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! Justin Dunnavant Fall 2012 Africana Bibliography Dr. Dan Reboussin From the Forgotten Shores: The Slave Trade from Madagascar to Jamaica The topic of slavery is very broad but there are considerably less sources when discussing the slave trade f rom Southeast Africa and more specific ally, from Madagascar to Jamaica Initial searches for "Madagascar, slave trade, and Jamaica" yielded few results thus I had to redefine and broaden my search terms in addition to diversifying my databases and search engines. I found it useful to research aspects of the trade separately as opposed to all of those terms together Once I narrowed down a time period (1671 1719) I was able to search early Madagascar and slave trade history, then early Jamaican history. Sea rching databases for Madagascar and Jamaica separately greatly increased my search results and ability to find pertinent information. References 1. African Bibliography 2012 Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. Annual 1985 2012. Accessed, 2 D ecember 2012. http://www.africabibliography.cambridge.org/ The African Biography is an extension of Cambridge University's International African Initiative and features references to all article s published under their aegis. I searched "slave trade Madagascar" and was surprised that it offered journal articles that previous searches on OneSearch and Google Scholar failed to yield. All of my searches led me to articles no earlier than 2003 making this an excellent database for getting the most up to date references. Additionally the database is easily navigable with the ability to filter search results by county, region, subject, publication date, author, and document type. These same filters are also available for general browsing making it much easier than browsing other databases. One of the major advantages of this database over others is that it searches books and specific book chapters in addition to journal articles. In cases where full text options are not available, the African Bibliography provides a link that locates the resource in UF's library system. 2. African Journals Online 2012 African Journals Online. Grahamstown, South Africa. Accessed, 2 December 2012. http://www.ajol.info/ Based in South Africa, the AJOL offers a unique database that features a total of 443 journals published in Africa as well as open access. Most of the journals pertain to development, health, and science and technology but a handful of them deal with historical and social science issues. While I was unable to locate any articles on Madagascar and the slave trade specially, there were several articles that dealt with the slave trade generally from an African perspective The website was a little difficult to navigate and the search is limited to keywords in the abstracts and titles of articles.
! # 3. African Studies Abstracts Online 2012 African Studies Centre Library, Leiden Vol. 40. London: Hans Zell. Accessed, 2 Decemb er 2012. http://www.ascleiden.nl/?q=content/ collection The African Studies Centre Library is the online database, which among other sources, includes local African newspapers dating back to 1800. It also features publications in almost every major European language. My search for "Madagascar slave trade" revealed journal and book articles, most of which were in French and Dutch. This database provides a good supplement to others that produce mainly English references. The library is housed in Europe and many sources are not available online, however the catalogue provides the necessary bibliographic information to locate the sources elsewhere. Tied to the ASC Library is the African Studies Ab stracts Online, which provides a database of abstracts from journal articles related to Africa. A regional annotated bibliography is published quarterly featuring the most recent publications for each country. The references were not particularly important to my research but seem like a good source for researchers to keep abreast of the last literature in the field. 4. Africana Conference Paper Index 2006 Africana Conference Paper Index. Chicago, IL: Northwestern University. Accessed, 2 December 2012 Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. The Africana Conference Paper Index features a searchable catalog of conference papers at the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies at Northwestern Un iversity. The Slave Trade in East Central Africa by Norman Robert Bennett fits squarely with my research. The Index is significant because it is one of the few databases that allows you to search unpublished conference papers. The main drawback is that the re are no digital copies of the papers as they are only housed at Northwestern's library. 5. Alexander, Andrew 2007 Shipboard Slave Uprisings on the Malagasy Coast: The Meermin (1766) and De Zon (1775). Kronos: Journal of Cape History, vol. 33: 84 111. T his article was located through a keyword search of the African Journal Archive. The Archive is part of an international project to retrospectively digitize journals published in Africa. While the archive is invaluable resource it is very cumbersome to nav igate. A simple search reveals a list of journal issues but you have to click on them individually to actually view the article titles. Currently it features close to 10,000 articles. 6. Allen, Richard B. 2010 Satisfying the Want for Labouring People: Eur opean Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500 1850. Journal of World History 21:45. 7. Allen, Richard B. 2009 Suppressing a Nefarious Traffic: Britain and the Abolition of Slave Trading in India and the Western Indian Ocean, 1770 1830. The William and
