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1.This document is Circular 473, one of a series of the Department of Vegetable Crops, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date First Printed: February 1984, Date Reviewed: April 1999. Please visit the FAIRS Web site at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu .The Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences is an equal opportunit y /affirmative action emplo y er authorized to provide research, educational information and other services onl y to individuals and institutions that function without re g ard to race, color, sex, a g e, handicap, or national ori g in. For information on obtainin g other extension publications, contact y our count y Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences / Universit y of Florida / Christine Ta y lor Waddill, Dean2.R. D. William, Former Extension Vegetable Specialist, Vegetable Crops Department, C ooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.Circular 473Growing Quality Vegetables in Florida1 R. D. William2INTRODUCTIONGrowing quality vegetables requires knowledge and skills of both crop pr oduction and business practices. To harvest high yields of quality pr oduce you must plan each production step and complete each cultural practice on time. Growers must know about liming, fer tilizing, irrigating, controlling pests, harvesting, grading and marketing each vegetable crop. Decisions about timing each cultural practice, which variety to grow, where to market the produce, and figuring production costs, require planning and can make the difference between a profit and loss. To grow vegetables commercially, market gardeners must study and invest both time and money in their business. Each vegetable crop requires certain cultural practices for proper growth and production. Some vegetables require special practices such as mulching or staking to produce highest yields and quality. Certain types of specialized equipment may be needed to grow some vegetables efficiently. Finding or developing markets will require both time and skill in selling and dealing with people. Accurate records of costs and sales are essential to improve your production and business decisions. Before you decide to grow vegetables commercially, study the following general information and plan your production and marketing options carefully. Then, after making the preliminary decisions, you can read and study the specific production guides for each vegetable crop and other publications listed in Appendix F.FARM AND MARKET LOCATIONThe location of your farm will help determine the type and success of a market garden enterprise. For example, roadside markets should be located near large c ities and along busy highways. "U-pick" or "Pick-your-own" operations should be easy to find and located within 10 to 30 miles of larger cities. In rural areas, vegetables may be sold at the farm, peddled door-to-door, or offered for sale at community markets. Market gardeners located farther away from consumers usually transport their produce to community markets or to local wholesale outlets. For more information about locating roadside or "U-pick" markets, read the publications listed in the Marketing section of Appendix F. When buying farmland for vegetable production, choose land that can be drained efficiently, yet irrigated during possible droughts. Avoid trying to produce vegetables on deep, coarse sandy soils or in low, swampy areas with inadequate drainage facilities. Learn more about the special management practices needed to produce high yields of quality vegetables on each type of soil f ound in Florida by reading the publications listed in the Soils and Fertilizer section of Appendix F.
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 2April 1999FIELD SELECTION AND SOIL TESTINGType of market When selecting a field, rotate crops so that vegetablesOften your choice of market will influence the follow grain crops, pastures or other crops that resistdecision about which vegetables to grow. For example, certain kinds of nematodes, especially root-knot nematode. some buyers and shippers who buy locally or at State Crop and field rotations also will reduce many diseaseFarmer's Markets are known for supplying large quan tities problems and weed infestations.of only certain vegetables such as yellow squash, peppers After selecting the land, have your soil tested 3 to 4supply only specific horticultural varieties of crops such as months before planting. These tests will help you decideblackeye peas or a certain type of yellow squash. which kind of lime and fertilizer to buy and how much to apply. Prepare a soil sample from your field by takingIn contrast, regional wholesale or local roadside and several scoops of soil from the top 6 inches of the field. community markets are noted for supplying most seasonal Place the sample in a clean pail and mix together. Obtainfresh vegetables. "U-pick" operations often produce only a Soil Test Mailer Kit from your County Agent and followa few specialty crops for processing at home. With a the instructions for sending the sample and $3 per samplesmall mechanical shelter, a specialty market could be to the soil Testing Laboratory at the University of Florida. developed for supplying certain varieties or types of After 2 to 4 weeks, you will r eceive a report from theshelled peas and beans. Also, specialty crops such as Laboratory or County Extension Agent.Chinese vegetables or "organically" grown vegetables Interpret your soil test results carefully. Start by comparing the soil pH number of your soil with a range of 6.0 to 6.5 that is best for most vegetables in Florida. Then compare the amount of calcium (CaO) and magnesium (MgO) available in your soil with a range of 400 to 800 lbs. calcium and 100 to 200 lbs. magnesium needed per acre to grow quality vegetables. Usually, a ratio of 4 to 5 parts calcium to 1 part magnesium will provide a balance of these two plant nutrients in the soil. Buy dolomite limestone if your soil test results show that magnesium is low or the ratio of calcium and magnesium content in your soil is high. Otherwise, buy Hi-cal limestone when calcium is low. Apply these limestone materials evenly and mix into the top 6 inches of soil 2 or 3 months before planting. For most Florida soils requiring lime, apply about 1 ton of ground limestone per acre to raise the soil pH one unit. In our example, 1.5 tons ground limestone would be required per acre to raise the soil pH from 5.0 to 6.5.CHOOSING THE RIGHT VEGETABLES TO GROW Labor requir ements Planning and careful study are necessary before selecting vegetables to grow commercially. Consider these factors before making your final decision: or southern peas. Sometimes these assembly markets sometimes can be marketed within your community.Vegetable production and manag ement factors In Florida, vegetables are grown during specific seasons on several different soil types using a variety of crop management practices. Although cultural practices and production costs vary somewhat among regions of Florida, most vegetables can be grouped into general categories depending on over-all management levels and required labor (Appendix A). For example, low management crops require relatively lower amounts of production inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation and staking or mulching than other vegetable crops. Medium management crops require moderate input levels. In contrast, high management crops often require highest input levels and precise management of the crop to produce quality vegetables at a profit. Often, the use of full-bed plastic mulch will increase both yields and quality of high management crops. For more information about specific crop management practices for each crop, read the extension publications and production guides listed in Appendix F. In Florida, small-scale vegetable production by market gardeners often requires hand picking and comparatively simple grading and packing facilities. Because considerable labor is required to produce, harvest and handle most vegetables, consider the labor requirements of each crop before making your final choice of which crop to plant (Appendix A). Verify that you will
