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The Conservation Balancing Act: Leader's Guide
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00001711/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Conservation Balancing Act: Leader's Guide
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Peart, Virginia
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1994
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Publication Date: September 1994."
General Note: "HE 3231"
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00001711:00001

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FactSheetHE3231 September1994TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide1 VirginiaPeart,Ph.D.2SITUATIONTheconsciousnessofFloridaresidentsisaroused. Wecareabouttheenvironmentandarecommittedto conservation.Butcanwesavewaterandenergy withoutlosingthemanybenefitsanabundanceof waterandenergytoheatthatwaterhaveprovided? It's TheConservationBalancingAct :Howtoconserve waterandenergywithoutlosingthebenefits! AlthoughFloridaisconsideredtobeawater-rich statewithmorerainfallthanmostotherareasofthe country,goodqualitywaterislimitedinmanyareas. Whyiswaterquantityaproblem?Thepopulation hasescalatedfrom500,000in1900to3millionin 1950tomorethan13millionin1993.Population growthisnotsubsiding.Ourgrowingpopulation demandsanenormousquantityofwaterthatcannot beignored. TheimpactontheuseofenergyinFlorida parallelstheimpactofwateruse.Countlessdollars arespentbyfamiliesonenergytoheatwater.Next toairconditioningenergycosts,thegreatestuseof residentialenergyistoheatwater.Floridacannever beenergyindependent.Naturalgasandfuelto produceelectricitymustbepurchasedfromother states.Waterandenergyuseshouldnotbeignored bypeoplewhowishtoconserveresourcesandprotect theenvironment. Duringpreviousperiodsofwatershortagesin Florida,publicationswithsimpletechniqueshave beendevelopedandadaptedforuseinFlorida. Unfortunately,manyofthestrategiessuggestedfor waterconservationhaveseriousflaws:inexpensive flowrestrictorsthatclog;bricksintoilettanksthat disintegrate;washingfullloadsofclothescanleadto anumberofproblemsdemandingmorewaterand energytocorrect;holdingsoileddishesina dishwasherforafullloadcanattractpests.Previous problemscreatedbythesepoorlythought-out strategieshaveoftendiscouragedthewater conservationethicwewouldliketoinstill.PURPOSEThisprogramwillprovidetheparticipantwithan understandingofhowtoconservewaterandenergy withoutsacrificingbenefitsinthreemajorwaterusing areasofthehome:thebathroom,thelaundry,and thekitchen.TheConservationBalancingActMaterials HE3231. TheConservationBalancingAct: Leader'sGuide Fourfactsheetsforparticipants: FactSheetHE3232.TheConservation BalancingAct:PartI.IntheHome. 1.ThisdocumentisFactSheetHE3231,aseriesoftheHomeEconomicsDepartment,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFood andAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida.PublicationDate:September1994. 2.M.VirginiaPeart,associateprofessor,ExtensionHousingSpecialist,DepartmentofHomeEconomics,InstituteofFoodandAgricultural Sciences,UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page2 FactSheetHE3233.TheConservation BalancingAct:PartII.IntheBathroom. FactSheetHE3234.TheConservation BalancingAct:PartIII.IntheLaundry. FactSheetHE3235.TheConservation BalancingAct:PartIV.IntheKitchen. TheFactSheetscanbeusedalone,butfor conservationtohaveamajorimpact,theprogramcan bepresentedin2sessions: FirstSession:PartIIntheHomeandPartIIIn theBathroom. SecondSession:PartIIIIntheLaundryandPart IVIntheKitchen.PROCEDURES SelectinganAudienceThematerialsforthislessonareappropriatefor bothadultandyouthaudienceswhomightinclude: FamilyandCommunityEducators. HomeBuyersandHomeOwnergroups. Participantsinhomemaintenanceandrepairand otherhousing-relatedclasses. Homeeconomicsclassesinpublicschools, colleges,ortechnicalschools. Older4-HmembersinEnvironment,Energyor similarprojectareas. Thelocalutilitycompanies. Homeeditorsofdailyandweeklynewspapers.RecruitingMethods Introducetheprogramatothermeetingswitha sign-upsheet. Promotethroughlocalmedia:radioandTVmay acceptpublicserviceannouncements. Newspapershavewritersandeditorswhoneed stories.Talktoahomeeditorabout The ConservationBalancingAct. Contactteachersinschoolsandcolleges. Talkwithappliancestoresalesmanagersandask themtogiveflyerstoprospectivewasher/dryeror dishwasherbuyers,tocustomersforhotwater heaters,orplumbingfixtures. Afull-servicehardwareorplumbingstoreisa goodbet.PreparingfortheLessonIneachofthepartsof TheConservationBalancing Act:Leader'sGuide ,thereisbackgroundinformation orascenariotoberelatedinaprogram. Transparenciescanbeusedtoemphasizeimportant points.Theleadershouldbefamiliarwiththe scenarioandthecontentofeachfactsheet.The Leader'sGuideprovidesdiscussionsuggestions.PresentingtheLessonAfterafewintroductoryremarks,theleadercan relatethescenarioorinformationprovidedinthe appropriatepartoftheLeader'sGuide.Attheend ofeachscenario,theappropriatefactsheetcanbe distributedtotheaudience. Eachfactsheethasthreesections: SITUATION isanabbreviatedformofthe Leader'sGuideinformation.Thissectiondoes nothavetobecoveredduringthelesson,butwill beusefultopeoplewhohaveattendedthelesson orwhenfactsheetsaredistributedwithouta program. WATERANDENERGYFACTS includesatable thatprovidescomparisonsofcostsfor``normal'' andconservingusesofwaterandenergyfor heatingwaterinFloridahomes.Eachtablewas generatedbasedonassumptionspresentedinthe APPENDIX. YOURCONSERVATIONBALANCINGACT includesalistofsuggestionsthatcanhelppeople bothpreservethebenefitsofwaterandenergy useinthehomeandsavewaterandenergy. Attheendofthelastlesson,theLeadermay directparticipantstoreviewwhattheyhavelearned in TheConservationBalancingAct. Whatchangesin waterandhotwaterusehabitswillbringaboutthe greatestsavings?Howcantheygetthecooperation

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page3oftheirownfamiliestobeparticipantsin Their FamilyConservationAct?THECONSERVATIONBALANCINGACT: PART1.INTRODUCTIONNotetoLeader. Thepurposeofthebeginningof theprogramistoemphasizethebenefitsinourlives ofwaterandtheenergytoheatwaterandhowthey canconservewithoutsacrificingthebenefits.Wewill callthis TheConservationBalancingAct. Tobeginthefirstsession,youmaywanttoask somequestionsoftheaudience: Wheredoyougetthewaterforyourhome? Isthewaterpure? Areyouconcernedaboutrunningout? Doyoubelieveyoucanuselesswaterandenergy withoutsacrificinginyourhousehold?BACKGROUNDCONSIDERATIONS:WATER, ENERGY,CLEANLINESSINFLORIDAWecouldn'tlivelonginaworldwithoutasupply ofpure,safewater.Howmanytimesadaydoeseach ofusturnonatapforadrink,towashourhands,to preparefood,towashclothesordishes,tobathe,to waterplants.Thelistmightgoonandon.Don'ttell usthe``wellisdry.''Wehavetohavewater. Wedon'twanttolivewithoutenergyeither:Gas andelectricity.Heatingwaterforbathing,for cleaning,forlaunderingclothesisimportanttothe waywewanttolive.Andwecan'tdowithoutelectric lightandalloftheworkdonebyourappliances. Hereissomenews.Ittakeswatertoproduce electricityforourhomes.Steam-driventurbines poweredbycoal,gasornuclearfissiondriveelectrical generators.Waterisusedtoremoveexcessheatthat isaby-productofelectricitygeneration.About1 percentofahomeelectricitybillcoversthecostof thewaterused.That'sasmallpercentage,butitisa lotofwater. Morenews.Ittakesenergytoprovidethewater weneedinourhomes.About4percentofourhome waterbillpaysforenergytopump,treatanddeliver it.About21percentofourwastewaterbillmaybe usedforenergytotreatit.Additionally,the chemicalsusedtotreatwaterandwastewaterare energyintensive. Fromanenvironmentalpointofview,weneedto consider: Whenweusewater,weuseenergy.Whenwe useenergy,weusewater.Thisisanimportantreason tousebothwaterandenergywisely.WaterinFlorida-APreciousResourceTheFloridanAquifer,aporouslayeroflimestone uptoseveralthousandfeetthick,isestimatedtohold asmuchfreshwaterasabout20percentofthewater inthefiveGreatLakescombined.