! $ Mary Quarterly 66(4, Abolishing the Slave Trades: Ironies and Reverberations):873 894. 8. Allen, Richard B. 2001 Licentious and Unbridled Proceedings: The Illegal Slave Trade to Mauritius and the Seychelles during the Early Nineteenth Century. The Journal of A frican History 42(1):91 116. 9. Ancestry.com 2007 Slave Registers of former British Colonial Dependencies, 1812 1834. In Office of Registry of Colonial Slaves and Slave Compensation Commission: Records. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc. Accesse d, 2 December 2012. http://ancestry.co.uk The popular genealogy website ancestory.com seems like an unlikely source for my research, however the British version actually contains a searchable database of slave registe rs for Jamaica from 1817 to 1834 and provides citation references for other Jamaica registers' available in paper form at the National Archives. Many of the registers provide information on the nationality of the slave in addition to other demographic info rmation. 10. Appiah, Anthony, and Henry Louis Gates 1999 Africana : the encyclopedia of the African and African American experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. The Africana encyclopedia is a massive five volume collection of key figures, events, and cultural expressions related to people of African Descent throughout the world. Covering everything from traditional historic African leaders to contemporary African American popular culture. The section on Madagascar provides a curso ry overview of the history and ethnicities of country from the tenth century to the present. In addition to the book, there is a subscription based online version tied to the Oxford African American Studies Center, which encompasses a number of encyclopedi c sources including African American National Biography and the Dictionary of African Biography. The bibliographic information provided is based largely on secondary sources and monographs and entries can be gleaned through keyword searches or browsing by images, maps, and subject entries. 11. Berg, Gerald M. 1985 "The Sacred Musket. Tactics, Technology, and Power in Eighteenth Century Madagascar," Comparative Studies in Society and History, 27(2): 267. 12. Bialuschewski, Arne 2005 Pirates, Slavers, and the Indigenous Population in Madagascar, c. 1690 1715. The International Journal of African Historical Studies 38(3):401 425.
! % Starting with a vague OneSearch inquiry into "M adagascar slave trade Jamaica" yielded few results so I narrowed my search down spe c ifically to "Journal Articles." Excluding other sources brought result down from over 30,000 to 189. I n order to locate this article I had to scroll down to the third result and many of the other results did not apply directly to my research. OneSearch is a very cumbersome database for more specific bibliographic information. 13. Brown, Margaret L 2004 Reclaiming Lost Ancestors and Acknowledging Slave Descent: Insights from Madagascar. Comparative Studies in Society and History 46(3):616 645. 14. Campbel l, Gwyn 2008 Slave Trade with Madagascar, 1715. Kronos: The Journals of the Cape Slavery Leijdsman, South Africa. 34:331 333 15. Campbell, Gwyn 1990 Disease, Cattle, and Slaves: The Development of Trade between Natal and Madagascar, 1875 1904. African Econ omic History(19):105 133. 16. Campbell, Gwyn 1981 Madagascar and the Slave Trade, 1810 1895. The Journal of African History 22(2):203 227. 17. Campbell, Mavis Christine 1988 The Maroons of Jamaica, 1655 1796: A History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betray al. South Hadley, Mass: Bergin & Garvey. 18. Coakley, John 2009 The Politics and Profits of Plunder: Privateers in Henry Morgan's Jamaica, 1655 1682. 19. Collins, Robert O. 2006 The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands. African & Asian Studies 5(3):325 346. 20. Dallas, Robert Charles, Esq. 1803 The history of the Maroons, from their origin to the establishment of their chief tribe at Sierra Leone, including the expedition to Cuba for the purpose of procuring Spanish chasseurs and the st ate of the island of Jamaica for the last ten years with a succinct history of the island previous to that period... London: T. N. Longman and O. Rees. The Rare book collection has a series of bibliographies compiled to address specific themes in gradua te and undergraduate research. These bibliographies are then sub divided further into different topical and regional groups. The bibliography for Caribbean Literature lists several rare books in the collection that focus on the British West Indies