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 3April 1999have adequate labor during peak periods such as transplanting, trellising or harvesting your vegetables. In contrast, the mechanized production, harvesting and handling of potatoes, sweet corn, carrots, radishes, celery, and other crops destined for larger markets requires more capital investment. These crops normally are produced by large-scale growers where production and handling efficiencies are increased with mechanization in both the field and packinghouse operations. Both largeand small-scale vegetable growers must plan carefully and manage their labor efficiently. Longterm success in marketing perishable vegetables often depends on a regular and dependable supply of produce for either retail customers or wholesale buyers. Careful planning of your production practices and sk illful labor management are essential for success.VEGETABLE YIELD ESTIMATES IN FLO RIDAPlanning for efficient production of vegetables or other commodities requires an estimate of at least average yields for Florida or for your production region. Statewide averages or estimates of acceptable yield levels for vegetables grown in Florida under various crop management levels and on several types of soil are listed in Appendix B. Excellent or high yield estimates are also listed because most vegetable growers strive to increase production efficiencies and profits by producing high yields. By figuring production costs at each yield level, growers or market gardeners can calculate break-even or per unit costs. In most situations, per unit costs for the higher yield levels will be less and profits will be greater. Remember, however, these yields are statewide averages or estimates. All yield data depends on many factors including your crop production and business management skills, soil types, location within Florida, season, and weather. This information is useful in planning your vegetable production busine ss, but should be modified as you study and gain experience in your particular region of the state. Your County Extension Agent, farm supply dealer and other local vegetable growers may be able to assist you in modifying these data to improve your, planning and decision-making process. Careful planning and study can help you maximize profits and provide a dependable supply of quality pr oduce to your customers.EQUIPMENT AND CULTURAL PRACTICESStandard equipment for most market gardeners includes at least a small tractor with a water-cooled, 15 or more horsepower engine, a standard 540 RPM power takeoff (PTO), a high clearance of 20 inches or more, and a 3-point hitch. Generally, this type tractor provides dependable service and often is a good investment. Standard implements may include a disc or rototiller, fertilizer spreader and side-dressing equipment, planter, cultivation attachments, nematicide applicator and pesticide sprayer. Optional equipment for your tractor might include a bed press, plastic mulch applicator, herbicide sprayer, rotary mower, or potato digger. Other essential equipment includes an irrigation unit and possibly a small washing unit for cleaning certain vegetables before packing.Field preparation and timing After selecting a field, begin soil preparation by plowing under all plant trash and debris 3 to 4 months before your planned planting date. Early plowing and discing will allow time for the weeds and plant trash to rot completely. Also, this is a good time to spread the amount of lime suggested in the soil test report. If your tractor is too small to prepare the soil correctly, have your fields custom plowed and disced a few months before the date of planting.Nematode pests and e quipment for control In Florida, several types of nematodes live in the soil and harm the roots of many plants. Normally, you cannot see these tiny worms, but you can see the root injury. Plant roots that look knotted w ill contain rootknot nematodes. Other nematodes may reduce the growth of small feeder roots or plants may have short, stubby roots. Fleshy roots of crops like sweet potatoes may be cracked and deformed. Severe root injury often will cause stunted plant growth, yellow leaves, or even dead plants. Yields and quality of most vegetables will be reduced. If you have seen these injury symptoms or think nematodes may infest your field, obtain a Nematode Sample Kit from your local Extension Office. Follow the instructions carefully and send your sample to the Nematode Assay Laboratory at the University of Florida in Gainesville. For a small fee, the kinds of nematodes f ound in your soil sample will be identified and a report sent to you. The report also will contain s uggested control methods.
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 4April 1999Severe nematode infestations can be prevented orphosphorus and potassium held in the soil. Nitrogen must reduced by planning ahead and managing your landbe applied several times while the crop is growing because wisely. Always rotate your fields with pastures, coverit can be lost by leaching. In cool weather 50 ( F, apply 20 crops, or other crops that resist nematodes before plantingto 40 lbs/acre nitrogen from a nitrate fertilizer source for most vegetables. Certain varieties of sweet potatoes,adequate vegetable growth. During warmer weather, any southern peas, and other moderately tolerant vegetablesnitrogen source is suitable. can be planted following an effective rotation that maintains minimal nematode populations.Generally, highest yields of quality vegetables can be When nematodes infest your soil, either liquid orgrowth period. All of the phosphorus and micronutrients granular types of chemical nematicides can be applied twoshould be broadcast and mixed in the soil before planting. to three weeks before planting to control these pests. TheApply about of the total nitrogen and potassium for liquid or fumigant types of nematicides provide the bestshort season crops, but only about 1/4 to 1/3 for longer control of root-knot nematode. When injected 6 to 10season vegetables (Appendix C). The safest way to reduce inches deep in moist soil, the liquid evaporates to form aor prevent root injury from soluble fertilizer salts is to gas which kills the nematodes thr oughout the treated area. broadcast the in itial fertilizer before planting. At 3 to 4 To keep the gas from escaping too fast, the soil surfaceweek intervals or following intense rainfall, the remaining should be sealed immediately after injection with a roller,portions of nitrogen and potassium may be side-dressed a drag, irrigation water, or plastic or paper mulch.near the edge of the plant canopy. For a few vegetables, non-fumigant nematicides in either granular or liquid formulations will provide satisfactory control of nematodes. These nematicides dissolve in the soil water,, and kill nematodes by contact with the chemical. Because non-fumigant