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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability
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Title: Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability
Physical Description: Technical Reports
Creator: Kesse, Erich J., 1959-
Publication Date: 2009
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Abstract: Assessment of digitization readiness and project viability among cultural institutions of Abruzzo (L'Aquilla) Italy following the earthquake of 2009 April 6.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Erich Kesse.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: Funded by an award from the the U.S. Department of State, Embassy in Italy.
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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 1 1 2 Abruzzese Cultural Institutions: 3 Digitization Readiness & Project Viability 4 5 6 Fourth Quarter of 2009 7 8 Erich Kesse, Consultant for International Cooperative Digital Projects 9 ekesse@gmail.com 10 11 12 13

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 2 Acknowledgements 14 15 This assessment owes a great deal to the Embassy of the United States in Rome, Italy, 1 and for its 16 response to the earthquake of 6 April 2009 in the Region of Abruzzo. Special thanks are due to 17 Laura Kaspari Hohmann, and 18 Gimena Campos Cervera and Gian Carlo 19 Ronci 20 21 T his assessment owes its being to the initiative of Joshua Lawrence, an American living in 22 23 24 engine for the sup port of education and, to some extent, for the economic recovery of the Region. 25 26 Assessment could not have been made without the generous assistance of the governments of 27 to the four 28 Abruzzese institutions that agreed to participate in this project: the Archiv i o di Stato 2 29 the 3 the Depu tazione Abruzzese di Storia Pat r i a 4 30 and the Universit 5 Acknowledgement of their administrators, archivists, 31 and librarians, particularly of Grazia di Bartolomeo, Elpidia Marimpietri and Paolo Muzi is made 32 with sincere thanks for their invaluable contributions to this assessment and input of considerable 33 time and forethought. Additional thanks is offered to Dottre Ferruccio Ferruzzi Director of the 34 Archivio di Stato and to Dottore Livio Sbardella Pro Rettore delegato per il Sistema Bibliotecario 35 di Ateneo for their time, administrative insights, and support for the assessment process. Thanks, 36 too, is offered to Maria Rosaria Ciccarelli and to Maria Elisa Equizi who together with Grazia di 37 Bart olomeo 38 39 Direzione General e per gli 40 Archivi (DGA) 6 and the insights of Dottore Luciano Scala ; by the Consorzio i nteruniversitario per le 41 Applicazioni di Supercalcolo per Universit e Ricerca (CASUR), 7 computing 42 centers, and the thoughtful remarks and perceptiveness of Dottore Paola Gargiulo ; and by the 43 I stituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico (ICCU), 8 which acts as coordinator for the Servizio 44 Bibliotecario N azionale = National Library Service (SBN) 9 and the Biblioteca Digitale Italiana = 45 Italian Digital Library (BDI), 10 and its officer Dottore Guiliana Sgambati whose patient explanation 46 of the ICCU, SBN and BDI organizational structures, procedures and standards was greatly 47 appreciated. 48 49 Special thanks are owed to the Vigili del Fuoco which made possible visits to restricted sites. 50 1 Embassy of the United States in Rome ( http://rome.usembassy.gov/ ). In Italian see: United States Diplomatic Mission to Italy ( http://italy.usembassy.gov/ ). 2 ( http://www.archiviodistatolaquila.beniculturali.it/ ). An English version is available 3 http://www.provincia.laquila.it/Biblioteca/ ). An English version is available. 4 Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria ( http://www.storiapatriabruzz o.it/ ). Available only in Italian. 5 Universit http://www.univaq.it/ ) and its Sistema bibliotecario di Ateneo ( http://www.univaq.it/section.php?id=302 ). An English page provides only information about earthquake relief. 6 Direzione Generale per gli Archivi ( http://www.archivi.beniculturali.it/ ). An English vers ion is planned. 7 Consorzio interuniversitario per le Applicazioni di Supercalcolo per Universit e Ricerca ( http://www.caspur.it/ ). An English version is available. 8 Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo Unico and the Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale share a common web page ( http://www.sbn.it/ ). An English version is available. 9 Ibid. 10 Biblioteca Digitale Italiana ( http://www.bibliotecadigitaleitaliana.it/ ). An English version is planned.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 3 51 Executive Summary 52 53 Digitization of Abruzzese cultural resources aspires to be a forward step in the evolution of the 54 Abruzzese archives and libraries. It is nothing special. It should not be difficult to achieve these 55 aspirations. They are viable with additional planning, more targeted assessment, and a bit of 56 market analysis, all wrapped up in good grant or programmatic writing. There is nothing terribly 57 difficult about this either. These activities are tried and true. There is a body of literature that 58 will tell the A 59 of practitioners many of whom should accept offers of partnership, willing to share their 60 knowledge and experience. Some of these individuals are likely to accept the offer without fee; 61 others are likely to seek funds to enable their own participation. There remains, of course, a 62 learning curve for the Abruzzese institutions. Climbing that curve begins with the appointment 63 of a Planning Committee, an Advisory Board, and th e constructs of collaboration among 64 themselves. And, it continues with great potential with planning and assessment gr ants and 65 demonstration projects, as well as learning through the aforementioned partnerships. 66 67 The desire to digitize is complex. In addition to stepping forward archives and libraries 68 everywhere are replacing old analogue technologies for new digital technologies, the Abruzzese 69 institutions have an awareness and desire to expose content for educational uses. The 70 diaspora resulting in the wake of the earthquake of 2009 gives the Abruzzese institutions both 71 the desire and the perfect conditions under which to move forward. Efforts like La Scuola per 72 have already established foundations. There is awareness and desire to o, that digital 73 content should meet economic value as well. The value, both research and economic, in 74 cultural resources for cultural tourism was well appreciated as early as the planning stages for 75 the Bibilioteca Digitale Italiano (BDI) to which, one expe cts, the Abruzzese content with be 76 contributed. BDI support is in place and, though it too requires some development, is 77 substantial. The value of building a digitization program, too, does not overlook University of 78 n as providing opportunity for application and development 79 of skills in visual arts, architecture, geography, computing and other vocational as well as topical 80 studies. Again, the planning process should bring these desires into focus. 81 82 If there is nothin g special about the process of moving forward, there is a great deal that is 83 special in the collections and content that the Abruzzese institutions hope to make digitally 84 available to themselves, to Italy, and to the world. Response to the earthquake of 2 009 was 85 directed to sustaining the living and to the restoration of their cultural monuments and core 86 structures. Underlining these, underpinning the culture of Abruzzo, is another core founded 87 upon the archives and library, if not also museum, resources 88 Their restoration to civic life can be more than hyperbole presuming the forward thinking of a 89 proactive planning process. 90 91

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 4 92 Recommendations 93 94 Recommendations are listed below under general heading. Recommendation number is 95 followed by brief recommendation text. For full text of recommendations, see the narrative 96 assessment. Recommendations are given in numerical order in the narrative. 97 98 NOTES TO FUNDING AGENCIES 99 100 Funding age ncies are encouraged to support 101 Proposals for preservation assessment of physical collections; 102 Projects to build technical competencies ; 103 Digitization planning proposals; and 104 Grant applications for demonstration projects 105 106 DIGITAL LIBRARY SYSTEMS 107 108 An original requirement for this report was discussion of 109 that might be recommended to the Abruzzese institutions. There are a number of systems 110 that might be suitable for their use but none is recommended. The narrative of the 111 assessment explains why. Instead, contribution to the Biblioteca Digitale Italiana (BDI) is 112 recommended. 113 114 Notwithstanding the rationale for recommending use of BDI services to those of off the shelf 115 systems, assessment finds room for improvement in the support systems that underpin the 116 BDI. Improvements stand to make the creation of di gital resources more efficient and less 117 costly. Some of the following recommendations reflect development of a greatly matured 118 system. These are recommended, not for fancy, but to enable advanced digitization projects 119 that should be possible for the Abru zzese institutions in the future, pending of course the 120 readiness of systems to accommodate them. 121 122 Most of the recommendations, however, pertain to the role out of applications that should 123 make BD I support systems more complete and that mitigate costs to BDI contributors like 124 the Abruzzese institutions. Typical applications include a digital asset management (DAM) 125 or tracking database system; and metadata packaging systems; etc., that are generically 126 The bulk of these recomme nd ations it is suggested, may be 127 acquired even if they need to be tweaked for use in ICCU systems through partnerships, 128 perhaps technology for content exchange, with digital library programs that have already 129 developed them. 130 131 ICCU & the BDI 132 133 04, 34 & 50 ................ Partnering with ICCU Contribution to SBN and BDI 134 77. .............................. MAG adoption Contribution to BDI 135 13 .............................. ICCU digital preservation service 136 43 .............................. Comprehensive searching of digitized Italian heritage: distributed 137 search 138 139 IMPROVING SBN SYSTEMS 140 141 59 .............................. SBN name authorit y: Synchronization with Internationally 142 60 .............................. 143 71 .............................. Catalog record exchange 144 73 .............................. SBN MARC to MARC21 crosswalk 145 87 .............................. Name authority and life events metadata 146 147

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 5 IMPROVING BDI SYSTEMS 148 149 05 .............................. Building services and digital library behaviors 150 19 .............................. Promotion of digital collections search on BDI and the Internet 151 Culturale pages 152 32 .............................. Implementation of OCR technology. 153 56 .............................. Authorized digital object enhancement 154 57 .............................. Application of automatic translation tools 155 58 .............................. Internationally recognized mark up standards: Adoption 156 65 .............................. Metadata creation tools 157 66 .............................. Generating catalog records from metadata 158 75 .............................. Import and export of records 159 76 .............................. Facilitating productivity: Application tool box 160 83.2.2. & 83.2.3 ......... Digitization workflow modules. 161 85 .............................. MAG page level metadata extensions 162 86 .............................. Geography, time, names, and events in MAG 163 88a ............................ Italian gazetteer: geographic tagging 164 88b ............................ Italian gazetteer: additions and enhancements 165 91 .............................. Automated technical metadata extraction into MAG 166 93 .............................. Digital archiving: Checksums and Verification 167 94 .............................. Authorized submission via wire to BDI 168 169 CASPUR 170 171 Some of the systems and support that the Abruzzese institutions need which are not 172 available from ICCU/BDI also are not available in off the she lf systems These would have 173 to be developed anyway. Collaboration with CASPUR is recommended to provide advice 174 and even for the deployment of some solutions. These are solutions that, yes, could be 175 developed by and deployed in Abruzzo. But, it make mo re sense more economic sense 176 177 regional agency, services supported for the Abruzzese institutions could and probably should 178 be made available to the wider CASPUR service area. The potential economies of scale 179 could not be matched by the Abruzzese institutions, which would start from behind the curve 180 having to develop and train their own staff long before coming to needed solutions. The 181 development of a digital library s ervices unit within CASPUR also follows the model of 182 regional computing centers in several states of the USA: California, Colorado, Florida, and 183 North Carolina, among others. If, for some reason the Abruzzese institutions and CASPUR 184 cannot come to agreeme nt on collaboration, the Abruzzese institutions will have to take a 185 step back. Collaboration with CASPUR gives the Abruzzese institutions technical viability 186 they currently lack and greatly need. 187 188 06 .............................. Collaboration with CASPUR 189 21 .............................. Critique of plans 190 95 .............................. Intermediate archiving and production storage 191 192 193

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 6 PLANNING 194 195 Assuming proactive partnerships with ICCU/BDI and CASPUR, what the Abruzzese 196 institutions most need is a bigger picture. There is no doubt that they hold valuable content 197 that if digitized would contribute greatly to Italian and Renaissance research. Acq uiring the 198 bigger picture is a two fold challenge for the Abruzzese institutions. 199 200 One of these is making granting viable. The Abruzzese institutions have exciting collections 201 that seem to have great potential. But, they need the understanding of their market, proof of 202 the usefulness of the resources they propose to create, performance measures, and 203 justifications. One case in point is the Antinori manuscript works. The works appear to be 204 treasure in terms of both fiscal and intellectual value. The e quipment required to digitize the 205 works properly and without physical damage to the source documents is expensive. Its 206 approximately 207 that if digitized it will be used and, if used, that uses e.g., classroom, tourism, and 208 architectural uses be outlined or planned for optimum realization of value. 209 210 01 .............................. Research and planning process Appointment of a Planning 211 Committee 212 02 .............................. Stakeholder exercise 213 03 .............................. Advisory Board 214 07 & 26 ...................... Preservat ion assessment of physical collections 215 08 .............................. Education market analysis 216 09 .............................. Educators focus group 217 10 .............................. Grant writing. 218 11 .............................. A technical leader. 219 113 ............................ Institutional cost share in granting 220 114a .......................... Reaching Audience. 221 114b .......................... Generating Income. 222 12 .............................. Digital fulfilment services, policies and procedures. 223 14 .............................. Interests and leverage points of stakeholders 224 15 .............................. Formal collaboration agreement: the Abruzzese institutions 225 20 .............................. Involvement of stakeholders in the planning process 226 24 .............................. Study of similar digitization projects Alliances and partnerships. 227 28 .............................. Development of topical projects Project utility 228 29 .............................. Copyright 229 30 & 31 ...................... Preservation policy for source documents being digitized. 230 41 .............................. Best practices: Planning Digitization 231 45.1 ........................... Use of digital collections: ci tation 232 54 .............................. Environmental scan of digitization projects 233 62 .............................. Engaging educators 234 63 .............................. Periodic assessments of digital collections Inviting contacts 235 64 .............................. Creative co funding: Learning modules Data enhancement Additive 236 projects 237 67 & 69 ...................... Developing technical and leadership skills: di Bartholomeo and Muzi 238 68 .............................. Formal collaboration agreement: Bylaws 239 70 & 80 ...................... Training manuals 240 83.1.1 ........................ Digital master storage 241 83.1.2.1. & 83.1.3.2 ... Budgeting for storage need 242 83.1.2.2. & 83.1.3.1 ... Calculating storage need 243 4 0 .............................. Digital archiving strategies 244 92 .............................. Digital archiving: What to archive 245 246 247

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 7 INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS 248 249 Secondarily, if the Abruzzese institutions have any hope of moving from demonstration 250 projects to digitization program, they need to maximize their exposure. To that end they 251 need to have developed strategies for making other institutions and a wide range of funding 252 agencies and donors aware of them, of their work. That means goin g to the funding 253 agencies. In the digitization community, that often means internationalizing or, at very least, 254 being aware of global developments in digitization. A digitization program needs to have 255 content. It needs to be capable in developing it. It needs to be creative in designing 256 projects. It needs community sup port, education and research support. It needs to place at 257 least some of its content in other digital libraries known to other funding agencies for high 258 thresholds of content and technical quality. That kind of acceptance among peer programs 259 is more than flattery; it can be the difference in continuing to have projects that drive the 260 program funded. 261 262 55 .............................. Partnerships 263 23 .............................. International organizations 264 24 .............................. Study of similar digitization projects Alliances and partnerships. 265 25 .............................. Partner for metadata enhance ments 266 95x ............................ Partnership opportunity: technology for content exchange 267 27 .............................. American Library Association Preservation and Reproduction 268 Section 269 49 .............................. Digital Scriptorium 270 72 .............................. World Digital Library 271 272 THE PROJECTS 273 274 Digitization projects were both preselected by t he Abruzzese institutions for assessment and 275 suggested to them for their own evaluation. One of the latter is an oral history project, which 276 has been given its own grouping of recommendations, below, because of its special 277 standards and equipment. The se ction immediately below lists recommendations otherwise 278 279 Several of the projects preselected do not appear to work. Copyright is an impediment. In 280 many of these cases alternatives have been recommended for evaluation by the Abruzzese 281 institutions. Some of the projects suggested to them are conceived as enabling projects. 282 Contribution to the BDI, for example, requires prior cataloguing; so a re trospective 283 cataloguing project and a corresponding archival description project are recommended. In a 284 more fanciful suggestion, one recommendation reacts, for example, to the value of 285 information to tourists, or, to resources for which geography (i.e., A Corografia ) is 286 important. How is this information accessed in field? A recommendation to place a cloud, a 287 hot 288 recommendation would have been to bring the Intern et into the Biblioteca Provinciale. In the 289 future, it is intended to allow cultural tourists to access historic as well as current tourist 290 information on their fast becoming ubiquitous mobile devices. Such a cloud already exists 291 re. 292 293 One of the more forward looking recommendations, a recommendation originating in Rome 294 rather than Abruzzo, was for the foundation of a Center of Excellence in Earthquake Studies. 295 This Center would digitize historic earthquake materials, which Abruzzo has a wealth of, and 296 subject them to digitization with text conversion, data mining, and data manipulation. 297 Outside of Italy, this is a wonderful idea. Historic data is usually overlooked by scientists; it 298 e readily fed into their analytical systems. Indeed, 299 300 Geophysical Union meeting the preeminent world conference for Earth sciences used 301 ains locked away in, what to scientists, appears to be 302 humanist primary resources. Within Italy, however, the idea has already been concretized in 303 Bologn a With a Center of Excellence, perhaps, set aside, it remains an excellent idea to 304 s earthquake archives f Storia Geofisica 305 Ambiente Similarly, with the Storia Geofisica Ambiente 306

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 8 scientific systems, there remains a need to make the earthquake story and its historic data 307 accessible to the Italian and world public. There is a need for learning modules targeted to 308 primary education and life long learners, though the need not necessarily be met in Abruzzo 309 or met by the Abruzzese archivists and librarians rather than their e ducators. 310 311 The Abruzzese institutions also suggested several normative projects, projects digitizing 312 Abruzzese history and culture for research and educational uses. These include relatively 313 small projects such as a dissertations digitization project a good, but p erhaps too simple 314 demonstration project, certainly worthy of funding presuming that a project plan is brought 315 forward. These projects also include modestly large and apparently worthy projects in 316 Renaissance history, Abruzzese history, and Abruzzese liter ature. 317 318 The Abruzzese literature project, while topically focused on early and Renaissance Italian is 319 the work of a modern academician, Vincenzo de Bartholomaeis. The work is considered to 320 be foundational in Italian philology. Italian copyright law req uires that clearance to digitize 321 his works be granted however; it appears to be a relatively minor hurtles to expose research 322 of such importance. Recommendations are made in the interest of preparing this body of 323 materials for digitization. 324 325 A jewel among the Abruzzese collections is the body of resources described as Abruzzese 326 and Renaissance history. A problem with regard to the latter is that Renaissance history 327 seems to have gone global. Indeed a Digital Scriptorium based in North America, already 328 e xists and seems to obviate the need for yet another collection of similar resources in 329 Abruzzo. Recommendations are made to the Abruzzese institutions for approaches to 330 Renaissance history that should make it viable for granting. The truth is that their 331 Renaissance history is largely Abruzzese history, which is under represented in the Digital 332 Scriptorium Abruzzo has an important sometimes pivotal role in Italian history; and, very 333 good arguments can be made for its digitization. And, those arguments e xtend well beyond 334 the collections targeted to this point. 335 336 Chief among its Abruzzese Renaissance history is the manuscript works of Anton Antinori. 337 They are heavily used for both research and practical purposes. They are frequently 338 referenced and, themse lves, reference a body of Italian literature and history much of which 339 remains hidden from and hopefully lost within the greater body of Italian and world cultural 340 important since the middle ages as a 341 center of learning; as, at one time, a home to the Vatican; and pivotal in the intrigues of 342 343 World Heritage designation. If a case were to be made for it, then 344 certainly be central to that case. They do not just document history; they document cultural 345 monuments, buildings and landmarks and expose the history within them. They are not just 346 pivotal in an historic era pivotal to the intrig ues of Empires, but they are pivotal also in this 347 last great 348 earthquakes (1703 1706). Antinori deserves to be exposed; but to digitize it requires 349 expensive equipment that demands commensurate planning and programming for use of the 350 resulting product. Recommendations are made to move this along. 351 352 MISCELLANEOUS PROJECTS 353 354 28 .............................. Development of topical projects Project utility 355 33 .............................. Out of print books: conversion not recommended 356 35 .............................. Textbooks: conversion not recommended 357 36 .............................. Textbooks: open source lesson plans and textbooks 358 37 .............................. Textbooks: Moodle 359 38 .............................. Scientific and technical manuals: conversion not recommended 360 39 .............................. Institutional repository 361 45.2 ........................... Use of digital collections: Works resulting from use 362 47 .............................. Dissertations: Retrospective digitization Electronic dissertations 363 programs 364 365

