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NAME_________________________________________________________________________________________ ADDRESS_____________________________________________________________________________________ CLUB_________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-H HORSE PROGRAM HORSE SCIENCE This educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and the American Quarter Horse Association. Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information. The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative Extension Services is implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815. Programs and educational materials of National 4-H Council are available to all persons regardless of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin or handicap. Council is an equal opportunity employer.
Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes Pa g e 3June 1989Soundness in the horse is of extreme importance, sinceto put weight on the affected limb, even in the standing his efficiency in performance is dependent upon his abilityposition. When moving, the lame horse is forced to carry to move.most of his weight on the sound limbs, hence the "nodding" Any abnormal deviation in the structure or function ofof the head when the sound limb strikes the ground. When a horse constitutes an unsoundness. All unsoundnesses dothe lameness is on the left fore leg, the head will nod as the not have the same degree of severity. Some unsoundnessesright foot is planted on the ground but will jerk up as the left can be treated successfully, others can not.or lame leg touches the ground. Lameness in both front legs An example of a blemish is an unsightly scar or ropeis indicated by a stiff, stilted action and short stride. The burn. A blemish does not interfere with the service ability ofhead is carried higher than usual without nodding. the horse.The exact location of lameness is often difficult to Any time a horse is lame, we can suspect and etermine. Many common unsoundnesses of the legs may be unsoundness. Lameness is any irregularity in gait whichdetected by carefully comparing the opposite leg. Swelling results from moving with pain or difficulty. Lameness mayand implantation can be observed by handling the leg. be detected while the horse is in a standing position,Most unsoundnesses of the legs and feet are caused by however, it is most noticeable at the walk or trot. If lamenessinjury, or excess stress and strain. Horses with faulty is severe, the horse will refuseconformation are always subject to unsoundness. Many times it is possible to detect an unsoundness by being familiar with correct conformation. Concussion lameness is associated with straight backs and pasterns, for example.
Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes Pa g e 4June 1989COMMON UNSOUNDNESSES AND BLEMISHESThe following unsoundnesses and blemishes are identified: U-unsoundness, B-blemish.Head1) cataract (U) cloudy or opaque appearance of the eye. 2) defective eyes (U) impaired vision or blindness. 3) poll evil (U) inflamed swelling of poll between ears. 4) roman nose faulty conformation. 5) parrot mouth (U) lower jaw is shorter than upper jaw. 6) undershot jaw (U) upper jaw is shorter than lower jaw.Neck1) ewe-neck faulty conformation.Withers and Shoulders1) fistula of withers (U or B) inflamed swelling of withers. 2) sweeny (U) atrophy or decrease in size of a single muscle or group of muscles, usually found in shoulder or hip.Front Le g s1) shoe boil or capped elbow (B) soft, flabby swelling at the point of elbow. 2) knee sprung or buck knee over on the knees. Faulty conformation. 3) calf-kneed back at the knees. Faulty conformation. 4) splint (B) capsule enlargement usually found inside upper part of front cannon. 5) wind puff (U) puffy swellings occurring either side of tendons above fetlock or knee. 6) bowed tendons (U) enlarged, stretched flexor tendons behind the cannon bones. 7) ringbone (U) bony growth on either or both sides of pastern. 8) sidebone (U) bony growth above and toward the rear quarter of hoofhead. 9) quittor (U) fistula of the hoofhead. 10) quarter or sand crack (B) vertical split in the wall of the hoof. 11) navicular disease (U) inflammation of small navicular bone usually inside front foot. 12) founder (U) turning up of hoof and rough, deep rings in hoof wall caused by over feeding, severe concussion or disease and abnormal management. 13) contracted feet (B) abnormal contraction of heel. 14) thrush (B) disease of the frog. FOUNDERED HOOF A SIDEBONE SPLINTS
Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes Pa g e 5June 1989CONTRACTED TENDONS, COCKED ANKLE OR KNUCKLING CAPPED HOCKBody1) heaves (U) difficult breathing, lung damage. 2) roaring (U) difficult breathing due to obstruction usually in larynx. 3) rupture (U) protrusion of internal organs through the wall (hernia) of the body. Umbilical or scrotal areas most common. 4) sway back faulty conformation. 5) hipdown (U) fracture of prominence of hip and falling away.Rear Limbs1) stifled (U) displaced patella of stifle joint. 2) stringhalt (U) nervous disorder characterized by excessive jerking of the hind leg. 3) thoroughpin (U) puffy swelling which appears on upper part of hock and in front of the large tendon. 4) capped hock (B or U) enlargement on point of hock. Depends on stage of development. 5) bog spavin (U) meaty, soft swelling occurring on inner front part of hock. 6) bone spavin or jack spavin (U) bony growth usually found on inside lower point of hock. 7) curb (U) hard swelling on back surface of rear cannon about four inches below point of hock. 8) cocked ankle (U) usually in hind feet, horse stands bent forward, due to contracted tendons. 9) blood spavin (B) swelling of vein usually below seat of bog spavin.NOTES
Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes Pa g e 6June 1989NOTES
Horse Science: Unsoundness and Blemishes Pa g e 7June 1989NOTES
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine Ta y lor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of A g riculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the Ma y 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Con g ress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services onl y to individuals and institutions that function without re g ard to race, color, a g e, sex, handicap or national ori g in. The information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Sin g le copies of extension publications (excludin g 4-H and y outh publications) are available free to Florida residents from count y extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, Universit y of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published June 1989 as CO 201, which is superseded b y 4HHSG01, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 1.This document is section 3 of 14 of 4HHSG01, which supersedes CO 201, one of a series of the 4-H Youth Development Pro g ram, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida. Date first printed Au g ust 1965. Date revised June 1989. Please visit the FAIRS Website at http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu 2.Morris Hemstrom, Universit y of Idaho. Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Desi g n Team, Department of Famil y Youth and Communit y Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and A g ricultural Sciences, Universit y of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.