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Water Management Best Management Practices for Phosphorus Control on Organic Soils: Retention of Drainage On-Farm
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ ( Publisher's URL )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00001225/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water Management Best Management Practices for Phosphorus Control on Organic Soils: Retention of Drainage On-Farm
Series Title: Water Management Best Management Practices for PhosphorusControl on Organic Soils series
Abbreviated Title: Retention of Drainage On-Farm
Water Management Best Management Practices for PhosphorusControl on Organic Soils: Retention of Drainage On-Farm
Water Management BMPs on Organic Soils: Retention of Drainage On-Farm
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Bottcher, Del
Izuno, Forrest T.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Everglades Agricultural Area
Drainage -- Florida -- Everglades
Water table -- Florida -- Everglades
Agriculture -- Environmental aspects -- Florida -- Everglades
Genre:
Spatial Coverage: Everglades Agricultural Area
 Notes
Abstract: Background -- Temporarily raising water tables in the fields -- Storing water in isolated farm blocks -- Procedure for beginning a block storage system -- On-farm storage reservoirs --
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Original publication date December 1992. Reviewed July 2002."
General Note: "AGR57"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00001225:00001

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WaterManagementBMPsonOrganicSoils:RetentionofDrainageOn-Farm Page2 onceconfidenceisgained,thisshouldbecomea routinepartoffarmoperation,providingyouwitha valuableunderstandingandcontrolofthewater managementsystem.Suchanunderstandingcould likelyleadtootherbenefitsforthefarm.Toget started,however,wesuggestthatafarm-specific programbedevelopedwiththesupportofprivateor governmentalwatermanagementexperts.STORINGWATERINISOLATEDFARM BLOCKSStoringwaterinisolatedfarmblockscanbe usefulincaseswheredifferentcropsarebeinggrown behindapumpstation,orwhenthemovementof waterbetweenblocksisdesirable.Theuseof sugarcanelandstostoredrainagewaterfrom vegetableareaswithinoroutsidethefarmisagood exampleofcropblockstorage.However,becauseof thepotentialimportanceofthisBestManagement Practice,vegetablestorageinsugarcanewillbe discussedseparately(seeRetentionofVegetable FieldDrainageWaterinSugarcaneofFallowLands) Thissectionwillfocusinsteadonblockstorage techniquesforthesugarcanefarmingoperations. Fallowsugarcanelandsandricefieldsare prominentstoragelocationsforexcessrainfall,andin thisregardcanbeveryuseful.However,storagein fallow/ricelandsislimitedbytheavailableacreage (seasonalandusuallyonlyabout20%ofthefarm acreage)andtheneedtohydraulicallyisolate(dike) thisarea.Hydraulicallyisolatingblockswill necessitatetheuseofadditionalpumpsanddikes. Thesetypicallyhavebeenofatemporarynature. Permanentdikingandditchingsystems,however,once installed,cansimplifyfutureoperationsandimprove overallfarmwatermanagement.Thedikingreferred tointhisinstancecansimplybethenormalroad accessdikesandditchspoilseparations.Nolarge scaledikingwouldberequired. Researchandfarmers'experiencesduringflood periodshavedemonstratedthereisahighpotential toleranceofsugarcaneforprolongedrootinundation, bothpartialandcomplete.Thisabilitytowithstand rootsubmergenceforextendedperiodsoftime dependsuponplantvarietyandmaturity,aswellas onsoiltypeanddegreeofsoil/wateraeration(Deren, etal,1991).Storingwaterinfieldscroppedto sugarcanehassolidpotentialasaBMP,but additionalresearchconcerningtheinteractionsofsoil typeandwaterlevelwithcultivarandlengthof inundationarerequiredbeforefull-scale implementation. Thewaterconveyancesystemonasugarcanefarm mustbemodifiedsothatdrainagewatercanbe movedfromoneblockoflandtoanotherwithinthe farmdrainagesystem.Thissystemwillrequiresetting upgatedculvertsandpumpsonisolatedfeeder channelssothatwatercanberaisedinagivenblock oflandbydrainingitfromanotherblockwithinthe farm.Lowleveldikingwillbeneedediflandflooding isanticipated.Itmaybeadvantageoustohavethe feederditchesarrangedtoallowwatertobepumped fromonesideofablocktootherinordertomaintain aflowacrosstheblock.Waterkeptinmotionis betteraeratedandtherebyisbelievedbysome growerstoreducethenegativeimpactofrootzone inundation.However,noscientificdataareavailable toverifythisclaim.Therefore,wedonotknowyet whetherflowfromoneblocktoanotherona rotationalbasiswouldbebetterthanrecyclingwater withinblocks.Inanyevent,weadvisestartingouton asmallscaletogainexperiencebeforeexpandingto afarm-widesystem.PROCEDUREFORBEGINNINGABLOCK STORAGESYSTEMTheproceduraloperationofablockstorage systemwouldbetofirstoperatethefarmasdescribed ininthisguide(seeMinimizingWaterTable Fluctuations).Onceexcessrainfalloccurs,thisexcess watercouldbepumpedintothefirstfarmblockuntil itsallowablewatersaturationtimeisreached(see MinimizingWaterTableFluctuations--Table2).This block,then,couldbeappropriatelydrainedintoa secondblockuntilitswatersaturationtimelimithas beenreached.Thisprocesscontinuesuntiltheexcess waterisevapotranspiredfromthesystemoruntil therearenomoreavailableblocks.Atthattime,the excessdrainagewaterwillneedtobepumpedfrom thefarm.However,itmaybelikelythatbythenone oftheearlierblockswillhaveregainedstorage capacitysothatadditionalexcessrainfallcouldgoto it.Figures1and2showanexampleofafarmlayout whichutilizesablockstoragetechnique.ON-FARMSTORAGERESERVOIRSOn-farmstoragereservoirswhichstoreexcess rainfallon-siteforlateruseforirrigationcould reducephosphoruslossesfrom10-60%.Such reservoirswouldrequireabout5-10%ofthefarmer's