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 9 48 .............................. History of the Region, Province, City 366 74 .............................. Catalog conversion Archives records 367 22 .............................. area network 368 369 EARTHQUA KE STUDIES 370 371 16 .............................. Center of Excellence in Earthquake Studies 372 17 .............................. Mapping historic earthquake data 373 18 .............................. Consult with the INGV and the SGA regarding historic earthquake 374 data. 375 376 DE BARTHOLOMAEIS COLLECTION 377 378 44 .............................. Physical preservation assessment 379 42 .............................. Planning for d igitization 380 46 .............................. Text generation 381 382 ANTINORI MANUSCRIPT WORKS 383 384 53 .............................. Cataloging in SBN 385 51 .............................. Planning for digitization 386 52 .............................. Selection of version to be digitized 387 46 .............................. Text generation 388 389 390 STANDARDS, HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 391 FOR NORMATIVE PROJECTS 392 393 The bulk of projects suggested by or to the Abruzzese institutions was normative projects. 394 At their core, these projects require digitization of page images and generation of text. 395 Recommendati ons for imaging and text follow, together with recommendations for 396 specia lized information enhancement in the form of geographic information. 397 398 STANDARDS FOR IMAGING 399 400 78 .............................. Imaging standards: ICCU/BDI standards 401 79 .............................. ICCU/BDI guidelines Direct instruction 402 81 .............................. Imaging standards: Resolution 403 82 .............................. Imaging standards: Bit depth, Color, and Color space 404 405 IMAGING HARDWARE SOFTWARE 406 407 96 .............................. Flat bed scanners 408 97 .............................. Rotary (sheet feed) scanners 409 98 .............................. Microfilm scanners 410 99 .............................. Bound volume & oversized document scanners 411 100 ............................ Basic computer workstation for imaging and image processing 412 101 ............................ Image pro cessing (software) suite 413 111 ............................ JP2 (zoom image format) software 414 415 TEXT GENERATION 416 417 46 .............................. De Bartholomaeis and Antinori collections 418 84a1 .......................... Double keying 419 84a2 .......................... Double keying accuracy verification 420 84b1 .......................... Optical Character Recognition (OCR) 421 84b2 .......................... Optical Charac ter Recognition (OCR) accuracy verification 422 110 ............................ OCR software 423 84c1 .......................... Single keying. 424 84c2 .......................... Single keying accuracy verification 425 426

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 10 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 427 428 112 ............................ Geographic Information Software (GIS) 429 61 .............................. Geo referencing 430 86 .............................. Geography, time, names, and events in MAG 431 88a ............................ Italian gazetteer: geographic tagging 432 88b ............................ Italian gazetteer: additions and enhancements 433 434 STANDARDS, HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 435 FOR MULTI MEDIA ORAL HISTORY 436 437 Assessment narrative discusses various projects either listed by or suggested to the 438 Abruzzese Institutions. Among those suggested to the Abruzzese institutions is an Oral 439 History project with both digital recording and digital imaging components. The suggested 440 oral history project has a kind of creative energy that gets a program notice d. Most 441 digitization programs struggle to find that special hall mark that gets them noticed. Some 442 bend over backward creating technological marvels. Other, struggle to find eye candy 443 sweeter than all of the other candy in the (funding) market place. T he suggested oral history 444 project based in regional earthquake experiences offers a unique foundation for an 445 expanded series, each series accompanied by a more traditional digitization project. The 446 project is so simple that it could virtually run itself a fter set up. The recognitions is should 447 generate should then help to compel other projects forward. Standards and equipment for 448 both audio and video facets of a potential project are listed below. 449 450 STANDARDS FOR AUDIO 451 452 89 .............................. Audio mastering standard 453 454 AUDIO HARDWARE SOFTWARE 455 456 102 ............................ Audio recorders 457 103 ............................ Basic computer workstation for audio processing 458 104 ............................ Audio processing (software) suite Audio component 459 105 ............................ Audio processing (software) suite Transcription component 460 461 STANDARDS FOR VIDEO 462 463 90 .............................. Video m astering standard 464 465 VIDEO HARDWARE SOFTWARE 466 467 106 ............................ Video recorders 468 107 ............................ Basic computer workstation for video processing 469 108 ............................ Video processing (software) suite Video component 470 109 ............................ Video processing (software) suite Transcription component 471 472

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 11 473 474 Introductory Remarks 475 476 The purpose of assessment can be stated simply. It was initiated to provide an assessment of 477 478 Abruzzo region. Specific attention is given to strategic planning and sustainability, to digitization 479 priorities and standards, and to digital library systems, among other inputs, needs, targets and 480 measures. Less simply stated, this assessment considers the viability of digitization. It ad dresses 481 what the participating institutions need to do to prepare themselves for and to sustain a digitization 482 during and after an initial project. It suggests the arguments it will need to make and will have to 483 prove as the institutions seek partnerships and funding. These must be nuanced and find a life 484 beyond this assessment. 485 486 A Context for Assessment 487 488 In the course of completing this assessment, two remarks were repeated often. It seems 489 appropriate that they should be repeated again here, as a frame for assessment. 490 491 492 493 The earthquake in the region of 494 It claimed more than three hundred lives. It disrupted thousands more, literally severing 495 connections of its people to their regional and provincial capital. As in the wake of Hurrican e 496 Katrina (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) in 2005, tens of thousands have been displaced, some 497 within the province and region, and, many more to places beyond. Almost everyone left 498 possessions, personal objects and cultural artifacts and, in many ways, t heir lives behind. 499 500 501 effort to revive the city. Everywhere, work is ongoing to shore up buildings an overwhelming 502 majority damaged by the earthquake and to mitigate further loss. But, entry into the city center 503 the old city 504 Vigili del Fuoco the Fire Department, an agency of the Civil 505 Defen 506 principle industry: the Universit together with the cultural institutions that 507 supported the University and its students: the Archivio di S tato the Biblioteca provinciale 508 and the Deput azione Abruzzese di Storia Patri a Destruction of the 509 510 511

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 12 town. The University, 512 513 comparable to if not on par with 514 515 as it is into the city plan, the University is integral to its history and future. If students, and their 516 e city will be dead. 517 518 519 And, the Italian government is working diligently and on schedule against a fast paced plan to 520 provide thousands of dwellings, each empl oying state of the art earthquake mitigation 521 technologies outside the city center. As housing mushrooms around the city, similar effort is 522 underway to house its cultural institutions. The Archivio di Stato and the Deput azione Abruzzese 523 di Storia Patri a h ave already relocated to the suburb of Bazzano. Plans to relocate the Biblioteca 524 provinciale to Bazzano, as well, have been made and will be executed soon. Likewise plans have 525 been made to relocate the University several colleges, just outside the city center. Contingent 526 finalization of relocation agreements, some will likely be relocated to Bazzano too. 527 528 epicenter in Paganica, approximately 5 km from the c enter 529 530 The Archiv i o and the Deputazione now share old warehouse space, expertly fitted with state of 531 the art high density shelving and environmental systems. The facility is an amazing step into 532 twentieth (if not twenty first) century. 11 533 534 As housing needs are met, 12 535 transportation needs. Before the earthquake, Paolo Muzi once walked a few blocks from his home 536 to his office at the Archivio di Stato both in the city center. Today, he must drive five kilometers 537 Professore 538 Silvia Mantini too, once made a short journey within the city center from her home to her office in 539 the Faculty of History. She now must journey from near the city of Pescara, on the Adriatic coast, 540 a distance of more than 65 km. Their journeys are multiplied by everyone who 541 542 evident by their congestion. Public transport services survive nicely but are fractured and 543 disrupted. Networks d esigned to deliver people to city centers are coming to grips with new 544 patterns of traffic. 545 546 11 based article ( http://www.culturaitalia.beniculturali.it/pico/modules/focus/it/focus_0559 .html ). The article is accompanied by images of both the new or old facilities. Images of the old facility show the Archivio both before and after the earthquake, together with an image depicting the containerization of holdings for their move. 12 Physic al assessment of the state of Abruzzese libraries damaged in the Earthquake is available in Gestione Terremoto (Issue 3.32, dated 6 April 2009), with status updates as of this assessment dated 11 November 2009. Available online in Italian at http://www.regione.abruzzo.it/gestioneTerremoto/index.asp?modello= avvisoSing&servizio=le&stileDiv=seq uence&template=default&tom=1140&b=avviso and in English (Google) translation at http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&tl=en&u=http://www.regione.abruzzo.it/ gestioneTerremoto/index.asp%3Fmodello%3DavvisoSing%26servizio%3Dle%26stileDiv%3Dsequence%26te mplate%3Ddef ault%26tom%3D1140%26b%3Davviso Additional information, including brief characterizations of collections, is available with the date of 10 September 2009 as: Appendix 1a : Biblioteche con struttuta inagibile patrimonio a rischio. Appendix 1b : Bibliotech e con struttura inagibile patrimonio in sicurezza e parzialmente integro servizio non attivato. Appendix 1c: Biblioteche con struttura risanata patrimonio integro servizio riattivato censimento.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 13 Restoration of smoothly functioning networks with cogent designs will be essential to move people 547 548 relationship. Unlike U.S. and Canadian universities whose accreditation requires adequate library 549 seating, library seating indeed library resources of the Universit is 550 supplemented by t he seating and resources of the Archivio and Biblioteca Students, who often 551 rely heavily on public transport, will need improved and likely new links between University 552 553 554 The ripple effects of recovery from disaster are well known and predictable. The needs of cultural 555 resources, let alone digitization, seems distant from immediate needs. 556 557 We want our city back; it was our core 558 559 Regardless of where we live or the language we speak, place has a way not of defining us but of 560 encapsulating who we are. Look around your personal space. What you see there serves as the 561 canopic jars of who you believe yourself at your core to be. It is an expression of self 562 perception, and, it imparts that perception to others entering your space. A city, by the same 563 token, serves as a canopic chest. It holds the past up to the present and carries it into the future. 564 It is a vessel of culture. 565 566 Yes, a city is first and foremost its people. But, what are a people without its buildings, its 567 landmarks, places of worship and education, or, without its archives, libraries and museums? 568 When the necessities of life: housing, transportation, etc. hav e been restored, reviving the 569 570 571 572 approximately four hundred cultural landmarks. They are currently working to repair the forty four 573 i factual and written heritage have not 574 been overlooked. And, plans to relocate the content of these institutions are both sensible and 575 pragmati c. Moving them, however difficult transportation to and from them may be, restores 576 access to them. But, having relocated them is it necessary to digitize them? This is a question 577 that we will return to. 578 579 The earthquake of 2009 was only the latest in a history of earthquakes across Italy, in the Abruzzo 580 581 major earthquakes in 1315, 1349, 1452, 1501, 1646, 1703 and 1706. The earthquake of 2 582 February 1703 ef 583 584 time and again. Even today, though behind a cordon, the old and the new intermingle as they do 585 in college towns, such as Cambridge and Oxford in the United Kin g dom, that have experienced 586 less calamitous change. 587 588 words of every disaster response plan. Actions 589 currently being ta ken at every level of government suggest that planning is being conducted 590 afterlife with much 591 if not all of its culture canopically preserved. 592 593 594

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 14 Readiness 595 596 So, are the institutions of Abruzzo ready to launch a digitization program ? In a word 597 they are ready to build one. T hey are ready for planning and small digitization projects designed to 598 build experience. They certainly have content that not only could be digitized without much 599 difficulty but which could be of significant value digitized. And, they would be viable partners in a 600 collaborative project with a more experienced institution. 601 602 This assessment e xamines four key areas of readiness: (1) collections and uses; (2) knowledge 603 and training; (3) equipment and infrastructure; and sustainability and maintenance. It examines 604 key issues and recommends readiness actions. Assessment is preceded by a review o f rationale 605 expressed by Abruzzese and Italian institutions for digitization. The purpose of this review is 606 constructive criticism. 607 608 1. Expressed Rationale for Digitization 609 610 Several reasons for digitization have expressed by Abruzzese and Italian institutions. These 611 include: preservation, education support, vocational training, and economics, as well as 612 competition. 613 614 a. Competition 615 616 A sense of competition with other Italian archives, libraries and universities is the least noble 617 of these reasons. Competition in the sense expressed is a desire, one not yet tested by 618 need or proven through ability. Development of a digitization program requires the 619 commitment of fiscal and staff resources. And, a program should not be developed lacking 620 reasons just ifying those costs or reasonable ability to meet a need. 621 622 What having a digitization program often means, or has meant in the North American sense, 623 is not simply keeping up with reputable institutions and, therefore, inferring a degree of 624 reputability for 625 626 Reputation attracts students, donors, and other fiscal support. In a sense, the money one 627 spends of digitization breeds money. 628 629 While the validity of a such a statement is to be questioned critically, it is unassai la bl y true 630 that money may be spent wisely or poorly. Spending it wisely requires research and 631 planning, both of which remain in queue, on the to do list of the Abruzzese institutions. 632 633 Recommendation 01 : Accordingly, those institutions should begin a research and planning process, with the appointment of a Planning Committee. 634 Recognizing that other institutions offer compe ti tion means that one recognizes something 635 of merit in what those institutions have done. The research and planning process should 636 ask What is it that we like (or dislike) about the digitization programs of those institutions? 637 And, for everything liked, it should ask (costs, staff 638 requirements, etc.)? This will help the Abruzzese institutions to find their way, to get a 639 picture of what is possible and desirable The best means of concluding this research is one 640 or more preferably all of the following: 641 642 R EAD AND L EARN : 643 644 Request annual and project reports of institutions identified as competitors. As 645 available also request planning documents, organization charts, and budgets. 646 647 Some of this information may be confidential. Be prepared to offer to sign 648 confidentiality agreements, which may require advanced discussion with legal 649 counsel. 650 651 652

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 15 In preparation for this research, list the names of competitor institutions, seek out 653 contact names and contact information And, consider that participation and 654 collaboration (under the old adage : ) is also a 655 recognition of competition. 656 657 In addition to listing the names of Italian competitors, consider also listing 658 selected foreign competit ors, valued in relation to the core values identified by the 659 Abruzzese institutions. In North American, relative to potential for collaboration, 660 for example, the Newberry Library in Chicago holds a large collection of 661 European renaissance materials compar able to those of the Abruzzese 662 institutions. Do not overlook, virtual institutions and digital libraries such as the 663 Digital Scriptorium, 13 which is based in North America. 664 665 Most importantly, the Abruzzese institutions should be encouraged not to be 666 afraid to show what they do not know. The institutions that interest is expressed 667 in will be flattered. Many, if not most, will freely give you any free time available 668 to them. Most also maintain much of the information sought on their web sites or 669 as part of their digital library. 670 671 L ISTEN AND L EARN : 672 673 Invite those involved in digitization programs elsewhere to visit and to conduct a 674 presentation(s) on their work, during which questions can be asked and 675 answered. 676 677 If invitees cannot be brought in, consider video hook ups (e.g., Skype, Google 678 Chat or similar service). 679 680 L OOK AND L EARN : 681 682 Visit the facilities of digitization programs elsewhere. In preparation of for visits 683 the Planning Committee and funding officers should agree on a s eries of 684 standard questions that the Committee will ask during its visits. Visits should be 685 planned in such a way as to discuss vision and goals, policy and procedures, and 686 best practices and standards, as well as to witness various digitization tasks 687 bei ng carried out and to ask questions about equipment and software used. 688 689 In person visits can be extremely valuable. But, if they are not practical or are too 690 expensive, consider virtual visits. Most well established large digitization 691 programs in North America for example, should and may be willing to provide 692 filmed if not live video tours of their facilities, followed by live video hook up 693 question and answer discussions. 694 695 Note that the order of the above is optimized to research, review, and comprehend the 696 activities in which a digitization program is involved. It is optimized for learning. 697 698 Because competition is a common desire, it often achieves mimicry in digitization. Nowhere 699 is there yet a standard that assesses the value of home grown (or commercial) digital 700 libraries. And, neither the purchase of a commercially available e book nor embedding in 701 a ble e book 702 is indication alone of value. The research and planning process carried out by the 703 Abruzzese institutions should state core values and provide examples of how a digital library 704 should perform to satisfy those values. In simple language, they should ask What should a 705 digital library do? What should a digital resource do? and What do we need to do to make 706 that possible? These are questions that should keep returning, even and after digitization 707 project begins. 708 709 710 13 For more information about the Digital Scriptorium and its participating institutions, see http://scriptorium.columbia.edu/about/