(WaterResources AtlasofFlorida.1984.FloridaStateUniversity.) ThesupplyofwaterfromtheFloridanAquiferseems unlimited.Itisnot.Thecrucialfactisthatifwe takemorefreshwaterfromanaquiferthancanbe replacedinatimelyfashionbyrain,theremaining freshwaterwillbecontaminatedbysaltwatermoving infromtheoceansorupfromthedepthsofthe earth. Themassoffreshwaterintheupperpartofthe FloridanAquiferisincontactwithsaltwateronthe GulfandAtlanticcoastsandisunderlainbysaltwater atsomedeptheverywhereinthestate.Theaquifer's freshwateris1/40thlessdensethansaltwater,soit floatsonthesaltwater.Eachtimeafootoffresh waterisremovedabovesealevelwithouttimely replacement,thesaltwaterlevelrises40feet.Once partoftheaquiferiscontaminatedbysalt(orany otherpollutant),itcantakedecadestoflushitout. Someaquifersegmentscanneverberestored. StateWaterDistribution. Thesouthernhalfof Floridagetsallofitsfreshwaterfromrainthatfalls onit.So50percentofthestate'sareareceivesonly 44percentofthestate'sfreshwatersupply.And, thatsamesouthernhalfishomefor78percentofthe state'spermanentpopulationwhouse75percentof thestate'sfreshwater. RainfallDistribution. Rainfallisnotdistributed uniformlythroughouttheyear,betweenyears,or amongregions.InthatmostpopulatedandraindependentpartofFlorida,70to77percentofthe annualrainfallsinthesixmonthsfromMayto October.Becausethegreatesthumandemandfor wateroccursduringthedrymonths(Thanksgiving throughlatespring)waterusedmustcomefrom waterstoredduringtheprecedingwetseason.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page4RainfallAvailableforHumanUse. Sincemost rainfallgoesbackintotheairaswatervaporbecause ofevaporationfromsurfacesandtranspiration,by whichplantsmovewaterfromtheirrootstotheir leaveswhereitisreleasedasvapor,onlyabout25 percentoftherainfallispotentiallyavailablefor humanuse. Further,thepurityofbothsurfaceandground watersisanaturalfunctionofthelivingecosystems ofthesoilsandthewetlands.Humanactivities distributeimpuritiesintheairandontheground, fromwhichtheyarewashedintothesoilbyrain. Thiscontaminationisathreattoourwatersupply.ImpactsonWaterUsePopulationGrowth. ThepopulationofFlorida grewfromhalfamillionin1900to13millionin1990. Imagine-a2,600percentpopulationgrowthin90 years.Additionally,Floridahasmorethan29million touristvisitorsandmanysnowbirdswhoresidehere forpartoftheyear. Morepeople-morewateris needed. TheIndividual/FamilyWaterUseImpact. Thoughfiguresforwateruseintheearlypartofthe centuryarenotavailable,theWaterResourcesAtlas ofFlorida(1984.FloridaStateUniversity),indicates thatwaterforallresidentialusesincludinglawn wateringwasabout50gallonsperpersonperdayin 1950.Thisresidentialuseofwaterhasgrowntoover 100gallonsperpersonperdayby1980. InFlorida, wehavedoubledtheperpersonwateruseinjust30 years.Sincetheturnofthecenturythegrowthofwater usehasbeenmuchgreater. WaterUseforLaundry,Cleaning,andPersonal Hygiene. Wecanestimatethathomewaterusefor cleaningandpersonalhygienehasgrownfromabout 50gallonsperweekperpersonearlyinthiscentury toover700gallonsaweekin1990.Forthestate, homewateruseforcleaningandhygienecanbe estimatedtohavegrownfromabout25million gallonsperyearin1900to6.5billiongallonsperyear. Statewide,thewateruseforlaundry,cleaningand personalhygienehasgrown260percentinthelast90 years.EnergyDoestheWorkEnergyplaysanimportantroleinthelivesof Floridaresidents.Howmanytimesadaydoyouturn onalight,startamotor,drawhotwaterandactivate thewaterheater,relax,workandplayina comfortabletemperature-controlledenvironment? Doesyourelectricmetergetmuchrest?Andnatural gasquietlydoesit'sjobheatingwaterandairin homes. Theuseofenergyissobasictothewaywelive, thatweacceptasnormalthenecessityofelectricand gasbills-gripingonlyfromtimetotimewhenthese billsarehigherthanwewouldlike.Weknowwecan savemoneybyusinglessenergyinourhomes,but oureffortsarespottyandoftenwequestionthe effectivenessoftheenergyconservationtechniqueswe know. Werarelytaketimetothinkaboutwhereour energycomesfrom.Willweeverrunoutofenergy? Willthereberesourcestoprovideenergyforfuture generations? Wheredoesourenergycomefrom?Naturalgas waspredictedbysomeintheearly1970storunout intwentyyears.Fortunately,newdiscoveriesof naturalgasfieldshaveassuredanabundantsupplyatleastinthenearfuture.Andnewfieldsarebeing identifiedonaregularbasis,buttofindnewgas, wellsarebeingdrilleddeeperanddeeperintothe earth'ssurface. Electricalenergyisproducedbygenerators poweredmostlybycoal,butalsobyoil,naturalgas andnuclearfission.Coalemissionsincludesulfur compoundsthatareonecauseofacidrain.Alsocoal burningincreasescarbondioxidethatmanyexperts believeiscreatingagreenhouseeffectthatcanwarm theclimateontheearth. Aswitchfromcoaltootherfuelsatthistimeis costly.Nuclearpowerisapossibility.Apoundof uranium,apotentialsourcefortheproductionof electricalenergy,containsnearlythreemilliontimes theenergyinapoundofcoal.Atpresentthereare 72nuclearpowerplantsinthecountryproducing

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page5about10percentofthecountry'selectricalenergy. TherearethreenuclearpowerplantsinFloridaatthe presenttime.Butconcernshavebeenexpressed abouttheuseofnuclearpower. Floridacanneverbeenergyindependent. Since therearenocoal,oil,naturalgasreservesinFlorida, thestatewillalwaysbedependentonout-of-state sourcesforelectricityproduction.THEOTHERSIDEOFTHECONSERVATION BALANCINGACT-CLEANLINESSCleanlinessactstobreakthepathwayofinfection anddiseasetohealthypeopleandanimals.Butbeyond health,cleanlinessfeelsgood,smellsgood,tastesgood, looksgood. Althoughwecannotlivewithoutwaterforour bodies,andwaterisessentialforwateringhouse plants,mostofthewaterusedinourhomesisused forcleanliness.The cleanlinessformulaisthekeyfor allcleaning.TheCleanlinessFormulaIsthereacostforcleanliness?Whatisrequired tokeepourclothes,ourfoodsandourbodiesclean? Thesearetheessentialingredientsforcleanliness: waterandenergy(threekindsofenergy)asexpressed inTheCleanlinessFormula: Water plus heatenergy plus chemicalenergy plus physicalenergy equals CLEANLINESS water (theuniversalsolventdissolvesandrinsessoils away); heatenergy (warmorhotwatercleansbetterthan coldwater); chemicalenergy (soapordetergent,disinfectant,stain removerallhelpassurebetterandquickersoil removalandmicroorganismprotection);and physicalenergy (somescrubbingandrubbinghelps dislodgedirtsoitcanberinsedaway)andittakes energytobringthewatertous. TheConservationBalancingActisaboutour responsibilitytousethewaterandenergyinthe CleanlinessFormula inoptimumamountstogetthe desiredcleanlinessbenefits. Cleanlinessispricelessandatthesametime cleanlinessiscostly.Costsassociatedwithclean water,energyandtheresourcesrequiredfor cleanlinesscaneatintoourpocketbooks.More important,water,energyandotherresourcesare limited.Uncontrolledusecancostourenvironment. Water,energy,environment,cleanlinessareall importanttous.Canweconservewithoutsacrificing thecleanlinessandcomfortwewantinourhomes? TheanswerisYES.Themostimportantplaceto startistocuttheuseofwaterandotherresources wheretheyarewasted-wheretheyareusedwithout servinganyrealpurpose. AttackWaste! Everyoneshouldhatewaste.Weneedtoremind ourselvesthat``apennysaved''isMOREthanjusta pennyearned.Itistrue-NOTAXES.WATERANDENERGYFACTSFORTHE HOMENotetoLeader. Atthispointyoumaywantto distributeFactSheet3232,TheConservation BalancingAct:PartI.IntheHome.Direct participantstoTable1.AvoidingHomeWaterand EnergyWaste.Makesureyouraudienceunderstands thetable.Youcanmakeupyourowndiscussion. Thefollowingitemscanserveasaguide.ConsiderLeaksWaterleaksaremorethanannoying,they're costly.A'little'leakofonedropasecondwastes7 gallonsperday.Thatisover2,500gallonsperyear. Itonlycostsabout$2.56.Notenoughtoworry about?Lookagain.Wastewatertreatmentforthat 2500gallonscosts$4.85.Thetotalnowgoesupto about$7.41. Notconvinced?Whataboutasteadystreamlikeonethatcanhappeninaleakingtoilet?Twenty gallonsadayaddsuptoover7,000gallonsayearfor atotalofover$21.Youhadbetterdosomething aboutthisleak. Iftheleakingwaterishotwater,thereisaBIG difference.Heatingthewaterforthatlittledrip whopping$28.38withanelectricwaterheater.The totalhotwaterleak``bill''(water,wastewater,gasor electricity)istheneither$11.16(withagasheater)or $35.79withanelectricwaterheater.Thetotalhot waterleak"bill"(water,wastewater,gasorelectricity)