! & during t he eighteenth and nineteenth century generally, and more specifically on Jamaica. Many of these rare books are travelogues and personal accounts that describe the conditions of plantation slavery on the island as well as the flora and fauna present. The re ference presented above is the most pertinent of the bibliography and describes the Maroon Wars of which formerly enslaved Malagasy were primary figures. 21. Defoe, Daniel 1890 Madagascar; Or, Robert Drury's Journal, during Fifteen Years' Captivity on that Island and a further Description of Madagascar. England. 22. Donnan, Elizabeth 1965 Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave trade to America, Vol. 1 (1441 1700) New York: Octagon Books, Inc. 23. Great Britain Colonial Office 1828 Return to a n address of The Honourable The House of Commons, dated 29 June 1827 ; for copies or extracts of any correspondence which may have recently passed between His Majesty's government and Radama, the sovereign chief of Madagascar. London: House of Commons. Th e following source was uncovered in th e Africana bibliography section of the r are book collections. In addition to these records in the rare books collection, Library West also has a more complete Records of the British Colonial Office on microfilm. Class 5 of this larger collections feature royal instructions and commissions to colonial officials from 1702 to 1784. These records are useful for outlining the history of British Malagasy diplomatic relations. 24. H Net 2012 H Net: Humanities and Social Scie nces Online. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.Accessed, 2 December 2012. http://www.h net.org/ H Net is not a scholarly database but is an important source for posting queries about research topics and ques tions. It is list serv for researchers from around the world and is divided into thematic topics of interest. I have used it in the past to post research questions and academics usually reply with relavent bibilographic information or other comments. H afr ica, h slavery, and h safrica are of particular interest to my research. 25. Harris, Joseph E. 1990 The African diaspora map. [Worcester, Mass.] : [Silver Spring, Md: Clark University Cartographic Service ; African Diaspora Maps, distributor. The Map L ibrary has a number of historic maps that relate specifically to Madagascar and Jamaica specifically. Harris' map based on historic research is of primary importance because it shows historic slave trade routes both within African and throughout the diaspo ra. One route in particular demonstrates forced migration from Madagascar to Jamaica.
! 26. Larson, Pier M. 1999 Reconsidering Trauma, Identity, and the African Diaspora: Enslavement and Historical Memory in Nineteenth Century Highland Madagascar. The Willia m and Mary Quarterly 56(2, African and American Atlantic Worlds):335 362. 27. Lunan, John 1819 An Abstract of the Laws of Jamaica Relating to Slaves. (from 33 Charles II.  to 59 George III. Inclusive . with the Slave Law at Length, also, an App endix, Containing an Abstract of the Acts of Parliament Relating to the Abolition of the Slave Trade. United States. 28. McDonald, Kevin P. 2005 A Man of Courage and Activity': Thomas Tew and Pirate Settlements of the Indo Atlantic Trade World, 1645 17 30. UC Berkeley: UC World History Workshop. This article was located through a search of the University of California eScholarship open access website. As the open access database for the UC university system, the website features a number of conference papers, books, dissertations, and journals including Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies. The website is valuable because the UC system has a number of prominent Africana Studies centers and departments. 29. McDonald, Kevin P. 2008 Pirates, merchants, settlers, and slaves: Making an Indo Atlantic trade world, 1640 -1730 Dissertation, History, University of California, Santa Cruz. This dissertation was located through the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT) database. The database i s the most extensive available for dissertations and theses online with over a million full text dissertations, some of which are in history and anthropology/archaeology and focus on slavery. Citations of dissertations go back as far as 1637 although disse rtations are predominately US based and abstracts are only guaranteed for dissertations dating as far back as 1980 and theses as far back 1988. It's a good source to mine current research for bibliographies. 30. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. 1995 Indian Ocean : five island countries. Washington, D.C. : Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. This edited volume is a sort of sourcebook for five major countries in the Indian Ocean, including Madagascar, compiled by the Federal Research Division of the Lib rary of Congress. The intention is provide a general overview of each country and show their significance in the region. It briefly covers major aspects of each country from precolonial history to economic s and the physical environment. I found this source in a search for "madagascar" within in the Law Library Microform Consortium