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 16 More importantly, these questions should point the Abruzzese institutions to identificati on of 711 their stakeholders. Planners should ask who will use my digital library? What particular 712 constituencies are there for a given digital resources? How do those constituencies use 713 digital libraries and individual digital resources in their discipline ? What does each 714 constituency desire, want and need? And, again, they should ask What do we need to do to 715 make that possible? This is known as a stakeholder exercise. 716 717 Recommendation 02 : The Abruzzese institutions should complete a stakeholder exercise. ( For additional comment, see the reiteration of this Recommendation in the Imaging section below. ) 718 A stakeholder is someone who maintains an interest in the resources digitized. 719 Stakeholders commonly include individuals, researchers, students, etc. for whom a resource 720 is digitized. Stakeholders also include the agencies and donors funding digitization, as well 721 as the administrators responsible for the accounting of the use of funds. Stakeholders 722 include individuals involved in the cr eation of digital assets: managers and technicians, for 723 example. Those individuals who retrieve and re shelve content also form a stakeholder 724 group. Individuals who maintain Internet delivery and who archive or manage archives of 725 digital assets form yet more stakeholder groups. 726 727 Every stakeholder group can characterize its use or interest in digital resources. The 728 exercise should endeavor to determine desired as well as current uses of a particular set of 729 resources. A researcher, for example, who may in itially be thankful to have Internet access 730 will likely ask for the ability to download and use a resource off line, then to print, to search, 731 and a host of other tasks. Common uses include Internet access; download and read later; 732 download and print; quo ting (i.e., copy and paste); even an activity as simple as searching 733 metadata or full text. Less commonly regarded uses include but are not limited to reporting 734 on productivity, quality control, and costs; to digital archiving and facsimile reproduction. 735 736 Information compiled during the exercise allows planners to determine needs, whether they 737 are in staffing, expendable supplies, durable equipment, travel, or services both in house 738 and vended. And, the product of the stakeholder exercise allows planners to outline a vision 739 and rationale for the project that can be defended and used support funding decisions. 740 741 Recommendation 03 : The Abruzzese institutions should name an Advisory Board of recognized standing in the field to review plans and other work pro ducts 742 The product of the exercise, a matrix of stakeholders and their interests, should be vetted by 743 an Advisory Board comprised of individuals who have experience building digital collections. 744 Members of the team originally responsible for guiding development the Biblioteca Digitale 745 Italiana ( BDI) should have this experience. As a last resort, digital librarians at universities 746 across Europe and North America might be enticed 14 into sitting on an Advisory Board for 747 the planning process and any resulting digitization program. 748 749 Finally, t he Abruzzese institutions should know up front that nearly every donor and funding 750 agency will require that an institution requesting funds will demonstrate their commitment by 751 putting up a share of the required funds. This is true of planning processes a s well as of 752 digitization projects. If, at the start of a planning process, they find that they cannot afford to 753 provide staff with paid release time for planning, the institutions should carry their desires no 754 further. 755 756 14 Digital librarians at North American university generally have to meet tenure or contract continuation requirements that demonstrate their professional standing. Serving on an Advisory Board is sometimes seen as an indication of standing.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 17 If the Abruzzese institutions wil l be expected to contribute to planning, start up or any other 757 phase of digitization program they should realize that th is, most likely, was true also of their 758 competitors. They should endeavor to determine what, at other institutions, were the costs 759 and how those costs were met, again, as part of the research and planning process. 760 761 Funding agencies reading this assessment should be encouraged to support digitization planning proposals and grant applications from the Abruzze s e institutions. 762 763 In the event that a future digitization start up project is planned ... 764 765 Any institution embarking on a digitization project today, whether in Italy, in Europe or North 766 American, or anywhere else would be irresponsible not to consider collaboration and 767 partnerships. 768 769 Digitization is not as simple as hooking a scanner up to a computer. It has been several 770 decades since digitization was even scantly more complex. And, digitization is, if not 771 complex, multi facetted. Resource demand (e.g., handling, pres ervation, binding, etc.); user 772 expectations (e.g., search behaviors display behaviors etc.) and attendant programming; 773 equipment and software costs; training; infrastructure development; a multiplicity of 774 descriptive standards, ontologies and authorities ; digital archiving; even digitization program 775 sustainability issues make digitization more of a business than simple activity 776 777 Partnerships mitigate costs, reduce development expenditures. They allow a local 778 institution, such as those in Abruzzo, to con centrate on production. 779 780 Recommendation 04 : As the Abruzzese institutions move beyond planning, they should partner with the Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico ( ICCU) and contribute to both the Biblioteca Digitale Italiana (BDI) and the National Library Service (SBN) 781 In Italy, the Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico (ICCU) coordinates the BDI and offers or 782 plans to offer digital program support services. First and foremost, it provides the 783 infrastructure for a functioning digital library. The BDI is as better than many European 784 national digital libraries and as good as the best among them. Development, while on going 785 rrent iteration, is at 786 least five years ahead of where the Abruzzese institutions should expect to be if they went 787 ahead on their own. 788 789 Additionally, the ICCU offers a range of union catalog support and relatively basic 790 integration with the BDI. But, that again is ahead of the Abruzzese institutions. And, at the 791 other end of the digitization chain, the ICCU offers digital archiving. Digital archiving is a 792 fast evolving, highly standards dependent, and certainly complex undertaking. None of the 793 Abruzzese institutions, outside of a currently limited membership in the Consorzio 794 interuniversitario per le applicazioni di supercalcolo per universit e ricerca (CASUR) has 795 even the hint of capacity and staffing to ensure that what they might digitize would be 796 pr eserved against media failure, data corruption, format obsolescence or a host of other 797 challenges. These services and related software, hardware and staffing would cost the 798 Abruzzese institutions hundreds of thousands of Euro to start up, and more to main tain. 799 800 Recommendation 05 : The Abruzzese institutions should work through the Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico ( ICCU) to build services and digital library behaviors (e.g., special tagging, search, etc.) identified through the stakeholder exercise but not yet provided. 801 802

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 18 While partnership with the ICCU is recommended, the services it provides need to have 803 matured. Recommendations directed to the ICCU for the improvement of systems designed 804 to facilitate BDI contributor (in this case, the Abruzzese institutions) production and minimize 805 costs for both contributors and the ICCU. 806 807 Recommendation 06 : As necessary, both the Abruzzese institutions and the ICCU should collaborate with the Consorzio interuniversitario per le applicazioni di supercalcolo per universit e ricerca computing facilities to develop high intensity computer services to support operations such as data mining, geographic information systems interfaces, and search aggregation. 808 b. Preservation 809 810 A digitization project to preserve 811 out of the emotion generated by disaster. Digitization as a form of preservation in any case, 812 should be preceded by a preservation assessment that will not be fully possible until 813 veable artifacts and written heritage have been relocated. 814 815 The impetus for preservation through digitization is often well intentioned; but, as frequently, 816 it is misguided. The question here is Why preservation? The resources of both the Archivio 817 di Stato and the Deput azione Abruzzese di Storia Patri a have already been removed to 818 storage optimized for preservation. Plans to remove the holdings of the Biblioteca 819 are being put into action. And, plans at the Universit 820 to either repair and re open damaged libraries or to remove library 821 content from less secure structures are being made. Digitization, in any case could not 822 begin until targeted resources have been removed to secure locations. 823 824 More often than not what one is saying when espousing digitization as a form of 825 preservation is either or both a rationalization for the spirit of competition or, less cynically, 826 extended or enhanced access. Access consideration s are assessed below. For the 827 828 829 Recommendation 07 : Contract preservation specialists working in archives and libraries to complete a general preservation assessment. 830 Before one invests in a preservation strategy as expensive and complex as digitization, one 831 would expect the institu t ions involved to have conducted a preservation assessment. As 832 yet, none of the Abruzzese institutions have begun such an assessment. Indeed, before the 833 earthquake, it has bee n generally acknowledge, no forethought was given to digitization and 834 835 to a sincere interest in the preservation of holdings. And, all the Abruzzese instituti ons 836 agreed to this assessment with preservation in mind. 837 838 A preservation assessment should characterize the general health of holdings and their 839 need for optimal storage and environments, conservation and plans for forward migration to 840 new media. With res pect to preservation, migration of old content to new media should be 841 inclusive of need to mitigate future damage prioritized by likelihood of that damage from 842 use or environmental factors as well as migration as a last resort for prior deterioration. 843 844 earthquake fault, assessment of new structu r es to withstand a future earthquake of 845 magnitu d e comparable to those of the past should be included. 15 846 15 being constructed utilizing state of the they been constructed of earthquake technologies. That does not mean that they cannot survive another series of earth quakes, but, neither does it mean that they can survive another. Would general digitization

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 19 847 In the United States, assessments of this kind are completed at a cost of between five and 848 ten thousand dollars (approximately 3400 to 6800) in collections comparable to the 849 rams in 850 Italy, and, library preservation effort promoted by the Ministero per i Beni e le Attivita 851 Culturali the Ministry of Arts and Cultural Affairs, Italian specialist should be readily 852 identified to undertake the task. Or as a last resort, not withs tanding linguistic barriers, there 853 is a small army of preservation librarians in the North America who have been trained to 854 conduct, or, who have conducted preservation assessments. A list of contacts may be 855 Preservation and Reformatting Section, or, 856 857 Section. Current contact information for each of the agencies mentioned above is available 858 on the Internet. 859 860 Additionally, a core task of any contracted assessor or assessment team should be to impart 861 the knowledge required to build into the general routines of staff an on going preservation 862 awareness, ability to conduct micro assessments, and willin gn ess to adopt best practi ce 863 handling/storage procedures. While preservation awareness was found, particularly among 864 the staff of the Archivio di Stato no on going preservation assessment or best practice 865 handling procedures appeared to be in place at any of the institutions for which earthquake 866 conditions allowed assessment for digitization. 867 868 Funding agencies reading this assessment should be encouraged to support preservation assessment proposals and grant applications from the Abruzzese institutions. These should be given consideration equal to digitization planning proposals and grant applications. 869 c. Educ a tion Support 870 871 Digitization may be a preservation activity, but it is more properly speaking a medium for 872 information distribution and use. A distribution medium, clearly, sugge sts that there are 873 those who wish to acquire or receive the medium or, more precisely, the information carried 874 by it 875 876 It has been suggested that the Abruzzese content w ould be useful to students and teachers 877 in Abruzzo and across Italy as well as to North Americans of Italian extraction interested in 878 researching various cultural connections history in general, and family history in particular 879 It has also been suggested that this content is useful to the study of Italian architecture, 880 cul ture and history as well as of earthquakes. These suggestions are supported anecdotally 881 for the most part and by common sense to a lesser degree. Despite these suggestions, 882 utility in teaching 883 or to research. 884 885 Recommendation 08 : Complete an education market analysis for digitization perhaps as part of the stakeholder exercise 886 Of course, irrespective of emphases and amplification, anecdotes are usually based on real 887 life experience Lacking market analysis, however, resources might be ill placed The 888 efficacy of a digitization program, therefore, would be diminished. 889 890 be warranted as preservation in that case? Perhaps, a multiplicity of copies including digitally archived copies stored out of region might better ensure info rmation survival. That this discussion appears in a unavailable for physical treatments of treasured one of a kind resources.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 20 Here is a fictional example for purposes of illustration. Faculty, stud ents and citizens use 891 materials documenting Abruzzese and perhaps Molisani architecture, history, and literature. 892 Recollections of every day collection use drive identification of these three disciplines. 893 894 Market analysis might show that the majority of patrons are interested in renaissance 895 architecture and monuments in particular. More detailed analysis might show that the 896 greatest use of these materials is by visiting Canadians on school trips. Lacking analysis, 897 builders of digital collections might target multiple architectural eras evenly. A majority of 898 the digital library, therefore, goes unused or scantly used. Further, the builders of the digital 899 collection may not have recalled that Canadians rather than Italians were the overwhelming 900 users of the source materials. The digital library, as a result, lacks an English or French 901 translation. In th e end, few of the digitized resources are ever used. 902 903 Market analysis might show that the interest in history is unevenly divided between civil and 904 military history, and, that teachers and their students use civil history predominantly while 905 retirees make greater use of military history. But, based on recollections, perhaps with 906 circulation statistics backing them up, the builders of the digital collection select materials 907 appropriately. But, they may have forgotten just how many school children are consu lting 908 the source materials in library. The circulation statistics do not paint an appropriate picture. 909 As a result, military history is adequately targeted ; but, there are too few civil history 910 resources. Further because those consulting religious histo ry also used materials in library, 911 their needs have not been met at all. The builders of the digital collection have also 912 913 analyzed the builders might have collection l esson plans and managed to produce digital 914 surrogates, which in turn might have served as a model for Italy, drawing attention and 915 funding to the digitization program and to Abruzzo generally. And, in a final twist of fate, 916 market analysis might have show n that civil history and family history in particular could 917 have gained the interest of the Abruzzo and Molise Heritage Society 16 in the USA and from 918 Abruzzo Heritage, 17 a project of the Abruzzo World Club. 919 920 Finally, recollections, circulation statistics, and current reference questions suggest that the 921 922 H istory, she is researching the role of women in fiction. The resu lting digital library avoids 923 making the mistake of digitizing both resources already available elsewhere and resources 924 that no one consults. But, market analysis might show that there is a large untapped market 925 for, perhaps, philology. It might indicate that many of those resources never consulted have 926 never been cataloged, that they have been forgotten as it were. The opportunity to place a 927 well constructed, expertly argued proposal before a granting agency has been lost; and, the 928 loss has gone unrecogn ized. 929 930 Recommendation 09 : Empanel a focus group for educators, perhaps as part of a grant proposal for digitization planning. Subsequent groups can be called into being on a project by project basis; and, funding requested in project grant proposals. 931 The Abruzzese institutions, together with the general education system of the Abruzzo 932 933 recommended focus group. 934 935 936 16 Though this is a f ictional example, the Abruzzo and Molise Heritage Society is real and interested in both genealogy and exploiting the heritage that made the Abruzzese and Molisani stalwart contributors to USA and Canadian culture and history. For more information about t he Society see its Internet site at http://www.abruzzomoliseheritagesociety.org 17 Abruzzo Heritage ( http://www.abruzzoheritage.com/ )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 21 Market analysis in the context of Education requires the input of educators at all levels. The 937 passive product of their involvement will be digitization of resources used in teaching. 938 Those funding a passive product will know that resources will be used, that their money has 939 been effectively used A more proactive product of educator involvement will be a 940 demonstrable learning environment. Often the digit al library resulting from targe ted support 941 of Education will both digitize resources and be responsible for the authorship of wholly new 942 resour ces, e.g., lesson plans and education modules, perhaps even computer games that 943 allow students to test and build their knowledge. This kind of digital library goes beyond 944 reproducing archival and library resources for simple access. The benefits for user s, 945 builders and funders are the same as that for a passive product. But, students and teachers 946 will be more engaged. Builders will find that interest in and acclaim for their work brings new 947 offers of partnership and funding. And, funders will find thei r profiles and self satisfaction 948 increased. Some might even be encouraged to endow continuation rather than simply fund 949 work on a project by project basis. 950 951 This is a heady prospect. It has tremendous potential and appeal. But, it also requires 952 consider able work. Attention to subje cts, target ed resources, specific uses and measurable 953 outcomes requires more than simple planning. It also requires community support. And, 954 community support is ever y 955 956 With attention to measurable outcomes, the Abruzzese institutions should note that 957 measurable outcomes suggest continuing market analysis and product assessment. 958 Planning must accommodate assessment of digitization and education products as they are 959 used. Common questions for this continuing analysis include: How effective were the 960 products? Did their use increase measures of educational success? Did the products fit 961 well into course plans? Grant proposals should clearly outline the questions formula ted by 962 educators that will be asked following product use. A focus group of educators, if not also 963 a focus group of students, should vet responses to formulate a cogent and constructive 964 critique of product efficacy. Critique, in turn, should be used by those responsible for the 965 project to modify both the product and future practice for the better. 966 967 Funding agencies, generally, will look for some kind of assessment on project termination. 968 Some funding agencies will look both to the efficacy of past pr oducts and to ongoing 969 assessment and modification to perfect products and to ensure their continuing use. Re 970 use, specifically, commitments from educational institutions to use a digital education 971 product, will be a measure of cost effectiveness. 972 973 Recomm endation 10 : Invest in grant writing, perhaps with a proposal writing tutorial or exercise for members of the recommended Planning Committee. 974 A good grant proposal always begins with a good, sound, though not necessarily 975 spectacular idea. Obviously it involves a project definition, time table, and a budget. One 976 of the best set of guidelines for grant writing is available from the Institute of Museum and 977 Library Services (IMLS) in the USA It is entitled NLG Project Planning: A Tutorial 978 ( http://www.imls.gov/project_planning/ ). 18 Another, entitled Proposal Writing Short Course 979 ( http://foundationcenter.org/getstarted/ tutorials/shortcourse/ ), is available online from the 980 Foundation Center. 19 Even though granting cultures differ between the USA and Italy, the 981 principles taught here are largely useful in the Italian context. The Abruzzo institutions will 982 find that they n eed to convince funding agencies and that similar information if not 983 presentation will be required. 984 18 The IMLS NLG Project Planning: A Tutorial unfortunately is available only in English. The ICCU or the Abruzzese institutions might seek permission from IMLS (cf, http://www.imls.gov/contact.shtm ) and, from a grantin g agency, funding to translate the tutorial with modifications for the Italian context. 19 Proposal Writing Short Course is available only in English. Again, the ICCU or the Abruzzese institutions might seek permission from the Ce nter ( customerservice@foundationcenter.org ) and, from a granting agency, funding to translate the tutorial with modifications for the Italian context.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 22 985 In addition to the very good advice of IMLS, it is also good practice to have a professional 986 grant writer review a proposal before submission. It may be helpful as well to have 987 988 narrative. That narrative has to be precise and spare as IMLS recommends; but, it also 989 990 remainder of the proposal. Finally, it is also good practice to have someone unfamiliar with 991 project read the proposal. Encourage the individual or individuals to ask questions. This will 992 draw the project planners to o bvious problems with a proposal 20 993 994 In planning education projects using digitization, the Abruzzese institutions should note that 995 grant agency reviewers, will assess local competence. This is obvious, of course. If a 996 digitization component is to be undertaken locally, the Abruzzese instit utions should have 997 998 Otherwise, they should consider vending the digitization component(s). If they opt to vend 999 digitization services, the Abruzzese institutions should bo th have (a) the ability to write or 1000 apply technical Request for Information (RFI) or Request for Proposal / Bid (RFP) 1001 documents, (b) the knowledgeable staff or trusted experienced contractor in place to assess 1002 returned information, proposals, and bids togeth er with their specimens or work product 1003 samples, and (c) at least a plan to put knowledgeable staff in place to assess vendor 1004 performance and quality of product returned during a contract period. While the Abruzzese 1005 institutions employ experience d writers of RFI and RFP, they lack staff with adequate 1006 technical knowledge. 1007 1008 Recommendation 11 : The Abruzzese institutions should either hire a knowledgeable technical staff member or appoint a member of existing staff who will be trained appropriately in the application of digital technologies. 1009 Ideally, an appointed technical writer should be a member of the recommended Planning 1010 Committee, i.e., given planning authority, and have demonstrated management skills, with 1011 the ability to manage a (digital) production unit in subsequent stages of digital project 1012 development. 1013 1014 If training of existing staff is decided, the Abruzzese institutions should be expected to fund 1015 training through paid release time, travel and per diem, and other necessary costs. Funding 1016 agencies may allow these costs to be incorporated into a planning g rant; but, it will be 1017 expected, generally, that some portion of these costs will be borne by the Abruzzese 1018 institutions. Training opportunities, for the most part, do not exist as a formal program. 1019 1020 A regional or national collaborative, perhaps ICCU or CASPUR, should be encouraged to consider developing training opportunities such as work shops and practicums. Funding agencies reading this assessment should be encouraged to support funding requests that both, in general, help Italy build technical comp etencies and othe r human infrastructure projects and, specific to Abruzzo, allow staff of the Abruzzese institutions to travel to training sites. 1021 1022 20 Large volume granting agencies such as IMLS often have panels of grant reviewers with specialized knowledge. Most granting agencies, foundations, and donors, however, will not have specialized experience. Keep it simple. Avoid jargon.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 23 As regards training, i t may be possible that institutions with digitization experience 1023 elsewhere in Italy (e.g., the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Firenze [ Florence ] or 1024 other contributors to the BDI) may host staff of the Abruzzese institutions for an extended 1025 practicum. Similarly, ins titutions with digitization experience in Europe and North America 1026 (e.g., member institutions of the Digital Scriptorium 21 ) may be willing to host staff for an 1027 extended practicum. North American institutions engaged in international digitization 1028 projects ( 1029 Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access ( TICFIA ) 1030 program 22 will be experienced in providing training in an international context. They might 1031 be best equipped of North American institutions to provide training to the Abruzzese 1032 institutions. 23 1033 1034 d. Vocational Training 1035 1036 Vocational training was suggested as a secondary out come of digitization, with the idea 1037 that coursework in digital technologies, digital project planning, and educational 1038 1039 laudable expertise built by cultural and educational institutions should be shared as a 1040 means of reducing cost to similar institution s. But, as yet, it remains secondary to 1041 establishment of a digitization program supporting education and cultural awareness. It also 1042 remains in wont of market analysis and appropriate course planning activities at which the 1043 University excels. 24 One, al so, assumes the benefits to the Region of Abruzzo and the 1044 1045 1046 For as long as the Abruzzese institutions keep their primary focus on (digitization for) 1047 education and cultural awareness, if not also preservation, funding agencies likely will not 1048 require commitment to or proofs for the viability of an on going vocational training program 1049 in digitization. And, while vocational training might play a role in future development of a 1050 digitization program, it should neither be planned no w nor offered as a suggestion of 1051 commitment. 1052 1053 What the expression of interest in vocational training says, now about the Abruzzese 1054 institutions is that they are aware of the need for vocational training programs. Even if they 1055 do not have market analysis to support the expressed need generally, they have their own 1056 need to give it foundation. 1057 1058 Again, f unding agencies reading this assessment should be encouraged to support funding requests that both, in general, help Italy build technical competencies and other human infrastructure projects and, specific to Abruzzo, allow staff of the Abruzzese institutions to travel to training sites. 1059 Presumably, the general need, in Italy, will be planned and appropriately documented by a 1060 national agency such as the ICCU. 1061 1062 21 For more info rmation about the Digital Scriptorium, a collaborative digital library of medieval and renaissance manuscripts, see http://scriptorium.columbia.edu/about/ Note that advisors to the Digital Scriptorium include Ambrogio Piazzoni at the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 22 For more information about TICFIA funded projects and institutions see both http://www apps.crl.edu/ticfia/index.html and http://www.ed.gov/programs/iegpsticfia/awards.html 23 For partnering opportunities, beyond training, see subsequent discussion and reference to TICFIA. 24 If one were to assess the Abruzzese institut establishment of a digitization program literally, an academic exercise one would begin by noting that allied programs from which faculty might be drawn initially are not currently well fou nded at the Universit