nematicides move only short distances in the soil water, uniform application is essential. When deciding which type of nematicide to purchase, consider the cost and amount of nematode control needed for each crop listed on the label. Before you apply a nematicide, plow and disc all live plants and roots that may contain nematodes. Let the plant trash rot for several weeks. Fumigant nematicides should be applied two to three weeks before the intended planting date. If the soil remains cool and wet after application of fumigants, wait an additional week before planting to allow the nematicide extra time to escape. Lightly cultivate or disc the surface of the field to allow remaining nematicide fumes to escape before planting. Be careful to avoid deep cultivation and mixing untreated soil with the treated area. For non-fumigant nematicides, apply to the soil surface and incorporate 2 to 4 inches just before or during planting.Fertilizer pl acement, tim ing and appli cation equipment Decisions regarding amounts of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P0), and potash (KO) fertilizer elements to25 2apply should be based on both soil test results and the specific needs of the vegetable crop. By studying your soil test report and following the suggested fer tilizer program, your crop can depend partially on residual quantities of harvested when plant nutrients are supplied throughout theBedding and planting Vegetables grown on most soils in Florida must be planted on raised beds to insure adequate drainage during intense rains. Bed shapes and heights vary depending on the crop, soil type, and whether plastic mulch is used to cover the bed. Beds are formed with disc hillers and compacted with a bed press before plastic film is secured over the bed. For full-bed plastic mulch culture, basic fertilizers are mixed in the soil and certain nematicides or multipurpose soil fumigants are applied during bedding before the mulch is secured. Purchase quality seed with high germination percentages to help insure uniform stands of vigorous growing vegetables. Direct-seeded vegetables should be planted in a well-prepared moist seedbed to promote uniform germination and emergence. Mechanical planters, both tractor mounted and hand operated, are available with various plates for metering and planting different sized vegetable seed. After seedlings emerge, most vegetables can be thinned to the desired stand. Transplants of tomatoes, cabbage, or strawberries, and vine cuttings or slips of sweet potatoes, often are planted in the production field. Cabbage or pepper transplants are grown in special nurseries and carefully dug for transplanting. A vegetable transplanter can be used to plant most "bare-root" transplants at regular spacings in the field. To start the plants quickly, mix 4 to 6 pounds of a starter fer tilizer such as 10-52-8 which contains soluble sources of phosphorus and other nutrients in 100 gallons of water. Apply 1 to 2 cups of the
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 5April 1999transplant water at the base of the transplant to firm theapplied. Avoid using the same sprayer for all types of soil and get the plant started.pesticide spraying due to the risk of possible crop injury. Containerized transplants, so named because they areuse. grown in a styrofoam container, can be grown by a market gardener or purchased from specialized transplantFor more information about year-round weed control growers. The entire pyramid-shaped root mass remainsfor vegetables grown in Florida, read the weed control intact during transplanting which increases the survivalpublications listed in Appendix F. rate and uniformity among transplants. Special transplanting sleds normally are used to plant this type of transplant. In every case, you must either grow or buy vigorous, pest free transplants. Completely fumigate the nursery soil prior to planting your vegetable seed to insure pest-free transplants. Whenever possible, buy "certified" transplants or plant materials such as sweet potato slips to reduce the possibility of intr oducing certain pests into your production fields.Weed control and equipment Effective weed control begins by planning a year-insecticides and fungicides, but not herbicides. For round crop production or cover crop rotation. Select andmaximum pest control, these pesticides should be applied plant cover crops that suppress weed growth when yourto thoroughly cover the entire plant. A piston pump that fields lie idle. Then plow under all weed growth anddevelops spray pressures of about 200 p ounds per square plant-trash a couple months before your planned plantinginch (psi) will provide l ong term service and effective date. Rotate fields infested with nutsedge (nutgrass) orcoverage. Use round, hollow-cone type nozzles rather perennial grasses with pasture or develop an aggressivethan the flat-fan nozzles designed for applying herbicides. year-round weed control program as suggested in theAgitate wettable powder formulations during application Vegetable Crops Fact Sheets, VC-12 and VC-13.and thoroughly clean the sprayer after each use. Plan your weed control program before the vegetablesApplication equipment for granular insecticides or are planted. Often, crops planted at close row spacings,bait formulations are available, but require careful high plant populations, and the selection of certaincalibration. These pesticide formulations often are applied horticultural varieties can suppress weed growth after ato control soil borne insects, but can be used to apply dense canopy of leaves develop. However, if you plan toother granular pesticides. cultivate with sweeps or rolling cultivators, row spacings must be wide enough for the equipment and tractor. WhenLearn to identify insects and disease pests to be able cultivating, be careful to avoid deep cultivation that cutsto c hoose the correct control practice and application or injures the crop roots.method. Carefully observe your vegetables every day or In addition, selective herbicides can be used to controlUse sanitary practices to reduce the movement of disease or suppress many weeds growing among most vegetablepests throughout the field, and during the picking, grading, crops. Herbicides require precise application methods,packing and display of your produce. Efficient timing and equipment. Generally, a herbicide sprayermanagement of crop pests is essential for growing quality designed to maintain pressures of 30 to 40 pounds/squarevegetables in Florida. inch (psi) at the nozzle can be used to apply herbicides uniformly over the field. Use flat fan nozzles and 50-mesh screens with a jet or mechanical agitation device inside the tank. Sprayers equipped with a piston pump will cost more than a roller pump, but will provide much l onger service especially when wettable powder formulations are Always clean the herbicide sprayer thoroughly after eachInsect and disease controlA variety of insect and disease pests may infest your soil or cause leaf or fruit damage to your vegetables. Control methods include planting resistant varieties and pest-free transplants, rotating crops and fields, carefully applying pesticides, and implementing sanitary crop production and storage practices. For more information about managing insect populations and suppressing disease outbreaks, read and study the pest control publications listed in Appendix F. Normally, the same sprayer can be used to apply most two and watch for pests or symptoms of damaged plants. Irrigation equipment and timing Most crops require uniform soil moisture to produce maximum yields of quality vegetables. In Florida, vegetables are irrigated with subsurface seep irrigation in
