive.5

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 39 Table 7. Low-Maintenance Ornamental Grasses, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Sand cordgrass Spartina bakeri 4-6' Full sun High Large, bunch-forming grass with thin, brownish-green, rolled, wire-like, sand-papery leaves. Highly adaptable and underutilized. Good for beach-front. Fakahatchee grass Tripsacum dactyloides 4-5' Full sun to partial shade Moderate Large, native grass. Rich green foliage erupts from fountain-like clumps. Distinctive flowers rise above leaves on slender stems in midsummer. Easy to grow. Virtually free of pests. Prefers moist soil, but has good drought tolerance. Dwarf Fakahatchee grass Tripsacum floridana 2-4' Full sun to partial shade Moderate Native grass similar to T. dactyloides, but smaller. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s). Table 8. Low-Maintenance Groundcovers, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Bromeliad Aechmea rubens 12-24" Full sun to partial shade Low Medium-sized, vase-shaped bromeliad, with green leaves. Flowers appear in summer as tall, red and orange spikes, followed by berries. Related species also drought-tolerant. Aloe vera Aloe barbadensis 1-2' Full sun to partial shade High Medicinal aloe; sap from leaves used for treating burns. Clump-forming succulent with fleshy green leaves. Flowers in winter and spring. Soap aloe Aloe saponaria 1-2' Full sun High Stemless rosette that sreads by offset rosettes. Lance-shaped, succulent leaves are pale-green with white speckles and armed with sharp, dark brown teeth. Tubular yellow, orange or red flowers borne on purplish stalk. Requires well-drained soil. Perfect for rock gardens and seaside gardens. Attracts hummingbirds. Other aloes also drought tolerant.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 40 Table 8. Low-Maintenance Groundcovers, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Big bluestem Andropogon gerardii 4-6' Full sun Moderate See description in Table 7. Perennial peanut Arachis pintoi 3-4' Full sun to deep shade Moderate Low, non-twining legume with oval-shaped leaflets and yellow pea-like flowers. Stems grow along ground, rooting at nodes when in contact with soil. Will shed leaves during drought. Can tolerate waterlogged soils or frequent flooding, as well as wide range of soils. Grows better under shaded conditions than in full sun. Also known as A. glabrata and A. hypogaea. Star begonia, winter begonia Begonia heracleifolia 2-3' Partial to full shade None See description in Table 1. White begonia Begonia popenoei 2-4' Partial to full shade None See description in Table 1. Castor bean begonia Begonia ricinifolia 2-3' Partial to full shade None See description in Table 1. Beach bean Canavalia rosea 6-12' Full sun High Attractive purple flowers. Excellent ground cover for beach-front locations, although it can grow into surrounding shrubs or over fences. Hottenrot fig Carpobrotus edulis 6" Full sun High Prostrate succulent with long, spreading, narrow stems and crowded, erect leaves bearing finely serrated reddish margins. In spring and summer it produces three-inch diameter pale yellow flowers that age to dull pink. Brownish, fig-like fruit follow. Dwarf carissa Carissa macrocarpa 12-18" Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Indian wood-oats Chasmanthium latifolium 2-5' Full sun to partial shade None See description in Table 7. Snowberry Chiococca alba 2-3' Full sun Low See description in Table 3. Christmas berry, ground holly Crossopetalum ilicifolium 12" Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 3. Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus 3-6' Full sun to light shade Low See description in Table 7.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 41 Table 8. Low-Maintenance Groundcovers, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Seashore saltgrass Distichlis spicata 3-6" Full sun High Small, spiky grass with leaves in a single plane. Useful on wet, saline soils. Host plant for wandering skipper butterfly larvae. Miniature agave Dyckia brevifolia 6-24" Full sun to partial shade Moderate Rosette-forming terrestrial bromeliads. Leaves stiff, linear, spiny-margined and often strongly tinged reddish or brownish, or may be coated in silvery scales. Yellow, orange, or red bell-shaped flowers grow from edge rather than center of rosette. Forms large clumps. Suitable as bedding or rock garden plants. Twinflower Dyschoriste angusta 6-18" Full sun Low See description in Table 1. Beach