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How Inheritance Works in Horses
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 Material Information
Title: How Inheritance Works in Horses
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Rankin, Bobby J
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1989
 Notes
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Date first printed August 1965. Date revised June 1989."
General Note: "section 6 of 14 of 4HHSG01, which supersedes CO 201,"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00001422:00001

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 2October 1990ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This educational material has been adapted for use in Florida by Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, in cooperation with Florida 4-H. The material was originally prepared for 4-H use by the Department of Education, New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, through a special grant from the International Paper Company Foundation. Administration of the grant was by Cornell Cooperative Extension Service New York City 4-H office. Original publication was through the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815. Reviewers Mr. B.J. Allen, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs Miss Linda L. Dearmin, Associate Professor and Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, 4-H and Other Youth Programs Dr. Suzanne G. Fisher, Assistant Dean and Chairperson, 4-H and Other Youth Programs Dr. D. Mitchell Flinchum, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry Specialist, School of Forest Resources and Conservation Mr. Anthony S. Jensen, Associate Professor and Extension Forestry and Wildlife Specialist, School of Forest Resources and Conservation Dr. Wayne R. Marion, Associate Professor and Extension Wildlife Ecology Specialist, School of Forest Resources and Conservation Dr. Nancy Pywell, Assistant Professor of Natural Resources Education, School of Forest Resources

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 3October 1990Illustrators Mrs. Joyce M. Lottinville, Illustrator, and Dr. Nancy Pywell, School of Forest Resources and Conservation ne day a very old man left his house early in the morning and returned several hours later with a sapling. The sapling was half as tall as you are and as thin as a wooden pencil. The old man began planting it at the roadside in front of his house. He worked slowly because he was old and because he enjoyed the work. As he planted, a neighbor came by and looked at the tiny sapling. Why you silly old man, the neighbor laughed, youre wasting your time planting such a small sapling! You'll be gone before it grows large enough to fill this space with beauty and shade. You are correct, the old man calmly replied as he continued planting. But, I am not planting this tree for myself. All my life I have had fine trees to look at and walk under because when I was young, old people planted trees. Now, I plant trees -for those to come! What's a Tree to Me? was developed to teach you more about trees their importance, value, usefulness, and the pleasure they give. If you live in the city, the suburbs, or the country, trees are an important part of your life. What would your neighborhood be like without trees? You will learn how trees grow, what trees do for people and the environment, and how you can help trees. There are many exciting activities and opportunities to invite guest speakers to your meetings. You can also learn about careers that deal with trees. The more effort you put into this project, the more benefits you will receive from it. Have a TREEmendous time!

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E PLURIBUS UNUMWhat can tell you the news, keep your cereal fresh, and get you a seat at the Super Bowl? Paper! Where does paper come from? TREES! The woody fibers found in tree trunks are the raw material paper comes from. Look at the "tails" side of a U.S. coin. See where it says E PLURIBUS UNUM? That's the motto of the United States of America, written in Latin. It means "out of many, one." As individuals, each of us can do a lot of work, but when we work as a team, we can do much more. Many become one when individuals work as a team. If paper had a motto, it might be E PLURIBUS UNUM. Paper From Fibers Tear a piece of paper in two. Look at the torn edge. Use a magnifier if you have one. What do you see? The rough edge on a torn piece of paper Is made up of hair-like pieces called fibers. These fibers were once part of a tree trunk that was chipped into pieces about as big as your thumbnail. These wood chips were mixed with chemicals and water in a large tank called a digester Here the chips were broken down into individual fibers like the fibers on the torn edge of a piece of paper. The fibers, chemicals, and water in the digester made a soupy mixture called pulp. To make paper, the pulp was sprayed on a flat surface, pressed, and dried. From the many fibers in the pulp came one one sheet of paper, E PLURIBUS UNUM. You don't always have to cut down a tree to make paper. You can recycle or reuse it.

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 5October 1990Recycle Your Own Paper! Equipment and materials you will need: 1) Two aluminum roll or pie pans (aluminum is recyclable too). The small sizes (8" x 5" roll pans, or 10" pie pans) work well. 2) A piece of fine-mesh window screen, 12" x 12". Fiber-glass screen is best because it lies flat and is easy to cut. But wire screen will work. 3) A plastic or metal basin that will hold two gallons (8 quarts) of water. 4) Newspaper. 5) Two tablespoons of liquid laundry starch. 6) One box of paper clips. 7) One rolling pin. 8) One electric iron (treated with care, and cleaned after use). 9) One electric blender (treated with care, and cleaned after use). All set? O.K., follow these directions...