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 6April 1999certain areas where a hardpan layer can be used to selling to produce buyers and shippers, pack the correct maintain a perched water table or where the water tableamount of uniform qua lity pr oduce in clean containers itself can be managed such as on muck soils. Otherwise,(Appendix E). A reputation of supplying quality vegetables are irrigated with overhead equipment or withvegetables can provide repeated sales and a dependable drip irrigation systems. Overhead systems generally costmarket for your produce. more to purchase, but are durable and can be used in certain situations to prevent frost injury. In contrast, drip systems are less expensive to install and require less irrigation water and a smaller pump. However, drip systems require regular maintenance with replacement of drip lines each year or after each crop. For more information about irrigating your vegetables, read the publications about irrigation listed in Appendix F. You can test your soil for moisture by removing a handful of soil from the root zone and squeezing. If the soil crumbles and does not keep the shape of your hand, it is too dry and you need to irrigate. Otherwise, you can wait a few more days and test again. Generally, most sandy soils in Florida should be irrigated with an inch of water every 5 to 7 days depending on the weather.HARVESTING, HA NDLING, STORING AND DISPLAYING VEGETABLESHarvesting vegetables at optimum maturity requiresand harvest duration. Although the information listed in both skill and knowledge about each horticultural varietyAppendices B and C can vary depending on location, and your intended market. Learn about the market gradesweather conditions, and your crop management skills, you required for each vegetable (Appendix D). Know yourcan estimate the amount of land needed to produce a customers or buyers and learn their preferences. Forcertain quantity of vegetables over a certain time period example, a vegetable buyer may be willing to pay a littlesuch as 12 weeks. For example: extra if a higher grade and quality of vegetable can be supplied regularly. Or, local shoppers may return to your & Eggplant may produce 600 bushels/acre over a 10roadside stand because you offer a dependable supply ofweek period or about 60 bushels could be harvested fresh, quality pr oduce picked at optimum maturity.per week. Therefore, a half acre would be required to To maintain quality and freshness after harvest, startweek for 10 to 12 weeks. by picking clean vegetables at optimum maturity. Pick more perishable vegetables in the early morning when & Southern peas may produce 105 bushels/acre over a temperatures are cool. For less perishable crops, harvest3-week period or about 35 bushels could be harvested after the dew dries to reduce the spread of disease. Alwaysper week. Thus, about one acre of southern peas handle your vegetables carefully to avoid puncturing,should be planted 4 times at 3-week intervals to scuffing, and bruising. This increases the shelf-life of yoursupply approximately 30 bushels per week for 12 produce by reducing the chances for decay organisms toweeks. enter through these punctures or scratches. Wash and dry harvest pails and equipment daily to reduce disease spread & An acre of yellow squash may produce 150 bushels and to remove sand that can scratch or become embeddedharvested 10 times over a 3-week period. About 50 in your vegetables. Prepare and grade each vegetablebushels could be harvested from an acre per week, or according to the market preferences of the buyers or your15 bushels harvested every other day. Therefore, 0.6 customers. Provide, as best you can, the proper handlingacre of yellow squash would produce about 10 and storage conditions listed in Appendix E or considerbushels every other day for a total of 30 bushels per growing and selling only the vegetables for which you have reasonably satisfactory handling equipment. WhenMARKETING OPTIONS AND BUSINESS DECISIONSSeveral marketing options exist for selling a variety of produce items. Market gardeners often can develop a reputation of providing dependable supplies of quality vegetables for either wholesale produce buyers, local market outlets, or both. Local markets include "U-pick" operations, roadside markets, door-to-door sales, retail markets, community markets, and other types of marketing arrangements. Imaginative market gardeners sometimes develop a specialty market such as selling organically grown vegetables or supplying fresh, shelled southern peas to a retail store. Obtain more information about marketing your vegetables by reading the publications listed in the Marketing section of Appendix F. Planning your production and marketing schedule requires information about crop yields, harvest frequency, supply approximately 30 bushels of eggplant per
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 7April 1999week. Yellow squash should be planted 4 times at 3 week intervals to provide a reasonably dependable supply for 12 weeks. Other useful information can be estimated from these data listed in Appendices A through E. REMEMBER however, that these data are averages or estimates which depend on many factors. As you study and gain experience in your particular region of the state, modify this information to improve your planning and decisionmaking process. Always evaluate su ccess by keeping a record of production expenses and sales r eceipts. Obtain Farm Record Books from your County Extension Agent and figure your profit or loss. Compare the actual production costs with your planning budgets to determine which production and marketing activ ities can be improved to increase your production efficiencies and profits. A careful and honest evaluation can increase your success and the satisfaction of growing quality vegetables for profit.APPENDIX A. LEVELS OF CROP MANAGEMENT AND LABOR REQUIREMENTSGeneral crop production sk ills and labor requirements to consider when c hoosing crops for your market garden. VegetablesCrop managementRelative laborTime of peak labor requirement levelrequirement12 3Beans, snap medium -Mechanized production and harvest pole medium hi g h Trellisin g and multiple pickin g lima low mediumPickin g 2 to 3 times BroccolimediummediumHarvestin g and packin g Cabba g e medium low Harvestin g and packin g Cantaloupe medium low Harvestin g Carrots hi g h -Mechanized production and harvest Cauliflower medium to hi g h mediumHarvestin g and packin g Chinese cabba g e medium to hi g h medium Harvestin g and packin g Collards medium mediumHarvestin g and packin g Cucumbers, picklin g medium hi g h Multiple pickin g or mechanical slicin g medium hi g h Multiple pickin g Greens, mustard & turnip medium mediumHarvestin g and packin g E gg plant medium to hi g h mediumMultiple harvestin g Relative estimated comparisons of crop mana g ement skills and levels of pr oduction factors includin g fertilizer, pesticides,1irri g ation, stakin g and mulchin g needed for efficient production of each ve g etable crop. Relative estimates of re q uired labor for each ve g etable crop.2Time of peak labor re q uirement durin g the life-c y cle of the ve g etable crop. Mechanicall y produced and harvested ve g etables3such as g reen beans, radishes, carrots, celer y and others normall y are g rown more efficientl y b y lar g e scale producers and can be purchased from a wholesale market for retail sales at a local market.