creeper, golden creeper Ernodea littoralis 1-3' Full sun High See description in Table 3. Dwarf crown-of-thorns Euphorbia milii 6" Full sun High Small Thai dwarf varieties used as bedding plants and groundcovers. See full description in Table 3. Indian blanket Gaillardia pulchella 1-2' Full sun High See description in Table 1. Moss verbena Glandularia puchella 6-8" Full sun High See description in Table 1. Fig marigold Glottiphyllum depressum 6" Full sun High Light green, semi-cylindrical leaves 3-4" long. Large, yellow, daisy-like flowers produced in spring. Guzmania Guzmania lingulata 12-18" Partial shade Low Small bromeliad with basal rosettes of broad, strap-like, apple-green leaves. Striking bracts surround clusters of tubular, white to yellow flowers in summer. Other Guzmania also drought tolerant. Beach sunflower Helianthus debilis 3-4' Full sun High See description in Table 1. Daylily Hemerocallis spp. 1-2' Full sun or partial shade Moderate See description in Table 1. Dwarf yaupon holly Ilex vomitoria 1-3' Full sun High Dwarf cultivar of native holly. See description in Table 3. Railroad vine Ipomoea pes-caprae 3-8" Full sun High Native, coarse, sprawling, vine with smooth, fleshy leaves and large, rosy pink flowers.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 42 Table 8. Low-Maintenance Groundcovers, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Beach morning glory Ipomoea stolonifera 6" Full sun High Twining vine grows over sand dunes. Blooms from spring to fall, with white flowers opening each morning and closing in the afternoon. Ideal for beach-front. Beach elder Iva imbricata 2-3' Full sun High See description in Table 1. Chinese juniper Juniperus chinensis 2-50' Full sun Low-Moderate See description in Table 3. Shore juniper Juniperus conferta 6-12" Full sun to partial shade High Prostrate, spreading groundcover. Soft foliage a mixture of fresh, clear green and pale blue with aromatic, needle-like leaves. Berries pale green. Tolerates seaside conditions and grows rapidly. Kalanchoe Kalanchoe spp. 6"-12' Full sun to partial shade Moderate Over 200 species, varying greatly from small, leafy succulents to huge, tree-like plants. Valued for decorative, hairy foliage. Bell-shaped flowers in early spring, followed by small, seed-bearing capsules. Caution: Do not plant life plant, K. pinnata, within 500 feet of hardwood hammock in Miami-Dade County.6 Gopher apple Licania michauxii 4-12" Full sun High Native, low-growing groundcover. Leaves oblong, yellow-green. Flowers small, borne in clusters. Fruit white, turning brown as it ripens. Little landscape appeal. Lilyturf, liriope Liriope muscari 1-2" Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 7. Creeping lilyturf, dwarf liriope Liriope spicata 6-18" Partial shade High See description in Table 7. Pink muhly grass, hairgrass Muhlenbergia capillaris 2-3' Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 7. Blue muhly grass Muhlenbergia lindheimeri 1-2' Full sun High See description in Table 7. Bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta 3' Full sun Low Variable, large, stemless bromeliad with thick, leathery, orange leaves with red tips and spiny margins. Flowers inconspicuous. Other Neoregelia also drought tolerant. Mondo grass Ophiopogon japonicus 6-24" Partial to full shade High See description in Table 7.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 43 Table 8. Low-Maintenance Groundcovers, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Prickly-pear cactus Opuntia spp. 6"-30' Full sun High See description in Table 3. Beach panic grass Panicum amarum 1-2' Full sun High See description in Table 7. Wild allamanda Pentallinon lutea 1-2' Full sun to partial shade Moderate Native, fast growing, twining vine to 50' length. Lustrous, elliptical leaves with lighter colored midribs. Blooms year-round. Blossoms bright yellow, bell-shaped. Also known as Urechites lutea. Baby rubber plant Peperomia obtusifolia 12-18" Partial to full shade Low Native, bushy groundcover with fleshy leaves and occasional spikes of minute flowers. Plain green species or variegated cultivars, the latter with leaves marbled in gray-green and cream or gold. Pennyroyal Piloblephis rigida 6-24" Full sun Low See description in Table 1. Wart fern Polypodium scolopendrium 2' Partial to full sun None Large, tropical fern with scaly, red-brown, creeping rhizomes and long-stemmed, leathery, pinnate fronds with large bumpy spores which give this fern its name. Bromeliad Portea petropolitana 3' Full sun Low