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 24 e. Economics and Enterprise 1063 1064 Finally, it has been acknowledged that digitization might facilitate enterprise. To this point 1065 however, that enterprise has been conceived as a traditional program of off print sales, 1066 specifically, of print products generated from digital masters. This is a model that closely 1067 follows common practice in archives. It retains full control of the masters themselves. And, 1068 the infrastructure and staffing to maintain such a program already exists, at least, within the 1069 Arc hivio di Stato Here, the digital enterprise is obviously secondary to the establishment of 1070 a digitization center. 1071 1072 Inasmuch as the demands of such a service remain consistent with the provision of an 1073 analog facsimile, the service is relatively sustainabl e. Demand on a service that begins with 1074 a digital master rarely continues to provide only an analogue facsimile. Researchers aware 1075 of a digital source often and with dogged persistence, request digital copies sufficient for 1076 their needs. Needs including textual analyses, generation of concordances, and other data 1077 mining, data manipulation, or data extraction or enhancement projects often need near 1078 master quality, if not a copy of a maste r. The extension of traditional analogue reproduction 1079 services into digital fulfilment services requires the development of licenses and other 1080 implements allowing specific use while preventing other uses. Though funding agencies, 1081 generally, will not requ ire such forethought, the ability to point to existing if untested draft 1082 documentation for this eventuality will indicate that the Abruzzese institutions are serious 1083 and capable in their drive to develop a digitization service. 1084 1085 Recommendation 12 : Th e Abruzzese institutions working through the aforementioned Planning Committee, should investigate digital fulfillment services in place elsewhere and begin to draft their own policies if not procedures 25 1086 The Abruzzese institutions, however, also should be challenged to more closely integrate 1087 product uses with the creation of a production service. Uses should contribute to the 1088 sustainability of a digitization program inasmuch as possible. Nearly all fundi ng agencies 1089 now ask how the product of their funding will be sustained. 1090 1091 If the Abruzzese institutions seek funding for digitization of selected resources, they have to 1092 be prepared to describe the means by which they will fund continuing digital preserva tion 1093 costs. This question, which assumes digitization by a vendor or through use of rented 1094 equipment with temporary staff, applies to the products of digitization rather than to the 1095 process of digitization. 1096 1097 Recommendation 13 : Relative to digital preservation of resources produced by a future digitization program, t he Abruzzese institutions should partner with the ICCU, which maintains a (currently) free digital preservation service ontractual terms of digital preservation service. The Abruzzese institutions should retain control of digital current stated practice is to do just this; but, written ter ms were not available for this assessment. 1098 If the Abruzzese institutions seek funding for establishment of a digitization service, they 1099 have to be prepared to describe the means by which they will fund continuation of the 1100 service. This question applie s to the process of digitization as well as to its products. Costs 1101 commonly associated with the continuation of a digitization service include, among other 1102 25 Licenses published by commercial and not for profit digital libraries, e.g., JSTOR, Aluka, or the Digital Scriptorium, among others, is a good starting point for investigation. Similar documents will also be available from academic institutions in North America with well established digitization programs.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 25 expenditures: equipment maintenance, amortization and replacement; infrastructure 1103 maintenance up d ating and growth planning; and staffing, including training, benefits, etc. 1104 The Abruzzese institutions are advised that sales programs (e.g., sale of facsimiles and 1105 other off prints) rarely sustain a digitization service in the face of such costs. 26 1106 1107 Among institutions of higher education, digitization programs leverage their continuation, in 1108 part by meeting the need(s) of other programs. For example, program for digitization of 1109 south east Asian resources supplies access to materials needed for a Uni 1110 south east Asia studies program. Leverage, however, need not be isolated. Every 1111 stakeholder, every party interested in a digitization program has its leverage points. 1112 Because it is the rare program that has only one stakeholder, a digi tization program will 1113 often have many potential leverage points. 1114 1115 A leverage point is point of particular common interest in this case, the Abruzzese 1116 party. 1117 And, it is particular or special in that it so closely matches the third interests or 1118 stated goals that the third party is willing either to advocate for funding of the digitization 1119 program or to subsidize part of start up or continuation costs. Advocacy is often as 1120 valuable, if not more value than an out right contribution of funds. Advocates can w rite 1121 1122 1123 self interest. Advocates suggest that a program has wide appeal an d general utility. 1124 1125 The Abruzzese institutions have determined that their digitization program should support 1126 education. A narrow review of stakeholders will (likely) suggest that perhaps the faculties of 1127 History, Literature and Earth Sciences, will advoc ate for the funds needed to sustain a 1128 digitization program. Their advocacy, together with that of the Libraries, will be directed to 1129 University administration. A university administration, in turn, can be expected if not 1130 required to advocate for fun ding of a new program with its funding sources. The 1131 1132 funding sources benefits the digitization program 1133 1134 Recommendation 14 : Among its other duties, the aforementioned Planning Committee should be tasked with suggesting the interests and leverage points of stakeholders. Interests and leverage points of particular merit should be investigated further 1135 This above y way of example. Each of the 1136 Abruzzese institutions will have their own stakeholders and governors. To the extent to 1137 which the institutions collaborate, they extend the number of stakeholders who might 1138 advocate on their behalf. 1139 1140 Recommendation 15 : Inasmuch as possible, the Abruzzese institutions should continue to act together, working toward the development of their digitization, education and other goals. To that end, they should formalize agreements and common principles that will underpin a set of future by laws governing a future shared digitization program. The Planning Committee should also be tasked with drafting agreements and principles. 1141 26 Among North American institutions, digitization programs are frequently sustained through multiple, contributing programs, including but not limit ed to: sales and licensing programs; incorporation into continuing library budgets (ultimately funded through student fees, government allocations, and/or structured endowments); and aggressive granting programs and donor recruitment.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 26 Four viable leverage points present themselves t o the Abruzzese institutions. These include 1142 the convergence of a digitization program with (a) earthquake studies; (b) tourism; 1143 (c) information infrastructure development; and (d) genealogy 1144 1145 The remainder of this section discusses particular stakeholder interests and suggests various strategies for stakeholder collaboration. It should be taken as part of a larger stakeholder exercise as recommended earlier. 1146 E ARTHQUAKE S TUDIES 1147 1148 The Archivio di Stato maintains a relationship with the Direzione Generale per 1149 gli Archivi = the Italian National Archives (DGA) 27 I n the wake of the 2009 1150 earthquake t he DGA has made its openness to assisting Abruzzo 1151 plain. The DGA was instrumental in the relocation of the Archivio di Stato from 1152 its destroyed headquarters to new facilities in Bazzano And, the DGA has 1153 suggested the creation of a Center of Excellence in Earthquake Studies to be 1154 based at the University 28 Further, the DGA has suggested that this Center be 1155 responsible for digi 1156 and, that it make possible the data mining of these records. 29 The Abruzzo 1157 institutions may have no stronger advocate for their desire to build a digitization 1158 program. 1159 1160 Recommendation 16 : The Abruzzese institutions should determine the status of the suggested Center of Excellence in Earthquake Studies. And, as status warrants, 30 the institutions should begin preparing supporting statements if not also an independent request to establish suc h a Center. 1161 The Vigili del Fuoco has already collected a wealth of data on the earthquake of 1162 2009. Together with data about faults and earth movements data one would 1163 expect an earthquake studies program to maintain, the information compiled 1164 also includes data about structures: status (i.e., whether damaged or not); 1165 extent and type of damage; geographic coordinates; age and defining 1166 characteristics; and in some cases as structures rise in immediacy of 1167 reclamation construction methods and materials. 1168 1169 27 Incidentally, th e current Director of the DGA, Dottore Luciano Scala was the Director General for Library 28 Conversation with Dr. Luciano Scala Director Generale, Direzione Generale Archivi (DGA ), on 2 October 2009 at the offices of the DGA. 29 In Abruzzo, the Archivio di Stato houses a substantial collection of records directly related to past earthquakes. These records, in turn, are supplemented by vast collections of ancillary materials. Tak en alone, imaging (i.e., scanning) of its holdings directly related to earthquakes in Abruzzo represents a digitization project of moderate size. For purposes of illustration, the Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria, in 2004, hosted a symposium, Settec ento abruzzese : eventi sismici, mutamenti economico sociali e ricerca storiografica held over three days. The papers are compiled in a publication of nearly 1,200 pages. Citations reference a library of primary and secondary sources numbering tens of t housands of pages from a collection totalling well above 100,000 pages. As a Center of Excellence, an Earthquake Studies Center likely would be able to attract similar records from elsewhere in Italy and perhaps the European Union and Turkey for digitiza tion. And, regardless of its ability to attract historic resources from outside of Italy, earthquake studies centers and architectural preservation programs elsewhere have not had access to (and, therefore, have been unable to data mine) data from histori c resources in any quantity. Note (below), however, the work of the Storia Geofisica Ambiente 30 The Italian government, at the time of the assessment visit, was informally considering the establishment of a Center of Excellence for Earthquake Studies.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 27 This is the kind of information that would enrich predictive modelling of 1170 earthquake damage. It would be useful for planning purposes throughout Italy. 1171 1172 designated World Heritage Sites 31 together with sites of nati onal cultural 1173 importance. 1174 1175 both 1176 that collected (i.e., born digital ) from scientists and engineers as well as, that 1177 mined from historic resources that might be digitized in futur e has several 1178 obvious advantages to reconstruction or reclamation of normal life in Abruzzo. 1179 1180 This assessment, in general, finds that the Abruzzese institutions have some work to do in planning for a successful digitization program and to justify its specific potential projects. However, it also finds good cause in the suggestion that an Earthqu ake Studies center should digitize historic resources, mining them for additional data. Products of a digitization program within this context clearly would be useful. 1181 One particular facet of the existing born digital data is especially important to 1182 po tential future digitization projects: the geo referencing of historic places. Geo 1183 referencing, an association of a particular place with known Earth coordinates 1184 (i.e., longitude and latitude), allows data to be fixed on a map. The emphasis of 1185 current rec overy effort on historic, culturally significant places and the use of 1186 digital mapping technologies provide a future digitization program with a ready 1187 made framework for discovery (i.e., automated query) in a digital library. As 1188 historic resources are digitized, their content can be associated with this frame. 1189 1190 Research, whether supporting the Earth sciences or the humanities, is a 1191 complex fabric. Greatly simplified, all researc h methods resemble the 1192 journalistic process. Researchers, the young and the experienced alike, ask 1193 questions, ad reductio such as: who, what, where, when, how, and why. 1194 Where geography and, specifically, the use of map interfaces to facilitate 1195 researc h in digital library search systems has been under developed. The 1196 framework provided by association with an Earthquake Studies center, itself, 1197 may be under developed for broader uses, but it stands to be at least 1198 comparable to the data mining/data mappi ng applications of established 1199 digitization programs. Indeed, such applications go wonting in most university 1200 based digitization programs and digital humanities centers in North America. 1201 As noted below, however, this may not be the case in Italy. 1202 1203 1204 31 http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/it

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 28 Recommendation 17 : Should an Earthquake Center advance the suggested program of digitization and data mining of historic resources it should investigate partnerships to advance development of a map interface and related applications. 32 1205 A potential source of advice and partnership is the Italian Scientists and 1206 Scholars in North America Foundatio n (ISSNAF). 33 The Foundation has 1207 expressed interests in Earth and environmental sciences as well as enabling 1208 information infrastructure and techno logies. 1209 1210 The need for a Center of Excellence in Earthquake Studies can only be 1211 1212 Italy, the pre eminent academy for the study of geophysics, including 1213 earthquakes, is the Istitu to Nazionale di Geofisca e Vulcanologia (INGV). 34 The 1214 INGV maintains real time earthquake data logging, including monitoring 1215 networks and databases. 35 1216 32 While mapping data and text associated with known Earth coordinates is relatively simple, tasks associated with data mining and name authority (e.g., location verification, name changes, translations, etc.) are more difficult. Google, working under the a egis of the Google Books project, attempted a data mining/data extraction method in the mid 2000s ( n.b., documentation is no longer available online ). The project, together with a similar project Ephemeral Cities gital Library Center, was premature relative to the state of semantic processing and available applications. There have been significant developments in the short time since. One promising project is the Self Archiving Legacy Toolkit (SALT) Project ( http://stanfordluminaryarchives.googlepages.com/slideshare ) based at the Stanford University Libraries. It is conceivable, for example, that partnership might be forged with the Stanford University Office of Earthquake Studies and the SALT Project to attract funding from Google or combined funding from the European Science Foundation ( http://www.esf.org/ So ciety = Societ http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/index_it.htm ) or its CORDIS ( http://cordis.europa.eu/ home_it.html ), and Infrastructure section ( http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/cyber/digitallibraries.jsp ). 33 Italian Scientists and Scholars in North America Foundation ( http://www.issnaf.org/ ) promotes research and development partnering North American and Italian institutions. Its programs in the arts, humanities, information scien ces and, especially, Earth and environmental sciences should help the Abruzzese institutions to find partners for grantable projects. See also, its list of Advisory Boards ( http://www.issnaf.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=176&Itemid=90 ). Note too, that ISSNAF maintains an active interest in supporting entrepreneurial activities ( http://www.issnaf.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=48&Itemid =97 ), which may assist the Abruzzese institutions in development of more technologically challenging facets of data mining projects. 34 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisca e Vulcanologia (INGV) ( http://portale.ingv.it/ ). An English version of the web page is available). 35 however, that this record incorporates the data collected by the Vigili del Fuoco U12A : An Earthquake in an Ancient City: The April 2009 L' Aquila (Central Italy) Seismic Sequence I http://eventcg.com/clients/agu/fm09/U12A.html ), a web cast sequence of presentations, originally presented on 14 December 2009, at a meeting at the Amer ican Geophysical Union (2009, Fall Meeting : San Francisco, CA, USA). The sequence includes several presentations by INGV and other scientists. Presentations, in order of delivery, include: set. A characterization of the data set is given.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 29 1217 Among INGV programs is the TROMOS project, 36 which is the product of the 1218 Storia Geofisica Ambiente (SGA) 37 ( http://www.sga storiageo.it/ ) in Bologna 1219 The SGA maintains an interest in historic seismology and maintains a large 1220 data library of contemporary and historic earthquake information. And, its data 1221 delivery/pr esentation systems use relatively sophisticated geographic 1222 information systems (GIS). 1223 1224 Of particular note is t 1225 B.C. 1997 and Mediterranean Area 760 B.C. 1500 (CFTI4M ED ) 38 While this 1226 data library may not be easy for the average user, it does mine data from and 1227 link to historic information sources. The product of an Abruzzese digitization 1228 project could feed into SGA effort. 1229 1230 Recommendation 18 : The Abruzzese institutions, should they plan to digitize their historic earthquake records and accounts, should consult the INGV and the SGA. 1231 ner Marzocchi and Dr. Anna Maria Lombardi, discusses short term earthquake forecasting. It uses some of the data collected by the Vigili del Fuoco but does not use historic data held in archival and library records. based earthquake rupture for institutions elsewhere in Italy, discusses lessons and risk reduction strategies. These are based on current data. There is recognition that more data is needed. (It might not be possible t o mine the level of detail needed from historic texts.) system geometry and kinematics. This is a data driven presentation using only data points col lected by scientific instrumentation. (Again, historic texts are not likely to yield the kind and level of data used here.) th Lucente, et al. Concerned wit h seismological observations prior to the main earthquake on 6 April 2009, using contemporary data collected by scientific instrumentation. Toshiko Ter akawa, et al. Using a form of tomography, it again uses only contemporary data. by Dr. F.R. Cinti, et al. This is a discussion of paleo seismological data and hazard implications. It considers historic data collected only from geomorphology, i.e., physical trenching and other geologic features. It does not make use of historic data mined from texts. Concentration of analysis is based on very large ge ologic time scales. Modern dates discussed include BC 4796 5000, 827 673, and 790 510 as well as AD 640 770 and also the fifth through seventh and thirteenth through fourteen centuries. It suggests compatibility with the 1461 event in the same region. Findings also suggest a periodicity of 625 years between major events. Neither suggestion, however, takes advantage of data held in historic texts maintained by the Abruzzese institutions rthquake, as observed by paired discussion uses only data collected by scientific instrumentation. Scientists tend not to use data mined from historic texts either because it is not readily available or because it is neither sufficiently data rich nor geographically specific. 36 TROMOS ( http://storing.ingv.it/tromos/ ) 37 Storia Geofisica Ambiente (SGA) ( http://www.sga storiageo.it/ ) this web site is best viewed in Internet Explorer. Other web browsers do not display pages correctly. Some elements of its various data libraries are optimized for the Firefox web b rowser. It is not clear that SGA data sets incorporate the data recently collected by the Vigili del Fuoco 38 CFTI4M ED ( http://storing.ingv.it/cfti4med/ )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 30 Partnership with the SGA may provide the Abruzzese institutions with the 1232 advanced skill sets (discussed below) that they do not currently support and 1233 may not be likely to develop. Additionally, incorporation of data mined from the 1234 Abruzzese resources should stand to fortify a grant request with a clear 1235 1236 1237 Most important, the INGV and SGA should be able to describe the utility of the 1238 historic earthquake and earthquake related documents maintained by the 1239 Abruzzese institutions. Without agreement on utility, there is no supporting 1240 argument not in this context for digitization of these documents. 1241 1242 T OURISM 1243 1244 Tourism is an area outside of earthquake studies that both has substantial 1245 development possibilities, and, could utilize mapping technologies. More 1246 precisely, as a result of earthquake response, many tourist sites have already 1247 been mapped. More important for the Ab ruzzese institutions, the institutions 1248 both maintain the cultural connections and hold the content that will populate a 1249 digital collection supporting tourism. 1250 1251 The primary stakeholders for digitization supporting tourism are the Region of 1252 Abruzzo and its provinces. But, other stakeholders include the national 1253 government and various elements of the tourism industry, e.g., winter skiing and 1254 summer hiking, includin g those less obvious, e.g., the agricultural industries that 1255 supply the ingredients for Italian cuisine, itself a large part of cultural tourism 1256 throughout Italy. 1257 1258 The European Union, in its release of Solidarity Funds both before and after the 1259 2009 earthq uake promoted tourism to boost the local economy. 39 It should 1260 also be considered as a stakeholder. Its interests should be leveraged in 1261 support of a digitization project that supports tourism, as well as other interests 1262 39 See, Europa Press releases, listed below in chronological order from before the earthquake to dates following the earthquake. a) Regional Operational Programme 2007 Programma operativo regionale 2007 Memorandum MEMO/08/447 (Brussels 26 June 2008). Available online in English at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=ME MO/08/447& format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en and in Italian at http://europa.eu/rapid/ pressReleasesAction.do?refere nce=MEMO/08/447&format=HTML&aged=0&language=IT& guiLanguage=en b) Document IP/09/738 (Bru ssels : 11 May 2009). Available online in English at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do? reference=IP/09/738&format=HT ML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en and in Italian at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/09/738&format=HT ML&aged=0& language=IT&guiLanguage=en c) per far fronte a lle co Document IP/09/1185 (Brussels : 23 July 2009). Available online in English at http://eu ropa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference= IP/09/1185&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en and in Italian at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/09/1185&format=HTML&aged=0& language=IT&guiLanguage=en d) solidariet dell'UE: Italia, terremoto Document A7 0021/2009 (Brussels : 8 October 2009). Available online in English at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc. do?pubRef= //EP//TEXT+TA+P7 TA 2009 0026+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN and in Italian at http://www.europarl. europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef= //EP//TEXT +TA+P7 TA 2009 0026+0+DOC+XML+V0//IT