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 8April 1999APPENDIX A. LEVELS OF CROP MANAGEMENT AND LABOR REQUIREMENTSGeneral crop production skills and labor requirements to consider when choosing crops for your market garden. VegetablesCrop managementRelative laborTime of peak labor requirement levelrequirement12 3Escarole medium to high mediumHarvesting and packing Lettuce medium to high mediumHarvesting and packing Malanga medium mediumHarvesting Okra medium highMultiple picking Onions, bulb high mediumWeeding and grading green bunching medium highHarvesting, cleaning and grading Peas, English medium highHarvesting 2 to 3 times Chinese or snow medium highHarvesting 2 to 4 times southern low mediumHarvesting 2 to 3 times Peppers, bell medium to high medium Harvesting 2 to 4 times Potato, white medium -Mechanized production and harvest sweet medium lowSmall harvest machinery boniato low lowSmall harvest machinery Spinach low highHarvesting Squash, yellow low to medium mediumMultiple harvesting zucchini medium mediumMultiple harvesting acorn medium lowHarvesting butternut medium lowHarvesting Strawberry high highMultiple picking Sweet corn medium mediumHarvesting and packing Tomato high highTrellising and multiple harvesting Watermelon medium lowHarvesting Relative estimated comparisons of crop management skills and levels of pr oduction factors including fertilizer,1pesticides, irrigation, staking, and mulching needed for efficient production of each vegetable crop. Relative estimates of required labor for each vegetable crop.2Time of peak labor requirement during the life-cycle of the vegetable crop. Mechanically produced and harvested3vegetables such as green beans, radishes, carrots, celery and others normally are grown more efficiently by large scale producers and can be purchased from a wholesale market for retail sales at a local market.
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 9April 1999APPENDIX B. AVERAGE OR ESTIMATED VEGETABLE YIELDSAverage or acceptable yields and excellent or high yields for vegetables grown commercially in Florida. aRemember -yields of vegetables can range from zero to record harvests depending on weather and many other factors, especially your management practices and sk ills. Yield per acre VegetablesUnitAverage or acceptableExcellent or high yields yields Beans, snap28 to 30 lb. bushels100 to 125150 pole28 to 30 lb. bushels300350 lima28 to 32 lb. bushels150 to 200250 Broccoli21 lb. cartons250 to 400400 to 500 Cabba g e 50 lb. crates 450 to 600 700 to 900 Cantaloupes lbs. 10,000 to 25,000 25,000 to 35,000 Carrots 50 lb. ba g s 250 to 350 400 to 500 Cauliflower 30 lb. cartons 250 to 450 500 to 900 Chinese cabba g e 45 to 50 lb. crates 400 to 600 700 to 900 Collards doz. bunches 300 to 500 600 tons 8 to 15 20 to 25 Cucumbers, picklin g 55 lb. bushels 150 to 200 250 to 300 slicin g 55 lb. bushels 200 to 300 300 to 400 Greens, mustard & turnip doz. bunches 300 to 325 350 to 400 tons 9 to 10 10 to 12 E gg plant 33 lb. bushels 600 to 750 800 to 900 Escarole 28 to 30 lb. bushels 500 to 600 700 to 900 Lettuce 43 to 50 lb. bushels 500 to 600 800 to 900 Malan g a 50 lb. box 150 to 200 300 to 400 Okra, fresh 30 lb. bushels 200 to 400 400 to 600 soup tons 8 to 9 15 Onions, bulb 50 lb. ba g s 300 to 600 800 to 1200 g reen bunchin g 4 doz. bunches/carton 900 1200 Peas, En g lish 20 to 30 lb. bushels 50 to 100 100 to 125 Chinese or snow 30 lb. bushels 100 150 southern 24 lb. bushels 100 to 140 200 Peppers, bell 25 to 28 lb. bushels 500 to 900 1100 to 1500 Sources:a1. Florida A g ricultural Statistics -Ve g etable Summar y 1978. Florida Crop and Livestock Reportin g Service, Orlando. 2. Costs and Returns from Ve g etable Crops in Florida, Season 1976-77 with comparison. Econ. Info. Rep. 85 from Food & Resource Economics Dep t., IFAS, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville. 3. Seasonal Response of Ve g etable crops for Selected Cultivars in North Florida. Ve g Crops Res. Rep. 1 7 from Ve g etable Crops Dept., IFAS, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville. 4. Personal communications from J. M. Barber, R. L. Brown, J. D. Dilbeck, L. H. Halse y J. Montelaro and J. M. Stephens.
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 10April 1999APPENDIX B. AVERAGE OR ESTIMATED VEGETABLE YIELDSAverage or acceptable yields and excellent or high yields for vegetables grown commercially in Florida. aRemember -yields of vegetables can range from zero to record harvests depending on weather and many other factors, especially your management practices and sk ills.Yield per acre VegetablesUnitAverage or acceptableExcellent or high yields yields Potato, whitecwt.200 to 225250 to 300 sweet50 lb. bushels400 to 600800 boniato50 lb. box350 to 400500 to 550 Spinachcwt.30 to 4050 to 60 Squash, yellow42 to 44 lb. bushels150 to 175200 to 225 zucchini42 to 44 lb. bushels400 to 800900 to 1000 acorn41 to 45 lb. bushels250 to 400450 to 600 butternut41 to 45 lb. bushels200 to 300350 to 400 Strawberryflats1400 to 15001600 to 1800 Sweet corn5 doz. ears/crates150 to 250300 Tomato30 lb. boxes600 to 8001000 to 1200 Watermelonlbs.20,000 to 30,00040,000 to 50,000Sources:a1. Florida A g ricultural Statistics -Ve g etable Summar y 1978. Florida Crop and Livestock Reportin g Service, Orlando. 2. Costs and Returns from Ve g etable Crops in Florida, Season 1976-77 with comparison. Econ. Info. Rep. 85 from Food & Resource Economics Dep t., IFAS, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville. 3. Seasonal Response of Ve g etable crops for Selected Cultivars in North Florida. Ve g Crops Res. Rep. 1 7 from Ve g etable Crops Dept., IFAS, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville. 4. Personal communications from J. M. Barber, R. L. Brown, J. D. Dilbeck, L. H. Halse y J. Montelaro and J. M. Stephens.
