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NAME_________________________________________________________________________________________ ADDRESS_____________________________________________________________________________________ CLUB_________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-H HORSE PROGRAM HORSE SCIENCE This educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and the American Quarter Horse Association. Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information. The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative Extension Services is implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815. Programs and educational materials of National 4-H Council are available to all persons regardless of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin or handicap. Council is an equal opportunity employer.
Horse Science: Health and Sanitation Principles Important in Horse Care Pa g e 3June 1989There are good reasons why you should be concerneddrafts. Most respiratory troubles develop from keeping with maintaining the proper health of your horses or ponies.horses in tight barns which are too warm and humid. First, you have a responsibility to all animals entrusted to your care to protect them from injury, sickness and pain. Secondly, any time your horse is ill it will prevent youThe scientific basis for this recommendation is: from using him.Contagious diseases are caused by microorganisms, Thirdly, if your horse needs treatment, it will usuallymostly bacteria and viruses. However, your horses can cost you time and money.develop defenses against many microorganisms. These If we take the horse industry as a whole, we find thatdefenses are the antibodies in the blood. thousands of dollars are lost each year because horse ownersBy v accinating your horses against specific diseases did not follow the prescribed practices of good breeding,they will build up their antibody defenses against possible feeding, management, and disease prevention. This is sad,invasion by microorganisms. indeed, since the knowledge and materials necessary toThe secret of successful immunization is to have a prevent most of these losses are readily available.methodical plan, developed in consultation with your Animal scientists have discovered many practices whichv eterinarian and then to carry it out before disease strikes. horse owners find beneficial in the maintenance of healthyVaccination after your horses have been exposed to disease horses. There are many fine drugs, vaccines, disinfectantswill seldom give them enough time to build up their and other products manufactured today that can be useddefen ses to a large enough degree. You might sustain serious successfully to help keep horses healthy. Fortunately thelosses in such a case. people in veterinary medicine are ready and willing to helpHorses are often inoculated against tetanus since this in the wise use of these materials and in helping you to setorganism is usually present in horse stables. up a sound health program for your horses.Internal parasites can cause stunting, illness and even There are many preventive measures which are goodd eath if not controlled. They are particularly harmful to foals common sense ideas with scientific principles behind them.and colts up to two years of age. Periodic examination of Some of the more important ones are listed below.fecal samples from your young horses by your veterinarian 1) Feed your horses a nutritionally balanced ration, in sufficient quantities in the correct manner. The scientific basis for this recommendation is:parasitism in your horses is to plan a total immunization and A horse's well-being depends largely on its nutrition. Ifparasite control program with your veterinarian. You must the level of nutrition is high, the body defenses againsthave your horses vaccinated at the right time, with the right diseases will be stronger. This also applies to the problemsvaccine and by the best method to be sure they will build up of internal parasites. Unsoundnesses of the feet and legs arean immunity. You must also treat for parasites at the proper sometimes traced to deficient rations. The same is true oftime and with the proper material in the prescribed way to other abnormalities such as infertility and abortion. It issuccessfully protect your horses. possible to overfeed horses and by so doing create serious problems. A horse may founder, become temporarily infertile or aggravate respiratory problems from being over-The scientific basis for this recommendation is: fed. Some of these troubles are caused from feeding moldyCorrect diagnosis of illness or abnormal conditions in or dusty feed or from feeding or allowing access to coldyour horses is necessary before they can be treated water too soon after heavy work.intelligently. Improper treatment based merely on 2) Provide clean, healthful quarters for your horses. The scientific basis for this recommendation is: Disease organisms often grow and thrive in organic waste. Flies and insects as well as vermin, which also harbor disease, thrive under filthy conditions. Removing the source (reservoir) of the disease organism lessens the chances of disease. If your horse is kept in a clean environment, his body will not be constantly fighting to ward off disease.5) Keep your horses well exercised, groomed and feeling Therefore, he will make better use of his feed, will feel better and perform better because of less stress from disease. Horses do best when allowed plenty of freedom to exercise and plenty of clear fresh air, provided there are no 3) Carry out a planned immunization and parasite control program. will give you information on the extent of the problem. The most scientific way to prevent disease and 4) Get an accurate diagnosis of the disease problem from a veterinarian. supposition can result in loss of time and money or even the animals involved. A diagnosis requires much specialized knowledge and many procedures. Veterinarians have this knowledge and also the equipment necessary to make the study. If they lack in either facilities or knowledge in a special situation, they can call on the state diagnostic laboratories and scientists for assistance. fit. The scientific basis for this recommendation is: If your horses are confined and cannot exercise by themselves they will lose muscle tone, they may become stiff
Horse Science: Health and Sanitation Principles Important in Horse Care Pa g e 4June 1989or lame and their digestive systems will not function as Your local veterinarian is best qualified to help outline effectively. Horses in their natural state had the opportunitya disease control program. He is trained in his field and he for unlimited exercise in a clean, outdoor environment. Thisis acquainted with the major disease problems in your enabled them to keep fit which meant they were betterparticular area. equipped to ward off disease and unsoundnesses. By keeping in constant touch with your veterinarian he 6) Consult your veterinarian. Plan a disease prevention and parasite control program with him. The scientific basis for this recommendation is: Disease prevention will probably be most effective Preventing disease is more effective than treating yourwhen you and your veterinarian work together in all phases horses after they become sick. of the disease prevention program. knows the history of your horse or horses and will be in a better position to make an accurate and rapid diagnosis.NOTES
Horse Science: Health and Sanitation Principles Important in Horse Care Pa g e 5June 1989NOTES
Horse Science: Health and Sanitation Principles Important in Horse Care Pa g e 6June 1989NOTES
Horse Science: Health and Sanitation Principles Important in Horse Care Pa g e 7June 1989NOTES
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine Ta y lor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of A g riculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the Ma y 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Con g ress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services onl y to individuals and institutions that function without re g ard to race, color, a g e, sex, handicap or national ori g in. The information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Sin g le copies of extension publications (excludin g 4-H and y outh publications) are available free to Florida residents from count y extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published June 1989 as CO 201, which is superseded b y 4HHSG01, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 1.This document is section 11 of 14 of 4HHSG01, which supersedes CO 201, one of a series of the 4-H Youth Development Pro g ram, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida. Date first printed Au g ust 1965. Date revised June 1989. Please visit the FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu 2.Donald J. Balch, Universit y of Vermont. Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Desi g n Team, Department of Famil y Youth and Communit y Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.