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page6isthen$11.16(withagaswaterheater)or$35.79with Table1. AvoidingHomeWaterandEnergyWaste.1(fromFactSheetHE3232,PartI.IntheHome). Familyof4 CostPerYear-$ GallonsPer Day GallonsPer Year Water WasteWater EnergyWith ElectricWater Heater EnergyWith GasWater Heater Leaks-Cold Water 1Drop/Sec 7 2,555 $2.56 $4.85 Steady Stream 20 7,300 7.30 13.87 Leaks-Hot Water 1Drop/Sec 7 2,555 2.56 4.85 $28.38 $3.75 Steady Stream 207,3007.3013.8781.08 10.72 Running Water-Cold Water Fauceton Fullfor5Min -5Gal/Min 259,1259.1317.34 Fauceton Halffor5Min -3Gal/Min 15 5,475 5.48 10.40 Running Water-Hot Water Fauceton Fullfor5Min -5Gal/Min 25 9,125 9.23 17.34 101.35 13.40 Fauceton Halffor5Min -3Gal/Min 15 5,475 5.48 10.40 60.81 8.04 1Forassumptionsusedinthepreparationofthistable,seetheAppendix.anelectricwaterheater. Withagood-sized,steadyleakofhotwater,look out.Thetotal``bill''withagaswaterheatingcanbe $31.89or$102.25withanelectricwaterheater.Ifyou haveanelectricwaterheaterbeverycarefulof wastinghotwater.RunningWaterConsideralsothenumberoftimesyouturnona faucetandrunacrosstheroomtodosomethingelse. Maybeyouonlydothisforhalfaminutetwoorthree timesaday.Maybeeveryoneinthefamilydoesthe samething.InTable1youcanseewhathappensto yourwaterbillforjust5minutes(orthreeminutes)

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page7aday.Byworkingwithyourfamilytochangetheir waterusehabits,youmaybeabletocutyourbillsby $15.88to$26.47ayear.Forhotwateryoursavings mightbeashighas$39.87withagaswaterheateror $127.82withanelectricone. TotheLeader:Afterdiscussingthetablegoonto talkabouthowyouraudiencecanconservewaterand theenergyrequiredtoheatwater, firstbycutting waste. InPartsII,IIIandIVyouwillconsiderspecific waystoconserveinthebathroom,laundryand kitchen;thecostsavingsinvolved;andhowto conservewithoutsacrificingtheimportantcleanliness benefitsweneedtokeep.THECONSERVATIONBALANCINGACT: PARTII.INTHEBATHROOMNotetoLeader. Itisprobablyeasiertoconserve waterinthebathroomthaninanyotherroominside ahome.Thepurposeofthispartof TheConservation BalancingAct istoremindpeopleoftheimportance ofpersonalhygieneandhealthandtheroleofwater andenergytodayinassuringgoodpersonalhygiene andhealth.Thebenefitsprovidedbywaterand energyareimportanttopeople,yetwehavecometo believewehaveunlimitedresources.Asyoubegin thissession,youmaywanttoasksomequestions: Howlongisthelongesttimeyouhavegone withoutatubbathorashower?(Theymaybring upcampingtripsinthewilderness,afteraflood orhurricaneorotherdisaster.) Wereyouconcernedaboutcleanliness?Howdid youmanage?(Theymayhavetakenasponge bathorbathedinariverorlake.) Wereyouevergladjusttogetbacktoyourhome andshower? Continuewiththisdiscussion.Youmaybesurprised tohear: Mostofthewaterusedinthehomeisusedin thebathroom. Let'stakeagoodlookatthisuseof waterasweconsiderhowwecanbalanceourwater andenergyuseagainstthebenefitswewantto maintain. Themodernbathroomisaboutaestheticsand personalhygiene.Therearemillionsofpeoplealive todaywhoowetheirsight,theirhealth,andtheirvery livestosuchtrivialthingsassoapandwaterand laundrydetergentandplumbing. Inthebooklet, CleanlinessandtheHealth Revolution, (1984.TheSoapandDetergent Association)Dr.V.W.Greeneoutlineshow cleanlinesshascometoberecognizedasavital componentofhealth:IntheUnitedStatestoday, cleanpeopleandcleansurroundingsaresowell acceptedthatitishardtoimagineanerawhenthis wasnotthecase.Cleanairandwaterareassumedto beinalienablerights.Litter-freestreetsandpublic garbagedisposalaretraditionalresponsibilitiesof localgovernments.Showers,toilets,baths,soap, detergents,laundryequipment,dishwashers,and vacuumcleanersareindispensablefeaturesofour lives.Theyareaxiomaticallyassociatedwithgood health,goodmanners,goodrearing,good housekeeping,-inshort,ourideaofcivilization. Itmaysurpriseyoutohearthattoday'saccepted standardsofenvironmentalandpersonalhygieneare veryrecentconcepts.Theearly1800sinEuropeand Americawereyearsoffilth,poverty,anddisease. Thesanitarymovementdidn'tbeginuntilthelatter partofthe19thcentury.In1869Massachusetts establishedthefirstStateBoardofHealthandwithin nineyears,16otherstatesfollowed.Publicwater systemsandsewerswerebuilt.Chlorinationwas introducedabout1915.Toiletsbegantoreplace outhousesandchamberpots.Anearbylavatoryin bathroomsmadeitpossibletowashhandsafterusing thetoilet. Evenmoreimportantthanlegislativeenactments andtheintroductionofpublicwaterandsupplieswas theneedforeducationandhygienerules.Thus beganaprogramtoeducate.Thiswasnosmalltask, butpublichealthworkerspersevered,andgradually duringthenext150yearsthesanitaryconsciousness andhabitsofWesternmanwerefundamentally altered.Toourgreatbenefit! Manytypesofdiseaseshavebeenreducedor eliminatedbywaterchlorination,antibiotics,better refrigerationandvaccines.Manyotherdiseasetypes stillappearwherepersonalhygieneandcleanliness areneglected.Hereisasamplingfromfortydiseases transmittedfrompersontopersonwhose major controlstrategy involvespersonalhygiene:infant diarrhea,viralgastroenteritis,viralhepatitis, ringworm,salmonellosis,typhoid,somestaphylococcal andstreptococcalinfections,typhus,andtrachoma. Thesesamediseasesarereturninginmanywar-torn

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page8areasoftheworldtoday-wherecivilizationand sanitationaredestroyed. Personalhygienepracticessuchasbathingand laundering,thoughlongapartofthelifestyleof certainsocioeconomicgroups,graduallybecame popularandestablishedsociobehaviorfeaturesof Americaduringthequartercentury1890to1915. Therevolutionhasbeenextendedduringthe20th century.Considerthemajorcausesofdeathearly andlateinthecentury: FACT: Thetopthreeleadingcausesofdeathinthe UnitedStatesin1900werepneumoniaandinfluenza; tuberculosis;anddiarrhea.Allareinfectious.We nowhaveantibioticstobringaboutcuresforthese infectiousdiseases,butpersonalhygieneand cleanlinesshavemadeanimportantcontributionas well. In1960,thetopthreeleadingcausesofdeath werediseasesoftheheart,malignantneoplasms,and vascularlesionsaffectingthecentralnervoussystem. Noneofthesearecausedprimarilybyinfection. The mostseriousinfectiousdiseasesarenolongeraserious deaththreat,thankstotheprogressmade. FACT: Astestimonytoimprovedcleanlinessand hygiene,thepercapitauseoftoiletsoapgrewfrom 1.2poundsin1906to3.5poundsin1977. Perhapsthemostimportanteffectofthehealth revolutionhasbeenachangeinattitudetoward diseaseanduntimelydeath.Today,theyarenot lookeduponasinevitable.Instead,todayweexpect anewbornbabytolive,expectadiseasetobe preventedorcured,expectalifefreefrompain, debilitation,andsuddenprematuretermination. Personalhygieneandcleanlinessplayanimportant partinthoseperceptions. Therevolutionisnotover.Vigilanceisnecessary toprotectourimportantgoodhealthheritage.Inthe earlypartofthiscenturypeoplestruggledtoprotect theirhealthfrominfectionanddiseasethrough properlaunderingpractices.Howwelldidtheydo withpersonalhygieneandcleanliness?ThenHowdidfamiliesmanagepersonalhygieneand cleanlinessinthe GOODOLDDAYS?Werethe processescostly?Weretheyeffective?Didthey severelyimpacttheenvironment?Turnbackthe clocktotheearlypartofthiscentury. InMarthaAnnBrownly'shomeearlyinthis century,therewasnorunningwater,heatingfuelwas expensive,bathingsoapwashardtoget,notoilets. Therewasanouthouseandchamberpotsforuseat night.Outhouseswerecoldinthewinter,andalways uncomfortableanddisagreeable-smelling. Therewasawashbasininthekitchenwhere handswerewashedmainlytoremovevisibledirt.In thewinterbathingwasdoneonceaweek,usuallyon Saturdaynightinthekitchen-thewarmestroomof thehouse.Perhapstheyusedawashtubwithwater heatedbyteakettleorinthereservoirinthekitchen stoveormaybetheyusedawashbasinwithwarm water.Insummer,bathingcouldbedoneontheback porch. Bathtubsandtoiletswerefoundinsomeurban homes,someeveninnewroomscalledbathrooms. Eventhere,hotwaterhadtobecarriedtothebath tubinmosthomeswithwaterintheearly20th century-becausetherewerenopipestocarrythe waterintothehome.Inanunheatedbathroom bathingwasusuallyaquickjob. Personalhygieneandcleanliness.Weretheprocessesto achievethemcostlyearlyinthe20thcentury? Itis difficulttoestimate.Withoutrunningwater,people usedwaterforwashinghandsandtakingbaths sparingly.Nowaterwasusedwithouthouses. Werepersonalhygieneandcleanlinessmethodsused effective? Notenough.Infectiousdiseasesweremuch morecommonthantheyaretoday.Thelocationof drinkingwaterwellsandouthousesandfarmanimal buildingsdidnotalwaysprotectthesafetyofdrinking waterandcontributedtobacterialinfectionsand diseases. Howwastheenvironmentaffected? Certainlytheuse ofwaterwaslimited.Soapforwashingwas biodegradable.Fewchemicalswereused.Probably themostenvironmentaldetrimentmightbefroman outhouseifitwerelocatedwhereitmight contaminatewaterinadrinkingwaterwell.Properly locatedandmaintainedwouldpresentnolongtime detrimentaleffect.