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A Guide To Commercial Poultry Production In Florida
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ ( Publisher's URL )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00001474/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Guide To Commercial Poultry Production In Florida
Physical Description: Fact sheet
Creator: Douglas, Carrol
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1992
 Notes
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "published December 1992"
General Note: "RF-AA075"
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00001474:00001

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AGuidetoCommercialPoultryProductioninFlorida1 TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanEqualOpportunity/AffirmativeActionEmployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,ornationalorigin. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/JohnT.Woeste,DeanCarrolDouglas2FACTORSINPLANNINGA POULTRYOPERATION IndependentorContractProduction(1)Independenteggproducershavethetotal responsibilityforallplanning,producingand marketingofeggs.Theymustprovidehouses, equipment,birds,feed,allsuppliesand management.Theirrisksaregreaterbut potentialprofitorlossisalsogreater.Thereare noindependentbroilerproducers. (2)Contractpoultryproducers(broilersandeggs) provideland,labor,houses,equipment,taxes, utilities,andinsurance.Thecontractorfurnishes birds,feed,medication,supervision,andmarkets theproduct.Thecontractorpicksupeggsor broilersatthefarmandtheproducerispaida basepriceperdozenorperpoundplusan incentivebonusasstatedinthecontract. Inplanningforapoultryoperation,a determinationshouldbemadeofallcontractors operatingwithintheareaandthetypeofcontract available.LocationWithinFloridaEggfarmsarelocatedincountiesalloverthe state;however,themajoreggproducingareasarethe TampaBayarea,allacrossCentralFlorida, northwardtoNassauCounty,andscattered independentproducerslocatedacrossthenorthern partofthestate. Independenteggfarmscouldbelocatedinany county,however,makesureamarketisavailableand zoninglawspermitpoultryfarming.Itwouldbewell, however,toconsiderlocatingnewfarmswellaway frompopulatedcommunities. Allcommercialbroilerproducersarelocatedin NorthFlorida(countiesnorthofGainesville).It wouldnotbefeasibletoestablishabroilerfarmin othercounties,sinceessentiallyallbroilersare producedundercontractand,atpresent,contractors onlyoperateinNorthFlorida.InvestmentWithbuildingandequipmentcostscontinuingto rise,itisdifficulttosetanaccurateinvestmentcost necessarytobuildandequippoultryhouses.Today's investmentforbuildingsandequipmentaloneare runningapproximately$5.00-$7.00perbirdfor layers,dependingonthedegreeofmechanization. Broilerhousesandequipmentwillrunapproximately $3.50persquarefoot.Broilersareusuallyhousedat about0.8squarefeetperbird. Independenteggfarmsmaybeanysize.Newegg farmsusuallyhave50,000layersperfarm.Broiler farmshave25,000-90,000birdcapacityperfarm.MarketSinceFloridaisnowaneggsufficientstate,farms mustproduceeggsforaspecificmarket.Theycanno longerproduceeggsandthenhopetosellthemfora profitiftheyhavetotakeawholesalepriceforall eggs.Inplanningforaneggoperation,themost importantconsiderationistohaveaspecificmarket 1.ThisdocumentwaspublishedDecember1992asRF-AA075,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService.Formoreinformation,contactyour countyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. 2.ExtensionPoultrySpecialist,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville.