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 11April 1999APPENDIX C. VEGETABLE HARVEST INFORMATIONGeneral harvest and timing information needed to plan vegetable production and marketing options. VegetablesHarvestDays to first harvestDays betweenDays of harvest seasonharvestsduration per crop1Beans, snap warm 50 to 60 ( harvest mechanicall y) pole warm 60 to 70 3 to 4 20 to 30 lima warm & hot 65 to 75 3 to 4 20 to 30 Broccoli cool 65 to 90 5 to 10 20 to 40aCabba g e cool & cold 75 to 90 7 to 10 15 to 20aCantaloupes warm 70 to 85 5 to 7 10 to 15 Carrots cool 100 to 140 ( one di gg in g) Cauliflower cool 55 to 65 5 to 10 15 to 20aChinese cabba g e cool 50 to 65 7 to 10 15 to 20aCollards, y oun g plant cool & cold 40 to 60 ( one harvest ) bunched leavescool & cold 50 to 70 7 to 10 60 to 90 Cucumbers, picklin g warm 40 to 50 3 to 4 15 to 25 slicin g warm 40 to 55 3 to 4 15 to 25 Greens, mustard & turnip cool 40 to 60 ( one harvest ) E gg plant warm & hot 85 to 100 7 to 10 50 to 100aEscarole cool 80 to 100 ( one or two harvests ) Lettuce, crisphead cool 70 to 90 ( one or two harvests ) cos cool 50 to 80 ( one or two harvests ) butterhead cool 50 to 70 ( one or two harvests ) leaf cool 40 to 60 ( one or two harvests ) Malan g a warm & hot10 to 12 months ( one di gg in g) Okra warm & hot 50 to 60 2 to 3 60 to 100 Onions, bulb April & Ma y 120 to 150 ( one harvest ) g reen bunchin g cool 50 to 100 ( one harvest ) Peas, En g lish ( bush ) earl y warm 60 to 80 5 to 10 20 to 30 Chinese or snow earl y warm 50 to 70 5 to 10 30 to 40 southern warm & hot 55 to 70 7 to 10 20 to 30 Peppers, bell warm 70 to 85 10 to 20 20 to 40aPotato, white earl y warm 80 to 95 ( di g mechanicall y) sweet warm & hot 120 to 140 ( di g mechanicall y) boniato warm & hot 6 to 8 months ( di g mechanicall y) In Florida, plantin g and harvest seasons var y dependin g on location. Specific plantin g dates are listed in each crop production1 g uide printed b y the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Harvest seasons listed in this table are defined as follows: hot season normall y includin g hi g h rainfall durin g summer months; warm season durin g sprin g and fall ve g etable g rowin g periods includin g winter production season in South Florida; cool season when temperatures ma y ran g e from at or near freezin g to 50 ( F re g ularl y ; cold season when freezin g temperatures are expected re g ularl y Information for transplanted crops.a(Continued next page)
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 12April 1999APPENDIX C. VEGETABLE HARVEST INFORMATIONGeneral harvest and timing information needed to plan vegetable production and marketing options. VegetablesHarvest seasonDays to first harvestDays betweenDays of harvest1harvests duration per crop Spinach cool 40 to 45 ( one harvest ) S q uash, y ellow warm 35 to 45 2 to 3 15 to 30 zucchini warm 35 to 45 2 to 3 15 to 30 acorn warm 95 to 105 ( one harvest ) butternut warm 95 to 105 ( one harvest ) Strawberr y cool & earl y warm90 to 120 4 to 7 45 to 70 Sweet corn warm 65 to 85 2 to 3 4 to 6 Tomato, vine ripe warm 80 to 90 2 to 3 20 to 30a mature g reen warm 75 to 85 7 to 10 20 to 30 Watermelon warm & hot 80 to 90 5 to 7 15 to 20 In Florida, plantin g and harvest seasons var y dependin g on location. Specific plantin g dates are listed in each crop production1 g uide printed b y the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Harvest seasons listed in this table are defined as follows: hot season normall y includin g hi g h rainfall durin g summer months; warm season durin g sprin g and fall ve g etable g rowin g periods includin g winter production season in South Florida; cool season when temperatures ma y ran g e from at or near freezin g to 50 ( F re g ularl y ; cold season when freezin g temperatures are expected re g ularl y Information for transplanted crops.aAPPENDIX D. VEGETABLE MATURITY AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICSVegetable crop Desired maturity and quality characteristics Beans, snap & pole Seed immature; pods crisp & uniform lima Seed developed & plump Broccoli Flower buds developed, but ti g ht; clean & dark g reen Cabba g e Heads firm, heav y & compact CantaloupesFlesh firm & sweet with aroma; nettin g & stem at full-slip sta g e CarrotsFirm, uniform, dark oran g e, crisp with 0.5 to 1.0 inch diameter CauliflowerCurd white, clean and compact Chinese cabba g e Heads firm, clean & compact Collards Leaves fresh, dark g reen, y oun g & tender Cucumbers, picklin g Small to medium size ( 1 to 4 inches lon g) crisp & g reen slicin g Medium size ( 6 inches lon g) g reen & crisp. Greens, mustard & turnipLeaves fresh, g reen, y oun g & tender E gg plant Deep purple skin with immature seeds and medium q uart j ar size EscaroleLeaves fresh, crisp & tender ( continued next pa g e )
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 13April 1999APPENDIX D. VEGETABLE MATURITY AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICSVegetable crop Desired maturity and quality characteristics Lettuce, head Heads compact & firm; fresh, crisp & clean cos, butterhead & leaf Leaves tender, crisp & clean Malan g a Corms medium size & washed Okra Pods y oun g immature & li g ht g reen with immature seeds Onions, bulbTi g ht necks & dr y leaf scales g reen bunchin g Fresh, uniform & g reen with lon g white shank Peas, En g lish Seed developed, tender & sweet Chinese or snow Seeds immature; pods tender, g reen & sweet southernSeed & characteristic pi g mentation developed Peppers, bellFirm, crisp, dark g reen & block y Potato, white Smooth, firm, free of bruises & cleaned sweet Solid, attractive shape & size; free of bruises boniato Solid, attractive & washed Spinach Leaves dark g reen, fresh, crisp & clean S q uash, y ellow Crisp, tender, li g ht y ellow & 2 to 5 inches lon g zucchini Crisp, tender, dark g reen, & 3 to 6 inches lon g acorn Skin dark g reen & hard butternutSkin cream colored & hard Strawberr y Berries firm, plump & red Sweet cornKernels plump, sweet, milk y & tender Tomato, mature g reen Seed mature; fruit uniform li g ht g reen, firm & solid vine ripeFirm, plump with pink to red color WatermelonMature with pink to red flesh, sweet & crispAPPENDIX E. VEGETABLE PERISHABILITY, STORAGE CONDITIONS AND CONTAINERSPerishability, optimum storage c onditions, and normal container used to ship vegetables to wholesale markets. 