Large, stemless bromeliad with thick, heavily spined leaves. Tall flower spikes bear narrow, blue-violet flowers. Also known as Aechmea petropolitana and P. gardneri. Moss rose, rose moss Portulaca grandiflora 4-8" Full sun High See description in Table 1. Purslane Portulaca oleracea 4-8" Full sun Moderate Sprawling, low growing groundcover. Thick, reddish, fleshy stems and many yellow flowers. Cultivars with flowers in many different colors. Needs excellent drainage. Not long lasting. Bromeliad Puya berteroniana 3' Full sun Low Large bromeliad with blue-green, strap-like foliage and prostrate stems. During summer, metallic blue flowers with vivid orange stamens form dense panicles. Rosette of leaves dies after flowering, leaving offsets. Also known as P. alpestris. Inkberry Scaevola plumieri 2-4' Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 3. Saw palmetto Serenoa repens 3-8' Full sun to partial shade High See description in Table 6. Sea purslane Sesuvium portulacastrum 6-8" Full sun High Native, sprawling, succulent groundcover. Small, light green to yellow, bead-like leaves. Good for beach-front properties.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 44 Table 8. Low-Maintenance Groundcovers, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Sand cordgrass Spartina bakeri 4-6' Full sun High See description in Table 7. Carrion flower Stapelia spp. 6-12" Partial shade Moderate Perennial succulents from southern Africa, resembling small cacti in growth habit, but without thorns. Flowers are wide open stars, elegant in their symmetry. Yellow star jasmine Trachelospermum asiaticum 6" Partial to deep shade High Durable, low-growing, viney groundcover with slender stems that form dense, tangled mats. Small, glossy green leaves and small yellow flowers with spicy, jasmine-like fragrance. Not a true jasmine. Fakahatchee grass Tripsacum dactyloides 4-5' Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 7. Dwarf Fakahatchee grass Tripsacum floridana 2-4' Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 7. Florida coontie Zamia floridana 1-5' Full sun to shade High See description in Table 3. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s). Table 9. Low-Maintenance Vines, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Growth Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name rate preference Purple allamanda Allamanda blanchetii Moderate Full sun None See description in Table 3. Dutchman's pipe, calico flower Aristolochia elegans Fast Partial to full shade Low Evergreen vine with heart-shaped, tri-lobed, glossy light green leaves and unusual, 3" white/purple, upside-down heart-shaped flowers.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 45 Table 9. Low-Maintenance Vines, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Growth Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name rate preference Bougainvillea Bougainvillea spp. 5-30 Full sun None Very showy, thorny vine-like shrubs with best bloom during dry season. Numerous cultivars available in a striking array of colors, magenta being the most common. Some with variegated foliage. Best effect as a vine but can be trained as a shrub. Caterpillars occasional pest. Requires freely draining soil. Do not over-fertilize. Beach bean Canavalia rosea Fast Full sun High See description in Table 1. Snowberry Chiococca alba Moderate Full sun Low See description in Table 3. Glory bower vine, bleeding heart Clerodendrum thomsoniae Moderate Full sun to partial shade Low Interesting vine with weak-stemmed habit, 4" oval green leaves, and spectacular sprays of white bracts tipped with red flowers. Flowers in shade. Violet trumpet vine Clytostoma callistegiodes Fast Full sun to partial shade Low Robust, evergreen, woody vine with bright glossy green leaves and 3" lavender to purple, trumpet-shaped flowers, followed by large, prickly seed pods. Needs lots of room; best to grow on fence or pergola. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Hyacinth bean, lablab bean Dolichos lablab Moderate Full sun Low Short-lived, perennial, twining vine with leaflets in threes and showy, bright purple flowers and pods. Grown for food in Asia and Africa; mature beans must be cooked in two changes of water to remove toxins. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Lingaro Elaeagnus philippensis Moderate Full sun High See description in Table 3. Chinese hat plant Holmskioldia sanguinea Fast Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 3. Primrose jasmine Jasmimum mesnyi Fast Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 3. Downy jasmine Jasmimum multiflorum Fast Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 3. Pink allamanda, mandevilla Mandevilla splendens Moderate Full sun Moderate Evergreen, twisting climber. Lustrous green leaves are wide and elliptical to rectangular, and 8" long. From end of spring to beginning of summer, bears deep reddish-pink flowers with yellow centers.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 46 Table 9. Low-Maintenance Vines, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Growth Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name rate preference Tropical wisteria Millettia reticulata Fast Full sun Moderate Very attractive, rose-pink to blue, pea-like flowers in terminal panicles during summer. Prefers freely draining soil. Mites and whiteflies possible pests. Monstera Monstera deliciosa Slow Full sun to partial shade Low See description in Table 3. Passionflowers Passiflora spp. Fast Full sun to partial shade None Twining vines with glossy, bright green, 3-lobed leaves and large bluish-purple, blue, white, or red flowers, and flavorsome, egg-sized, deep orange fruit. Host for numerous butterfly larvae. Passiflora incarnata is native to Florida. Caution: P. biflora and P. foetida are FLEPPC Category II invasive.5 Wild allamanda Pentalinon lutea Fast Full sun to partial shade Moderate See description in Table 1. Garlic vine Pseudocalymna alliaceum Moderate Full sun Low Attractive, trumpet-shaped flowers in lavender, pink and white--spring through fall. Prefers well-drained soil. Takes hard pruning after flowering. Flame vine Pyrostegia venusta Moderate Full sun Low Grown for spectacular, mainly winter/spring terminal panicles of bright orange flowers. Should be severely cut back after flowering. Scales can be a pest. Mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera Slow Light to full shade None Hanging epiphytic cactus with stems to six feet long. Bears flowers and "berries." Mexican flame vine Senecio confusus Fast Full sun Low Woody, tropical, evergreen vine with thick, arrowhead-shaped, serrated leaves. In summer, covered with brilliant, orange to red, daisy-like flowers. Compact growth habit. Attracts butterflies. Cup of gold, chalice vine Solandra maxima Fast Full sun to partial shade High Heavy, woody, evergreen vine with ropelike stems that branch frequently and root at nodes. Large, shiny leaves and large, yellow to golden, chalice-like flowers, 6-10" long, flaring open to 4-7"; fragrant at night; reminiscent of coconut. Blooms best in winter dry season. Requires sturdy support. Loses leaves during drought. Jade vine Strongylodon macrobotrys Moderate Full sun to partial shade Low Evergreen, twining vine with thick, woody stems, tri-lobed leaves. In spring and summer, produces spectacular aquamarine, claw-shaped flowers in huge hanging clusters to five feet long. Best when grown on sturdy pergola, where hanging flowers can be seen to best advantage.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 47 Table 9. Low-Maintenance Vines, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Growth Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name rate preference Cape honeysuckle Tecomaria capensis Fast Full sun to light shade High See description in Table 3. Yellow star Jasmine Trachelospermum asiaticum Moderate Partial to deep shade High See description in Table 8. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s). Table 10. Low-Maintenance Epiphytes, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Comments Scientific name preference Bird's nest anthurium Anthurium salviniae 3-5 Partial to full shade Large, herbaceous shrub or epiphyte consisting of majestic cluster of long, erect, tropical-looking leaves with wavy margins. Flowers relatively insignificant. Other bird's nest anthuriums are also moderately drought tolerant, but may require high humidity. Lady-of-the-night Brassavola nodosa 15-18" Bright, filtered light Epiphytic orchid with short, slender stems concealed by tubular sheaths. Gray-green leaves usually erect, very fleshy, grooved on upper surface, and semi-cylindrical. Flowers long-lived, fragrant at night, 3.5-6" across, and vary from pale green or yellowish to nearly pure white. Orchid Cattleya skinneri 20" Bright, filtered light Stout, erect epiphyte with stiff, leathery leaves at top of each pseudobulb. Erect inflorescence emerges after several months of cool dry rest. Flowers are funnel-shaped tubes up to 3.5" across, typically evenly