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Florida 4-H Horticulture Identification and Judging Study Manual: Ornamentals
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Title: Florida 4-H Horticulture Identification and Judging Study Manual: Ornamentals
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Black, Robert J.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1992
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Publication date: March 1992"
General Note: "Circular 4HEHL 23"
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Circular4HEHL23Florida4-HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudy Manual:Ornamentals1 R.J.Black2Ornamentalplantsareusedinlandscapestoenhance thebeautyofourhomesandpublicbuildings.Theyalso provideshade,filterpollutants,exchangeoxygenfor carbondioxide,blockcoldwinterwindsandchannel coolsummerbreezes,frameorhideviews,reducenoise, preventerosion,defineoutdoorspaces,increasethe valueandsalesappealofhomes,andprovidefoodand shelterforbirdsandotherwildlife. Thepurposeofthissectionofthestudymanualisto promoteabetterunderstandingofornamentalplants.It isprimarilydesignedtoaidintheidentificationofthe morecommonlandscapetrees,shrubsandgroundcovers growninFlorida.Plantsarearrangedalphabeticallyby commonnames.Commonnamesareusedforthe convenienceofpersonsnotaccustomedtousing scientificnames.Scientificnamesareinparentheses immediatelyfollowingcommonnames.Scientificnames arethesamethroughouttheworldwithplantscientists andseldomchange.Thescientificnamesisusually composedoftwowords.Thefirstwordisalways capitalizedandiscalledthegenus.Thesecondwordis usuallynotcapitalizedandiscalledthespecies.There maybemanyspeciesofplantsinonegenuswhichdiffer onlyslightlyinappearance.Whenreferenceismadeto severalspeciesinonegenus,theabbreviation"spp."is oftenwrittenafterthegenusname. Whenagroupofplantswithinaspeciesdifferin oneormorecharacteristicsfromtheirparentplants,they areclassifiedintoanothercategory.Whenthisoccurs naturally,thenewcategoryiscalledavarietyandwe addittothescientificname,suchas Juniperuschinensis var. chinensis.Whennewvarietiesappearwhileplants areincultivation,theyarecalled"cultivars"(cultivated varieties).Thecultivarnameisalsoapartofthe scientificnameandmaybelistedsuchas Ilexcornuta cv. Burfordii or Ilexcornuta `Burfordii'.Singlequote markswillbeusedinthispublicationtodesignate cultivars. Theplantsinthissectionofthestudymanualare describedusingmanybotanicalterms.Thesetermsare usedtodescribetypesofleaves,leafpositionand arrangement,leafshapes,leafmargins,flowerpartsand flowerarrangement.Itmaybehelpful,whenstudying theseplantdescriptions,torefertothesection"Glossary ofTerms"locatedintherulesandglossarysectionofthe Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudging StudyManual.Spaceisprovidedforyoutowritenotes thathelpyouidentifytheplant.Youmayalsowantto cutoutphotographsfromoldnurserymagazinesand catalogstoglueortapeinthismanualtofurtherhelp youinidentification. 1.ThisdocumentisCircular4HEHL23,FloridaCooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences,UniversityofFlorida. Publicationdate:March1992; reviewed June 2002. 2.RobertJ.Black,associateprofessor,EnvironmentalHorticultureDepartment,CooperativeExtensionService,InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences, UniversityofFlorida,GainesvilleFL32611. TheInstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciencesisanequalopportunity/affirmativeactionemployerauthorizedtoprovideresearch,educational informationandotherservicesonlytoindividualsandinstitutionsthatfunctionwithoutregardtorace,color,sex,age,handicap,ornational origin.Forinformationonobtainingotherextensionpublications,contactyourcountyCooperativeExtensionServiceoffice. FloridaCooperativeExtensionService/InstituteofFoodandAgriculturalSciences/UniversityofFlorida/ChristineTaylorStephens,Dean