1Market gardeners lacking adequate handling and storage fac ilities must strive to reduce the time between harvesting and se lling or choose crops that can be handled properly. General perishability and optimum storage c onditionsNormal container for wholesale market2STORABLE3Cold, moist ( 32 to 40 ( F; 90 to 95% relative humidit y) Cabba g e wirebound crates ( 50 lb. bushels ) Carrots plastic ba g s in 50 lb. masters Malan g a wirebound crates ( 50 lb. bushels ) Cool, moist ( 45 to 55 ( F; 90 to 95% relative humidit y) Potatoes sack ( 100 lb. )
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 14Perishability, optimum storage c onditions, and normal container used to ship vegetables to wholesale markets. 1Market gardeners lacking adequate handling and storage fac ilities must strive to reduce the time between harvesting and se lling or choose crops that can be handled properly. April 1999 Cool, dr y ( 45 to 55 ( F; 50 to 60% relative humidit y) Onions, bulb mesh sacks ( 50 lb. ) a Warm, moist ( 55 to 60 ( F; 60 to 70% relative humidit y) Potatoes, sweet wirebound crate ( 50 lb. bushels ) a boniato wirebound crate ( 50 lb. bushels ) Warm, dr y ( 55 to 60 ( F; 60 to 70% relative humidit y) S q uash, acorn and butternut wirebound crate ( 41 to 45 lb. bushels ) LESS PERISHABLE4Cold, moist ( 32 to 40 ( F; 90 to 95% relative humidit y) Beans, lima hampers ( 28 to 32 lb. bushels ) Cabba g e wirebound crates ( 50 lb. bushels ) Cauliflower heads wrapped with cellophane in 30 lb. wax carton Peas, En g lish wirebound crates ( 28 to 30 lb. bushels ) southern hampers ( 24 lb. bushels ) Cool, moist ( 45 to 50 ( F; 80 to 90% relative humidit y) Cucumber, picklin g hauled bulk to picklin g plant slicin g wax carton ( 55 lb. bushels ) E gg plant wirebound crate or carton ( 33 lb. bushel ) Okra hampers or wirebound crate ( 30 lb. bushel ) Pepper, bell wax cartons or wirebound crate ( 25 to 28 lb. bushel ) S q uash, y ellow & zucchini wirebound crates ( 42 to 44 lb. bushels ) Watermelon truckload or cartons Warm, moist ( 55 to 70 ( F; 80 to 90% relative humidit y) Tomato, mature g reen carton ( 30 lb. ) 60 70 ( F vine ripecarton ( 20 lb. ) 50 55 ( F Source: Ve g etable Harvest and Stora g e, USDA Fact Sheet AFS 8 13 1 for part-time farmers and g ardeners.1Ve g etables are sometimes packed in other containers besides those listed. Therefore, ask y our intended bu y er and shipper2about which containers are acceptable for y our re g ion. Storable ve g etables can be held for several weeks to a few months when stored under proper temperatures and relative3humidities. However, shelf-life and market q ualit y will decrease durin g stora g e. Moderatel y perishable ve g etables can be held for several da y s when held under proper temperatures and relative humidities.4Perishable ve g etables re q uire special handlin g and stora g e conditions to maintain freshness and q ualit y .5Bulb onions and sweet potatoes must be cured before storin g Read the extension production g uides listed in Appendix Fafor details.(continued next page)
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 15April 1999APPENDIX E. VEGETABLE PERISHABILITY, STORAGE CONDITIONS AND CONTAINERSGeneral perishability and optimum storage conditionsNormal container for wholesale market2MORE PERISHABLE5Cold, moist (32 to 40 ( F; 90 to 95% relative humidity) Broccoliheads bunched in wax carton (21 lbs.) Chinese cabbagewirebound crate (45 to 50 lbs.) Collardswirebound crate or bunched Greens, mustard & turnipvarious crates, cartons and plastic bags Escarolewirebound crate (28 to 30 lb. bushels) Lettucewax carton (45 to 50 lbs.) Onions, green bunchingwax carton (4 doz.) Peas, Chinese or snowwirebound crate (30 lb. bushels) Spinachwax carton or plastic bag Strawberrypint boxes in 12 pint tray Sweet cornwirebound crate (5 doz. ears) Cool, moist (45 to 50 ( F; 80 to 90% relative humidity) Beans, snap & polehampers or wirebound crate (28 to 30 lb. bushel)Source: Ve g etable Harvest and Stora g e, USDA Fact Sheet AFS 8 13 1 for part-time farmers and g ardeners.1Ve g etables are sometimes packed in other containers besides those listed. Therefore, ask y our intended bu y er and shipper2about which containers are acceptable for y our re g ion. Storable ve g etables can be held for several weeks to a few months when stored under proper temperatures and relative3humidities. However, shelf-life and market q ualit y will decrease durin g stora g e. Moderatel y perishable ve g etables can be held for several da y s when held under proper temperatures and relative humidities.4Perishable ve g etables re q uire special handlin g and stora g e conditions to maintain freshness and q ualit y .5Bulb onions and sweet potatoes must be cured before storin g Read the extension production g uides listed in Appendix Fafor details.APPENDIX F. SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATIONInformation listed below is available from the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, unless another address is stated.I. Vegetable Crop Production Guide and Slide/Tape Series1. Production guide circulars a. Growing Quality Vegetables in Florida An Intr oduction for Small-scale and Part-time Market Gardeners, Circ. 473. b. Growing Okra in Florida, Cir. 175. c. Growing Sweet Potatoes in Florida, Circ. 440. d. Growing Southern Peas in Florida, Circ. 478.