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 6October 1990Paper-makers Use a Device Called a Deckle. You can make a deckle by following these directions: 1) Cut a piece of screen which is the same size as the bottom of your pan, and has four tabs on it. To do this set the pan on the screen and draw a crayon line around the bottom edge. Remove the pan and draw four tabs on the outline. Check the pictures before you begin. 2) Cut a rectangular hole in the bottom of each roll pan. (If you are using pie pans, cut a round hole). Leave a "shelf" about one inch wide around the hole. The shelf will keep the screen from falling through the hole. Check the pictures before cutting.

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 7October 19903) Place the screen that you cut into one of the pans. Set the other pan in on top of the screen. Fold the screen tabs over the outside edge of the lower pan. Clip the pans together at the tabs, using a paper clip at each place. Now you have a deckle. Preparing the Pulp 1) Tear one page of newspaper into pieces about the size of a dime. The newspaper will provide you with fibers. Do this six times so that you have six piles of torn paper. This will take a while, so work as a team. E PLURIBUS UNUM! 2) Fill the blender with water to one inch from the top. Add one pile of newspaper pieces. Blend at the highest speed until the newspaper pieces have broken down into fibers (about one minute). The mixture will look like cloudy water. Pour the mixture or pulp into the basin. 3) Repeat step 2 with the five piles you have left. If your blender holds one quart, you will have one and an half gallon of pulp when all the piles have been blended. Add two quarts of water to the pulp mixture to make two gallons. (If your blender holds less than a quart, add enough water to the pulp in the basin to make two gallons.)

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 8October 1990Making a Sheet of Paper 1) Add two tablespoons of liquid laundry starch to your pulp mixture and stir it with your hands. (The starch acts as a binder between the wood fibers suspended in the mixture.) How does it feel? 2) Now you are ready to make paper. Hold the deckle with both hands and slide it gently into the pulp mixture at a slight angle. 3) Hold the deckle as level as you can, near the bottom of the basin. When you have a uniform "cloud" of fibers floating over the screen, lift the deckle S-L-O-W-L-Y and evenly out of the basin. 4) Place the deckle on a couple of sheets of newspaper and let it drain. When the newspaper is soaked, place the deckle on fresh newspaper. As it drains, carefully disassemble the deckle. (Remove the paper clips carefully to avoid disturbing the pulp sheet). Carefully remove the screen, with the pulp sheet on it, and place it on a fresh stack of newspapers.

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 9October 19905) The layer of pulp should be fairly solid now. Gently pat it dry with extra newspapers. When it is quite dry, peel the pulp sheet off the screen and "sandwich" it between fresh newspaper. 6) Roll a rolling pin over the pulp "sandwich" to remove any remaining water and to pack the fibers together. Do it again with fresh newspaper. (Dry and save the newspaper; it can be recycled). 7) Place the pulp sheet on a flat surface (a piece of wood or desk top) covered with several layers of newspaper. Then iron the sheet dry with an iron set at "rayon." Or, make a fresh "pulp sandwich" and place it between sheets of newspaper. Then leave it overnight. 8) When the pulp sheet is dry, you'll have lots of individual fibers working as a team in one piece of hand-made paper. E PLURIBUS UNUM! Clean up Do not pour mixture into a sink; it will clog the drain. Filter the pulp mixture through a deckle. Remove the collected fibers from the screen and dispose of them In a wastebasket. When you are working with pulp at a sink, always keep the drain-strainer in place. E PLURIBUS UNUM!

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 10October 1990Record Section Project Requirements I.ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS 1) What does E PLURIBUS UNUM mean? 2) How does E PLURIBUS UNUM relate to paper? 3) What is paper made of? 4) Why is recycling important? 5) What else besides paper can we recycle? II.CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PROJECTS TO DO 1) Start a newspaper recycling drive at your school or in your neighborhood. 2) Recycle magazines and paperback books by donating them to hospitals and convalescent homes. 3) Start an aluminum can collection club. Find a collection center and return the cans. You can make money this way! 4) Visit a recycling center. Write a report on what you saw. 5) Visit a paper mill. Set up a tour before you go.

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Whats A Tree To Me? Members Manual Page 11October 1990III.WRITE A ST ORY ABOUT YOUR PROJECT Include what you learned, problems you had, and what was the most fun. ** ATTACH ADDITIONAL PAGES, IF NEEDED **

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine Taylor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, age, sex, handicap or national origin. The information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and y outh publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published as 4H FOM 10, which supercedes 4H-480, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 1.This document has been extracted from 4H FOM 10 (section 6 of 11 sections) which supercedes 4H-480, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation for 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Date reprinted October 1990. Please visit the FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu 2.Cynthia L. Thomson, Graduate Assistant, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.Name: Age: County: 4-H Club: Years in 4-H work: School: Leaders Name: Do you live in the City?