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page9NowShannonWhite-Bixby'sfamilyinthe1990shas highpersonalhygieneandcleanlinessstandards. Lookattheirbathroom-amarvelinporcelain, chrome,ceramics,glass,plasticsandfiberglasswitha showerand/orbathtub,maybeatubwithawhirlpool, alavatory-probablybuiltintoacabinet,maybetwo lavatories-hisandhers,atoilet,maybeabidet. Shannon'sgreatgrandmother,MarthaAnnBrownly, wouldbeamazedtobeinsuchaplace.Andwonder ofwonders,theremaybetwo,twoandahalforthree bathrooms.Nolineswaitingtogetin. Withasourceofwaterthatneverrunsdryanda waterheatertoprovideallofthehotwaterwanted, lotsofwaterisusedbythefamily:waterforwashing handsandface;forbrushingteeth;waterforbathing; waterforshampoos;waterfortoiletflushing-and that'snotall.Alotoftowelsandwashclothsare used.ThisisabigcomponentfortheWhite-Bixby laundrybasket. Whataboutallofthesoap,shampoo,toothpaste, andbubblebathchemicals?Fortunately,these materialsareallbiodegradableandwillberemoved insewagetreatmentplantswhereallofthewaste watergoesafteritdrainsfromtubs,sinksandtoilets. ThelargestimpactmaybethattheWhite-Bixbysuse alotmorewater,energy,andbathing-related chemicalsthanwereused90to100yearsago. Energyresourcesarerequiredtoproduceandprovide theseconveniencesandtotreatthewastewaterthat theyproduce. Personalhygieneandcleanliness. Aretheprocesses toachievethemcostlylateinthe20thcentury? Accordingtothetableonpage10,afamilyoffour mightspend$648eachyeariftheyhaveanelectric waterheater($221eachyearifgas)forwaterforthe toilet,showering,brushingteeth,washinghandsand facepluswaterforlaunderingbathroomtowels.The energycostforheatingthewaterisshowntobeabout 77%(30%)ofthetotalcostofwateruseinthe bathroom.Notehowever,thewaterandenergyuse valuesinthetableareforfairlymoderateuseof water.Ourwaterandenergybillsforpersonal hygieneandcleanlinessareoftenmuchhigher becausewefailtorealizethecostlinessofexcessuse ofwaterandwaterthatislostthroughleaks. Arepersonalhygieneandcleanlinessmethodsused effective? Ourstandardsarehigh.Andourmethods areeffective,andpeople must bealerttothedangers ofthespreadofcontagionanddisease.Thereare peoplewhoquestionfrequentbathingandother cleanlinesspracticesbecauseoftheirimpactonthe environment.Anyonepushingcivilizationbacktothe ``goodolddays''thatneverreallyexistedcancertainly succeedinrecreatingthedaysoffilthandillnessthat didexist. Washingafterusingthetoiletandbeforeeating areasimportantasever.Childrenshouldbetaught todothisregularly. Howistheenvironmentaffectedbyourpersonal hygieneandcleanlinesspractices? Thereisnodoubt thatbothwaterandenergyareused.Waterand energymakeanimportantcontributiontoourhealth. Certainly,ourpersonalhygieneandhealthareworth protectingfromdisease,uncontrollableplaguesand contagion.Itisthewasteandmisusethatcanbe identifiedandreducedthatwillbeofgreat importance. Weneedtocaptureaninformed conservationconsciencethatwillmasterouruseof waterandenergy. Thelessonsofpersonalhygieneandcleanliness werelearnedslowlyoveralongperiodoftimeand someofthelessonshavefadedsomewhat,even thoughtheymaybemoreimportantnowthanever before.Whilenewchemicalsandantibioticsappear regularlytocombatdiseaseandinfection,virusesand bacteriacanbecomeresistant.Peopledevelop sensitivitiesandallergicreactionstoantibiotics. Consider,too,peoplearemoremobilethantheywere justafewdecadesago.NewAsianFluvirusescan arriveinoneday'stime.Ascarynewbacteriahas beenreportedthatcandigesttheskinandfleshon ourbodies.WATERANDENERGYFACTSFORTHE BATHROOMOurbestdefensenow,andespeciallynow,isto notlosethepersonalhygieneandcleanlinessprogress wehavealreadymade.Theanswertowater conservationisnottoabandontheuseofwaterand energy.Wedoneedtostudyhowwecanusewater andenergytothebestadvantage,efficiently,with littlewaste. NotetoLeader. Atthispointyoumayhandout FactSheet3233,TheConservationBalancingAct: PartII.IntheBathroom.DiscussTable2which appearsinthefactsheet.Gothroughthechartwith theparticipantstofamiliarizethemwiththecontents.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page10Table2. AvoidingBathroomWaterandEnergyWaste1(FromFactSheetHE3233,PartII.IntheBathroom). ForOnePerson ForaFamilyof4CostPerYear-$ TimesPer Day Water GallonsPer Year Water Waste Water Energy with Electric Water Heater Energywith GasWater Heater Flushing 6gal 715,330$61.32$116.51 3gal 7 7,665 30.66 58.25 ShoweringWarm NormalShower5 Gal/Min 10min 1 18,250 73.00 138.70 $405.38 $53.59 3min 15,47521.9041.61121.61 16.08 Navy(3gal) 1 1,095 4.38 8.32 24.32 3.22 ShoweringWarm Low-FlowShower3 Gal/Min 10min 1 10,950 43.80 83.22 243.23 32.15 3min 13,28513.1424.9772.97 9.65 ShoweringCold3 Gal/Min 10min 110,95043.8083.22 3min 1 3,285 13.14 24.97 BathingWarm FullTub30gal 1 10,950 43.80 83.22 243.23 32.15 Half-FullTub15 gal 15,47521.9041.61121.61 16.08 BrushingTeeth 5gal 23,65014.6027.74 2gal 2 1,460 5.84 11.10 Shaving 5gal 1 1,825 1.83 3.47 10.13 1.34 2gal 17300.731.394.05 0.54 WashingHair 10gal 2times/wk1,0404.167.9023.10 3.05

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page11Table2. AvoidingBathroomWaterandEnergyWaste1(FromFactSheetHE3233,PartII.IntheBathroom). ForOnePerson ForaFamilyof4CostPerYear-$ TimesPer Day Water GallonsPer Year Water Waste Water Energy with Electric Water Heater Energywith GasWater Heater 5gal 2times/wk 520 2.08 3.95 11.55 1.53 1Forassumptionsusedinthepreparationofthetables,seetheAppendix. Noticethatthegallonsofwaterofeachuseis givenforeachactivity.Mostactivitiesareperformed onceadayperperson.Overayear'stimethatcan amounttoalotofwater;onepersonmightuseas muchas15,330gallonsofwaterjusttoflusha conventionaltoilet.Nowlookatthenexttwo columns:thecostforthewaterandwastewater treatment.Thewaterbillforafamilyoffourwould beover$60ayear.Thenadd$116forthewaste waterbill.Thisisanexpenseyoucanreallyworkon. Showeringcanalsobeabigcontributortowater andwastewaterbills.Warmshowers?Lookoutfor thecostofheatingthewater.Itismuchhigherifyou haveanelectricwaterheater.Butevenwithgas heatedshowercostsgoup.Example:Addthe annualcostsforwater,wastewatertreatment,and waterheatingforafamilyoffourwhentheyeach take10-minuteshowersdaily: Withanelectricwaterheater:$73+138.70+ $405.38=$617.16 Withagaswaterheater:$73+138.70+$53.59 =$264.29 Thesecostsdon'tincluderunningwatertogetit hot.Let'slookforsomeimprovements. Flushingthetoiletandshoweringbothuse tremendousamountsofwater.Justputtingaone gallonjugofwaterinthetoilettankcanconserve 2,500gallonsofwaterperpersonperyear.Alow flushtoiletcansave7,500gallonsperyearperperson. Thesechangescanbringaboutsubstantialwaterand wastewatersavingsforafamily. Thecostofheatingwaterisexpensive,especiallyifa familyusesanelectricwaterheater.Callattentionto Table3,fromtheirFactSheetcomparingthecostsof showeringbydifferentwaysshownintheirfactsheet: Addupthecostsofwater,wastewaterandenergy foreachoftheshowertypesasshowinTable4: Whatkindofshowerdoyoutake?Istherean alternativethatwillsave?Whataboutothermembers ofyourfamily?Whatcanyoudowithalittleextra money? Showering,bathingandflushingthetoiletoffer themostpotentialforconservingwaterinthe bathroom,buteffortstoconservewaterandenergy shouldincludeallusesofwater.Wastingwatercan bethemostcostlyconservationmistakeofall. No benefitscanjustifywaste. NotetoLeader: Afterdiscussingthetable,goon totalkabouthowpeoplecanconservewater, wastewaterandtheenergyrequiredtoheatwaterin thebathroom.Discussthelistthatfollowsthetable intheirfactsheetforspecificwaystoconservewater andtheenergytoheatwaterforpersonalhygieneand cleanlinessinthebathroom.Askwhichoftheideas theynowuse.Whichwilltheytry?THECONSERVATIONBALANCINGACT: PARTIII.INTHELAUNDRYNotetoLeader. Thepurposeofthispartofthe programonusingwaterandenergymoreefficiently istoinformpeopleaboutthelaundryprocess;why suchexactnesswasnecessarytogetlaundryclean clotheswhenpeoplehadtorelyonhardworkand ingenuitytogetgoodresults;whycontemporary methodsprovidesatisfactoryresultswithmuchless laborandprecision;andwhatwenowpay,inwater andenergyuse.