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Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report--2007
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00001248/00001
 Material Information
Title: Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report--2007
Abbreviated Title: Climatological Report, 2007
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Sellers, Brent A.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Range Cattle Research and Education Center
Ona (Fla.) -- Climate --Statistics
Genre:
Spatial Coverage: Ona, Florida
Coordinates: 27.4 x -82.9
 Notes
Abstract: "This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-transpiration, and solar radiation for 2007 obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) in Ona, Florida, and is compared to a 66-year summary of data collected from this location. The center is located 82o 55' W and 27o 26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean."
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Original publication date September 2009."
General Note: "SS AGR 231."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00001248:00001

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SS AGR 231 Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report1 Brent Sellers2 1. This document is SS AGR 231, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date September 2009. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Brent Sellers, assistant professor, Range Cattle Research and Education Center--Ona FL, Department of Agronomy; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating.Millie Ferrer, Interim Dean Weather conditions strongly influence agricultural operations from planting through harvesting. Knowledge of annual rainfall and temperature cycles along with their extremes help producers determine optimum times to prepare and plant seedbeds, fertilize pastures, apply herbicides, control water, and to supplement cattle on pasture or range. Weather conditions influence seed germination, forage growth, palatability, and nutritive value. This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-transpiration, and solar radiation for 2007 obtained at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) in Ona, Florida, and is compared to a 66-year summary of data collected from this location. The center is located 82o 55' W and 27o 26' N in south central Florida approximately 45 miles (72 km) east of the Gulf of Mexico and 100 miles (160 km) west of the Atlantic Ocean. Weather observations were collected with a Weather Watch 2000 (Campbell Scientific, Inc) from 1997 until 2005. Beginning in 2006, observations were collected using the Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN). Accuracy of rainfall as measured by the Weather Watch 2000 or FAWN was checked by comparing with rainfall measured by a US Weather Service standard gauge. Measurements reported before 2006 were taken at 0900 h, thus data on a given day represent the previous 24-hour period. Beginning in 2006, measurements were recorded for an entire 24-h period beginning at midnight. Rainfall Annual rainfall for 2007 was 41.66 inches (Table 1), which was 12.14 inches (22.6%) less than the 66-year average of 53.80 inches (Table 1). The year with the least rainfall was 2000 when 32.02 inches were measured, and the year with the greatest rainfall was 1959 when 78.82 inches were recorded. Monthly rainfall totals were below the 66-year average for all months except August and December (Figure 1; Table 1). March, April, and November were excessively dry compared to the 66-year mean. The dry weather, which lasted into June, prevented many common operations such as proper weed control timings and planting. Unless irrigation was provided, the spring hay harvest was marginal.

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report 2 There were 12 occurrences during 2007 when daily rainfall equaled or exceeded 1 inch, three rain events that exceeded 2 inches, and two rain events that exceeded 3 inches (Table 2). The single greatest daily rain event was 13 September when 3.51 inches were recorded. Figure 1. Monthly rainfall in 2007 compared with the 66-year average. Figure 2. Monthly rainfall compared with evapo-transpiration during 2007. Cumulative rainfall = 41.66 and cumulative evapo-transpiration = 35.87. No Evapo-transpiration data were collected during April, November or December due to complications with the FAWN weather system.. Evapo-transpiration Evapo-transpiration is the total amount of water transferred from the earth to the atmosphere. Evapo-transpiration exceeded rainfall in January, March, May, and October during 2007 (Figure 2). Evapo-transpiration generally exceeds rainfall in January to May and October to December, which are months with limited rainfall. According to the data, rainfall exceeded evapo-transpiration by 5.79 inches for the entire year. However, no data were available during April, November and December, when evapo-transpiration typically exceeds rainfall. Figure 3. Total monthly solar radiation for 2007. Cumulative solar radiation in 2007 = 6960 MJ (MJ = Joules x 1,000,000) Solar Radiation Daily solar radiation is shown in Table 2, and 2007 total monthly solar radiation can be seen in Figure 3. For interpretation of solar radiation as it pertains to plant growth, 1 MJ results in about 14.3 lb/A of plant dry matter if soil water, temperature, and fertility are not limiting and vegetative cover is complete. Theoretically, enough solar radiation was received in April 2007 (783 MJ) to produce 11,197 lb/A of plant dry matter. Total solar radiation for 2006 was 6,960 MJ. Temperature There were four days when daily-low shelter temperature was at or below 32 F (Table 2). The extreme low temperature for 2007 occurred on 17 February when shelter temperature reached 26.9 oF. Scattered frost begins when air temperature drops to 35 F. Based on this fact, there were 4 incidences of frost (data not shown) in 2007. Except for January, October, and December, all months in 2007 had lower mean low temperatures compared with the 63-year means (Table 3). Overall, mean low temperature for 2007 was 1.0 F lower than the 63-year mean. Freeze hazard The fall and spring freeze hazards for the Range Cattle REC are shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. The fall freeze hazard shows the chance of experiencing the first attainment of a critical temperature before a selected date, while the spring