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NAME_________________________________________________________________________________________ ADDRESS_____________________________________________________________________________________ CLUB_________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-H HORSE PROGRAM HORSE SCIENCE This educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and the American Quarter Horse Association. Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information. The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative Extension Services is implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815. Programs and educational materials of National 4-H Council are available to all persons regardless of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin or handicap. Council is an equal opportunity employer.

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Horse Science: How Inheritance Works in Horses Pa g e 3June 1989 Two tiny cells are the only links of inheritance an animal haslinked to the protein of the chromosome. Genes are too small to be with its parents. A sperm cell from the sire and an egg cell from theseen with a microscope. But other research methods tell us they are dam unite and grow into the new animal.there. We know, therefore, that any characteristics inherited fromGenes are the units of inheritance. Characteristics are passed the parents must come from these two cells. With good care andfrom parents to offspring through genes. Genes are the "brains" of good nutrition, the material in the sperm and egg will determinethe cell. They determine what the cell will be like. This, in turn, almost everything about the developing animal its size, its shape,determines what the body will be like. its color, even is intelligence.Since chromosomes come in pairs, so do genes. Two genes The study of how characteristics are passed from parents toexist side by side, each on one of the chromosomes in the pair. The offspring is the science of genetics. It's easy to see why genetics istotal number of genes on a chromosome is not known, but t hey are important to horse breeders. In trying to understand the mysteriesmany. And different chromosomes have different numbers of of inheritance, geneticists learn things which help to produce bettergenes. horses.The unique thing about genes and chromosomes is that they As an animal grows, cells divide and form two. Before theGENES AND CHROMOSOMESInside the cells of animals are certain complex chemical compounds. These substances are the carriers of inheritance. They are called genes and chromosomes. Chromosomes are long, thread-like structures made of complex protein. They can be seen with a microscope. In all body cells except the sperm and the egg, chromosomes exist in pairs. Each cell contains a certain number of chromosome pairs,Genes and chromosomes act somewhat differently when depending upon the animal. Man has 23 pairs of chromosomes insperm cells and egg cells are formed. In the testes of the male and each of his cells. Here are the number of chromosome pairs forin the ovaries of the female, cell division happens another way. farm animals.The chromosome pairs separate, one member of each pair Horses33Pigs19going to one new cell and the other member going to the other new Cattle30Sheep27cell. As these cells divide again, the single chromosomes form Goats30Chickens 6duplicates which go into each of the new cells. This makes the Strung along the chromosomes, somewhat like beads on asperm or the egg contain only a single chromosome of each string are genes. Genes consist of complex molecules. They areoriginal pair of chromosomes. This type of division is called chemicallymeiosis. are able to reproduce themselves. cell divides, each chromosome duplicates itself. When the cell divides one of the duplicates moves into each of the two new cells. So the two new cells have exactly the same kind and number of chromosomes. This type of cell division is called mitosis.CHROMOSOMES IN SEX CELLS

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Horse Science: How Inheritance Works in Horses Pa g e 4June 1989 In horses, the sperm from the stallion and the egg from thesmall b represent the red gene. Since genes come in pairs, a horse mare each contain 33 single chromosomes instead of 33 pairs.could have two b lack genes (BB), one black and one red gene(Bb), Because of the way chromosomes separate at meiosis, millions ofor two red genes (bb). A black horse could have either BB or Bb different kinds of sex cells can be produced by one animal.genotype. (Genotype means genetic makeup.) A red horse would When fertilization occurs, the single chromosomes from thehave bb genotype. The gene for red (b) is recessive to the dominant sperm join the single chromosomes in the egg. Once again pairsgene for black (B). are formed. So the fertilized egg contains the same number ofConsider this problem: A red (chestnut) mare (bb) is bred to chromosome pairs as the cells of the parents.a truly black stallion (BB). What color will the foal be? This fertilized egg develops into a new individual, resemblingAs the genes and c hromosomes divide in the mare's ovaries, each parent in some ways, yet different from them both. Andthe bb genes separate. Each egg contains one b gene. Likewise, probably different from any other individual in the world, since theeach sperm from the stallion contains one B gene. slightest difference in gene make-up would make a difference inWhen the sperm and egg unite, two genes influencing coat the animal.color are again present. The genotype of the foal will be Bb. Since the B gene for black dominates the b gene for red, the foal will beDominant and Recessive GenesMost characteristics are determined by several pairs of genes. For this reason it is impossible to tell exactly what an unborn animal will look like. A few characteristics, however, are determined by only one pair of genes. Black and red coat color in horses is one example. By studying characteristics such as this, we can learn something about how inheritance works. One pair of genes causes the coat to be either black or red, depending on which particular combination of the two genes is present. There is one gene for black and a corresponding gene (allele) for red. The horse will be black if he has two black genes or if he has one black gene and one red gene. This is because the black gene is dominant. The horse will be red only if he has two red genes. Here's how the genes combine. Let the capital B represent the black gene. We use the capital because black is dominant. Let the black. His phenotype (outward appearance) will resemble the stallion. Both would be black. But their genotypes are different. The foal is Bb and the stallion is BB. What then would happen if a black stallion that had a Bb genotype were bred to a red (bb) mare? Two possible kinds of sperm would be produced by the Bb stallion. Half of the sperm would have the B gene and half would have the b gene. It would be a 50:50 chance whether the B sperm or the b sperm united with the b egg from the mare. The genotype of the foal would be either Bb or bb. Thus half the foals from such a mating would be black and half would be red. Suppose a Bb stallion were mated to a Bb mare. Both the mare and the stallion would be black, but both would carry a recessive gene (b) for red. Half the sperm would carry the B gene. Half the sperm would carry the b gene. The same would be true for the eggs.