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WaterManagementBMPsonOrganicSoils:RetentionofDrainageOn-Farm Page3 landberemovedfromproduction.Thereservoirs wouldthenbeconstructedofeithermuckormarl dikes(preferredforreducedseepagelosses).These wouldrequireapumpstationandreleasegatesfor watercontrol.Theirsizingwouldbebasedonthe desiredwaterretention,heightofdike,andwater levelcontrolrequirementsofthefarm.Forexample, asugarcanefarmwouldrequiresmallerreservoirson aper-acrebasisthanavegetablefarm. On-farmstoragereservoirsofferthesimplest managerialschemeofanyofthepreviousretention systemsbecausetheiroperationalprocedureissimply topumpallexcesswaterintothereservoiruntilits capacityisexceeded,atwhichtimewaterisreleased offthefarm.Conversely,irrigationisdrawnfromthe reservoiruntilitsstoragecapacityisdepletedand waterisbroughtintothefarm.Thereservoirhasthe additionaladvantageofremovingsomeofthe phosphorusfromthewaterduringstorage. Thereare,however,severaldisadvantagesto retentionponds: *Theacreagerequiredforthereservoiris permanentlyremovedfromcropproduction. Dependingonthedegreeofretentiondesiredand dikeheights,thisacreagecouldamounttoas muchas10percentofexistingcropland. *Seepagefromthestoragereservoirmaycreate additionaloperationalcostsduetoincreased pumping. *Thereservoir'sadditionalwatersurfaceareawill extendtheconsumptiveuseofwateronthefarm. *Costofconstructionandlossoffarmproductivity makethissystemveryexpensive. Forsomefarmstheoperationaladvantagescould outweighthesedisadvantages.

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WaterManagementBMPsonOrganicSoils:RetentionofDrainageOn-Farm Page4 Figure1. Planviewofonepossibleblockstoragesystem.

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WaterManagementBMPsonOrganicSoils:RetentionofDrainageOn-Farm Page5 Figure2. Aerialviewofapossibleblockstoragesystem.