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page2Allamanda(Allamandacathartica)Anevergreen,erect,vine-likeshrub,whichsprouts fromthebase.Simpleleavesareoppositeorinwhorls of3to4,elliptic-oblonginshape,andmaybe4-6 incheslong.Theyexudeawhitemilkysap.Theflower isfunnelformwith5unitedroundedpetalswhichcanbe upto5inchesacross.Brightyellowflowersareseen duringwarmseasons.SeeFigure1. Figure1. Allamanda(Allamandacathartica)AmericanHolly(Ilexopaca)Aspreading,short-branchedevergreentree.Simple, ellipticleavesarespirallyarrangedwithentireorspined margins.Theyhavealeathery,pliabletexture.Flowers aredioecious,white,notshowy.Theveryshowyfruits areshinyredberriesborneinlargeaxillaryclusters.See Figure2. Figure2. AmericanHolly(Ilexopaca)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page3Anise(Illiciumparviflorum)Evergreenshruborsmalltreewhichcangrowtoa heightof25feet.Leavesare4incheslong,simple, spirally-arranged,obovatetoelliptic,entiremargins. Crushedleaveshavealicoricearoma.Flowersare inconspicuousandfruitisastarshapedmany-seededpod about3/4inchindiameter.SeeFigure3. Figure3. Anise(Illiciumparviflorum)Azalea(Rhododendronspp.)Anevergreen,denselyfoliated,shrubwithmany branchesinahorizontalpattern.Leavesaresimple, entire,andellipticinshape,andarearrangedalternately onthestem;theyaredeepgreenandverypubescent. Duringcoolweather,theymayshowabronzetinge. Thenewgrowthonthestemispubescent.Flowersare funnelform,borneonumbellikeclustersofmanycolors andappearinthespring.SeeFigure4. Figure4. Azalea(Rhododendronspp.)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page4BlackOlive(Bucidabuceras)Anevergreenorpartlydeciduoustreewithanopen canopy.Simple,entireleavesarealternateorspirally arrangedinwhorls.Theyareobovateinshapeandup to3incheslong.Leavesareusuallycrowdedonthe swollenendsofbranches.Theyarelightgreenand leathery.Duringcoolweathersomeplantsshowredleaf color.Thestemisoftenspiny.Theflowersare inconspicuous,borneonspikesto4incheslong. Floweringoccursinspringandsummer.Fruitisablack drupe.SeeFigure5. Figure5. BlackOlive(Bucidabuceras)Bougainvillea(Bougainvilleaspp.)Asprawling,evergreenwoodyvine,whichcanbe trainedasashrub.Leavesarealternate,andellipticto ovateinshape.Eachleafaxilhasasharp,slenderthorn upto2incheslongwhichisreplacedbyflowersin floweringbranches.Flowersarewhiteand inconspicuous.Theshowyportionconsistsof3colorful bracts.Theserangefrompurpletowhitewith intermediateshadesofred,pinkandorange.SeeFigure 6. Figure6. Bougainvillea(Bougainvilleaspp.)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page5BurfordHolly(Ilexcornuta`Burfordii')Anevergreenshrub,withshinyglossyleaves, incurvedmarginsandoneormoresharpspinesalongthe leaftip.Flowersareinconspicuous.Thefruitsare globe-shaped,red,showyberries.SeeFigure7. Figure7. BurfordHolly(Ilexcornuta`Burfordii')CabbagePalm(Sabalpalmetto)Adense,erect,mediumsized,singletrunkedpalm withatightglobularcanopy.Theleavesaregreenor graygreen,withunarmedpetioles;theyarefan-shaped, divided1/3ofthewaytothebase,withlongpointed, taperingsegmentswhicharesplitattheapex.Threads maybepresent.Thetrunksareoftencoveredwithold leafbases.Thefruitisaglobose,brown-blackshiny drupe.SeeFigure8. Figure8. CabbagePalm(Sabalpalmetto)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page6Camellia(Camelliaspp.)Adenselyfoliatedevergreenshruborsmalltree. Simpleleaveshavealternatetospiralarrangementwith shallowlyserratemargins.Terminalflowersaresolitary orclustered,andmaybesingle,semi-doubleordouble, possessingmanypetalsandstamens.Flowercolor