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page12Thiswillleadtoadiscussionofhowtheycanuse Table3. AnnualShowerWaterUseandCost(From FactSheetHE3233,PartII.IntheBathroom). Shower Type Water$ Waste$ With Electric $ With Gas$ Normal $73.00 $138.70 $405.38 $53.59 Shorter21.9041.61121.61 16.08 Navy 4.38 8.32 24.32 3.22 LowFlow 43.8083.22243.23 32.15 Cold (LowFlow) 43.80 83.22 0.00 0.00waterandenergymoreefficientlywhenlaundering clothes.Itcanhelppeopleto balancetheirlaundry practiceswiththeirconservationefforts. Asyoubegin,youmaywanttoinvolveyour audiencebyaskingsomequestions,suchas: Hasanyoneintheaudienceusedawringer washer?(Wringerwashersarestillavailablein somelocations.Allowsomediscussion.) Hasanyoneusedascrubboardtowashclothes? (Ifsomepeoplehavewashedclotheswithascrub board,askiftheywillholduptheirhandasyou tellthestorywhenyourelateanactivitythatis familiartothem.)HomeLaundry-StrategiesThenandNow``Manmayworkfromsuntosun,butwoman'swork isneverdone.'' Thiswastruetheearlypartofthe20thcentury. Choreswereassignedtoeachdayoftheweek: Monday-laundry. Tuesday-ironing. Wednesday-mending. Thursday-oddjobs. Friday-cleaning. Saturday-baking. Sundaywaschurchday. Therewaslittletimeforrecreationasweknowit -andlittlefreeorunstructuredtime. Today,lifeiseasierphysically.Ourhomesoffer Table4. TotalAnnualShoweringCosts-Familyof4 (FromFactSheetHE3233,PartII.IntheBathroom). WithElectric WaterHeater WithGasWater Heater Normal $617.08 $265.29 Shorter 185.12 79.59 Navy 37.02 15.92 LowFlow 370.25 159.17 Cold,LowFlow 127.02 127.02spaceforrelaxing,entertainmentandthewondersof technologythatprovideequipmenttodoalotofthe physicalworkthatwasoncethecareer,thelifework ofwomenofthefamily. Technologyhasputnear-miraclelaundry appliances,laundryaidsandfabricsintothefamily's handsandhasmadethecostofenergytousethe equipmentaffordable.Todayalotofwaterand energyareusedtoprovidethegoodlife.LaundryThenWearingclothesuntiltheyweresoiledwas acceptableinearliertimes.Practicalconsiderations involvednothavingalargewardrobe(forfrequent changes)andhavingtowashandironthoseclothes. Consideringthestandardsofthe1990s,thephysical strengthandenduranceofwomenandthescarcityof resources,wecanseewhy CONSERVATION was imperative. Launderingclotheswasjustoneofmanylaborintensivechoresforhomemakers.Washingand ironingcouldbeexpectedtotaketwofulldaysof eachandeveryweek.Conservationtosavetheenergy involvedinlaundryalsoreducedtheuseofwaterand otherresources. Howwaslaundrydoneinthe GOODOLD DAYS?Whatdiditcostinlabor,resourcesand dollars?Turnbacktheclocktoanearlypartofthis century. LikemostpeopleinFloridaintheearlypartofthe 20thcentury,MarthaAnnBrownlylivesonafarm nearasmalltown.It'sMondaymorning,July5, 1921.Thisiswashday.MarthaAnnlearnedhowto washclothesfromhermother.Theprocessis

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page13inflexible.MarthaAnnknowsthateachstepis necessarytohaveclean,bright,freshclothes.She knowsitisimportanttotakegoodcareofherclothes andhousehold``linens''likesheets,towels,table cloths,napkinsandhandkerchiefs.Theappearanceof herfamily'sclothesandhomearemarksofsuccessas ahomemaker:Sheandherneighborwomenoften comparehowwhitetheirwasheslook,howearlyin themorningtheygettheirwashontheclothesline. AlmosteverythingintheBrownlyfamilywashis cotton-excepttableclothsandhandkerchiefswhich arelinen.Householdlinensarewhite.Allfabricsare natural.(Manmadefibershaven'tbeeninventedyet.) Dyesarenatural,too,andareusuallynotcolor-fast. Clothingtypesrangefromdelicateembroidered, handmadeitemstoheavyworkclothes.Whilethe cleanlinessstandardsoftheBrownlyhouseholdare consideredtobequitehigh,clothesarewornseveral days-washednomorethanweekly.Sinceplayand workareactive,clotheshaveground-indirtand stains. Thinkforaminuteaboutwhathastobedoneto produceclean,fresh-smellingclotheswithouttoday's labor-savingdevices,withouthotrunningwater, withoutrunningwateratall.WhatdoesMarthaAnn teachherdaughter,Becky,so she willbeasuccessin theeyesofherneighborsandfriendswhenBeckyhas ahomeofherown. LearntheTENimportantlaundryprinciples MarthaAnnhadtokeepinmindonlaundrydayin 1921.TheProcessThenMarthaAnn,thehomemaker,gotupearlyto buildafireinherwoodburningkitchenstove. Shemustcarryinwaterfromrainbarrelsfor washingclothestwobucketsatatime.Thebig,tengallonclothesboilerisfirstplacedonthewoodstove andfilledwithwater,thefirethatwillbringittoa boilin30minutesislighted.Threetubsaresetup: oneforwashingclothes,twoforrinsingclothes. 1.Q.Whyrainwaterinsteadofwellwater? A.Rainwaterissoft.Softwaterisneededfor washingwithpuresoap.Wellwatercanbefullof mineralsthatmakeithard. Asapractical,thinkinghomemakerMarthaAnn beganthelaundryprocessthenightbeforeby gatheringsomeoftheclothestobewashed.Heavily soileditemsweresortedoutandputinatubwith soaptosoakovernight.Drybeanswerealsosorted, washed,andputinakettletosoakuntilmorning. ThereareotherbigjobsforMarthaAnntodoon washmorningwhilethewaterheats: Stripthebeds,gathernightgownsandpajamas. Gatherallthetowels-dishtowels,bathtowels. Takeclothesfromlaundryhampers. 2.Q.Whysoakclothes? A.Soakinghelpsloosenheavy,ground-insoil.Saves onthedrudgeryofscrubbingonascrubboard. NowitistimeforMarthaAnntosortthe laundry.Howmanybatchesorloadsofclotheswill therebe?Many.MarthaAnnwantstowashthe cleanestclothesfirst,becausethesamewaterwillbe usedagainandagainuntilallbatcheshavebeen washedandrinsed.Whitesinthehottestwater, maybetwoorthreebatches;colorsincoolerwater, twoorthreecoloredclothes;andtwobatchesof heavyworkclothes.Andifthewaterstaysclean enough,shecanwashsomethrowrugsattheend. 3.Q.Whysortclothessocarefully? A.Mostdyeswerenotcolorfast.Usingcoolerwater protectscolors.Also,dirtfromheavilysoiled, coloredclothescanbetransferredtocleanerclothes -that'swhytheywerewashedlast. Allthewashmustbeinspectedforstainsor difficultspotsduringsortingsoMarthaAnncangive spotsextrascrubbing. Whilethewaterintheclothesboilerisheating, MarthaAnnmakesstarch.Powderedcornstarchis mixedwithalittlecoldwater,thenboilingwateris pouredfromateakettle.Quickstirringkeepslumps fromforming.Thestarchiscoveredaftercookingso filmwon'tformandleaveastarchylumponclothes beingstarched. (MarthaAnnputsthebeansshesoakedovernight ontocookslowly.Theywillbedonebysuppertime whenshewon'thavemuchenergyleftforcooking.) Bynow,thewashingwaterisprobablyhotenough tobegin.MarthaAnnputshotwaterintothewash tubwithsomecoldwaterforwashingthefirstloadof whiteclothes.Herhandsaretoughfromhardchores:

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page14Theyareaccustomedtotheveryhotwaterthatmakes herwhiteclotheswhiter. 4.Q.Whyveryhotwaterforwhiteclothes? A.Puresoapworksbestwithhotwater. Nowsheisreadytotacklethefirstloadofwhite clothes. AbarofMarthaAnn'shomemadesoapisplaced onthelittleshelfatthetopofthewashboard.The washboardgoesintothesideofthetub.MarthaAnn handleseachitemseparately.Sherubssoapover spotsandsoiledareasoncollars,cuffs.Shescrubs theseareasuntiltheyareclean.Shethenrunsthebar ofsoaplightlyovertherestoftheitemandlightly scrubsit.Somedirtandsoapstayinthewateras MarthaAnnrinseseachiteminthewashwater. Then,usingavigorousmovementoffingersand wrists,shewringsexcesswateroutofeachitem. (InsomepartsoftheSouth,abatteringboard wasusedinplaceofawashboard:Soiledclothes wereplacedonthebatteringboardandbeatenwith asticktoloosensoilonclothes.) 5.Q.Whymorescrubbingonjustheavilysoiled areas? A.Theyneedscrubbingtocomeclean.Unnecessary scrubbingmakesfabricswearoutfaster,andyou don'treallywanttodoanyextrawork. Theclothesfromthisfirstloadgointotheboiler onthestove.Whilethewaterandclothesboilfor about30minutes,thereistimetocleanthe clotheslinewithadampcloth,settheclothesbasket nexttothefinalrinsetub,andgettheclothespin apronreadytouse. 6.Q.Whyboilthelaundry? A.Boilingdisinfectsit. Afterthefirstloadhasbeenboiled,MarthaAnn removesthem,itematatime,withawoodenstick andputstheminthefirstrinsetub.Shechurnsthe clothesupanddownintherinsewatertogetoutas muchleftoversoapaspossible.Anysoaplefton fabricturnsthemyellowwhentheyareironed. Everythingiswrungoutandputinthefinalrinse watertowhich bluing hasbeenadded.MarthaAnn againchurnseachitemwellandwringsitout.Shirts, tablecloths,napkinsanddressesarestarchedwiththe starchshemade.Now,thefirstbatchofclothesis readytobehung.