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NAME_________________________________________________________________________________________ ADDRESS_____________________________________________________________________________________ CLUB_________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-H HORSE PROGRAM HORSE SCIENCE This educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and the American Quarter Horse Association. Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information. The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative Extension Services is implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815. Programs and educational materials of National 4-H Council are available to all persons regardless of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin or handicap. Council is an equal opportunity employer.
Horse Science: Balancin g Rations for Horses Pa g e 3June 1989Table 1. Daily Nutrient Requirements of Horses Based on mature weight of 1000 to 1200 lbsDaily Feed PerDigestibleTotal DigestibleCalciumPhosphorusVitamin A Horse lbs.Protein lbs.Nutrients lbs.gramsgramsIntl. Units*400 pound weanin g (a g e about 6 months) 11 to 121.0 to 1.28.0 to 9.033.021.012,000 600 to 700 pound y earlin g 13 to 141.6 to 1.89.0 to 10.033.021.016,000 800 to 1000 pound 2 y ear old 15 to 161.3 to 1.510.0 to 11.417.017.025,000 1000 lb. mature idle horse (less than 1 hour ridin g dail y )16 to 170.6 to 0.86.0 to 8.112.012.0 8,000 1000 lb. horse li g ht work 1 to 3 hours ridin g dail y 16 to 170.8 to 1.08.0 to 11.024.021.018,000 1000 lb. horse medium work 3 to 5 hours ridin g dail y 19 to 200.9 to 1.111.0 to 14.024.021.018,000 1000 lb. horse hard work more than 5 hours ridin g dail y 22 to 231.2 to 1.414.0 to 17.024.021.018,000 1000 lb. breedin g stallion (moderate breedin g ) 20 to 221.6 to 1.713.0 to 15.060.040.032,000 1000 lb. bred mare li g ht work 18 to 201.1 to 1.310.0 to 12.024.024.024,000 1000 lb. lactatin g mare 28 to 301.9 to 2.118.0 to 20.040.040.040,000* Horses can use carotene to produce Vitamin A at the rate of 400 International Units of Vitamin A from 1 mg. of caroteneYour 4-H horse project offers an opportunity for you to 5) Multiply each figure in Section 1 by the pounds fed learn how to balance a ration. To accomplish this, you must daily (Section 2, column 1). Record the results in the be accurate in your addition, multiplication, division and appropriate columns of Section 2 on your work sheet. subtraction. You will be working with percentages, so be 6) Add the columns in Section 2. This gives the total sure and watch decimal placings. amount of each nutrient in your horse ration. You can use Nutrient Requirement Tables in two ways: 7) Check these totals against the Daily Nutrient (1) to check the ration being fed to see if it is balanced, and Requirements listed in Section 3 of your work sheet. If (2) to formulate an adequate ration for your horse. the requirement is more than the totals in your ration, Follow this procedure in checking through the example you will know that your ration is inadequate. Your next ration and in working out a ration for your horse on the step is to find a feed ingredient that is a good source of blank sheet. the deficient nutrient and either substitute this new 1) Determine the age, weight and type of work your feedstuff for one you are now using or add this new horse is doing. ingredient to your horse ration. After doing this, you 2) Fill in Section 3 of the enclosed work sheet from should refigure your totals to be sure other nutrients are Table 1, Daily Nutrient Requirements of Horses. not out of balance. Excesses of some nutrients can 3) List available feeds in Section 1 of your work sheet, interfere with use of others in addition to being a waste giving attention to each column. If you have actual of feed and money. For example, excess calcium can analysis on your feeds, use these. If not, take average prevent complete utilization of phosphorus in a ration. analysis from Table 2. 4) Weigh the amount of each feedstuff being fed daily. If a mixed feed is being used, you can either find out the amount of each feed ingredient that is in the mixture or use analysis of the mixture from the feed tag.
Horse Science: Balancin g Rations for Horses Pa g e 4June 1989Table 2. Average Nutrient Content of FeedsFeed DigestibleTotalCalcium gramsPhosphorusCarotene mg. Protein %Digestibleper lb.grams per lb.per lb. Nutrients % ConcentratesRolled Oats 11.0 75.0 0.41 1.95 0.0 Corn No. 2 7.8 85.0 0.09 1.22 1.3 Rolled Milo 9.3 83.0 0.14 1.22 0.0 Rolled Barley 10.6 80.0 0.41 2.13 0.0 Wheat Bran 12.3 65.0 0.63 5.90 1.2 Wheat 14.2 75.0 0.22 1.86 1.4 Soybean Oil 42.0 78.0 1.27 2.77 0.0 Linseed Meal 30.0 75.0 1.60 3.20 0.0 Molasses 0.0 53.7 3.35 0.36 0.0RoughagesTimothy 4.6 51.0 1.04 0.91 10.0 Oat Hay (green)5.0 47.3 0.95 0.86 14.0 Wheat Hay 3.8 46.7 0.95 0.86 14.0 Smooth Brome 6.1 46.3 1.63 1.18 16.7 Crested 5.4 51.0 1.00 0.60 2.2 Kentucky Blue 6.5 51.0 1.00 0.94 20.0 Prairie Hay 3.7 43.1 2.80 0.56 14.0 Clover-Timothy5.5 46.2 4.00 0.86 6.1 Alfalfa 12.4 50.3 6.60 1.06 16.8 Ladino Clover13.0 44.8 6.20 1.60 73.1 Red Clover 7.6 44.3 6.13 0.86 16.7 Mixed Grass 5.1 53.8 2.65 0.80 9.0 Reed Canary 4.8 45.1 1.63 0.82 7.0 Oat Straw 0.7 44.7 0.86 0.45 0.0 Convert Carotene to International Units of Vitamin A by multiplying by 400
Horse Science: Balancin g Rations for Horses Pa g e 5June 1989
Horse Science: Balancin g Rations for Horses Pa g e 6June 1989BALANCING HORSE RATIONS WORK SHEETAnimal____________________ Weight___________ Age______________ Work Classification_________________________Section 1 Composition of Feeds FeedProtein grams pergrams perInternational Units DigestibleCalciumPhosphorusVitamin A %lb.lb.per lb. of feed T.D.N. % Section 2Quantity of Nutrients in Feeds Being Used FeedLbs. fedProtein Digestible lbs. T.D.N.CalciumPhosphorusVitamin A lbs.gm.gm.I.U. Total Section 3Daily Nutrient Requirements (Based on air-dry feed containing 90 percent dry matter) Size andT.D.N.CalciumPhosphorusVitamin A Use of Horselbs.gm.gm.I.U. Lbs. fedProtein Digestible lbs. Section 4 Balancing Ration and Meeting Requirements Total from Section 2 Ration deficiency Supplement Balanced ration
Horse Science: Balancin g Rations for Horses Pa g e 7June 1989NOTES
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine Ta y lor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of A g riculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the Ma y 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Con g ress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services onl y to individuals and institutions that function without re g ard to race, color, a g e, sex, handicap or national ori g in. The information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Sin g le copies of extension publications (excludin g 4-H and y outh publications) are available free to Florida residents from count y extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published June 1989 as CO 201, which is superseded b y 4HHSG01, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 1.This document is section 10 of 14 of 4HHSG01, which supersedes CO 201, one of a series of the 4-H Youth Development Pro g ram, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida. Date first printed Au g ust 1965. Date revised June 1989. Please visit the FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu 2.R. D. Setzler, Washin g ton State Universit y Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Desi g n Team, Department of Famil y Youth and Communit y Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.