encompassesshadesofred,pink,andwhite.SeeFigure 9. Figure9. Camellia(Camelliaspp.)CanaryIslandDatePalm (Phoenixcanariensis)Thispalmhasalarge,singletrunk,andanupright growinghabitwithastiffglobularcanopy.The evergreen,featherlikefoliageispinnate,withspinesat thediamondshapedbaseofthepetioles.Fruitsare ovoidinshape,about1inchinlengthandarebright yellow-orangeincolor.SeeFigure10. Figure10. CanaryIslandDatePalm(Phoenixcanariensis)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page7Carissa[NatalPlum](Carissagrandiflora)Adense,broadevergreenshrub.Simple,opposite leavesareleatheryintextureanddarkgreen.Stemhas forkedspinesto2incheslong.Leavesexudeamilky sap.Flowersaresolitary,terminalandstar-shapedto2 inchesacross.Flowersoccurinspringandsummer. Thefruitsofthenatalplumareedibleberrieswhichare plum-shaped,red,andupto2incheslong.SeeFigure 11. Figure11. Carissa,NatalPlum(Carissagrandiflora)ChineseElm(Ulmusparvifolia)Afreelybranching,symmetricaldeciduoustreewith aslightlyweeping,spreading,opencanopy.Thesimple leaveshaveserratemarginsandarealternatelyarranged, leathery,shinydarkgreenandelliptic-ovateinshape. Theexfoliatingbarkisveryshowyandtheyoung branchesarethinlypubescent.SeeFigure12. Figure12. ChineseElm(Ulmusparviflora)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page8Coontie(Zamiafloridana)Lowgrowing,evergreen,gymnosperm,usually lackingtrunkandwithdensefoliageinmound-like clumps.Palm-likeleavesarepinnatelycompound, usuallylinearlanceolateto6incheslong,darkgreen, leatherywithslightlyrevolutemargins,entiretofinely toothedabovethemiddle.SeeFigure13. Figure13. Coontie(Zamiafloridana)CrapeMyrtle(Lagerstroemiaindica)Thisfreelybranching,erect,deciduousshrubor smalltreehassimple,entireleaves,whichare suboppositeinarrangement,andoblong-ellipticto roundedinshape.Thenewgrowthispubescent underneathandhassquarepinkishstems.Theflowers areborneinterminalandaxillarypanicles.Theyhave fringedpetalsto11/4incheslong.Flowercolorsare white,pink,redorpurple.Thefruitsarebrown, globularcapsules.SeeFigure14. Figure14. Crapemyrtle(Lagerstroemiaindica)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page9Croton(Codiaeumvariegatum)Anevergreen,vigorousshrub.Thebranching patternisfreeandirregular.Simpleleavesareentireto deeplylobed,commonlyundulate,spirallyarranged aroundthestemandoftenclusteredatendofbranches. Leafcolorvarieswidelyincombinationsofgreen,red, andyellow.Theyhavealeathery,glabroustexture,and exudeasapwhichstainsandispoisonous.SeeFigure 15. Figure15. Croton(Codiaeumvariegatum)Dogwood(Cornusflorida)Asmalldeciduoustreewithsimpleleaveswhichare entire,oppositelyarranged,andupto6incheslong.The surfaceiscrinkled,lightgreen,andtheveinsare markedlycurved.Theflowersaresmalldenseheads borneinpanicles,whicharesubtendedbyfourshowy petal-likebracts.Theyarewhite,obovateandnotched. Thefruitsarered,showydrupes.SeeFigure16. Figure16. Dogwood(Cornusflorida)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page10Feijoa(Feijoasellowiana)Alowbranching,denselyfoliatedevergreenshrub orsmalltreewithsimple,entireleaves,arranged oppositelyonthestems.Theyareelliptictooblongin shape,greenandpubescent.Solitaryflowershave4 ediblepetals,withprotrudingredstamens.Thefruitsare greenberriesoftentingedwithred.SeeFigure17. Figure17. Feijoa(Feijoasellowiana)GlossyAbelia(Abeliaxgrandiflora)Thisevergreentopartlydeciduous,sometimeserect shrubhasmanyspreadingbranches.Thesimpleleaves arearrangedoppositelyorwhorledonthestem.They areovate-shaped,smallto1/2inchlong,glossy,with serratedmargins.Duringcoolweathertheyhavea reddishtinge.Thebarkexfoliatesonthebrownstem. White,pink-tingedflowersarefunnelform.Floweringis