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page157.Q.Whybluing? A.Bluingmasksthegrayoryellowsoaplefton fabrics,makingwhitefabricslookwhiter. Becky,MarthaAnn'sdaughter,helpsherwiththe laundry.Afterthefirstloadisrinsedinthefinal rinse,shecanstarthangingclothesontheclothesline. Everythingmustbehungtodryonthe clothesline,itembyitem.Beckyputsthewhite clothesinthesunforanextrableaching.Colored clothesareputintheshade.MarthaAnnhopesit willnotrainonwashday.Ifitdoes,shewillputa make-shiftclotheslineontheporch.Ifclothesareon thelineandshehearsthunder,shemustrushtotake theclothesin. 8.Q.Whyusestarch? A.Newfabricswereusuallyprocessedwithsizing togivethembodyandasmoothfinish.Sizing washesout,butstarchrestoresthesmoothfinish whenitemsareironed. 9.Q.HowdoestheenvironmenthelpMartha Anngetgoodlaundryresults? A.Radiationfromthesunbleachesanddisinfects (goodforwhiteclothing).Italsofadescolors; (protectcoloredclothes). Eachloadofwashgoesthroughthesameprocess: eachitemiswashedindividually,scrubbed,rinsed, wrungoutandhungtodry.Sheetsarehardtowring becauseoftheirsize.Workclothes,becauseoftheir weightandstiffness,areevenhardertowringout. ButMarthaAnnandBeckypersist. Finally,allbatcheshavebeenwashed.Thewater stilllookscleanenoughtowashathrowrugsoiled frompeoplewipingtheirdirtyshoesonit. 10.Q.WhatdoesMarthaAnndoforthe environment?Whatdoesshedowiththedirty washandrinsewaterwhenthewashingisdone? A.Inwarmmonths,rinsewaterispouredinthe gardenorontheflowers.Washwaterispoured somewhereintheyard-thesoapshemadeand usediscompletely``biodegradable,''thoughMartha Annneverheardoftheword.LaundryCostsThenRemembertheCleanlinessFormula:Cleanliness= water+heatenergy+chemicalenergy+physical energy EachoftheelementsintheCleanlinessFormula carriesacost:acostinwater,acostinenergyas well. HowmuchWater?Howmuchdoesitcost? Good,softrainwaterwasused.Maybe60gallons wereusedforwashing,rinsing,boilingandstarchmakingfortheeightor10batchesofwash.This averagessixgallonsaverageforeachload.About 3000gallons/yeartotalfortheBrownlyfamily. The cost? Thewaterwasfree.Itcamefromrainfall. ThecostinvolvedwasMarthaAnn'sphysicallabor collecting,thencarryingthewaterintothehouseand outagain. Howmuchheatenergy?Whatcost? Waterwas heatedforwashingandforboilingsomeclothes. The cost? Woodwasburned.Wood,arenewable resource,wasprobablycutfromtreesonthe Brownly'sland.Thecostinvolvedwastheeffortof cuttingthetreeandsplittinglogsintopiecessmall enoughtoputintothewoodstove,plusthephysical labortohaulfirewoodintothehouse. Whatchemicalenergywasusedinthecleaning process?Whatcost? Puresoapandsoftwater helpedtoensurecleanclothes.Thesoapwasmade frombyproductsoffoodproduction(meat slaughteredforfood).Nodepletionofnatural resources,nonon-biodegradablematerialsto introduceintotheenvironment. Thecost? Acanof lyetomakeanimalfatintosoapmighthavecost15 cents.Thebigcost:thephysicalenergythatwent intomakingthesoap. Whatmechanicalenergywasusedtocleanthe clothes?Whatcost? Heavilysoiledareasofthewash werescrubbeduntilcleanonascrubboard.Physical laborwasneededtoapplythesoapandtoremove soilbyscrubbinguntilthesoilwasgone.Clothes werechurnedup,down,andaroundduringthewash andrinsesteps.Eachitemwrungout.Wetclothes carriedtotheyardandhungonlinestodry.How muchenergywasused? Hoursofit.Thecost? MarthaAnnandBeckywereverytiredattheendof washday,butthisgreatsourceofenergy(physical labor)isrenewable.Physicalenergyalwaysreturned intimeforironingthenextday.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page16ENVIRONMENTALIMPACTExceptincities,environmentalimpactswere probablynegligiblethisearlyinthe20thcentury. Almosteverythingusedinthelaundryprocessinrural areaswheremostpeoplelivedwasrecycledor recyclable.LaundryNowThisisthewaywewashourclothes TODAY. It's Fridayevening,July1,1994.ShannonWhite-Bixby, Becky's34-year-oldgranddaughter(andMarthaAnn's great-granddaughter)iswashingaloadofclothes. Anydayoftheweekcanbeawashday.Aloadis usuallywashedwhenthelaundryhamperisfull,the familyisrunningoutofcleantowelsorShannon's daughterneedsacleanpairofjeans.Whodoesthe laundryintheWhite-Bixbyhome?Anyoneinthe family,becauseeveryoneisbusy,thejobisn't considereddifficultandmaygotowhoeverneeds cleanclothes,orwhoeverhastime. MostclothestheWhite-Bixbyfamilywearsare casual.Whataboutfabrics?Itemsofclothingand householdlaunderablesaremadefromavarietyof fabricsincluding100%cotton,100%rayon,100% manmadefabricandblendsoftheabove-notto mentionwashablewoolens.Fabricsoftenhave wrinkle-resistantfinishes.Colorsareusuallycolorfast, butMadrasandotherimportedfabricsthatfade duringlaunderingarepopular.Ironingislimitedto afewitemsofclothing.Otheritems,wherethefeel ofuntreatednaturalfibersisdesired,canbe acceptableifunironed.Napkinsandsomeother itemshavebeenreplacedbypaperproductsreducing thelaundryload.Bedlinensaremostlysynthetics blendedwithcottonthatneednoironing. Notonlyisdressmorecasualandironingmorea matteroftastethancustom,thereisn'tthepressure onhomemakerstohavethecleanest,whitestlaundry intheneighborhood.Mostfamilies,includingthe White-Bixbys,useaclothesdryer-notthehighly visibleandweather-dependentoutdoorclothesline. Finally,whenclothingbecomesdiscolored,thecostof replacementisminor. Itemstobewashedincludedelicate-looking lingerie(thatcanbequitedurablemadewith synthetics),allcottonorcotton-blendtowels,sheets andpillowcases,knitteddresses,sportshirtsand jeans.Washeranddryercyclesrangingfromdelicate, lowandhighwatertemperaturesandpresoakcan accommodatethevarietyoffibersandfabricsinthe familywash.Today'sdetergentsareengineeredto softenwater,removesoilandholditinsuspension, sometimesbleach,brightenandevensoftenfibers. DoesShannonusetheTENimportantlaundry principlesMarthaAnnhadtokeepinmindon laundrydayin1921? Hardly.TheProcessNowOvertheyearsourstandardsofcleanlinessand aestheticshavechanged.Peoplenolongeraccept spots,soilorodorsonclothes.Children'sclothesare sometimeschangedseveraltimesaday.Manyclothes arewashedafteronlyafewhourswearingsotheywill appearfresh. Ourhighstandardsareeasilywithinreachwith littleeffortandlittledollarcost. CONSERVATION soimportantinthepast,cannotfurtherreducethe littlelabornowrequiredforlaunderingclothes. Waterandenergycostsarelow.Technologyhas providedanabundanceofwaterandenergy,butthere isacostwemustface:Oursupplyofwaterand energyislimited;ourenvironmentisendangered. Thelaundryprocessishardlywhatitwasinthe dayofShannon'sgreat-grandmother,MarthaAnn,yet thegoalsoftheseprinciplesneedtobeconsidered. 1.Q.IstheWhite-Bixbywaterhardorsoft? A.Chancesare:hard.MostwaterinFloridahomes comesfromprivatewellsormunicipalwatersystems thatdrawwaterfromdeepwells. Q.Canclothesgetcleaninhardwater? A.Syntheticdetergentsaredesignedtoworkwellin eitherhardorsoftwater 2.Q.Areheavilysoiledclothessoaked? A.Somewashershaveasoakcyclethatleadsinto thewashcycle.Chancesarethefamilyhasveryfew heavilysoiledclothes. 3.Q.HowdotheWhite-Bixbyssortclothesfor colors? A.Today'sdyesareoftencolorfastandfadelittle ifany.However,somewhiteandmanmadefabrics willabsorbtracedyesanddiscolor.Note:always checklabelsforwashinginstructions.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page17Q.Areclothesregularlysortedforsoil? A.Washlightlysoiledclothesseparatelyfrom heavilysoileditemsbecausesoilcanberedeposited on``clean''clothesmakingthemlookdingy.Note: Washfabricsthatshedseparatelyfromitemsthat showlint. 4.Q.Ishotwaternecessaryforgettingwhite clothesclean? A.Today'sengineereddetergents,bleachesandget goodresultsincoolerwateronsoil-resistantfabrics. Note:Heavy,oilysoilsaremoreeasilyremovedin hotwater. 5.Q.Mustheavilysoiledareasofclothesbe pretreated?(MarthaAnnscrubbedsoiledareas vigorouslytogetthemclean.) A.Todaywepretreatwithspotandstainremovers orextradetergentrubbedintoheavilysoiledareas likeshirtcollars.Givenenoughtime,manyspots andsoiledareascomecleanduringthenormal washingcycle.Thedrawback?Cleanandsoiled areasaregivenequalfriction,increasingfabricwear andcausingpillingonsomesyntheticfabrics. 6.Q.Mustclothesbeboiledtothoroughlyclean anddisinfectthem? A.No.Todaybleachescleananddisinfectclothes. 7.Q.Wouldbluingimprovetheappearanceof theWhite-Bixbyfamilylaundry? A.Probablynot.Moderndetergentshaveoptical brightenerswhichaddultra-violetlightreflectionto thelightreflectedfromwhiteclothes,makingwhites lookextrawhite. 