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report 3 freeze hazard shows the chance of the last attainment of a critical temperature before a critical date. Based on records from 1944 to 1991, these data will not predict what will occur in a given year, but what can be expected over a period of years. In an example using the spring freeze hazard, a frost susceptible crop (assuming 32 F) planted before the 1st of February would stand a 50% chance of survival (Figure 4). A grower has a significant likelihood of experiencing five crop frosts over ten years by planting before the 1st of February. Figure 4. Fall freeze hazard showing the chance of the first attainment of a given temperature before a selected date. Figure 5. Spring freeze hazard showing the chance of the last attainment of a given temperature before a selected date. Acknowledgements: The author wishes to thank Shirley Searcy for data collection and Toni Wood and Walt Beattie for data preparation. Table 1. Summary of rainfall by months. Range Cattle REC, 2007. 1942 to 2007 2007 Month Maximum / month Minimum / month 66-year average TotalDifference from 66-year average --------------------------------------------inches*----------------------------------------January 8.45 0.03 2.161.88 -0.28 February 9.59 0.02 2.632.47 -0.16 March 12.34 0.13 3.120.68 -2.44 April 11.91 0.00 2.481.93 -0.55 May 10.58 0.00 3.730.50 -1.57 June 18.99 2.79 8.698.60 -0.09 July 19.74 1.87 8.376.01 -2.36 August 16.10 3.13 8.258.36 +0.11 September 20.11 1.14 7.366.88 -0.48 October 11.25 0.04 3.072.15 -0.92 November 11.22 0.07 1.930.12 -1.81 December 8.61 0.16 2.012.08 +0.07 Year total 53.8041.66 -12.14 *Inches x 2.54 = cm. Since rainfall records began in July 1942, means for January to June are 66-year means.