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 31 listed in European Union (EU) comm unications: research and development, 1263 innovation and entrepreneurship, development of the information society and 1264 territorial development. EU interests in the information society extend to 1265 surmounting the geography of Abruzzo and should be considered to i nclude the 1266 delivery of education support. EU interests in territorial development extend to 1267 preservation of cultural heritage and risk prevention. A project that reasonably 1268 brings together several of these interests, where digitization is a tool that 1269 enables other interests, is key to funding. A project, for example, that: 1270 1271 Supports creation of an earthquake studies program, ... 1272 with digitization, data mining and geo refere ncing of historic 1273 documents both in manuscript and print, 1274 together with born digital resources such as geologic, architectural 1275 and engineering data generated after the earthquake, and 1276 commissioned works such as lesson plans 1277 while also furthering touristic interests including, ... 1278 cultural heritage tourism 1279 developed in such a way as to develop European information 1280 infrastructure in partnerships with other European and North American 1281 institutions as appropriate. 1282 1283 The scholarly rationale for the integration of digitization with tourism has already 1284 been explored. Though it wonts for a road map into the future that it suggests 1285 Cultural tourism and libraries : n ew 1286 learning needs for information professionals 40 documen ts the need, together 1287 with the convergence of archives, libraries and museums. Tourism she notes, 1288 is already exemplified as one of a handful of key digital library developments in 1289 Italy. The existence of the Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali (MiBAC) 1290 Cultural Routes 41 collections should facilitate a digital tourism project from the 1291 Abruzzese institutions. 1292 1293 Recommendation 19 : MiBAC should promote its digital collections search on the pages of both the Biblioteca Digitale Italiano (BDI) and the Internet Culturale that hosts Cultural Routes Searching currently requires the researcher to find the Digital Collections Database. 42 The search box should be integrated with both B DI and Internet Culturale pages, and, allow searching directly from any of their pages. 1294 1295 40 Cultural tourism Milan, Italy : World Library And Information Congress: 75th IFLA general conference and council, 2009. Available online at http://www.ifla.org/files/hq/papers/ifla75/192 bovero en.pdf 41 Cultura l Routes also known as Cultural Tourist Routes is available in English at http://www.internetculturale.it/genera.jsp?s=11&l=en and in Italian at http://www.internetculturale.it/ genera.jsp?s=11&l=it Cultural Routes Internet Culturale which proposes an integrated access system to the digital and traditional resources of libraries, archives, and other Italian cultural institutions, in order to promote and enhance the knowledge and availability of the cultural heritage to a national and international level. http://www.internetculturale.it/genera.jsp?s=2 ). 42 The Digital Collections Database is located at http://www.internetculturale.it/moduli/digi/digi.jsp?

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 32 Closer to home, the Abruzzese institutions can learn from the example of the 1296 Via Francigena Project 43 This project is coordinated by Director General for 1297 Libraries, Cultural Institutes and Copyright = Direzione Generale per le 1298 Biblioteche, gli Istituti Culturali e il Diritto d'Autore, 44 within MiBAC The project 1299 is open to other Italian and European contributors. Two sample projects have 1300 been described. These projects provide the Abruzzese institutions with a 1301 reasonable framework and general structures for project organization and 1302 production. The Via Francigena Project also demonstrates the relativ e ease 1303 with which geographic tagging may be applied to bibliographic information. 1304 1305 I NFORMATION I NFRASTRUCTURE 1306 1307 The European Union makes the maturing and maintenance of information 1308 infrastructure one of its principle stated aims. Information infrastructure ensures 1309 an informed European electorate, as well as, feed back loops and other means 1310 of communication for good government. Information infrastructure is funded 1311 also to improve education and access to an ever increasing number of 1312 governmental and non governmental electronic resources. In Abruzzo, the EU 1313 acts to, among other interests, ensure a level of equal oppo rtunity to access 1314 information, to mitigate the challenges imposed by terrain. 1315 1316 This suggests that one strategy for access to EU funding may be t he target ing 1317 of schools outside of 1318 delivery of its planned digital library resources. Secondarily, the earthquake 1319 diaspora the temporary and perhaps permanent relocation of the citizens of 1320 localities near the to Pescara and 1321 other cities both within and beyond the borders of Abruzzo suggests additional 1322 rationale for an appeal to grow the information infrastructure. Abruzzo needs to 1323 communicate information and to maintain cultural conne ctions to its citizens 1324 living away from their pre earthquake residences. Perhaps more important, 1325 Abruzzo needs to maintain connections with its citizens in order to ensure the 1326 donation and bequest of cultural artefacts objects as well as the written and 1327 spoken word 1328 1329 1330 Abruzzo. A severed connection would be yet another after shock of the 1331 earthquake of 2009. 1332 1333 The Abruzzese institutions represent the obvious locus of information 1334 infrastructure for historic cultural information. Information infrastructure 1335 interests for cultural in formation in general are much larger. The extent to which 1336 the Abruzzese institutions are able to couple their interests with the 1337 stakeholders in this larger cultural information area, the more likely their projects 1338 will be to succeed. Whenever possible, the Abruzzese institutions should float 1339 their proposals and update their progress with these stakeholders. 1340 1341 Recommendation 20 : As possible, stakeholders should be invited into the planning process for digitization, after initial planning but before finalization of a plan; and, that this take the form of a charrette. 1342 1343 43 The Via Francigena Project ( http://www.francigenalibrari.beniculturali.it/ an English version is also available) 44 Director General for Libraries, Cultural Institutes and Copyright = Direzione Generale per le Biblioteche, gli Istituti Culturali e il Diritto d'Autore ( http://www.librari.beniculturali.it/ ).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 33 The pace of development is rapid and requires skill sets that the Abruzzese 1344 institutions will have to develop. Cultural tourism for example, is changing fast, 1345 driven by technological developments. The advent of geographically (i.e., GPS 1346 and A GPS) aware mobile devices such as the smartphone, enables the 1347 geocaching as it were, of cultural and contextual information associated with 1348 cultural artefacts and known places 45 The recent launch of Google Goggles 46 1349 a service that supports the use of pictures to search the web, demonstrates the 1350 use of technology to connect what the tourist sees to supplemental information 1351 otherwise locked away in archives and libra 1352 applications for iPhone like Cyclopedia, 47 Open Landmark, 48 Robotvision, 49 and 1353 Wikitude 50 51 for Google Android and Windows Mobile 1354 telephones suggest that, in the not too distant future, mobile phone users will be 1355 able to place their phones in tour mode for guided tours, whether in museums 1356 or on the streets, drawing content from cultural institutions. 1357 1358 Recommendation 21 : Whenever possible, the Abruzzese institutions should engage the CASPUR to critique their plans and inform their decisions. CASPUR, as the regional super computing facility for central Italy, including the Region of Abruzzo, is well positioned to evaluate technologies and to reality check, to verify the feasibility of desired digital out comes against available technologies, processing power, and skill sets. Because it delivers services to a wide area, larger than the Region of Abruzzo, it can be instrumental in forging partnerships within central Italy and across Italy. Additionally, it is positioned to share information about applications and developments that have worked elsewhere, and, to share what works for Abruzzo within its larger area. Because it facilitates the purchase and delivery of commercial e books and e journals, it can offer advice on best methods of integrating locally created digital content with commercial digital archives and libraries. Finally, because CASPUR is well known and internationally respe cted, its collaboration may give funding agencies needed confidence to fund Abruzzese proposals. 1359 1360 45 A known place is a place that has been associated with longitude and latitude for discovery either on a map or in a physical space. 46 See http://www.google.com/mobile/goggles/#landmark for description and demonstration of this Internet search method. 47 Cyclopedia ( http://www.appstorehq.com/cyclopedia iphone 74227/app ) viewfinder with Wikipedia information about surroundings within view. 48 Open Landmark ( http://www.appsafari.com/social/4340/open landmark 2/ ) is an iPhone App that allows users to bookmark specific places on a map. 49 Robotvision ( http://www.appsafari.com/local/9898/robotvision/ ) is similar to Cyclopedia, but it queries the Microsoft Bing search engine, exposing the user to more than Wikipedia content and more directly to content digitized by archives, libraries and museums. 50 W ikitude ( http://www.wikitude.me/ ) allows users to link images to Wikipedia articles for purposes of visual landmark reference or documentation of architectural and other detail. 51 Footprints ( http://www.gpsbusinessnews.com/HTC Footprints, geotagging with a twist_a1292.html ) supports geo tagging of images taken by smartphones.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 34 To many cultural institutions this technology seems like science fiction rather 1361 than something that can be acted upon. Certainly, such a project would not be 1362 without complication. This suggests that the Abruzzese institutions, with the 1363 right type of content a resource such as their Antinori manuscripts that 1364 describes the cultural significance of Abruzzo 52 landmarks and the right 1365 partnerships, could launch a model digital demonstration project. While the 1366 stakeholder exercise should reveal potential partners, e.g., the regional tourism 1367 board or particular tourist industries, one class of partner stands to benefit 1368 g reatly and is, therefore, an optimal development and co funding partner: 1369 mobile telephone service providers. 1370 1371 Recommendation 22 : The National, Regional, Provincial and City governments should investigate the potential for funding of a high speed wireless network that would spot. The economic model should be sympathetic to local circumstances. It might be a hybrid combination subscriber / pay as you go network such as that currently available in Rome. A free or semi commercial subsidized network might make excess bandwidth avai lable for civil and cultural uses. But, its primary purpose might be civil defense and, specifically, the collection and transmission of earth movement data. Such a network might be subsided further by charging an annual or transactional fee to commercia l interests (e.g., shops, hotels, restaurants, tourist industries, etc.) either or both to connect to the network or to make their content available over the network. 1372 G ENEALOGY AND C ULTURE 1373 1374 While general interest in Abruzzese culture and heritage exists both within and 1375 beyond Abruzzo, interest in genealogy is primarily found outside of Italy. It is 1376 particularly strong in North America. Organizations such as the Abruzzo and 1377 Molise Heritage S ociety 53 and the Federation of Italian American Organizations 1378 of Queens, Inc. 54 express an interest in genealogy. More broadly, organizations 1379 such as the National Italian American Foundation 55 in the USA and the National 1380 Congress of Italian Canadians 56 sponsor activities that foster continuing 1381 awareness of and connection to Italian heritage, including fundraising 1382 campaigns, education and scholarship, language training, etc. 1383 1384 It is important that genealogy be recognized as an interest arising out of cultu ral 1385 and heritage connections to Italy and Abruzzo. Conduct of genealogical 1386 research from remote locations requires access to cultural and heritage 1387 information. Digitization is an excellent vehicle for access. 1388 1389 52 The footprint of Abruzzo has changed over ti me. Abruzzo, in a broad historical context, should be taken to include parts of the Lazio and Molise Regions. 53 The Abruzzo and Molise Heritage Society ( http://www.abruzzomoliseheritagesociety.org ) maintains an interest in, among other things, genealogy and cultural history. 54 Federation of Italian American Organizations of Queens, Inc. ( http://italianfederation.com/about_us ) primarily serves th e Italian American community in Queens, New York City, New York, but also has an 55 The National Italian American Foundation ( http://www.niaf.com/ ) maintains broad interests in Italian heritage and history. It sponsors language and learning programs. And, specific to the Abruzzo earthquake, supports an Abruzzo Adopt a Student campaign to fund student education related expenses. 56 The National Congress of Italian Canadians ( http://www.canadese.org/ncic_Site_Mission.html )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 35 Genealogists are keen, if not tenacious res earchers. As a group, they tend to 1390 be dedicated to information accuracy as much as to information access. There 1391 are several examples of genealogists volunteering from remote locations, 1392 particularly on projects that enrich online information. While remot e volunteer 1393 effort requires contact management, quality control and possibly additional 1394 network security, it does not incur attention health and safety and other 1395 regulations attendant on site volunteerism. The classic example 57 of remote 1396 volunteerism involves transcription of digital images, tagging and geo 1397 referencing of transcribed text and images, and the construction or completion 1398 of ontologies, name authorities and life events records that ultimately enrich the 1399 search exper ience. 1400 1401 Recommendation 23 : Include international organizations with heritage interests in Italy among stakeholders, develop contacts with them and share plans and updates on progress. In listing their interests, also assess their ability to assist with project development. Consider a broad range of assistance opportunities from direct cash contributions to volunteerism, as well as technology applications such as the use of social networking. 58 1402 Closer to home, the Abruzzese institutions can learn from the example of the 1403 Live Memories 59 project s Funded by the Fondazione Bruno Kessler 60 Live 1404 Memories project exemplifies both the type of content and international 1405 collaboration that should give the Abruzzese institutions a start. Th is type of 1406 project allow s the Abruzzese institutions to promote their own with in scope 1407 interests while building popular support, and technical ability. Note that the 1408 founding Live Memories project partners the Universit degli Studi di Trento 1409 with the Univ ersity of Southampton in the United Kingdom. Here the University 1410 of Southampton provides technical and, specifically, computational assistance 1411 not available at the Universit in Trento Partnership with CASPUR for 1412 additional technical assistance, perhaps as an intermediary with an institution 1413 such as the University of Southampton, 61 or, the Sheffield University, 62 would 1414 57 One example of remote volunteerism is the Alachua County (Florida, USA) Ancient records projec t ( http://www.alachuaclerk.org/Archive/ ). Note its Volunteers Help page ( http://www.alachuaclerk.org/ Archive/CFDocs/VolunHelp.cfm ). 58 Social networking examples such as blogging and Twitter allow interested parties to follow, critique and even assist with the development of a digital collection. A more proactive example of the use of social e Earth to monitor deforestation in the Amazon River basin (see, http://news.mongabay.com/2009/1210 google_earth_deforestation.html ). More appropriate to what the Abruzzese institutions might hope to achieve, similar effort, to fix geographic location information to digital resources, was applied in the Institute for Library and Museum Services funded Ephemeral Cities project ( http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/epc/ ) at the University of Florida and is now used by archives, libraries and their volunteers to supply metadata for digital resources to the Digital Library of the Caribbean ( http://www.dloc.co m/ ). Its Map Search ( http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?m=hsm ) demonstrates the resulting power of the application. Microsoft Pro Photo Tools 59 Live Memories ( http://www.livememories.org/ ) 60 Fondazione Bruno Kessler (English: http://www.fbk.eu/ or Italian: http://www.fbk.eu/it ). 61 Group ( http://www.iam.ecs.soton.ac.uk/ ) supports complex information processing. 62 http://www.aktors.o rg/technologies/ ), specifically its Gate and Annie scripts, should be applied beneficially to a project that data cultural information.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 36 further benefit the technology needs of an advanced, show case project in 1415 Abruzzo. 1416 1417 Recommendation 24 : Study project s similar to those that the Abruzzese institutions might conceive of building. In addition to design and functional similarities, they should outline and consider dissimilarities and funding sources, as well as strategic alliances. There is nothing wrong with following in s particularly to learn from proven experience or to develop a relationship with funding sources Funding agencies will recognize following in the footsteps of exemplar projects to be pre tested and more likely than other projects of success. Strategically, it should benefit the Abruzzese institutions greatly, if their first project followed the design of an exemplar project. Two examples, the Via Francigena Project and Live Memories have been cited above as exemplar projects. 1418 Building toward meeting the needs of genealogists, as building toward the 1419 needs of the Earth sciences and tourism, requires a bit more than simple 1420 scanning and basic metadata. Digitization in these areas requires the creation 1421 and maintenance of name authority systems that exceed the current standards 1422 of bibliographic (and archival) authorities, 63 though meeting bibliographic 1423 authority standards is a fundamental first step that the Abruzzese institutions 1424 currently meet. Life events data, whether create d by staff, abstracted through 1425 automation from texts, or contributed by volunteers, requires the ability to 1426 monitor standards nationally and internationally, and, to build compliant data 1427 storage structures. This capability does not currently exist among t he 1428 Abruzzese institutions. Ontologies and gazetteers, insofar as they exist, may 1429 need enhancement for localized variants names in translation, and relational or 1430 spatial data not currently recorded. Partnership with a national authority, ICCU, 1431 for exampl e, is optimal for the Abruzzese institutions 64 1432 1433 63 E.g., in the bibliographic community, for example: the Metadata Authority Description Standard (MADS ) ( http://www.loc.gov/standards/mads/ ), and, in the archives community, for example: Encoded Archival Context (EAC) ( http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/eac/ ). Name authority systems, which establish a standard form of name and record variants together with basic life event data, e.g., year of birth and death, but fail to record relationship data which optimizes systems advanced search and navigation of digital libra ries for genealogical (as well as tourist and other geographical content). Even the most forward looking of systems, EAC, fails to fully delimit collected data for optimal machine manipulation. Gazetteers, geographic name authority systems, generally reco rd current information and variant forms of names as known. They fail to reflect historic variation in footprint and geo political units. This is true of http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.cfm/pageid/2 ). Abruzzo, for example, at one time included part of what is now Lazio and part of what is now Molise. This information is not recorded in INSPIRE systems and, therefore, goes undiscoverab le within digital libraries compliant with the INSPIRE data specifications. See also the following note. 64 It might be noted that no well established digital library program, including those of national libraries and national archives, is responding well to the challenges of digital library enhancements to meet these needs. Indeed, most programs based in libraries and archives are simply reproducing analog systems in digital designs. They fail to grow designs that analog systems were not capable of meet ing. In part, this is because librarians and archivists have not been taught, traditionally, to think beyond the systems they use systems largely migrated from the analogue systems of the recent past.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 37 1434 Recommendation 25 : Engage the ICCU as a partner for metadata, and, share all plans for metadata collection, creation and, particularly, enhancement with ICCU. To the extent that metadata pertains to geography, also engage or ask the (AM/FM) 65 organization. 1435 2. Collections and Uses 1436 1437 The Abruzzese institutions suggested a number of projects ranging from projects typical of the 1438 North American Institutional Repository, to course use materials projects, and projects to 1439 digitize out of print books, rare books, and manuscripts. With one exception, these projects 1440 were format based. Newspapers and serials were considered but quickly dismissed relative to 1441 efforts required to clear copyrights. 66 Photograph, audio and video, it appeared, were regarded 1442 as ancillary materials. And, though this last class of materials, arguably, is more fugitive than 1443 non electr onic media, there was little interest in the class. 1444 1445 Recommendation 26 : The Abruzzese institutions should seek funding for a physical preservation assessment of their collections. With respect to digitization, format based approaches do not well support granting and other request for assistance programs. They make difficult the task of writing cohesive arguments for the research value and continuing research utility of the content. These arguments are more soundly and more easily made from a topical approach. Argument supporting the funding of physical preservation assessments, however, should be made relatively easily. The Abruzzo institutions ho ld culturally and socially important resources. Such an assessment has never been undertaken in the past, with the exception of localized surveys. And, their holdings have recently experienced various traumas that are usually detrimental to archives and libraries. Materials have been thrown from shelves, accumulated dust, and many have been exposed to the adverse environmental conditions. In the United States, this type of assessment relative the number of volumes to be surveyed and their geog would cost between $5,000 and Including the addition of travel and hotel costs, the total cost of such a project remains modest. 1446 1447 65 Automated Mapping Facilities Management (AM/FM) ( http://www.amfm.it/ ) is responsible, in Italy, for development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure = Infrastruttura di Dati Territoriali Nazionale (IDT) Italian geographic metadata is required to meet the Directive ( http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ ). Its data specifications are documented at http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.cfm/pageid/2 66 Most North American (and European) digital library programs steer clear of newspapers and serials still protected by copyright for just this reason. The effort required can be taxing, particularly on the limited reserves of a digitization program based among cultural institutions. Notable effort such as archiving for content work pioneered by the Florida Digital Newspaper Library (FDNL) based at the University of Florida and the Caribbean Newspapers D igital Library (CNDL) may provide the Abruzzo institutions with future guidance. Such projects remain complex if, in the end, not impeded.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 38 1448 Recommendation 26 : (continued) The advantage s of a physical preservation assessment for digitization are several. Assessment provides guidance on handling materials at risk. Moreover, it allows an institution to balance response with risk, incidentally providing an institution with a sound rational for a targeted format specific digitization project as part of a larger preservation plan. It also challenges an assumptions about value. If done well, the assessment will consider materials and storage conditions, risk and valuations, est ablish topical characterizations upon which it hands analyses of collections utility In the Italian context a physical preservation assessment is particularly viable with the aid of the (MiBAC) Direzione Generale per le Biblioteche, gli Istituti Cultural i e il Diritto d'Autore and, possibly with the assistance of Italian Library and Information Science or Computer Science programs. It may also be possible to successfully advertize the need among the Reproduction Section (PARS). 67 Regardless, the Abruzzese institutions should seek to remotely, if not personally address the next Annual meeting of ALA/PARS, which is scheduled for 24 29 June 2010. 1449 Recommendation 27 : The Abruzzese institutions should seek to remotely, if not personally address the next Annual ALA/PARS Preservation Administration meeting, which is scheduled for 24 29 June 2010. Consider requesting travel funds from a funding source. It should be poss ible to make remote connections via Adobe, Google, Microsoft, Skype or other software. The meeting should afford opportunities for support and advice, partnerships and hooks into funding sources as relationships develop over time, volunteers, etc. The meeting is attended by Americans, Canadians and other nationals. The Preservation Administration meeting is attended by preservation librarians who run successful preservation programs, many of whom have completed large, complex preservation assessmen ts. It is also attended by conservators who, together with preservation administrators, in the past, have organized foreign assistance efforts. It is also attended by representatives ers, may be more receptive to an Abruzzo project. 68 1450 Additionally, several more topical projects were considered, for example, projects focused on 1451 food, cuisine and migration (largely, emigration from Abruzzo). These tended to be more 1452 inclusive of photographs, audio and video. But again, most were not within the immediate 1453 scope of interest for the Abruzzese institutions. 1454 1455 1456 67 American Library Association Preservation and Reproduction Section (PARS) ( http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/alcts/mgrps/pars/index.cfm ). Some members of the section speak Italian or a Romance language, such as Spanish, that might facilitate communication. 68 Both the U.S. National Endowm ent for the Humanities (NEH) and the U.S. Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS) have been known to grant foreign projects when partnered with a U.S. institution and supported either by some level of external funds, e.g., Italian government, a do nor, or a donor agency.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 39 Recommendation 28 : As the Abruzzese institutions think about the projects they will develop, they should revise their approach. Wherever possible, think and plan for topical projects and clearly describe the utility of the product Archivists and librarians are frequently accused of having their noses in papers and books. People use books and papers, certainly; but they used them to sate an information need. When planning digitization projects, popular and funding agency support often depends upon how well one address the information need. 1457 Note: For purpose of the present discussion, this section will discuss only digitization targets, things that could be digitized. Digitization for educ a tion, here, is a worthy, but secondary product It first requires consideration of what could or should be digitized. 1458 Regardless a physical or topical approach to selection for digitization, several ambiguous facts 1459 may be stated: Some have greater probability of usefulness than others. Some are clearly 1460 more valuable and unique than others. And, so on. Development pr oposals, whether for 1461 personal or internal direction, or, for external funding, require discussion of usefulness. Why 1462 should this or that be digitized? 1463 1464 Regrettably there are a number of factors that make a collection more or less viable for 1465 digitization. Copyright will play a major role. At this point, among the Abruzzese institutions, 1466 only the Archivio di Stato has staff with good and broad understanding of copyright as 1467 expressed within Italian law. This understanding must be brought into any developi ng 1468 digitization program. 1469 1470 Recommendation 29 : The Planning Committee should inform itself as to Italian copyright and develop a practical implementation schedule. Italian copyright law is actually much cleaner than U.S. copyright legislation. In any case it is advantageous for selection for digitization practitioners to have clear instruction: if published in [ year ], then [ this action ], otherwise [ alternate action ]. Again, guidance should be available from the (MiBAC) Direzione Generale per le Biblio teche, gli Istituti Culturali e il Diritto d'Autore. Alternately, the Abruzzese institutions should adopt the position of the BDI on copyright: digitize Italian works written only up to 1868. 69 If an Abruzzese digitization program may digitize foreign works, it must also state a position relative to foreign imprints 70 Copyright law is not uniform within the European Union. The safest course of action is to adopt a policy of conformance with the law of either Italy or the country of p ublication, whichever has the longer term of protection The simplest course of action for the Abruzzese institutions is to digitize only the works of Italian authors, inscribed or printed in Italy. A digitization program cannot simply conform to the law ; it must state its agreement and demonstrate commitment in policies and procedures. 1471 1472 69 1868 is actually a conservative date. Italian copyright law ( Law No. 52 of 1996 02 06) protects a work for seventy years from the death of the author, per ICCU. The law was applied retrospectively; so, works that had already entered the public domain had protections restored. See also, Wikipedia entry on the ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_Duration_Directive_(93/98/EEC) ). 70 The distinction is fine. In the case, for example, of the work of an Italian author publish