! ( ( http://www.llmcdigital.org/ ) which has digitized legal and government documents for many countries throughout the Africa and the wide r world. 31. Parker Pearson, Michael, and Karen Godden 2002 In Search of the Red Slave: Shipwreck and Captivity in Madagascar. Stroud: Sutton. 32. Paul Halsall, editor 2007 Internet African History Sourcebook. New York: Fordham University. Accessed, 2 De cember 2012. http://www.fordham.edu/ Halsall/africa/africasbook.asp Compiled by Fordham University, t his sourcebook provides links to databases and a small set of primary documents r elated to different regions, countries, and themes in African history. While the section on the slave trade is important for my research, it provides links to everything from ancient Egyptian texts to Madagascar's 1992 Constitution. The database is only av ailable to browse and not searchable, making it a little more cumbersome than most other African databases. 33. Pearson, Mike Parker 1997 Close Encounters of the Worst Kind: Malagasy Resistance and Colonial Disasters in Southern Madagascar. World Archae ology 28(3, Culture Contact and Colonialism):393 417. 34. Platt, Virginia Bever ly 1969 The East India Company and the Madag ascar Slave Trade. The William a nd Mary Quarterly 26(4):548 577. 35. Rescued Slaves (Image) 1883 Black Studies Center. Getty Imag es. Accessed 15 October 2012. 1740 present. http://bsc.chadwyck.com/ Caption: "These slaves were rescued from a dhow (a type of sailing ship found in East Africa and India) 200 miles south of Madagascar by HMS Undi ne Britain outlawed the slave trade in the late eighteenth century and used its navy, at that time the most powerful in the world, to attack the trade The Royal Navy was successful in preventing slave ships from operating in the Atlantic and Indian oceans." I uncovered this image from the Black Studies Center database. The database contains images and videos as well as a bibliography of downloadable books, journals, and newspapers from a number of sources including Schomburg Studies on the Black Exp erience International Index of Black Periodicals Black Abolitionist Papers, and Proquest Black Newspapers and Dissertations for Black Studies Although their database only has documents spanning back to 1740, there was some information pertinent to the M adagascar slave trade to Jamaica. Furthermore, search results are clearly separated by file type (journal, multimedia, newspaper) for easier skimming. 36. Rudnyanszky, Leslie Imre,
! ) 1973 "The Caribbean Slave Trade: Jamaica and Barbados 1680 1770." Ph.D. d iss, University of Notre Dame. 37. Sibree, James 1924 Fifty Years in Madagascar; Personal Experiences of Mission Life and Work. United States. 38. Taylor, John 2007 Jamaica in 1687 : the Taylor Manuscript at the National Library of Jamaica. Kingston, J amaica: University of the West Indies Press : Mill Press : National Library of Jamaica. This manuscript turned book was uncovered from a basic OneSearch inquiry into "madagascar slave trade Jamaica" from the UF Library website. Many of the other results t hat appeared only applied to the slave trade generally or specifically to either Jamaica or the Indian Ocean slave trade. OneSearch alone was not a particularly useful tool and I had to scroll down to the tenth entry to find this source. 39. Voyages Datab ase. 2009. Voyages: The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade Database. http://www.slavevoyages.org (accessed October 15, 2012). The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database is the largest, most comprehensive database for info rmation on the slave trade. It contains all of the available information about slave voyages, number of enslaved peoples, and place of embarkation and disembarkation. The statistics are taken from thousands of books and primary documents from archives from around the world. I was able to use this database to narrow down the scope of my research from 1671 to 1719. In addition to statistics, which can be manipulated to produce maps, tables, and charts, the database also contains a number of manuscripts (shipp ing ledgers), maps (West Africa and the Caribbean), and images (sketches of slavery and slave ships). 40. West Indies Papers 1771 1829 University of Florida: Smathers Libraries Special and Area Studies Collections. The Manuscripts Division has offici al correspondences and financial records between governors of the Caribbean dating as far back as 1771. While the documents cover a broad range of Anglo and Francophone Caribbean islands, Jamaica is featured prominently in the collection. A complete findi ng aid is available online that separates the collection by country and provides abstracts for subheadings within the collection. The documents for Jamaica focus heavily on the receipts, returns, and warrants of black servants hired by the British military during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.