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report 4 Table 2a. Daily maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2007, Range Cattle REC, January through April. January February March April MaxMinRainMJ/ MaxMinRainMJ/ MaxMinRainMJ/ MaxMinRainMJ/ Day oF oF in. m2 oF oF in. m2 oF oF in. m2 oF oF in. m2 173640.53.67 8154012.56 8762014.83 8753026.12 2736007.88 74620.122.71 8669016.55 8854024.30 38463012.79 63530.723.33 7556011.69 8853023.81 4806409.67 63500.156.27 7749018.62 8756020.87 5836308.64 59490.193.87 7039025.52 8658016.60 68665014.28 7046018.72 7435025.48 76470.0528.45 7836009.75 7740019.98 7942021.35 7041028.59 88354010.48 7644019.52 8246024.19 7538028.19 967410.0115.40 7841019.79 8551021.63 79500.2514.71 106742015.71 7641019.85 8556019.41 69571.273.80 117646013.96 7346015.35 8449024.34 88580.1626.34 127952013.78 67590.483.84 8455018.83 87640.0120.12 138153013.76 79570.6812.30 8548023.08 9053030.03 148256013.80 7851019.32 8255015.18 8964024.34 158049012.72 625006.93 8656021.47 78560.1913.56 168356015.05 5632016.71 79600.6811.37 7141031.34 177662012.47 6127022.38 7041027.54 8243031.07 188160013.60 58360.121.24 7138026.85 8244027.61 19765408.88 6628023.17 7842020.97 8157028.29 207651017.07 7535020.63 7454015.64 8451027.16 218149014.61 8146021.66 8052021.83 7958023.52 228265012.03 8049022.67 8054017.79 8254028.63 2375620.1811.12 80440.0123.30 8562021.62 8249029.21 24695504.39 8048022.29 8357022.14 8555026.64 2563390.7810.23 8254018.23 8456027.05 8757024.63 2668330.0419.25 80650.0210.53 8454026.50 9155027.71 277541014.03 8661015.19 8258017.64 8964024.80 2867450.3745.28 8655016.27 8552026.32 8957026.66 295936019.81 8456020.46 9050030.36 30582908.59 8658022.47 9156025.65 317043017.43 8357025.95 Avg 75 52 0.06 13.55 73 47 0.09 15.66 81 52 0.02 21.11 83 53 0.06 24.77 Max 86650.7845.28 86650.7223.30 87670.6827.54 91641.2731.34 Min 582903.67 562702.71 7035011.37 693803.80 Total 1.88 2.47438.51 0.68654.31 1.93743.1

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report 5 Table 2b. Daily maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2007, Range Cattle REC, May through August. May June July August Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 Day 18851027.16 78661.35.66 91690.0213.38 87720.1312.74 29253027.13 83680.719.89 92680.0915.35 82721.8310.61 39456030.30 8768026.59 91671.0219.14 9469028.17 49558029.36 8768025.81 98701.48.94 9570029.28 591660.3419.43 9065026.64 8871018.80 9470026.88 69161023.92 866809.65 91720.0817.06 9473024.65 77851030.12 91681.2822.49 9372023.86 9572024.71 88251028.42 88660.3717.07 9271022.54 96730.4622.57 98656029.87 9263028.15 9571025.80 9572025.69 108960021.46 95690.0524.14 94721.6422.86 9773027.37 119059025.37 9371019.85 9574025.29 97720.5624.65 129163019.05 93690.129.42 9472028.29 9571024.05 139365024.79 87650.0316.63 9274025.22 9472025.37 1489640.0215.13 8862026.00 9371029.30 93730.0220.55 158665023.61 9165024.03 96690.2326.10 92730.0218.64 169164020.53 9366027.26 93700.0524.84 92710.2221.72 1789600.1421.16 9167025.38 9572028.77 9270025.27 188860020.81 86700.3712.92 9773028.83 9069024.54 198663023.03 9268023.25 95720.0215.40 9471025.55 208759025.42 9268024.11 9569027.34 9475024.73 218753031.32 87700.3720.17 93700.4813.92 9473024.96 228960027.29 9167026.99 9068025.10 9469026.19 238863027.57 9062025.90 87720.2915.05 9269023.08 248761026.79 9364026.76 89690.0313.99 94710.0714.17 258862028.34 9665029.00 9469026.09 95692.7823.39 268760024.62 9166025.01 9573027.82 93690.9522.06 278959023.78 88710.5420.06 9469022.31 94750.1225.61 289160025.17 88690.0116.44 9267020.78 9472025.69 298961025.24 8970021.80 88710.3919.16 9472026.43 308862023.71 94703.4816.39 90710.1420.38 9371024.49 31 88 62 0 19.60 87 72 0.13 10.51 92 72 1.2 13.37 Avg 98660.0224.82 90670.2922.12 93710.1921.36 93720.2723.13 Max 95650.3431.32 96713.4829.42 98741.6429.30 97752.7829.28 Min 7851015.13 78620 5.66 876708.94 8269010.61 Total 0.5769.51 8.6663.45 6.01662.20 8.36717.16