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Horse Science: How Inheritance Works in Horses Pa g e 5June 1989 Chances are 25 percent that the foal would have the BBcarrying a y chromosome happens to fertilize the egg, the foal genotype, 50 percent that it would have the Bb genotype, and 25would be xy. It would be a stallion. percent that it would carry the bb genotype.The chances are 50:50 for the foal to be male or female. Theoretically, of 100 such matings were made, 75 of the foals would be black. Twenty-five would be red. Of the 75 black foals only 25 would be truly black (BB) and 50 would carry a recessive red gene. What would happen if a red (chestnut) stallion were bred to a red (chestnut) mare? In this case all the eggs and all the sperm would carry the b gene. All foals from such matings would be red. There are also several other pairs of genes that control other coat colors in horses. The many possible combinations of these genes cause the many different color patterns we see.INHERITANCE OF SEXWe can use a similar analysis to show how the sex of a foaldominant and recessive. We see this in certain kinds of flowers. is determined.When the red flowering plants pollinate a white flowering plant, In horses, there is one pair of chromosomes which does notthe flowers on the new plant are pink instead or red or white. In exactly match. One is called the x chromosome and the other, thehorses, the palomino color pattern is similar to this. y chromosome. Stallions have one x and one y chromosome. TheirFinally, many things besides the genetic make -up affect a sex genotype is xy. Mares have two x chromosomes. Theirhorse. He may have the genes for running fast, but unless he is fed genotype is xx. (The small letters x and y do not indicate that eitherproperly, w ell-trained, and protected from injuries he may never is dominant or recessive.)win a race. In reduction division in the stallion, half the sperm contain anA horse with genes for just average temperament that is x chromosome and half contain a y chromosome. In the mare allproperly cared for may have a better disposition than one with egg cells contain x chromosomes.good genes that is treated badly. If a sperm carrying an x chromosome fertilizes the egg, theMuch remains to be learned about inheritance in horses. The foal will have xx genotype. It would develop as a female. If apresent-day popularity of horses should provide the incentive for spermfurther scientific study in this field.COMPLICATIONSSo far we have seen how inheritance works in its simplest form. This basic system forms the pattern for all inheritance. Complications arise where characteristics are influenced by more than one pair of genes. Most of the important traits in horses, such as conformation, temperament, physical performance, size, muscularity, and longevity, are influenced by many genes. With 33 pairs of chromosomes and hundreds of genes involved, it is impossible to know a horses complete genotype. Furthermore, all gene pairs do not work as completely

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Horse Science: How Inheritance Works in Horses Pa g e 6June 1989NOTES

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Horse Science: How Inheritance Works in Horses Pa g e 7June 1989NOTES

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine Ta y lor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of A g riculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the Ma y 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Con g ress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services onl y to individuals and institutions that function without re g ard to race, color, a g e, sex, handicap or national ori g in. The information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Sin g le copies of extension publications (excludin g 4-H and y outh publications) are available free to Florida residents from count y extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published June 1989 as CO 201, which is superseded b y 4HHSG01, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 1.This document is section 6 of 14 of 4HHSG01, which supersedes CO 201, one of a series of the 4-H Youth Development Pro g ram, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida. Date first printed Au g ust 1965. Date revised June 1989. Please visit the FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu 2.Bobb y J. Rankin, New Mexico State Universit y Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Desi g n Team, Department of Famil y Youth and Communit y Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.