inthespringandsummer.SeeFigure18. Figure18. GlossyAbelia(Abeliaxgrandiflora)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page11Hibiscus(Hibiscusrosa-sinensis)Thislarge,uprightevergreenshrubhasmany branchesandisdenselyfoliated.Theglossygreen leaveshavelongreddishpetioles,aresimpleandspirally arranged.Theyareovateinshapeandthemarginsare finelyserrate.Theflowerscomeinmanycolors.They arebornesolitaryonlonghangingpeduncles,withbell shapedcalyx.Theyhavefivepetalsandalong, conspicuouscolumnofstamens.SeeFigure19. Figure19. Hibiscus(Hibiscusrosa-sinensis)IndianHawthorn(Rhaphiolepisindica)Adense,rounded,mediumtextured,evergreen shrub.Thisshrubisaslowgroweranditwilltake manyyearsforittoreachamatureheightof5feet. Leavesaresimple,alternate,clusteredattwigtips, oblongandleathery.Flowersarewhiteorpinkish,5/8 inchacross,andareborneonlooseterminalpaniclesin thespring.Fruitarepurplish-blackpomeabout3/8inch long.SeeFigure20. Figure20. IndianHawthorn(Rhaphiolepisindica)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page12Ixora(Ixoracoccinea)Thisupright,erect,muchbranchedevergreenshrub isdenselyfoliatedwithsimple,entireleaveswhichare oppositeorwhorled,oblongto4incheslong.Theyare leatheryandpliablewithshortpetioles.Thestemonthe newgrowthisreddishandthebarkisdarkbrown. Flowersareborneondenseaxillarycorymbs,witha corollatubenearly2incheslong.Theyhave4-5petals, coloredred,pink,andyellow.Ixoraflowersinthe summer.SeeFigure21. Figure21. Ixora(Ixoracoccinea)JapanesePrivet(Ligustrumjaponicum)Anupright,lowbranching,evergreenshruborsmall tree.Simple,entireleavesareoppositeandovateto ellipticinshape,theyaredarkgreen,leatheryand glossy.Brancheshaveraisedlenticels.Fragrantflowers areborneonterminalpaniclesandarewhite,withfour unitedpetals.Thefruitisablue-black,drupe-likeberry. SeeFigure22. Figure22. JapanesePrivet(Ligustrumjaponicum)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page13Liriope(Liriopemuscari)Aclumping,perennialevergreenherbwhichforms dense,grass-likemats.Leavesarelinear,darkgreen withparallelveins,8-10incheslongand3/4inchwide, andformingtufts.Purpleflowersaresmallanddense, borneinshortracemeswhichareheldonstalkslonger thantheleaves.Fruitsareblack,berry-like,smallfleshy capsules.SeeFigure23. Figure23. Liriope(Liriopemuscari)LiveOak(Quercusvirginiana)Thislarge,symmetricaloakisanevergreentreewith aspreadgreaterthanitsheight.Branchesaredrooping andlow.Simple,entireleavesarespirallyarranged,and areelliptictoovate-shapedwithrevolutemargins.The undersideiswhitish-grey.Fruitsareacornsto1inches long,sometimesinpairs,withashallowcupenclosing thebottom1/4.SeeFigure24. Figure24. LiveOak(Quercusvirginiana)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page14LoblollyBay(Gordonialasianthus)Anevergreen,coarsetexturedtreewithelliptic, alternateleaveswhicharedarkgreen,leatheryandshiny. Theapicalmarginsareslightlyserrateandsomeleaves oftenturnbrightredinthefall.Youngtwigsarered. Flowersaresolitary,borneonaxillarystalksonthenew growth,with5largepetalsandgoldenstamens.Fruits arewoody,ovoidcapsuleswhichripenandrelease wingedseeds.SeeFigure25. Figure25. LoblollyBay(Gordonialasianthus)MondoGrass(Ophiopogonjaponicus)Aclumping,perennial,evergreenherbthatforms dense,fine-texturedgrasslikemats.Leavesarelinear,to 15incheslongand1/8inchwide.Theyoccurintufts, aredarkgreenandcurvetowardtheground.Thefew flowersarehiddenintheleavesonshort,looseracemes. Theyarelilacorwhite.SeeFigure26. Figure26. MondoGrass(Ophiopogonjaponicus)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page15Nandina(Nandinadomestica)Thisevergreentosemi-deciduousshrubforms clumpsandisleaflessatthebase.Theleavesareodd bi-andtripinnatelycompound,andspirallyarranged. Leafletsareentire,ellipticto4incheslong,withshort petioles.Theyshowredfallcolor.Small,whiteflowers are6petaled,andborneinpanicles.Fruitsareovate berries,red,inpendulous,showyclusters.SeeFigure 27. Figure27. Nandina(Nandinadomestica)PfitzerJuniper(Juniperuschinensisvar.chinensis`Pfitzerana')Anevergreenconiferousshrubwithaspreading horizontalgrowthhabit.Thetipsofthebranchespoint outwards.Leavesaresmall,scale-likeandaretightly compressedinwhorls;theyarecoloredgrey-green.See Figure28. Figure28. PfitzerJuniper(Juniperuschinensisvar.chinensis`Pfitzerana')