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AGuidetoCommercialPoultryProductioninFlorida Page2 orafirmcontractfromacontractor.Oneofthe biggestadvantageswhichafarmerhasinproducing eggsundercontractisthefreedomfromconcernsof marketing.LaborThemostsuccessfulpoultryoperationsarethose inwhichtheownerandtheowner'sfamilyareactively involvedinmanagingandworkingonthefarm.Since poultryfarmingrequiressomeworkeveryday,the managerisresponsibleforlaborsevendaysperweek andmustunderstandtheneedforthisconstant attentiontodetails.Themostsuccessfulpoultry farmersenjoythistypeofwork. SeeTable1forsuggestednumberoflayersper person(8hrs.perday-7daysperweek)on independentfarms,undervaryingconditions.COMMERCIALEGGPRODUCTION BreedsandStrainsSelection(1)Contractproduction-Thecontracteggproducer usuallyhasnovoiceindeterminingwhichstrain ofbirdwillbeplacedonthefarm.Thecontractor willselectthebestbirdforeggmarket. (2)Independentproduction-Thereareseveraltop strainsofeggproductionlayersavailable.The producershouldpickthestraintofitthemarket demand,suchaseggsize,eggshellcolor,shell qualityandfeedefficiency.Chicksshouldbe obtainedfromreputablehatcheries.Bystudying theOfficialDirectoryofFloridaBreedingFlocks andHatcheries(PublishedannuallybytheFlorida DepartmentofAgricultureandConsumer Services,Tallahassee,FL)theproducercanfind asourceofqualitychicks.HousingandEquipmentEssentiallyallcommerciallayersinFloridaare housedincages.Ifaneggfarmisgoingtoproduce eggsundercontract,theproducerwillbeabletoget constructiondetailsfromthecontractorandoften mustbuildandequipthehousefollowingthe contractor'sdirections.Sincemanycontractor-owned complexesarebuiltwithclosedsided,evaporative cooledhouses,contractproducersmayberequiredto providesimilarfacilities.PoultryHouseEssentials(a)Locateonwelldrainedland.High,sandy,black jackoakridgesmakeideallocations. (b)Buildonanelevatedgradewithgooddrainage betweenhouses. (c)Consideracreageandlocationofbuildingsfor futureexpansion. (d)Openhousesshouldbebuiltwithridge ventilationwhichcanbeopenedandclosed. (e)Ifhousesareequippedwithsidecurtains,the curtainsshouldbeadjustable. (f)Adequatehouseeaves(24-36inches)tokeepout blowingrainanddirectsunareimportant. (g)Considereaseofmanurecleanout. (h)Makesureadequatelandisavailableformanure disposal(approximately1A/1000birds).FeedsandFeeding(1)Feedandfeedinginstructionsareprovidedbythe contractorsforfarmersproducingeggsunder contract. (2)Theindependentproducershouldlookat economicsandbuyhighqualityfeedfroma companyofferinggoodserviceaswellasquality feed.Feedsarecomposedofimportantgroupsof ingredientscallednutrients.Ahighqualityfeed willcontainaproperbalanceofnutrients balancedforthepurposeforwhichitistobefed. (3)Mostindependentproducersshouldstartout buyingacompletefeed.Ashegrowsinsizeand gainsexperience,hemaywanttoconsidermixing hisownfeed.Investigatetheeconomics,time andmanagementnecessarytomixaqualityfeed andmaintainqualitycontrol.Detailsin formulationandfeedmixingcanbeobtained fromtheExtensionPoultrymen. (4)Afeedingprogramshouldbedevelopedto maintainquality.Checkfeedtanksforold,caked feed.Emptyandcleantanksoccasionally.Donot allowfeedtogetwet.FlockHealth(1)Thecontractorservicepersonistrainedtospot healthproblemsbeforetheydevelopintomajor problemsandadvisetheproducer.

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AGuidetoCommercialPoultryProductioninFlorida Page3 (2)Theindependenteggproducercanbestmaintain Table1. SuggestedNumberofLayersPerPersononIndependentFarmsUnderVaryingConditions Retailing(CaseLots)when CandlingandCartoning RetailingDoortoDoor (EggRoute) Producerwhobuysstartedpullets andwhoseoperationwillbeplaced market,isfullyautomatic-withpit cleaners,egggatheringbelts,etc. 6,000-8,000 5,000-7,000 Producerwhobuysstartedpullets andhasautomaticfeeders 4,000-5,000 3,500-4,000 Producerwhobuysstartedpullets 3,500-4,000 3,000-3,500 Producerwhoraisesownpullets andisfullyautomaticwithpit cleaners,egggatheringbelts,etc. 4,000-5,000 3,500-4,000 Producerwhoraisesownpullets andhasautomaticfeeders 3,500-4,000 3,000-3,500 Producerwhoraisesownpullets 3,000-3,500 2,500-3,000 healthyflocksby: (a)Usingtheall-in-alloutmethodof management. (b)Practicinggoodmanagement. (c)Keepinghisfarmandhousesofflimitsto visitors. (d)Usingagoodvaccinationprogram. (e)Becomingfamiliarwithimportantdiseases anddiagnosticlabprocedures. (3)Vaccination: (a) Marek'sDisease: 1day(atHatchery) (b) Bronchitis: 10days,4to5weeks,14to16 weeks (c) NewcastleDisease: 2weeksrepeatevery2to 3months (d) FowlPox: HighRiskArea-1to2 weeks,12 to16weeks;LowRiskAre a-8to16 weeks (e)Vaccinationschedulesmayvarydependingon thediseaseconditioninthearea. (4)DiagnosticLaboratories Fivepoultrydiagnosticlaboratories,underthe directionoftheFloridaDept.ofAgricultureand ConsumerServices,arelocatedatthefollowing places: CottondaleLaboratory P.O.Box37 Cottondale,FL32431 (904-353-4461) LiveOakLaboratory P.O.DrawerO LiveOak,FL32060 (904-362-1216) DadeCityLaboratory P.O.Box1031 DadeCity,FL33525 (904-567-5176) KissimmeeLaboratory P.O.Box460 Kissimmee,FL32641 (305-847-3185) MiamiSpringsLaboratory 8701N.W.58thSt. Miami,FL33166 (305-888-8238)