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 16April 19992. Slide/tape sets contain fundamental production information and can be viewed at your County Extension Office if requested three to four weeks in advance. a. Growing Quality Vegetables for Profit, ST158. h. Growing Sweet Potatoes for Profit, ST-144 & 145. c. Growing Okra for Profit, ST-146 & 147. d. Growing Southern Peas for Profit, ST-156 & 157.II. Vegetable Crop Production Guides1. Bean Production Guide, Circ. 100 2. Cabbage Production Guide, Circ. 117 3. Cantaloupe Production Guide, Circ. 122 4. Cucumber Production Guide, Circ. 101 5. Eggplant Production Guide, Circ. 109 6. Lettuce & Endive Production Guide, Circ. 123 7. Onion Production Guide, Circ. 176 8. Pepper Production Guide, Circ. 102 9. Potato Production Guide, Circ. 118 10. Sweet Corn Production Guide, Circ. 99 11. Strawberry Production Guide, Circ. 142 12. Squash Production Guide, Circ. 103 13. Tomato Production Guide, Circ. 98 14. Watermelon Production Guide, Circ. 96III. Other Production Infor mation1. General pest control a. Florida Insect Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $10,00 b. Florida Plant Disease Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $10.00 c. Florida Nematode Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $10.00 d. Florida Weed Control Guide (Looseleaf), Cost $15.00
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 17April 1999e. Weed Control Guide for Commercial Vegetable Production in Florida, Circ. 196 f. Nutsedge Suppression in Commercial Vegetables, Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 12 g. Perennial Grass Control in Commercial Vegetables, Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 13 h. Weed Control in Market Vegetable Gardens, Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet 16 I. Rhizoctonia Seedling Blights of Vegetables and Field Crops, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-1 j. Downey Mildew of Cucurbits, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-2 k. Bacterial Spot of Tomato and Pepper, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-3 1. Late Blight on Potatoes and Tomatoes, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-6 m. Early Blight on Tomatoes and Potatoes, Plant Pathology Fact Sheet, PP-7 n. Control of Soilborne Diseases of Peppers, Tomatoes, and Tobacco in Transplant Beds, Plant Protection Pointers, Extension Plant Pathology Report No. 25 o. Insects Affecting Sweet Potatoes, Plant Protection Pointers, Extension Entomology Report No. 60 p. Watermelons Insect Descriptions and Their Control, Plant Protection Pointers, Extension Entomology Report No. 64 q. Insects that Attack Cucumbers and Their Control, Plant Protection Pointers, Extension Entomology Report No. 65 2. Soils and fertilizers a. Soil Testing, Circ. 239 b. Fertilizers and Fertilization, Bull. 183 c. Commercial Vegetable Fertilization Guide, Circ. 225 d. Soil Reaction (pH), Know Florida Soils, Soils Fact Sheet #1 e. The Florida Fertilizer Label, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-3 f. Soil Organic Matter, Know Florida Soils, Soils Fact Sheet #6 g. Soils and Plant Nutrition, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-8 h. Legumes A Possible Alternative to Fertilizer Nitrogen, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-9 I. Soil pH Adjustment, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-12 j. Crop Residues, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-13 k. Soluble Salts in Soils, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-19
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 18April 1999l. Liming and Liming Materials, Soil Science Fact Sheet, SL-23 m. Nitrogen A Primary Plant Nutrient, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon) n. Phosphorus A Primary Plant Nutrient, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon) o. Potassium A Primary Plant Nutrient, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon) p. Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur The Secondary Plant Nutrients, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon) q. Micronutrients Part 1: Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon) r. Micronutrients Part II: B, Mo, Cl, Soil Science Fact Sheet (available soon) 3. Irrigation a. Irrigation Plans Available, Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet, AE-8 b. Irrigation Systems for Crop Production in Florida, WRC Fact Sheet 8 c. Water and Nutrient Application by Drip Irrigation for Vegetables, Vegetable Crops Dept. Report, 271979, Vegetable Crops Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville d. The 1/128th of an Acre Sprayer Calibration Met hod, Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet, AE-5IV. Harvest ing and Handling Infor mation1. Vegetable Harvest and Storage. USDA Fact Sheet AFS-8-13-1 for part-time farmers and gardeners. (United States Dept. of Agriculture Office of Communication, Washington, D.C. 20250) 2. How to Buy Fresh Vegetables, USDA Consumer & Marketing Service Bull. No. 143 (Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402) Cost $0.15 3. Harvesting Vegetables in Florida, Vegetable Crops Extension Report 10-1976, Vegetable Crops Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.V. Marketing Information and Record Books1. Florida Agricultural Statistics Vegetable Summary. (Florida Crop & Livestock Reporting Service, 1222 W oodward St., Orlando, FL 32803) 2. Costs & Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Econ. Info. Report 110, F ood and Resource Economics Dept., IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville. 3. Annual Farm Income and Expense Record, Circ. 438 4. Ten-year Inventory and Depreciation Record, Circ. 439 5. Management of Roadside Markets, Circ. 484
Growin g Qualit y Ve g etables in Florida Pa g e 19April 1999APPENDIX G. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ENGLISH AND METRIC UNITSMetric to English English to Metric Length centimeter (cm) = 0.394 inch inch (in) = 2.54 cm meter (m) = 3.281 feet foot (ft) = 0.305 m meter (m) = 1.094 yard yard (yd) = 0.915 m kilometer (km) = 0.621 mile (mi) = 1.609 km Weight gram (g) = 0.035 ounce ounce (oz) = 28.35 g kilogram (kg) = 2.205 p ound pound (lb) = 453.59 g metric ton (mt) = 1.102 U.S. ton U.S. ton (t) = 0.907 mt Volume (liquid) milliliter (ml) = 0. 035 fluid ounce fluid ounce (oz) = 28.35 ml liter (L) = 0. 220 gallon gallon (gal) = 4.546 L Area square meter (m) = 10.764 square feet square feet (ft) = 0.093 m2hectare (ha) = 2.471 acre acre (A) = 0.405 ha22Amount/ Acre kg/ha = 0.892 lb/Alb/A = 1.12 kg/ha mt/ha = 0.446 t/At/A = 2.210 mt/ha Pressure kg/cm = 14.22 lb/in (psi)lb/in (psi) = 0.0703 kg/cm22 22Temperature (degrees C x 9/5) + 32 = degrees Fdegrees F x (5/9 32) = degrees C