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page16PindoPalm(Butiacapitata)Thispalmissingletrunked,erectwithstiffand stronglyrecurvingcanopy.Theleavesarepinnate,8-10 long,andstronglyrecurvedtowardthetrunk.The leafletsarestiff,blue-green,withthornsonpetioles whichpointtowardstheleaftip.Thefruitsaredrupes, oblongtoovoid,indenseyellowtoredclusters.See Figure29. Figure29. PindoPalm(Butiacapitata)Pine(Pinusspp.)Tall,coniferoustreeswhichareevergreenand monoecious.Leavesproducedareoftwokinds:scalelike,soonfallingoffthetree,andneedle-shaped,long andborneinclustersof2-5.Thefruitisthetypical woodypinecone.SeeFigure30. Figure30. Pine(Pinusspp.)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page17Photinia(Photiniaglabra)Anevergreenshruborsmalltree,uprightandfreely branching.Simplealternateleavesare2-3incheslong andellipticovateinshape.Theyareglossygreen, leatheryandpliable.Thenewgrowthisreddish. Flowersarewhite,5-pleated,borneonshortterminal panicles.Fruitsareberry-likepomes,globose,red turningtoblack.SeeFigure31. Figure31. Photinia(Photiniaglabra)Pittosporum(Pittosporumtobira)Afreelybranching,smallevergreenshruborsmall tree.Theobovateleavesarespirallyarranged,simple andentire.Theyareglossygreenwithrevolutemargins andleatherytexture,clusteringatendofbranches.The manyfloweredumbelsarefragrantwithlemonyellow flowerswith5petalsto1/2inchlong.Thefruitisa capsuleopeningtorevealtheseedswhicharecovered witharedfleshyskin.SeeFigure32. Figure32. Pittosporum(Pittosporumtobira)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page18Podocarpus(Podocarpusmacrophyllus)Anupright,densely-foliagedevergreenshrubortree withanarrowcolumnarcanopy.Simpleleavesare linearandspirallyarranged,withentiremargins.They areleatheryintexture,glossydarkgreenabovewitha prominentmidrib.Seedsarecoveredwithagreenfleshy layerandareborneonapurple,fleshy,receptacle.See Figure33. Figure33. Podocarpus(Podocarpusmacrophyllus)Pyracantha(Pyracanthacoccinea)Anevergreen,thornyshruborsmalltree,sprawling withpendulousbranches.Simpleleavesareclosely arrangedandalternate,withserrulatemarginsand oblong-ovateinshape.Theyaredarkgreenandhavea glabrous,leatherytexture.Theflowersarewhite, showy,andborneincorymbsto11/2incheswide. Fruitsarepomes,green,ripeningtoorangeinfalland winter.SeeFigure34. Figure34. Pyracantha(Pyracanthacoccinea)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page19RedMaple(Acerrubrum)Alowbranching,deciduoustreewithanopen growthhabitandovalcanopy.Leavesareopposite, palmatelyshapedwith3-5lobes.Theyareunequally crenatetoserrate,and3-6inchesacross.Petiolesare pink-redandleavesturnredinfall.Fruitsarewinged, ripeningsoonaftertheredflowersfadeinspring.See Figure35. Figure35. RedMaple(Acerrubrum)RoyalPoinciana(Delonixregia)Alarge,semi-deciduoustreewithcompoundleaves whicharemediumgreenincolorandfinetextured.The showyblossomsintonesofredhave5petals,oneof whichisstriped.Fruitsaredarkbrownpodsto2feet longand2incheswide,resemblingrazorstraps.See Figure36. Figure36. RoyalPoinciana(Delonixregia)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page20SagoPalm(Cycasrevoluta)Extremelyslowgrowingpalm-likeplantwhichwill