colored rose-purple. Numerous hybrids exist; all are drought tolerant. Purple shell orchid Encyclia cochleata 18" Bright, filtered light Epiphytic orchid with leathery, strap-like leaves. Flowers are dark purple blotches on the back of greenish-yellow, twisted sepals and petals. Butterfly orchid Encyclia tampensis 18" Bright, filtered light Rare, epiphytic orchid native to the Everglades. Flowers small, with greenish-red sepals and narrow, tubular, white/pink petals. Staghorn fern Platycerium bifurcatum 3-6' Light to full shade Epiphytic fern with large, flattened fronds growing out of large, smooth scales that wrap around trees or other structures, forming a large nest. Other Platycerium also drought tolerant.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 48 Table 10. Low-Maintenance Epiphytes, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Comments Scientific name preference Resurrection fern Polypodium polypodioides 6" Light to full shade Epiphytic fern that grows by rhizomes. Fronds deeply incised, green when wet and unfurled, but gray-scaly when dry. Plant gets its name for its ability to come back to lifeafter being dried up. Will cover branches and trunks of trees. Also known as Pleopeltis polypodioides. Mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera 6' Light to full shade See description in Table 1. Orchid Schomburgkia tibicinus 1-6' Bright, filtered light Epiphytic orchid with impressive six-foot flower stalks. Flowers range from brownish-orange to magenta. Must be kept dry once new growth is fully developed. Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides 1-5' Bright, filtered light Weeping, hanging, gray-green epiphyte with tiny, narrow leaves and inconspicuous green flowers. Dries up during drought, but springs back to life when rain returns. Related ball moss, T. recurvata, also drought tolerant. Air plants Tillandsia spp. 2"-5' Bright, filtered light Hundreds of varieties, all having stiff, erect, linear, gray-green leaves. Thick-leaf varieties more drought tolerant. All water and nutrients taken up through leaves. Roots used as wire-like anchors. Flowers on long stalks above foliage, often brightly colored. Some species are native. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s). Table 11. Low-Maintenance Herbs and Vegetables, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Dill Anethum graveolens 3-5' Full sun None Erect, freely branching, annual herb with fine, lacy, blue-green foliage. Seeds produce herb. Flowers small, yellow, and borne in large, rounded, umbrella-like clusters. May bolt quickly to flowering during prolonged drought. Orach, French spinach Atriplex hortensis 2-6' Full sun None See description in Table 1. Pigeonpea Cajanus cajan 10-12' Full sun Unknown Perennial woody shrub, mostly grown as an annual for its peas. Tolerates poor soils. Fixes nitrogen in the soil.

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Low-Maintenance Landscape Plants for South Florida 49 Table 11. Low-Maintenance Herbs and Vegetables, listed by category in alphabetical order by scientific name. (Note: indicates plants commonly available in nurseries and/or garden centers in south Florida; indicates Florida native plants; indicates plants that can tolerate wet soils or occasional flooding.) Common name Size Light Salt tolerance Comments Scientific name preference Coriander, cilantro Coriandrum sativum 2-3' Full sun None Fine, feathery foliage source of cilantro. Dried seeds are coriander. Small, white or pink flowers borne in flat-topped clusters. Require well-drained soil. Suffers during humid, rainy weather; plant in fall or winter. Rosemary Rosemarinus officinalis 3' Full sun High See description in Table 3. Mexican tarragon Tagetes lucida 18-30" Full sun or partial shade Unknown Semi-woody, bushy subshrub with many smooth, upright, unbranched stems. Yellow flowers in late fall. Requires well-drained soil. Soothing, aromatic herbal tea made from leaves. Also used in herbal vinegars. 5 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) defines Category I invasive plants as those plants that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives; FLEPPC Category II plants are those that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. 6 Miami-Dade County restricts certain species from being planted within 500 feet of the native habitats that they are known to invade; these plants are allowed to be planted in home landscapes as long as they are more than 500 feet from the designated native habitat(s).