8.Q.Isstarchneededtogivefabricsbodyanda smoothappearance? A.Mostfabricstodayhavebodyandarefrequently treatedtomakethemwrinkle-freeormayhave pleatsorwrinklessetin.Ready-madestarchor spray-onfinishesareavailabletogivebodytocotton orlinenifneeded. 9.Q.Whydon'ttheWhite-Bixbyshangclothes outtodry? A.Clothesdryersdothisjobandeliminateworry aboutrainoraboutsun-fadingcolors.Dryersalso taketheheavyliftingoutoflaundering.Dryersneed help,too.Clothesfeelsofterandsyntheticfabrics losestaticclingiffabricsoftenerisused occasionally. Somefamiliesline-drytheirlaundryeventoday, tosaveenergy,reducefuelcostsandtogetthefresh smellline-driedclothescanhave. 10.Q.Howdoeshomelaunderingimpactthe environment?Howmuchwaterisusedforthe familywash? A.Water,energyandchemicalsareused.20,000 gallonsayearmaybeusedbyonefamily. Q.Whatisdonewiththedirtywashandrinse waterwhenthewashingisdone? A.It'sdownthedrain.Thiswastewatermustgo throughatreatmentprocessbeforereuse. Q.Arealllaundryagentsbiodegradable? A.Syntheticdetergentsare;otherlaundryaidsmay notbe.Readlabelsforinstructionsondisposingof containersorleftovercontents.LaundryCostsNowEachoftheelementsintheCleanlinessFormula carriesacost,acostinwater,acostinenergyaswell. WATER plus HEATENERGY plus CHEMICAL ENERGY plus PHYSICALENERGY equals CLEANLINESS. Howmuchwater?Howmuchdoesitcost? The White-Bixbysusetapwater,notrainwater,for washingclothes.Iftheywashsevenfullloadsaweek, at50gallonsaload,theyuseover18,000gallonsof waterinayear. TheCost? Thecostofwateritself isn'tsogreat-under$20.TheWhite-Bixby'salsopay asewagebillbasedontheamountofwatertheyuse eachmonth.Add$35moretotheirlaundrybill. Eventhoughtheirutilitybillsofarisn'tastronomical, theydouselotofwaterforlaundering. Assuming theirwateruseforlaundryisaboutaverage,thefive millionFloridahouseholdscanbeexpectedtousesome 100billiongallonsperyear-justforlaundering clothing,beddingandtowels Howmuchheatenergy?Whatcosts? Gasor electricityheatedthelaundrywater. TheCost? The White-Bixbysmayuse2,000kilowatthoursayearto heatwateriftheyhaveanelectricwaterheater.The dollarcostofthatelectricitycanbeabout$150per year.Withagaswaterheater,theirannualfuelbill willbemuchlower-about$20. Thus,thetotal``bill'' forallFloridaforheatingwaterforhouseholdlaundry issomewherebetween$100and$800millioneachyear. And,bothgasandelectricalenergyarenon-renewable energyresources.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page18Whatchemicalenergywasusedinthecleaning process?Whatcost? Syntheticdetergents,made frompetroleumby-products(anothernon-renewable energyresource),aredesignedtobebiodegradable. Bleach,stainremover,fabricsoftenersalsoareused toenhancetheappearanceandcleanlinessoflaundry. Thecosts? Typically,afamilyliketheWhite-Bixbys canbeexpectedtospend$100ormoreperyearfor theselaundrysupplies. ForthefivemillionFlorida householdsin1994-laundrysuppliescouldamountto $500millionperyear Whatadditionalenergywasusedtocleanthe clothes? Automaticwashersscrubclotheswithan agitator.Clothesaremovedbackandforthandup anddowninwaterinarevolvingtub.Asthefabrics rubagainsteachother,theyscrubdirtorloosenit andthemovementofwaterbackandforthseparates thedirtfromthefabric.Automaticdryershavefans thatblowheatedairthroughsemi-wetclothesina rotatingdrum. Thecost? TheWhite-Bixbyswash anddrysevenloadsofwashingaweek.Thebillfor operatingtheirelectricwasheranddryercananother $80to$100peryear. IfallFloridahouseholdsusea washeranddryerforalltheirlaundry,Florida's``bill'' forwasheranddryeroperationsmightbe$500million peryear. Let'sadditallup. HowmuchdotheWhiteBixbyspaytolaundertheirclothes? $20forthewater 35forwastewatertreatment 150toheatwaterintheirelectricwaterheater ($20toheatwaterinagaswaterheater) 100fordetergentandlaundryadditives 100tooperatetheirwasheranddryer $405($275withagaswaterheater) Thisistrulyabargainindollars.Butwemust alsoconsiderthecosttotheenvironment.ENVIRONMENTALIMPACTSHistorically,weAmericanshavegivenlittle thoughttowaterandenergyaslimitedresourceson alargescale.Aswehaveseen,conservationofwater andenergyhasbeenhighlysituational-varyingwith theweatherandthephysicalenergylevelsofthe homemaker. Eventsofthepast20to30yearshavebrought aboutaslowrecognitionofbothlimitedresources (waterandenergy)andenvironmental(nonrenewableresources)impact.Aswediscovered,this isespeciallytrueofwaterwhichisoftenanonrenewableresource,comingasitdoesfromthethin layeroffreshwaterridingthesurfaceofthesalt waterintheFloridanAquifer. Environmentalimpactsofhomelaunderingare noteasilycalculated.Beyondtheobvious-thewater andenergyusedbythewasheranddryer-itis importanttorememberthereiswaterandnonrenewableenergyuserequiredtoproducetheenergy (electricorgas)consumed,thelaundryagents (detergent,bleach,fabricsoftener,pretreatingagents), andthelaundryequipment(washer,dryer,iron). NotetoLeader. Atthispointyoumaywantto passoutFactSheetHE-3234,TheConservation BalancingAct:PartIII.IntheLaundry.Discuss Table5fromthefactsheetwithcommentsasfollows: Notwowashersarealike. Notwofamilieswash exactlythesamenumberofloadsorusethesame loadsizeallthetime.ThisTableservesasan exampleofwaystoconservewaterandenergyandto savemoney. Notethattheexampleshowswaterandenergy costsfordoingsevenloadsaweek.Thatamountsto 365loadsayearusing18,200gallonsperyearfora fullload(50gallons)and10,920gallonsforapartial load(30gallons). Costsforbothwateruseandwastewaterare shown. Ifyouhaveaprivatewellorarenotbilledfor wastewater,ignorethosecostswhenconsideringhow toconserveandsavemoney. Notethebigdifferencein thecostofheatingwaterwithgasandelectricity. Next,notehowmuchlessenergycostsarewhen awarmwash/coldrinseisusedinsteadofahotwater wash/warmwaterrinse. Notethatacoldwash/coldrinsecyclehas NO COST forenergy. Finally,discusswaysparticipantscanreducethe waterandenergyuseinhomelaunderingwithout sacrificingresultsTheirConservationBalancingAct. Themosteffectivewaytosavewaterandwater heatingcostsistostopleaksandnotletwaterrun whennotbeingused.However,justchangingfroma hotwaterwashwithawarmwaterrinsetowarm waterwashandcoldrinseortoacoldwaterwash,

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page19coldwaterrinsecanprovideenergysavingsasshown inthetable. NotetoLeader:Afterdiscussingthetablegoon totalkabouthowpeoplecanconserveandtheenergy requiredtoheatwaterforlaunderingclothes.See FactSheetHE3234,TheConservationBalancing Act:PartIII.IntheLaundry.Discussthelistthat followsthetableforspecificwaystoconservewater andtheenergytoheatwaterwhenlaunderingclothes. Askwhichoftheideastheynowuse.Whichwillthey try?THECONSERVATIONBALANCINGACT: PARTIV.INTHEKITCHENNotetoLeader. Waterconsumptioninthe kitchenisrelativelysmallcomparedtothebathroom orlaundry.Allthesame,familieswhochooseto conservecanfindwaystosavebothwaterandenergy withoutsacrificingthebenefitsofwateruseinthe kitchen.Discussfirstthewaywaterandenergyhave beenusedinthekitchenearlyinthiscenturyandhow thiscompareswithcurrentpractices. Thekitchenisaplaceforfoodpreparation.The roleofsanitationisimportanthere.Rawfoods, especiallymeats,containmicroorganismsthatcan producetoxicsubstances.Foodpoisoningispossible whenfoodsbecomecontaminated.Therearetimes whenchemicalsusedintheproductionofproduce shouldbewashedoff. Cleanlinessisessentialinthekitchen. Special careisrequiredinrefrigeratingfood,forcleaningand disposingoffoodwastes.Foodiscookedtomakeit morepalatableand,insomecases,safefor consumption. Waterandenergyareessentialinthe kitchen. Howwerewaterandenergyusedinthekitchen inthe GOODOLDDAYS? Let'sfollowMarthaAnn Brownlyintoherkitchen.ThenAlotoftimewasspentinfoodpreparationinthe past.Ittooklonghourstopreparefoods.There wereno``convenience''foods:nofrozenfoods,no store-boughtcannedfoods,noready-bakedbreads, cakesorcookies.Theywereallpreparedfrom ``scratch.''Mostvegetablesandfruitsconsumedwere grownathome,hadtobenurtured,keptpest-free, harvestedandhadtobewashedbeforeusing.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page20 Table5. AvoidingLaundryWaterandEnergyWaste1(FromFactSheetHE3234,PartIII.IntheLaundry). Familyof4 CostPerYear-$ TimesPer Week GallonsPer Year Water WasteWater EnergyWith ElectricWater Heater EnergyWith GasWater Heater Hot/Warm Wash/Rinse FullLoad50 gal 718,200$18.20$34.58$151.60 $20.04 PartialLoad 30gal 7 10,920 10.92 20.75 90.96 12.02 Warm/Cold Wash/Rinse FullLoad50 gal 7 18,200 18.20 34.58 50.53 6.68 PartialLoad 30gal 710,92010.9220.7530.32 4.01 Cold/Cold Wash/Rinse FullLoad50 gal 718,20018.2034.58 PartialLoad 30gal 7 10,920 10.92 20.75 Savings Potential Hot/Warm minus Warm/Warm 0 0 0 101.07 13.36 Hot/Warm minus Cold/Cold 0 0 0 1Forassumptionsusedinpreparationofthetables,readtheAppendix.Sincewaterhadtoberaisedfromawellorfrom apumpoutsidethekitchenandcarriedintoahouse, itwaspreciousandwasusedverywisely.Consider someofthethingsMarthaAnndideachdayinher kitchen. HeatingWaterThen. Her``modern''kitchen stovehadawaterreservoirthatwasfilledeach morningwithsoft,rainwaterfromacistern.The waterinthereservoirstoredhotwaterforwashing dishesandtotakethechilloffthewaterusedfor washinghandsandfacesinthemorningandatnight. Ateakettlewasfilledassoonasthefireinthestove wasgoing.Abigcoffeepotwasputon(withcoffee groundsandaneggshellinittokeepthegroundsin thebottomofthepotwhenthecoffeewasreadyto pour). PreparingFoodThen. Inthesummeralotmore waterwasneededbecausefruitandvegetableswere broughtfromthegardenandorchard.Leavesand stemswereleftinthegarden.Peelingswereputinto