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 40 Copyright exclusions quickly limit what can be done with several collections pre selected by the 1473 Abruzzese institutions for quick assessment. Textbooks, scientific and technical manuals, 1474 many and probably a majority of out of print books and some proporti on of rare books and 1475 special collections are very probably protected by copyright. If the Abruzzese institutions can 1476 not commit to copyright clearance procedures and all of the follow up contacts that such 1477 procedures often entail, they should exclude thes e materials. This one action effectively 1478 eliminates the majority of titles pre selected by the University. It also rules out topical 1479 collections that have modern, post 1868 beginnings. Much of the published literature of the 1480 modern science of geology, i ncluding seismology, is eliminated by this one restriction. 1481 1482 The physical condition of resources selected for digitization may also be a factor. Condition is 1483 likely to be more of a limiting factor than eliminating factor. Digitization, in principle, sho uld 1484 never do great harm to a physical resource. It may be acceptable to do some harm, if 1485 1486 state. For this reason, North American digitization programs work hand in hand with 1487 preservation and conservation programs. Archives and rare book digitization programs there 1488 either maintain their own internal conservation facilities or employ a contractor with trained, 1489 certified conservators. Excluding the Archivio di Sta to, the Abruzzese institutions have no 1490 conservation facilities. The facilities of the Archivio are rudimentary. The training of staff 1491 providing rudimentary conservation treatments there could not be assessed for this report. 1492 1493 Recommendation 30 : Whether they have conducted the recommended collection level physical condition assessment, every item inscribed or created before 1868 should be subject to a physical condition assessment prior to digitization. This assessment should be completed by an individu al trained at least to triage all of the material types that can expect to be digitized, including: Books in various historic binding styles; Papers of various historic types; Vellum and leathers, prepared by various historic methods; Inks and paints, pr epared by various historic methods, as used on various surfaces; and, Photographs of various historic types Presumably because resources digitized in Italy become publicly available (i.e., for some public good), it is further recommended that the (MiBAC) Direzione Generale per le Biblioteche, gli Istituti Culturali e il Diritto d'Autore consider subsidizing a service to some threshold of production (after which an institution selecting more for inspection must pay an increased fee). 1494 It may also be acceptable to do some harm during digitization if the extent of harm does not 1495 exceed that typical of one intensive use for a volume in circulation or several intensive uses for 1496 a volume in a reference collection. There may be other reasons to do harm to a volume to 1497 facilitate digitization, e.g., when more than one copy exists, or, an original is already in an 1498 advanced state of disrepair. Another case in point: when is reasonable to unbind a reference 1499 volume, even one published before 1868, for digitiz ation? What price points should be 1500 considered? Price of the volume in original state? Cost savings: digitization of a bound original 1501 versus an unbound original? Unbinding can result in significant savings, but is unbinding 1502 justifiable? If unbinding goe s forward, will the volume be restored to near original state? All of 1503 these questions have implications for cost and efficiency. They sometimes need to be made on 1504 a case by case basis. 1505 1506 As yet, the Abruzzese institutions have not considered a general p olicy position for this type of 1507 question. They have not built flow charts for basic decision making and, therefore, lack the 1508 frame upon which to document more complex decisions. 1509 1510 1511

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 41 Recommendation 31 : Digitization actually calls for wide range of preservation policies; the Planning Committee should invite digitization and preservation experts to offer policy suggestions, to help them build flow charting mechanisms that can continue to document policy and guide future decision making. 1512 Another lim iting factor is the lay of the land. This factor is typically expressed as a question 1513 designed to assess project viability. These questions, in turn, are usually both about the 1514 physicality of a resource (i.e., other copies) and about the extra physicali ty of intellectual 1515 content. The answers to both sets of question should at least have been touched upon in the 1516 course of the recommended Stakeholder Exercise. 1517 1518 P HYSICALITY 1519 1520 Are my materials unique? If not unique, what other institutions make copies available? Would 1521 1522 1523 might they then write a letter of support for my pro 1524 1525 exchange 71 for my content, or, to attempt coordinated funding: they consulting their funding 1526 sources while I con sult my funding sources? 72 How frequently are my materials used? Have I 1527 maintained circulation, reshelving or reference statistics on this (or that) resource? 1528 1529 These kinds of questions help an institution to determine who its partners and collaborators 1530 may be. They build constituencies beyond the Abruzzese institutions. And, they begin to 1531 answer questions, asked by every funding agency, about the efficacy of funding and the 1532 usefulness of funded projects both within and beyond the funded location. 1533 1534 These questions also broaden finding horizons and help an institution to anticipate funding 1535 agency questions before they can be asked. With the exception of the Antinori manuscript, the 1536 Abruzzese institutions have neither asked nor answered these questions. Not having done so 1537 may jeopardize their funding requests, leaving them blind sided by common questions. 1538 1539 E XTRA P HYSICALITY 1540 1541 Who uses my materials? Why are they valued? How are they used? If digitized, how do users 1542 anticipate that they will be available? Page images, available in succession online? In a 1543 bundled format like PDF? Text searchable? Geo referenced? When they use this material, 1544 what ancillary materials do they use alongside it? Maps? Photographs? Archives? Does the 1545 user expect to be able to download the materials and to use them off line? 1546 1547 1548 needs, and to plan accordingly. They will help the Abruzzese institutions to wide convincing 1549 arguments, demonstrating that they understand the value of the source information and its 1550 utility in digital form. Some questions will help them to grow the resource, to phase a project if 1551 necessary others wil l help them build collections. When users avail themselves of particular 1552 research resources, they often use other resources to better comprehend that primary 1553 71 Technology for content exchanges have worked well in the Caribbean (cf, Digital Library of the Caribbean http://www.dloc.com/ ) and Africa (cf, Aluka http://www.aluka.org/ ). A well structured exchange it were, access to technologies optical character recognition, for example not readily available through the current BDI partnership. 72 An example of such partnership might include agreement to create an Abruzzo cultural portal with partners in the USA. With a well structure grant proposal at hand one that sates user needs and granting agency interests, both partners would seek funding that contributes to the whole. The Abruzzese institutions would seek funding for their part of the project from Italian sources. The American partner might seek funding from the National Endowme nt for the Arts or the Institute for Museum and Library Services.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 42 resource. With limited exceptions, the Abruzzese institutions have not yet asked these 1554 questions. 1555 1556 One of the problems faced by the Abruzzese institutions is that other digital libraries already 1557 exist, targeting materials similar to those targeted by the Abruzzo institutions. Nearly all were 1558 created following some form of more or less detailed analyse s. The Abruzzo institutions need to 1559 demonstrate why their content is important and to present reasonable plans capable of making 1560 content useful. White planning is always a recommended prerequisite to project design or 1561 seeking funding, the Abruzzese institu tions may find if viable to ride the coat tails of an existing 1562 project. Ostensibly, an existing project already has an accepted rationale that could be adopted 1563 by the Abruzzo institutions. 1564 1565 Again, these questions are usually explored during a Stakeholder e xercise. 1566 1567 As digital libraries have grown over the years indeed, as the Internet has grown, user 1568 expectations have grown with them. Though digital libraries build from the ground up, from 1569 page source to page image to searchable page text to enhancement of text, it is no longer 1570 acceptable to just plan for a digital library of page images. Internet users accustomed to 1571 keyword searching no longer want the digital equivalent of a microfilm. 73 Even the BDI 1572 anticipates the implementation of optical character recognition (OCR) technology to make text 1573 searchable. Items to which OCR does not readily apply, for example, holographic manuscripts, 1574 should consider some level of supplemental indexing, perhaps in a phased approach to project 1575 development. 1576 1577 Recommendation 32 : The BDI should continue its move toward implementation of optical character recognition (OCR) technology 74 1578 Appendix 3 ( 3a: Italian version ; 3b: English version ) list some of the projects pre selected by 1579 the Abruzzese institutions for preliminary assessment. The following considers those projects 1580 individually. The order is relative to assessment of perceived funding potential. 1581 1582 O UT OF PRINT BOOKS 1583 1584 The topical content of out of print (OP) books pre selected for possible digitization was 1585 unspecified. OP books that might be selected for digitization, ostensibly, would be those 1586 for which there is user demand. 1587 1588 Digitization of OP books is problematic, complicated by copyri ght. Copyright 1589 complications, here, however, are relatively straight forward. Their resolution requires 1590 1591 maintenance of agreements. Procuring permissions can be time consumi ng, but the 1592 greater problem is managing permissions once acquired. Authors rarely sign over all of 1593 their rights or even some of their rights without restriction. Common restrictions include 1594 limits on downloading, on the quality of the digital objects up loaded for public access, on 1595 who can access the item(s), etc. 1596 1597 The Abruzzese institutions have no staff currently allocated to copyright clearance. With 1598 the exception of one archivist/librarian, staff of the institutions lacks the skills to establish 1599 policy and the experience to supervise copyright clearance activity. The bigger problem 1600 for the institutions is what they do with a protected work after permissions have been 1601 granted. Such works cannot be contributed to the BDI a t this time. Because the BDI 1602 73 In the European Union, advanced activity in this area is coordinated by CORDIS Information and Communication Technologies, currently (2009/2010) in its 7 th Framework Programme ( http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/ ) not available in Italian. The PAPYRUS project ( http://www.ict papyrus.eu/default.aspx?page=home ) with two Ita lian partners, is building one model. 74