eventuallyreachamatureheightof10feet.Leavesare glossygreen,pinnatelycompoundand3-4feetlongin rosettes.Thisplantisdioeciouswitha24-inch, cylindricalconeborneinthecenterofthemaleplant. Thefemaleplantdoesn'tproduceacone,butproduces aglobosemassconsistingofmodifiedscale-likeleaves coveredwithbrownfelt.Ovateorange-redseedsto2 inchesindiameterareproducedbetweenthesescale-like leaves.SeeFigure37. Figure37. SagoPalm(Cycasrevoluta)SeaGrape(Coccolobauvifera)Anevergreentreewithirregularly-branchedtrunk. Ithasanuprightgrowinghabit,oftendroopingattip. Thecanopyisroundedandlooselyspreading.The simpleleavesarespirallyarranged,entireandorbicularshaped.Themajorveinsarereddishontheleathery, glossygreenleaves.Thepetioleispinkish,shortand clasping.Theglobularfruitisadrupe-likeachene, whichcanbeupto3/4inchindiameterandisbornein densegrape-likeclusters.SeeFigure38. Figure38. SeaGrape(Coccolobauvifera)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page21SilkOak(Grevillearobusta)Largeevergreentreewithfern-likedissectedleaves whicharedarkgreenabove,greygreenbelow.Young branchesarepubescent.Showyorangeflowersare borneonshortracemesonoldgrowth.SeeFigure39. Figure39. SilkOak(Grevillearobusta)ShumardOak(Quercusshumardii)Atall,vigorous,centralleadertreewith widespreadingbranches.Leavesaresimple,alternate, obovateto6incheslongwith7to9sharppointedlobes. Theleavesturnbrightredinthefall.Thenutoracorn is11/4inchlong,ovoid,withashallowcupenclosing 1/4oftheacorn.SeeFigure40. Figure40. ShumardOak(Quercusshumardii)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page22SouthernMagnolia(Magnoliagrandiflora)Upright,largetrunked,evergreentreewithlarge, stiffleavesthatarealternate,shiny,darkgreenabovean lightgreenorbrownbelow.Thespringflowersare large,whiteanfragrant.Fruitsarecone-like,4-inch aggregatesofmanydarkredseeds.SeeFigure41. Figure41. SouthernMagnolia(Magnoliagrandiflora)SweetGum(Liquidambarstyraciflua)Adeciduoustreewithuprightgrowinghabit.When youngthecanopyispyramidalinshape,butitbecomes roundedwithage.Simpleleavesarespirallyarranged, theyarepalmatelyshapedwith5or7lobesandmaybe upto7incheswide.Themarginsarefinelyserrateand leavesshowsomefallcolorandwhencrushed,are aromatic.Fruitsarewoodyandroundedto1/2inchin diameter,withmanyspines.SeeFigure42. Figure42. SweetGum(Liquidamberstyraciflua)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page23Sycamore(Platanusoccidentalis)Alarge,manybranched,deciduoustree,pyramidal whenyoungbutbecomingglobularwithage.Simple, alternateleavesareshallowlylobedandwiderthanlong. Marginsarecoarselytoothedandpetiolesarelongwith enlargedbases.Flowersareinconspicuous.Fruitsare globular,usuallysolitary,lackingspines,andmany seeded.SeeFigure43. Figure43. Sycamore(Platanusoccidentalis)WaxMyrtle(Myricacerifera)Alarge,roundedevergreenshrub,whichisdensely foliatedandformsclumps.Leavesarelanceolate, arrangedalternatelyonthestemandaromatic.Theyare thin,oftencoarselyserratedalongtheapicalmarginsand havetinyglands(dots)onbothsides.Thetrunkis crookedandcoveredwithgrayish-whitebark.Flowers areinconspicuous.Fruitsaregrayishblue,bornein denseclusters.Theyarecoatedwithwaxwhichcanbe usedtomakecandles.SeeFigure44. Figure44. WaxMyrtle(Myricacerifera)

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Florida4HHorticultureIdentificationandJudgingStudyManualOrnamentals Page24Wisteria(Wisteriachinensis)Thisdeciduouswoodyvinehasalternate,oddpinnatelycompoundleaves.Theleafletshaveentire marginsandarepubescentwhenyoung.Pea-like flowersarebluish-white,borneinlong,pendant,terminal racemes.Thefruitsareflattenedpods,to6incheslong, andvelvetytextured.Thelargeseedsarequite poisonous.SeeFigure45. Figure45. Wisteria(Wisteriachinensis)