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page21abucketforfeedingthepigs.MarthaAnnusually washedproduceinalargebucketoutside,beforeshe broughtitinforcookingandcanning.Itsavedher fromhavingtobringcleanwaterinandtakedirty waterout.Sincedrawingwaterwashard,physical labor,shelearnedtousejusttherightamountto cleanhervegetablesandfruit. KitchenCleanupThen. Breakfastswerealways heavybecauseallofthefamilywereengagedinhard work.Othermealsalsoincludetheaccumulationof greasypotsandpanswithstuck-onfood.Theresult? Greasypotsanddirtypanstowashwiththedishes. Homemadesoapmadethedishwatersudsyforthe firstdisheswashed,butwhenitwastimetowashthe potsandpansthesudswerenearlygone.Everything wasrinsedwithscaldingwaterfromtheteakettle.It tookabouttwogallonsamealtowashthedishes. Threetimesadaymeantsixgallonsaday.More than2000gallonsofwaterwasneededtowashallof thefamilydishesandcookwareinayear. ScrubbingFloorsThen. Thekitchenfloorgot hardwear.Scrubbingthekitchenfloorwasaoncea weekchore.Thefloorwasalwaysprettydirtybefore theweekwasout. ConsiderhowMarthaAnn'sgreat-granddaughter, ShannonWhite-Bixby,useswaterinherkitchen.NowHeatingWaterToday. Shannonhashotwaterat thekitchensink,butshecanalsoheatwaterby turningaknobonherkitchenstoveorpushinga buttononhermicrowave.Itisofteneasiertogethot wateratthesink.Whenwaterhadtobecarriedin fromawell,itwasusedsparingly.Sincewatercosts arelow,andbothhotandcoldarerightwherewe wantthematthekitchensink,itiseasyforShannon andherfamilytowastewateranduseitcarelessly. WashingDishesToday. TheWhite-Bixbysmay prerinsedishesunderastreamofwaterbefore puttingthemintothedishwasher. PreparingFoodToday. Theywashsaladgreens, otherfreshvegetablesandfruitsunderastreamof water.Frequentlytheyusecannedorfrozenfoods thatdon'tneedwashing. Shannonandherfamilyusewaterinwaysher great-grandmotherneverdid,sometimesthawing frozenfoodunderastreamofwaterbeforecooking orserving.Oftenalittlewarmorhotwatertospeed theprocess. TheWhite-Bixbysalsohaveagarbagedisposer,so peelingsandfoodscrapsgodownthedrainwithalot ofwater.Andthereisanotherwaterusehergreatgrandmotherneverhad:Rinsingglassjars.bottles, cansandplasticjugsforrecycling. ScrubbingFloorsToday. Thisisn'tadifficultjob forShannon.Thehomehassmoothvinylfloor coveringthatcleanseasilywithaspongemop.A liquidvinyl"wax"keepsdirtonthesurfaceand applieseasily. Notwokitchensarethesame. Yourhome equipmentandmethodsmaynotbeexactlythesame astheexamples,butusethemasreliableguidesfor conservingbothwaterandenergy. NotetoLeader. Atthispointyoumayreferto thetablesintheparticipants'FactSheetHE-3235, TheConservationBalancingAct:PartIV.Inthe Kitchen.DiscussTable6fromtheFactSheetwith commentsasfollows: TogetTable6inperspective,notetheamountof waterforeachuse,thenumberoftimesforeachuse perweek.Annualcostsforafamilyoffourcanbe cutinhalffortwo,ormultipliedby1.5forsix.(Add onepersonplusfourtoreachfive.) Noticethatthewater,watertreatmentandwater heatingcostsaremuchlowerinthekitchenthanthey wereforuseinthebathroomorlaundry. Prerinsingdishesisestimatedattwiceaday. Usingadishwasherafamilymayrinsedishesfor breakfastorlunch,puttheminthedishwasherand washtheday'sdishesaltogetherafterdinner.Using therinseandholdcycletwiceadaywoulduseless water(2times910gallonsfor1820gallonsperyear vs.3640gallonswithhandwashing). Dishwashersusehotwaterandthatmeans heatingenergyuseaswell;youhavelittlechoice. But,ifyourinsedisheswithcoldwateryouarenot wastingheatingenergy. Hand-washingdishesunderastreamofwateris costly.Lookwhatitmighttakeforjustheatingthe water.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page22 Table6. AvoidingKitchenWaterandEnergyWaste1(FromFactSheetHE3235,PartIV.Inthekitchen). Familyof4 CostPerYear-$ TimesPer Week GallonsPer Year Water WasteWater EnergyWith ElectricWater Heater EnergyWith GasWater Heater Prerinsing Dishes-Cold Water 5gal 14 3,640 $3.64 $6.55 3gal 14 2,184 2.18 4.15 Dishwasher RegularLoad 12gal 7 4,368 4.37 8.30 $48.51 $6.41 ShortCycle8 gal 72,9122.915.5332.34 4.28 Rinseand Hold2.5gal 14 1,820 1.82 3.46 20.22 2.68 Hand Dishwashing Under Running Water16gal 20 16,640 16.64 31.62 92.40 12.22 WithPansof Waterfor Washingand Rinsing6gal 206,2406.2411.8634.65 4.58 Disposer 6gal 10 3,120 3.12 5.93 5gal 10 2,600 2.60 4.94 Washing Vegetables 5gal 7 1,820 7.28 13.83 2gal 7 728 2.91 5.53 Cooking .5gal 7 182 0.73 1.38 .2gal 7 73 0.29 0.55 1Forassumptionsusedinmakingthetable,seeAppendix.

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page23Hereyoumaydiscussthewaystosavesectionof thefactsheet. Oneofthemosteffectivewatersavingactivities inthekitchenisstoppingleaksandnotrunningwater whennotbeingused.However,justchangingfrom themostwastefulwaysinthechartabove(prerinsing dishes,dishwasherwashing,disposeruse,washing vegetablesandcooking)tothemostconservingcan providewater,wastewaterandenergysavingsshown inTable7fromFactSheetHE3235. NotetoLeader:Afterdiscussingthetablegoon totalkabouthowpeoplecanconserveandtheenergy requiredtoheatwaterintheirkitchens.SeeFact SheetHE3235,TheConservationBalancingAct: PartIV.IntheKitchen.Discussthelistthatfollows thetableforspecificwaystoconservewaterandthe energytoheatwaterintheirkitchens.Askwhichof theideastheynowuse.Whichwilltheytry?APPENDIX AssumptionsusedindevelopingtheTables inthefactsheets.Indevelopingthe Water/EnergyConservation tableassumptionsweremade.Individualfamilieswill varyintheirwaterandenergyuse.However,the tablesprovideafaircomparisonofwaterandenergy useandalternativesthatencourageconservation. Herearetheassumptions: Familysize:Four. Use:Gallonsofwaterperuseandtimesofuseper dayisinagreementwithotherwaterconservation publications. Bathroom:Eachmemberofthefamilyusesthesame amountofwaterandtypeofshower,bath,washing hair,etc.,exceptforshaving(1person). Laundry:Washerwaterusebasedonindustry estimates.Thesefiguresvarywithmanufacturerand model. Kitchen:Dishwasheranddisposerwaterusebased onindustryestimates.Thesefiguresvarywith manufacturerandmodel.Keepinmind,automatic dishwashersusehotwateronly.Forhand dishwashing,assumptionwasthatwarmwater(half hotandhalfcold)wouldbeused. Costsofutilities: Water-$0.99per1000gallons. WasteWater-$1.90per1000gallons basedonwateruse. Electricity-$0.075perKWH. NaturalGas-$0.26perTherm. WaterHeatingbased onraisingwatertemperature 60F(70to130Fforhotwater). ForHot/Warmwash-Washallhot,rinse50% hot. ForWarm/Coldwash-Wash50%hot,rinsecold. ForCold/Coldwash-Nohotwater. Allusesofwarm water -50%hotwater. WaterHeaterEfficiency -Fairlyefficient. Electric-95% NaturalGal-85%

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TheConservationBalancingAct:Leader'sGuide Page24 Table7. ConservingKitchenWaterandEnergy(FromFactSheetHE3235,PartIV.IntheKitchen). CostPerYear-$ GallonsPerYear Water WasteWater EnergyWith ElectricWater Heater EnergyWith GasWater Heater Usingwasteful ways,you mightuse 13,130gals $19.14 $35.99 $48.51 $6.41 Conserve kitchenwater andenergyuse 8,4970.9020.7132.34 4.28 Andyoucan saveeachyear 4,633gals 18.24 15.28 16.17 2.13 TOTALSAVINGS (water,wastewater,energy) Electricwaterheater-$49.69.Gaswaterheater-$35.65.