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 43 does not have the automation in place to manage permitted rights, it does not accept 1603 such items. That would leave the Abruzzese institutions having either to find another 1604 digital library service provider at cost recall that the BDI charges no fee at present or 1605 to build, maintain, and grow the services for themselves. And, here again, they lack the 1606 staff and the funding to do so. 1607 1608 Recommendation 33 : The Abruzzese institutions should not pursue their interest in out of pr int books at this time. 1609 Recommendation 34 : The Abruzzese institutions should avail themselves, inasmuch as possible, of BDI services and contribute content to the BDI. The cost to the Abruzzese institutions to build and subsequently maintain and grow their own services, on top of networking equipment, servers and infrastructure would be very costly. 75 Those services would then duplicate the services already in place and freely available to the Abruzzese institutions from the BDI. Accepting this cost savings does mean accepting BDI policy. That seems a small price to pay. Accepting it allows the Abruzzese institutions to throw their money into development of imaging, image processing, metadata, and data enhancement elements of a digitization program. Building jointly allows the Abruzzese institutions to maximize their productivity, leaving the more skilled and hire paid positions associated with systems maintenance and programming to the BDI. 1610 T EXTBOOKS 1611 Alternately, and Open Content Lesson Plans an d Textbooks 1612 1613 The topical content of textbooks pre selected for possible digitization was unspecified. 1614 Textbooks that might be selected for digitization, ostensibly, would be those used in 1615 current course work. 1616 1617 Digitization of textbooks is problematic, complicated by copyright. Copyright complexities 1618 apply to a textbook as a whole and to individual rights within a textbook, i.e., images and 1619 texts licensed for use in the textbook. A publisher that has licensed content for a specific 1620 use, i.e., publicati on of the textbook, e.g., illustrations and texts otherwise copyrighted, is 1621 not within his rights to allow reproduction of licensed content even if he allows digitization 1622 of content that he clearly owns. 1623 1624 Digitization of textbooks requires extensive copyri ght clearance work. At present, the 1625 Abruzzese institutions lack the FTE to undertake this work. The only individual, who has 1626 the knowledge necessary to supervise the work, appears to be fully committed to other 1627 work. And, while he might be reassigned, t here appears to be no other individual who 1628 could then assume the duties he would no longer be able to fulfil Additionally, this 1629 individual is employed by the Archivio while the bulk of textbooks reside at the University. 1630 While an agreement to collaborat ively develop a digitization program has been 1631 encouraged, 76 the sharing of staff in this manner at an early stage in program 1632 development is highly unlikely. 1633 1634 1635 75 For purposes of this assessment, cost will not be fixed or otherwise suggested. Fixing a cost required more knowledge of desired performance and othe r variables not available for consideration at this time. 76 See recommendations above.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 44 Recommendation 35 : The Abruzzese institutions should not pursue their interest in textbooks at this time. If interest in textbooks is more universal, issues should be taken up by the (MiBAC) Direzione Generale per le Biblioteche, gli Istituti Culturali e il Diritto d'Autore (DGB) in collaboration with the Ministry of Education Universities and Res earch = Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell 'Universit e della Ricerca ( MIUR) 77 1636 Alternatively, the Abruzzese institutions in collaboration with lower form schools, might 1637 propose to replace a selected textbook(s) or lesson plan with a locally created open 1638 source textbook or lesson plan, perhaps one dealing with early Abruzzese history and 1639 culture that might draw on illustration and supplemental readings from the digitized 1640 1641 of Public Instruction = Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione 78 maintains La Sc uola per 1642 79 1643 1644 Recommendation 36 : brining a proposal to build open source lesson plans and textbooks. Before discussing this with the Ministry, the Abruzzese institutions would be well advised to discuss enabling technologies with CASPUR. Among its many responsibilities, for example, CASPUR support the Moodle technology 80 open course management software. The combination of Moodle with open course content could gain EU funding. CASPUR might also support chat and digital reference technologies for such a project. 1645 Recommendation 37 : The University should investigate use of Moodle and consider test deployment. A well managed course management suite, in addition to transforming education for the wired and wireless world, is likely to ensure the capture and maintenance of the Again, CASPUR might be consulted for implementation and support of the Moodle software, including access authorization, versioning and archiving support. 1646 While such effort does not appear to be within scope of the Ministry, there may be no 1647 better time to suggest the need for copyright free textbooks or lesson plans. The material 1648 costs of the books and materiels supplied by La Scuola appear to be tremendous. These 1649 might be off set, in future earthquakes, by an open source alternative pioneered in 1650 Abruzzo. 1651 1652 The Abruzzese institutions may note that this suggestion is also not within their scope. 1653 The project, however, has the potential, first, to allow the institutions to slowly wet their 1654 feet. Without the planning needed to launch a bigger project, taking a supporting role 1655 should allow them to develop services, to experience and build from mistakes without 1656 costly consequences. Building a project that, from the word go integrates libraries and 1657 archives into teaching allows them to maintain ground otherwise b eing lost to Internet 1658 77 Ministry of Education Universities and Research = Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universit e della Ricerca ( http://www.miur.it/ ). 78 Ministry of Public Instruction = Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione officially known as the Ministero dell' Istruzione dell'Universit e della Ricerca ( http://www.pubblica.istruz ione.it/ ) 79 http://laboratoriocreativostudentesco.it/abruzzo_sito/ ) Italian only. 80 Moodle ( http://moodle.org/ ). Moodle is open source software. There is also commercial software, including the popular Blackboard ( http://www.blackboard.com/ ) technology.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 45 search. The use of chat and digital reference 81 (again services that might eventually 1659 become national services as a successful program builds, in future, toward economies of 1660 scale) should both tie the user back into the archive/librar y, and, the archive/library into 1661 knowledge that will enrich future, more complex 1662 projects and funding requests. Finally, such a project has tremendous potential to attract 1663 education funding insofar as it may also be ab le to engage North American and other 1664 European educators. Teaching the Italian language, history or culture is among the main 1665 objectives of Italian associations in North America (and elsewhere). And, the application 1666 of educational and information technol ogies is of considerable interest to both North 1667 American 82 and EU institutions 83 of higher learning. 1668 1669 S CIENTIFIC AND TECHNI CAL MANUALS 1670 Alternately, an Institutional Repository 1671 1672 The topical content of scientific and technical manuals pre selected for possible 1673 digitization was unspecified. Those that might be selected for digitization, ostensibly, 1674 would be those used in current course work. 1675 1676 As regards digitization of textbooks, the digitization of scientific and technical manuals is 1677 p roblematic and complicated by copyright. Copyright complexities apply to scientific and 1678 technical manuals much as it does to textbook. Images may be licensed. Copyrights in 1679 text and data may be shared, sometimes across international borders. A governme nt 1680 may maintain an interest in the copyright, particularly if government funded the scientific 1681 experimentation and studies on which a manual or text has been based. A corporation 1682 may similarly claim a copyright interest. 1683 1684 Recommendation 38 : The Abruzzese institutions should not pursue their interest in scientific and technical manuals at this time. 1685 Alternately, the Abruzzese institutions, particularly the University, might consider 1686 establishment of an Institutional Repository. Scientific data and procedure frequently 1687 originate in Universities. Inasmuch as a University supports the generation of scientific 1688 data and the creation of procedure, it has a stake in collecting and maintaining this 1689 information. And, there may be no information more f ugitive, more at risk of loss through 1690 negligent storage (i.e., deterioration in storage) that scientific data and the procedural 1691 documents the (may) lend credibility to the scientific methods employed to extract data. 1692 Information storage media and formats change quickly even if they do not deteriorate. 1693 1694 1695 81 These services that might eventually become national services as a successful program builds, in future, toward economies of scale 82 See, for example, EduCause ( http://www.educause.edu/ ). 83 ( http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/information_society/index_en.htm ) Italian not available; available also in French and German. The European Distance and E Learning Network (EDEN) ( h ttp://www.eden online.org/ equivalent to EduCause. Both maintain interest in Education, information and technology.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 46 Recommendation 39 : The University should investigate institutional repository software packages and consider test deployment together with a digital archiving plan for the collected assets. CASPUR, which supports the D Space 84 software, might be consulted. The D Space software might be used for a test deployment. CASPUR also offer digital archiving services if this content does not enter the BDI Investigation should include review of the inventory. Test deployment can be expected to have some staffing and infrastructure costs. 1696 1697 inventory supplemented by an awareness of research product and by products. An 1698 existing inventory should be updated with information about production (is the asset 1699 produced electronically even if distributed in print?) and distribution (is the asset utilized in 1700 an electronic format?) as well as current digital archiving status. Assets utilized in 1701 electronic format should be primary targets for a digital Institutional Repository. Those 1702 which are not now digitally archived may be at more risk than those which have no digital 1703 archivin g action plan. Existing digital archiving action plans should be assessed, 1704 preferably against OAIS, 85 PREMIS 86 or other rational implementation models. 87 1705 1706 Recommendation 40 : The Planning Committee should consider strategies for digital archiving. Insofar as the Abruzzese institutions agree to contribute their content to the BDI, they should utilize the digital archiving services of the BDI. (See additional technical recommendations below.) Insofar as the Abruzzese institutions do not or are unable to contribute their content to the BDI, for example, as may be the case for scientific data and lesson plans, they should seek out reliable, standards compliant services for digital archiving. Again, CASPUR offers digital archiving services within a super region including the Region of Abruzzo. 1707 1708 84 D Space ( http://www.dspace.org/ ) 85 OAIS ( http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/index/OAIS ) 86 PREMIS ( http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/ ) 87 In the European Union, digit al preservation activity is coordinated by CORDIS Information and Communication Technologies, currently (2009/2010) in its 7 th Framework Programme ( http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/ ) not available in Italian Digital preservation models are being developed under three projects: 1. CASPAR ( http://www.casparpreserves.eu/ ), with several Italian partners; 2. DPE ( http://www.digitalpreservationeurope.eu/ ); and 3. PLANETS ( http://www.planets project.eu/ ), with no Italian partners. be useful beyond other DPE specifications.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 47 T HE E B ARTHOLOM A EIS COLLECTION 1709 1710 Vincenzo de Bartholomeis, 1867 1711 educated in Rome. He became known, as a philologist, for the study of Abruzzese 1712 literature. 88 The De Bartholomaeis Collections is regionally important and among the 1713 most complete collections of De Bartholomaeis holdings in any one location. Ancillary 1714 materials are also part of the collection. 1715 1716 Italian copyright protects the works of De Bartholom aeis through sometime in 2023. 1717 1718 1719 successful an appeal to his heirs for permission to digitiz e. 89 There is, not withstanding 1720 successful negotiation with the De Bartholomeis heirs, one small complication, however. 1721 Selected De Bartholomaeis works are co authored or edited. Permission to digitize the 1722 intellectual property of co authors and editors must also be sought. 1723 1724 There are additional complicating factors; factors that may render requests for external 1725 1726 substantial number of these works have already been digi tized and made freely available 1727 on the Internet. Google Books provides access to as many as 153 wor ks authored by De 1728 Bartholomaeis 90 while the Internet Archive provides access to 2 works. 1729 1730 Notwithstanding the legality of the copies made available on the Internet it would appear 1731 that there is little reason to duplicate effort. 91 Reasons commonly used to argue 1732 duplication of effort (if not partnership with the holder of the digital object) include data 1733 mining and data enhancement. In this scenario, the ho lder of a digital resource does not 1734 make it available for advanced research. As a result, a second institution digitizes a 1735 previously digitized resource in order to acquire a source of text or illustration that can be 1736 mined or enhanced for its own researc h purposes. 1737 1738 The Abruzzese institutions face two problems here. First, they have yet to identify the 1739 research purposes for which the De Bartholomaeis Collection would be digitized. They 1740 clearly recognize its importance. But, arguments that go to the c 1741 research, how research is conducted within the collection and on particular titles within 1742 the collection, etc. have to be made. Lacking these arguments, a request for external 1743 funding looks like a promise: if we build it, they th e researchers who will praise the 1744 project and its funders will not only come to use it; but they will find it constructed so as 1745 to facilitate their work. It will be built just as they would have built it themselves Second, 1746 they not only have to build the services or partnerships that can bring them the services 1747 to scan the content, but services to generate reasonably accurate text from it, and/or, the 1748 infrastructure to enhance it by tagging or other means. Neither task is beyond them, but 1749 each require s additional planning. 1750 1751 1752 88 De Bartholomaeis Vincenzo, 1867 1953. For a selected bibliography, see Appendix 4. 89 An appeal for permission to digitize might be the more successful if the University requests non exclusive, non commerc ial rights of digital reproduction, and, as necessary, if it agrees to provide the heirs with a copy of all digital files [image masters (e.g., TIFF), distribution images (e.g., JPG, PDF, etc.), digital by products (e.g., TXT files generated from OCR or do uble Center at http://www.uflib.ufl. edu/digital/procedures/copyright/ 90 See http://books.google.com/books?q=+inauthor:"+Vincenzo+De+Bartholomaeis"&source=gbs_authrefine_t 91 Most funding agencies avoid funding projects that represent a duplication of effort, even effort that may yet be determined to have been illegally undertaken. Note that under Italian and European Union law, De Bartholomaeis works in Google appear to be f ruit of the forbidden tree For brief comment on the copyright issues, see Appendix 4.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 48 Recommendation 41 : In planning for digitization, the Planning Committee should adopt best practices, including: 92 standard or the Italian or European Union equi valent for process based project management. Completion of collection assessment surveys based on statistically valid random survey methodology, that characterize collection in terms of: Copyright status; Bibliographic availability (in original, reprints, microform, and digital versions); State of physical conservation (of the various formats identified); State of environmental storage conditions (for each of the various formats identified); and E xisting and potential uses, with documentation of classroom use and, as indication of research uses, citation analysis. 1753 Recommendation 42 : Presuming that the De Bartholomaeis Collection merits the effort that copyright clearance will require, the University should begin to define the rationale for its digitization. Planning for digitization should not proceed until need is certain and utility defined and measurable. 1754 Recommendation 43 : ICCU perhaps in collaboration with CASPUR, should explore (the creation of) tools that allow distributed search of SBN and BDI as a subcollection; and Internet book collections, e.g., Google Books, Google Scholar, and Internet Archive. 1755 Advancing the digitization of the De Bartholomaeis Collec tion depends greatly on the 1756 1757 1758 valued for its importance to philology, and, the study both of Abruzzese literature in 1759 particular and of Italian literature more generally. A digitization project might include 1760 sample literature, both that studied by De Bartholomaeis and that supplemental corpus 1761 that might, now, continue the studies he began 1762 1763 As noted earlier, digitization is often seen as serving three purposes: preservation, 1764 access, and research utility Digitization of the De Bartholomaeis Collection could 1765 possibly serve each of these ends. With exacting measures to generate optimal digital 1766 images, texts, etc. and to ensure digital preservation to international standard, digitization 1767 is a fine means o f preservation. But there are other means of preservation that can be 1768 achieved by more traditional and perhaps less costly methods. Relative to the costs of 1769 preservation, funding agencies usually fund only one means of preservation. If the De 1770 Bartholoma 1771 any case be preserved as an artefact. A digitization funding request should state that it 1772 will take all actions necessary to digitally preserve the resulting digital product s, but it 1773 should reserve the argument for preservation of the collection to the physical collection. 1774 1775 1776 92 Prince2 ( http://www.prince2.com/ ); see also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRINCE2 (English only).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 49 Recommendation 44 : The University should conduct a physical preservation assessment of the De Bartholomaeis Collection, if of no other collection. Advancing a subsequent argument to digitize this collection will be aided by the understands the value of the physical collection even while it posits that research wil l profit from digitization. 1777 The argument for access requires the ability to forward the defensible statement that 1778 either or both (a) physical access is too limiting e.g., a class of 50 students will need to 1779 make use of the collection and the library i s not open enough hours to meet the projected 1780 need, or, the collection would be utilized by linguistic studies programs in N Italian 1781 1782 digital facsimiles (b) inc reasing demand on the physical collection places it at risk of 1783 deterioration no matter how many conservation treatments are available, no matter what 1784 preservation precautions have been put into place. If arguments such as these cannot be 1785 made, digitizatio n for access remains unwarranted and non compelling 1786 1787 Why make an argument for access when building a digitization program? A digitization 1788 program is built in at least three stages cataloging, imaging, and text generation. 93 1789 Presumably, within the tradi tion of modern libraries, the institution is capable of 1790 cataloging. 94 An access project allows fundamental program development of the imaging 1791 stage. The product of an access project, as exemplified by the BDI, is a page for page 1792 digital facsimile of source documents. Typically, in the United States, funding requests 1793 for access projects include line items (sometimes cost shared) for imaging infrastructure: 1794 scanners, computers, digital storage, servers, etc. 1795 1796 Recommendation 45 : To the extent allowed by Italian law, consider the adoption of policy that requires researchers (1) to cite the digital collection in resulting research work(s) and (2) to deposit, for open access (with, as necessary, limited reproduction and download rights), copy of research work(s) resulting from use of the digital collection. This provision is intended to encourage contribution rather than to be policed. work(s) with the University. If built around a core collection, e.g., philology, additional encouragement in the form of (moderated) discussion lists, etc. might be c onsidered as well. The University should retain the right to remove content deemed objectionable. Policies on acceptable and objectionable content, together with a privacy policy should also be made available. 1797 The argument for research utility require s an appreciation for how the collection is used. 1798 A facile but defensible argument to be made with corresponding documentation for any 1799 philology collection goes to the value of language and the need to ensure that language 1800 is searchable and can be process ed. Research, the argument continues, is facilitated 1801 and researchers become more productive when machine readable is available to query 1802 and analysis. Of course, it helps if the argument can be quantified in terms of time saved, 1803 93 Arguably, a digitization program is built in more than three stages: cataloging ; physical preservation and conservation; imaging ; digital preservation ; text generation and its enhancement(s); promoti on of use (in teaching and research); and, the collection of the by products of use such as faculty papers, classroom lectures, etc. 94 ICCU and BDI, at least, make this assumption inasmuch as they require cataloging for all items contributed to the BDI.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 50 productivity increased, an d especially Euro value realized. 95 The De Bartholomaeis 1804 Collection has a strong case to make for machine readable text. It is a case that can be 1805 made more easily for the De Bartholomaeis Collection than can be made for other 1806 collections. 1807 1808 What is the value of this argument when building a digitization program? It helps an 1809 existing imaging program to more toward the generation of machine readable and 1810 searchable text. Typically, in the United States, the argument has underpinned the 1811 growth of digit ization programs into the generation of text 96 and, increasingly, into the 1812 enhancement of text through tagging. 97 Funding requests for text and text enhancement 1813 projects include line items (sometimes cost shared) for OCR software, double keying 1814 services, ta gging services, ontology software, and even programming costs. 1815 1816 With the generation of text and text enhancement services, however, comes additional 1817 complexity. The Abruzzese institutions are not yet ready for this level of complexity. This 1818 is not to s ay that they may not have justifiable need for these services. The need, likely, 1819 can be justified easily for the De Bartholomaeis and the Antinori ( below ) collections in 1820 particular. They need to work toward this level of complexity. 1821 1822 Recommendation 46 : The Abruzzese institutions are encouraged to work with the ICCU and BDI to explore projects, such as the De Bartholomaeis and Antinori collections, that allow the ICCU / BDI to extend services to the generation of OCR text. Development of text services at ICCU, rather than in Abruzzo, benefits the Abruzzese institutions in that subsequent maintenance of the services falls to the ICCU, not to themselves. Not enough can be said of the financial benefits of this kind of specialization in a complex system with large development costs. And, in turn, t his allows the Abruzzese institutions to concentrate of production which benefits them with more resources targeted to their needs, with an increased national profile, etc. Further, t he development of a developmental relationship with the ICCU should have subtle outcomes. It conditions the ICCU to the role of a service enabler as well as a service provider. It conditions the Abruzzese institutions to keep their eye on research problems Freed of the dist raction of developing and maintaining systems, 95 Presumably, a more productive researcher brings in more grant funding, more quickly establishes a profile growth in partnerships that bring in m ore project funding, donations, etc. Presumably, students find more resources more quickly in text searchable collections than they do in collections accessed only through the metadata of a catalog record. 96 Usually by Optical Character Recognition (O CR) a machine process that provides varying degrees of text accuracy but sometimes by Double Keying a process that entails re keying (re typing) a document twice over, comparing the two products, identifying differences through programming, and corre cting the identified differences. Double Keying usually results in a more accurate text. OCR and Double Keying are undertaken, by US institutions either in house or through contracting. Until recently, the cost of OCR engines capable of producing highl y accurate text output led many US institutions to contract both OCR and Double Keying services. Also, the cost of correcting even highly accurate OCR output has been prohibitively expensive to date. Most US institutions accepting OCR generated text have uncorrected text. Some US institutions in turn, have used this as an argument for the subsequent 97 In US digitization programs that enhance text, tagging is all over the map It is used for geo referencing, the assignment of longitude and latitude to place names; for name authority, to differentiate the names of people; for ontological referencing, to form associations of words in text to words and concepts in other Texts program, to mark up expressions, parts of speech concepts in religious texts, etc.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 51 Recommendation 46 : (continued) they can concentrate of interpreting research methods as the specifications for digital library behaviors that the ICCU subsequently tries to enable. In the end, traditional library attitudes, with a view of resources as research objects, are transformed by focus on research processes, with a view to how resources behave. In the case of OCR, a researcher should not have to read an entire text to find t hose segments of it that she or he is in search of. 1823 P H D. D ISSERTATIONS 1824 1825 The topical content of PhD Dissertations pre selected for possible digitization was 1826 1827 1828 In Italy, dissertation copyright is shared with the University on behalf of the state. 1829 Graduate students are currently required to submit a copy of their dissertation in 1830 electronic form to a national repository. This requirement is a recent mandate. As 1831 universities begin to consider retrospective digitization projects, the Universit degli Studi 1832 is no exception. 1833 1834 Digitization of retrospective dissertations, relatively unencumbered by copyright, appears 1835 relatively straight forward. Only the inclusion of copyrighted content in paper based 1836 dissertations appears to offer any difficulty. Retrospective dissertations will require 1837 vetting for potential copyright problems. The task might be assisted by automation. 1838 Presuming that the University co uld deploy a relatively low cost imaging and OCR 1839 solution, it could then employ anti plagiarism software such as Turn It In 98 to quickly 1840 identify text likely to be copyrighted. Staff would be required to assess the need for 1841 copyright permissions, 99 to follow these leads and to seek appropriate permissions as 1842 required. Staff would also have to review illustrations and other accompanying materials 1843 for copyright status as well. At this time, the staff available to the University for this kind 1844 of veri fication may be inadequate as the bulk of responsibility rests with the student and a 1845 1846 dissertations digitization will centralize final review both to ensure efficiency and 1847 deve lopment and use of necessary skill sets and experience. 1848 1849 Recommendation 47 : The Abruzzese institutions should give more critical consideration to retrospective digitization of dissertations. The Planning Committee should begin to survey other electronic dissertations programs, especially retrospective programs, in Italy and elsewhere, reviewing policy and procedure. The Abruzzese institutions are advised to consult with CASPUR relative to automation support and software packages that might facilitate as sociated processes. A retrospective dissertations digitization project would be relatively substantial. Such a project would need to act on policy and procedure that would not be characteristic 98 Turn It In ( http://turnitin.com/ ) lacks an Italian interface. Use, however, is uncomplicated and easily intuited. English, Spanish and selected other language interfaces are currently available Turn It In will process documents written in Itali an against Italian language sources. N.B. Pricing is based on number of students enrolled at the University. 99 In most countries, use of copyrighted text in a dissertation is a fair use when the text in question is properly quoted. There are exceptions however. Notably, for example, U.S. law (Supreme Court finding) ous.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 52 Recommendation 47 : (continued) of a more mainstream digi tization project. Planning for both retrospective dissertations and an institutional repository might be separated from other digital projects planning. 1850 A MANUSCRIPT 1851 C ONFERRAL OF R IGHTS FROM THE H OLY R OMAN E MPIRE TO THE M ORRON Y M ONTAGNEZ F AMILY 1852 ( Circa 1530) 1853 1854 Interest in this 1530 parchment manuscript 100 1855 1856 content from approximately the same period is held by the Biblioteca provinciale 1857 and the Archivio di Stato. 1858 1859 As a representative sample of broader holdings, this manuscript documents life and 1860 1861 document that confers feudal rights from Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V 101 to the 1862 Morron y Montagnez Fa mily over 1863 Province in the Region of Abruzzo. Rights were 1864 conferred to raise funds for t invading 1865 Turks in Easte rn Europe The document also, however, served as an instrument of 1866 continuing Spanish control over the city and the region, following the anti Spanish revolt 1867 of 1528. Rights were conferred, in part, to separate the city from its outlying territories, 1868 from the support and materiels that it derived from them. Among others, the text names 1869 Bartolomeo Camerario, an It alian jurist of note who became caught up in the intrigues of 1870 the independence movement. 1871 1872 The document itself, alone, is a mere 20 pages It is in good condition with legible text; 1873 and, it is currently maintained under good storage conditions. Similar materials from the 1874 Biblioteca provinciale are also in good condition, with legible text. They were recently 1875 retrieved from the old librar y in the City Center where, from the date of the earthquake, 1876 they experienced only minor exposure to uncontrolled environmental conditions. Similar 1877 materials from the Archivio di Stato experienced the most trauma of any archival or library 1878 holdings in th 1879 Notwithstanding this experience, though, they were skillfully retrieved early on and are 1880 now housed under state of the art conditions in the new facilities of the Archivio in 1881 Bazzano. 1882 1883 1884 inexperienced and deliberately slow new digitization program. Alone, this manuscript 1885 appears to be a footnote. There is in other Italian collections, indeed, in other North 1886 American collections, a wealth of documents from the same period, some from the same 1887 region of Italy. Alone, its importance is diminished. 1888 1889 Any effort to advance the digitization of this single manuscript should be taken in the 1890 context of the broad er regional collection. And, while alone, this one manuscript might 1891 find donor support for digitization, its digitization alone would be opportunity lost. A 1892 collection better ensures the strengths of the argument for history. 1893 1894 Recommendation 48 : The Abruzzese institutions should endeavor to define a broader collection of 100 The contact for this manuscript is Professor Silvia Mantini ( matini@tis.cali.it ). 101 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was also known as Charles I, King of Spain, holding territories throughout central and southern Italy, as well as elsewhere in Europe.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 53 the Region of Abruzzo. 1895 The problem with Italian history materials, particularly those of t he Renaissance era, is 1896 that they appear to be readily available. While placing Abruzzese materials in an Italian 1897 context, the Abruzzese institutions should describe these materials primarily within their 1898 Abruzzese context and only secondarily in their Ita lian context. Abruzzo rather than Italy 1899 1900 contribution to Italian and European heritage. Funding proposal narratives should 1901 describe these materials as informative to, as impacting upon a broader history. Grant 1902 writers should endeavor to answer the question: 1903 history to truly understand Italian history? 1904 1905 Recommendation 49 : A digital collection of Abruzzo history should be leveraged by the Abruzzese institutions for membership in the Digital Scriptorium. 102 Membership in a digital library seen as leading in its area will help a new digitization program in Abruzzo to gain recognition for itself. Recognition is key to building on success and in funding successive grant requests. Availability of their content in the Digital Scriptorium should also suggest to other members of the Scriptorium that the Abruzzese institutions are open to partnership and, possibly, invitations to join those mem bers in grant requests to their granting agencies. The Abruzzese institutions, however, will need the assistance of a knowledgeable partner to migrate metadata to the constructs required for contribution to the Digital Scriptorium. Presuming that the Abruzzese institutions have first made a contribution of their content to the BDI, they should find that the migration of metadata will be relatively straight forward. ICCU is an ideal partner in this endeavor. 1906 Recommendation 50 : Any and all Abruzzese digitization projects should contribute to the BDI. The BDI already maintains adequate digital library systems; and, it is developing digital production support modules to facilitate future projects. Any other effort on the part of the Abruzzes e institutions would merely duplicate effort and increase local production costs. 1907 THE CHRONICLERS : 1908 T HE M ANUSCRIPT W ORKS OF A NTON L UDOVICO A NTINORI 1909 ( Circa 1744/1749 ) 1910 1911 after the 1912 earthquake of 1452 and the founding of the University between 1458 and 1464, the 1913 France sco d'Angeluccio di Bazzano was already at work. 1914 Theres was considerable cause to write. A medieval city, founded in 1254, L 1915 been the home province of Celestine, who became Pope and moved the Vatican to the 1916 Cronache 1917 aquilani ( The Aquilano Chronicles ) was completed between 1472 and 1474. 1918 1919 By this time, Abruzzo and Italy had already entered the Renaissance. The Region of 1920 Abruzzo would develop the Renaissance sciences, its music particularly, music for the 1921 lute. It would become home to one of the first printing presses outside of Germany; and, 1922 the press would lend support to the Counter Reformation. 1923 the Farnese, the Hapsburg, and the Medici 1924 among them. And, among its own great families there was the Antinori. 1925 102 Digital Scriptorium ( http://scriptorium.columbia.edu/about/ )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 54 1926 Anton Ludovico Antinori an heir to the tradition begun with Di Bazzano, chronicled 1927 devastating earthquake of 1928 1929 artefacts as well as the history, of the Region in the way that a son memorializes a father 1930 lost in war, as if trying to concretize a memory before it fades. It is said that nearly all of 1931 urvives in 1932 1933 1934 completed between 1744 and 1749, is unique among new European chr onicles to that 1935 point in that it give s history its footsteps. 103 History as witnessed by Antinori can be seen, 1936 a great deal of it even to this day, in the buildings and monuments that Antinori describes 1937 and uses to anchor his history of the Region. 1938 1939 The 1940 of the most important and reliable historical sources for Abruzzo and is presently used by 1941 scholars of several disciplines (historians, architects, art historians, etc.). This is due to 1942 the fact that Antinori gathered and used many of the documentary sources available at 1943 his time, citing them very accurately. Thanks to his citations, therefore, many of them are 1944 still known today though [ the original sources are ] no longer 1945 1946 Providing what will certainly be foundational argument for grant funding, the Archivio 1947 continues. 1948 considered the most important: 1949 1950 Regesto Antinoriano edited by Salva 1951 Abruzzese di Storia Patria, 1977 ( 1) 1952 1953 Antinoriana. Studi per il bicentenario della morte di A. L. Antinori 1978 voll. 4, 1954 1978 79. 1955 1956 And, of reprints, suggesting continued demand for Antinori, they note: 1957 1958 In 1913 1934 a partial transcribed edition of Corografia (the first two volumes 1959 only, without the entry Aquila) promoted at the beginning of the 20th century by 1960 Vincenzo De 1961 1962 1963 In 1971 1980 a partial anastatic reprint was published by the Publisher Forni, 1964 Bologna (only the Annali degli Abruzzi and part of Corografia (volumes 25 31) 1965 1966 of the whole Works with Indexes would 1967 be desirable and very useful, as already considered in many meetings with the members 1968 of Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria, since the work is a basic source for the history 1969 1970 1971 The manuscripts were given to the Biblioteca Provinciale in 1886 by the Marquis 1972 Dragonetti who in 1888 was among the founders 1973 The manuscripts were reorganized in 1887 by Enrico Casti, 1974 librarian of the Biblioteca Provin ciale who in that year published a catalog, Indice delle 1975 opere inedite ed edite di Anton Ludovico Antinori Aquila : Vecchioni, 1887). Only 1976 selections have been transcribed and published since. 1977 1978 1979 103 chorography Ptolemy, and his Geographia in particular