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AGuidetoCommercialPoultryProductioninFlorida Page4 Thereisachargeofdiagnosticservice.Birds maybesenttotheselabsbyexpressorbyperson. Birdsshouldnotbeshippedtoarriveon weekends.Threeorfourlivebirdsshowing typicalsymptomsoftheconditionprevalentinthe flockshouldbesent.Theshipmentshouldbe accompaniedbyasmuchinformationconcerning theflockandsickbirdsaspossiblesuchas:age, durationofillness,previoushistoryofillnessand vaccination,sizeofflock,rateofmortality, medicationadministration,feedintake, productionpatterns,etc.Allbirdssubmittedas wellascontainerswillbedisposedofatthelab.BroodingFloorhouses(a)Cleananddisinfecthousesandequipment completely. (b)Putin4to6inchesofcleanlitter. (c)Havewaterandfeedavailablewhenchicksarrive. (d)Inspectandadjustbrooderspriortoarrivalof chicks. (e)Followmanufacturer'sdirectionsforbrooder capacity. (f)Adjustbroodertemperatureatedgeofhoverat 95degreesF.forthefirstweekandreduce5 degreeseachweek. (g)Usebrooderguardsforfirst7-10days. (h)Isolatebrooderhouseandkeepvisitorsout.CageBrooderhousesManypoultryfarmersarenowbroodingpulletsin cagebrooders.Followmanufacturer'sdirectionson heatingsystems.Usethesamemanagement recommendationsforpreparinghouse,feeding, wateringandchickcare.PulletManagement(1)Isolatepullethousesandkeepvisitorsout. (2)Removeunthriftypulletsastheyappear. (3)Forfeedingandlightingdetailscheckwithan ExtensionPoultryman. (4)Weighasampleofbirdsbi-weeklytocheckbody weightagainststrainstandard. (5)Debeaking-Thereareseveralsatisfactory methodsandprogramsofdebeaking.The poultrymanshouldselecttheprogramwhichfits hisoperation.Thefollowingmethodsareused: (a)EarlyPrecisionDebeaking Ageofbirdbetween6and9days. Bothbeaksinsertedintoa10/64or11/64 inchhole. Hotblade(1700degreesF)cherryred. Hotbladeisheldagainstbeakfor2.5 seconds. Whendoneproperly,onedebeakingwill lastfortheexpectedlifeofthebird. (b)TTMethod Ageofbirdbetween8and10weeks. Sometimesusedinadditiontoearly precision. (c)ConventionalMethod Ageofbirdbetween12and18weeks. Independentblockcuttingofbothbeaks. Permanentandgivesgoodprotection duringlayingperiod.LayerManagement(1)Houseonlywelldeveloped,wellfleshedpullets. (2)Useartificiallightstoprovide15hoursoftotal lightperday,andstartwith1footcandle intensityatthebirdlevel. (3)Feedabalanceddiet-Keepfeedintakerecords. (4)Weighasampleofbirdsmonthly. (5)Removeobviousculls. (6)Observebirdsoftentospotproblemareasearly.EggHandlingforQuality(1)Keepcagesandegggatheringequipmentingood repairtopreventcracks. (2)Handleeggscarefully. (3)Cleandirtyeggsusingclean,warm(110-120 degreesF)waterwithadetergentsanitizer. (4)Cooleggsquicklyandkeepthemcool.Holdat atemperatureof50-60degreesF.witharelative humidityof70-80%.COMMERCIALBROILERPRODUCTIONAllbroilersareproducedandmarketedbyfirms whichownorcontrolhatchery,feedmill,processing plantandmarketarrangements.Birdsaregrownby farmersundercontractandundersupervisionofthe contractor.Thefarmerprovidesland,labor,houses, equipment,taxes,utilitiesandinsurance.Thefarmer

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AGuidetoCommercialPoultryProductioninFlorida Page5 ispaidabasepriceplusbonusaccordingtothe contract.HATCHINGEGGPRODUCTION ANDHATCHERYMANAGEMENT FlockManagementKeepbirdshealthy,use10malesper100broiler breederfemalesor8malesper100eggbreeder females.FeedFeedabreederdietwhichisspeciallyformulated forhighhatchability.CareofHatchingEggs(1)Selecteggsforsize,shape,shellcolorandtexture, 23-28oz.perdoz.bestforhatching. (2)Holdeggsatatemperaturebetween55-65 degreesF.,humidityof70-85%andfornotmore than7to10daysbeforesetting.