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report 6 Table 2c. Daily maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for 2007, Range Cattle REC, September through December. September October November December Day Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 Max oF Min oF Rain in. MJ/ m2 191720.2118.84 86670.0120.53 85720.02712.66 8359014.01 293720.0419.28 87700.8412.93 8461019.33 8659016.20 39270020.12 91700.0116.85 7852019.54 8356015.45 49372026.21 9274019.23 8046019.38 7242017.06 593720.0722.84 90740.2213.54 7944020.30 7438016.26 69169022.26 8975017.50 8051015.30 8249015.73 791700.0523.96 8874015.59 7450014.10 8551012.66 89271020.97 8872018.69 7646018.35 8561014.32 99071024.47 9071020.31 754609.58 8459014.15 108770012.23 9169020.47 7741019.15 8460011.10 1192710.0219.18 9169020.94 7949017.57 8460013.72 129670022.17 8867020.23 8053011.35 8459012.64 1395693.5121.71 8766019.03 795703.15 8857015.04 1494690.7124.99 8664020.50 8156014.02 80651.75.52 159472023.18 8865018.55 8251017.58 85690.019.79 1694730.7421.80 9066017.36 654005.55 75480.1912.21 179273023.58 9167016.46 7641017.84 5938017.14 1889700.0123.62 8970014.12 8047014.70 7338012.28 1986720.1717.27 90690.116.83 7951014.65 7948011.40 2086690.2512.32 79730.276.42 8154015.29 7750011.49 2191720.0824.97 88720.1211.96 8254014.5 75500.18315.57 2287710.4211.67 9074015.64 8359011.25 7346010.07 2389720.5910.78 89710.0617.48 75560.069.85 8057012.42 2489710.0120.28 79680.056.51 81500.0215.07 825409.62 258971021.73 75640.077.60 85610.0114.04 825609.28 268570016.15 8465013.02 8562013.28 735306.25 279068021.66 83710.087.38 8662012.45 8554013.07 289271022.28 8370010.71 846409.37 8561014.01 298871019.44 84690.1212.88 8663012.56 845909.68 308668023.13 80700.199.89 806207.96 8463012.17 31 83 71 0.01 12.32 83 65 0 6.89 Avg 91710.2320.44 87700.0715.21 80530.0014.01 80600.0712.49 Max 96733.5126.21 92750.8420.94 86720.0620.30 88691.717.14 Min 8568010.78 756406.42 654003.15 593805.52 Total 6.88613.09 2.15471.45 0.117420.16 2.083387.19

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Range Cattle Research and Education Center Climatological Report 7 Table 3. Summary of minimum temperature for 2007 by months, Range Cattle REC. Shelter Ground level 1944-0720071944-07 2007 2007 Month Avg. low Avg. low Extreme low Year Extreme low Avg. low Extreme low ---------------------oF------------------------------------oF-----------------January 49.4 52.018198129.265.656.2 February 50.6 47.226197626.965.253.7 March 54.5 52.326198034.667.061.7 April 58.0 53.034197137.970.664.7 May 63.3 59.643194550.576.772.4 June 69.0 67.152198462.077.865.9 July 71.2 70.662several66.780.773.5 August 71.8 71.561197768.882.178.6 September 71.1 70.751196267.580.776.9 October 64.8 69.739several63.778.675.6 November 56.9 53.425197040.270.165.6 December 51.3 54.420196237.668.259.7 Average 61.0 60.0 73.6 67.0 *oC = (oF 32) x 0.555 Air temperature is measured using a thermometer in an instrument shelter designed to protect meteorological equipment from exposure to direct sunlight, precipitation, and condensations, while allowing for adequate ventilation so that the instruments measure environmental parameters accurately. Ground level temperature is measured with a soil probe, which measures the temperature 4 inches below the soil surface.