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 55 The manuscripts consist of seven parts: 1980 1981 Annali degli Abruzzi = Annals of Abruzz o ( volumes 1 24 ) ; 1982 1983 Corografia storica degli Abr = Geographic 104 history of 1984 Abruzzo and surrounding places ( volumes 25 42 ) ; 1985 1986 Iscrizioni lapidarie degli Abr = Inscriptions in stone 105 from 1987 Abruzzo and surrounding places ( volumes 43 46 ) ; 1988 1989 Monumenti uomini illustri e cose varie = Monuments, famous men and various things 1990 ( volumes 47 49 ) ; 1991 1992 Arcivescovi e vescovi = Archbishops and bishops ( volume 50 ) ; 1993 1994 Sinopsi della stori = An overview of Aquileno history from 1995 1256 through 1512 (volume 51 ) ; 1996 1997 Appendice = Appendix ( volumes 52 56 ) 1998 1999 Recommendation 51 : The Abruzzese institutions should give priority to development of project planning and funding requests for digitization of the Antinori manuscript work. In so doing, however, they should weigh the merits and value of keeping Antinori part of a larger Abruzzo history and heritage digitization project. The recommended method for both planni ng and weighted analysis is the stakeholder exercise. There is firm agreement from all of the Abruzzese institutions that this project should go forward. The manuscript works appear to be heavily consulted, which suggests that the Abruzzese institutions should have little difficulty documenting community support or research need and classroom uses even fundable sub projects for the development of classroom uses for a digital Antinori. The collection, itself, is small enough only 32,000 pages and its content reasonably uniform that imaging of the works, by whatever method of digitization is elected, should be straight forward and reasonably uncomplicated. Antinori should represent a strong project and funding request. It should, therefore, be a f irm anchor and a strong chain for a larger Abruzzo history and heritage project. It should not be separated unless a requirement of funding. See also following discussion of approaches and recommendations. 2000 The manuscript works, though subject to an uncontrolled storage environment, survived 2001 the 2009 earthquake well. Subject to modern restoration before the earthquake, the 2002 works had been divided into a total of 106 volumes New bindings may have contributed 2003 to their current condition. All of the volumes have been recently removed for storage in 2004 the new facilities of the Bib lioteca Provinciale in Bazzano. 2005 2006 Between 1983 and 1987, the works, complete in slightly more than 32,000 pages, were 2007 preservation microfilmed on 35mm film. While the location a nd condition of the microfilm 2008 masters is unknown, two negative copies are known to exist in good to excellent 2009 condition. One full set is held by the Bib lioteca Provinciale. This set was not available for 2010 assessment at the time of visit as the result on a ccess restrictions to the Biblioteca and 2011 work on going to stabilize its structure. One partial set, comprised of the Corografia and 2012 subsequent parts, is held by the Archivio di Stato. This set, described in Appendix 2a, is 2013 in excellent condition. Equipm ent was not available to assess the metrics (i.e., DMin, 2014 DMax, etc.) of the film; but, the film appears to be of even density. Pages are filmed two 2015 up, in comic mode, on a polyester base. The sample examined was without scratches or 2016 other signs of use. 2017 104 In English, the term chorography examined the causal relationships of organisms, entities and events to one another within a given region. Antinori applies analytical skills to the telling of history in such a way as to make it more than a story. 105 Inscriptions in stone

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 56 2018 The microfilm could be digitized easily and reasonably well. However, given the nature of 2019 microfilm, i.e., the lack of color and the exaggeration of tonal variations, some of the detail 2020 of the original is essentially lost. If digitized, it would be opt imal to do so from the original 2021 rather than from the film. There is considerable difference in price points, however, for 2022 digitization from film and from original; see continuing discussion below (cf, Equipment ). 2023 2024 In addition to the original and microfilm ed copy, the manuscript works also have been 2025 reprinted in facsimile. Copies of the facsimile are held by the Archivio, the Biblioteca, and 2026 the University. Each copy is in good condition, with modern bindings and more than 2027 adequate gutter margin for digit ization and for unbinding and rebinding if necessary. 2028 Unfortunately, the facsimiles, used to supply the page images of Appendix 2b and 2029 Appendix 2c, were reproduced from what appears to be (something like) CopiFlo 2030 technology from the microfilm. As a resul t, this copy, which is sufficiently legible for 2031 human use, bears the faults of the film as well as those of the printing process. This copy 2032 could be used for digitization, but its use would be far less than optimal. Again, there are 2033 price point differenc es in digitization. 2034 2035 Recommendation 52 : If the Antinori manuscript works are to be digitized, order of preference for optimal image should be: 1. Manuscript original; 2. Microfilm negative (of the two copies, on a reel by reel basis, whichever of the two reels is in best condition); 3. Facsimile reproduction (of available copies, on a volume by volume basis, whichever is in the best condition) (optimally from a copy that has been unbound for rotary scanning). In this consideration, image quality should be paramount. The original affords optimal image quality, which will be necessary for post imaging digitization phases (e.g., transcription, tagging, etc.). The microfilm and facsimile will produce a reasonably legible product, but one that may not be optimal for subsequent uses. Price points and time tables for digitization of the Antinori are complex. These should be considered, at least initially, separate from consideration of the version to be digitized. Generally production of an optimal / optimized image mitigates the cost of subsequent digitization activities (e.g., transcription, tagging, etc.). 2036 Approaches to Antinori 2037 2038 Antinori, as any digital project, requires stakeholder analysis that the Abruzzese 2039 institutions have yet to conduct. The following suggestions, therefore, are presumptive. 2040 2041 Stakeholders, specifically users of a digital Antinori are presumed to include h istorians, 2042 art historians, architects, geographers, teachers and students, and cultural tourists, 2043 among others. The majority of its current user base speaks Italian, some speak other 2044 languages, some to the exclusion of Italian. A number of potential user s, perhaps many 2045 new users of the Antinori manuscripts, have limited comprehension of Italian. The 2046 majority, if not all, of current users the Archivio suggests are adults. But, potential users 2047 include school age children, many older, some of whom it is known are English speaking 2048 Canadian high school students, some of whom are ethnically Italian. Staff of both the 2049 Archivio and the Biblioteca indicate that the Corografia draws the most interest, followed 2050 by the Monumenti and the Iscrizioni These parts a lso draw more specialist users (for 2051 example, architects and art historians) than generalists. Generalists are drawn more to 2052 the Annali and the Sinopsi Genealogists however, seem to be unrestricted in their 2053 gen ealogists it is presumed, would be 2054 interested in volunteering to transcribe, and fewer to translate, the handwritten text to 2055 make it accessible to machine reading and searching for the benefit of others like 2056

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 57 themselves. Strategically weighting these vari ed interests for purposes of defining and 2057 planning a digitization project remains a mystery in large part. 2058 2059 All of these users, it is presumed, would find a digital image version of the manuscript 2060 works, in whole or in parts, of value and some immediate use. If the project were phased, 2061 digital imaging would clearly be its second first phase is a 2062 requirement of contribution to the BDI, or for that matter to any digital library. No catalog 2063 record exists for the manuscript works or fo r any of its parts. Records will be required to 2064 MARC21 586 field formatted ) URL for the digital version. Though a manuscript, 2065 that is an archival resource, it should be possible to catalog the works. 2066 2067 Recommendation 53 : Catalog each of the following in SBN: the original Antinori manuscript works, the microfilm version, and the facsimile reprint. Cataloging is a prerequisite for contribution to BDI. Contribution to BDI obviates the need to create or purchase an alternate digital library or deployment location for the digital version. Recommendations specific to cataloging standards follow. 2068 If additional digitization activity based on the needs of users is warranted, prioritization of 2069 activities should be based on calculated demand, cost, and quality of volunteer 2070 assistance. Activities themselves might be phased. Partnership, with experienced 2071 institutions, should facilitate completion of any of these activities. The Abruzzese 2072 institutions should not have to grow their own localized expertise if they are able to 2073 partner advantageously. 2074 2075 Recommendation 54 : As the Abruzzese institutions list activities they expect to undertake and outcomes they hope to achieve, they should perform an environmental scan of digitization projects regionally, nationally and internationally to identify standards, potential partners, funding sources, and the strengths and weakness of previous efforts to achieve similar ends. ormation technology programs provide ready, if sometimes passive, assistance toward completion of an environmental scan. Program officers will sometimes offer advice. Program web pages list projects and participants. Project and participant pages both o ffer additional information. An environmental scan should be regarded as a research project. The Abruzzese institutions may find that they need to dedicate reference resources to this activity. 2076 Recommendation 55 : The Abruzzese institutions should partner with experienced institutions to complete secondary digitization activities. Partners bring expertise and experience. More importantly, they may and generally will share their technologies to advance a partnered / shared project toward completion. Without the advantages of partnership, the Abruzzese institutions would find themselves recreating the wheel, potentially forging ahead without awareness of existing standards, and committing time and resources that they do not now have. Many partners will have had external funding themselves. And, while that funding may have been sufficient to meet projected outcomes, it likely was unable to meet if this then what about that?

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 58 Recommendation 55 : (continued) fundable projects; no one project meets all desired ends. As a result, potential partners, themselves, will be looking for ways of making their work new to funding agencies in order to complete their work. A partner with technical interests, working on technology or infrastructure development issues, can often be drawn to a partner with topical or teaching interests. 2077 Phased activities, in no particular order, might include: 2078 2079 Note t hat the bulk of recommendations made in this section presume contributions to the BDI and are made to the ICCU. 2080 Transliteration of holographs to typescript 2081 to facilitate text search, textual analyses, etc.; 2082 in house, volunteer, or vended 2083 N.B. This activity might be assigned, piece meal, to university 2084 students as part of class work. They might be assigned to select 2085 a text, available in page image format only, to provide first a 2086 typescript, then to provide b oth a statement that suggests 2087 historical context and an analysis of document content, an 2088 abstract of sorts. Partnership with foreign language programs, 2089 or, with Italian and Renaissance history programs might lead to 2090 future partnerships and funding for add itional digitization. This 2091 approach has a small footprint. It requires minimal new staffing 2092 from the Abruzzese institutions, as well as virtually no new 2093 technology. 2094 2095 Recommendation 56 : Presuming contribution to BDI, the ICCU must ensure that its systems easily facilitate authorized digital object enhancement, e.g., the addition of text to page images, the addition of mark up to text, the addition of tags to mark up, and the supplementing of documents with links to (a) bibliography / additional reading, (b) abstracts, and (c) related education resources and lesson plans. 2096 Translation (to English, Spanish, French, other languages) 2097 to facilitate foreign comprehension and contributions to related topical 2098 collections, and to foster the conditions for br oadest international 2099 partnerships and tourist uses; 2100 in house, volunteer, or vended 2101 N.B. Volunteer contributions need not be managed by technically 2102 complex systems. They may be invited by online text and 2103 delivered via email, leaving the Abruzzese institutions only 2104 staffing needs, required to manage contacts, and, to vet and 2105 mount contributions and corrections. ; 2106 2107 Recommendation 57 : Presuming contribution to BDI, the ICCU might investigate adoption of Google or Microsoft Being automatic translation tools. They might be able to reach accommodation for a supplemental technology program that invites and uses correction of automated translation to perfect these tools. 2108 2109

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 59 2110 Selection or definition of a mark up standard 2111 2112 partnership is recommended; an institution such as the University of 2113 Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities 106 which 2114 has other Italian interest projects, including a Leonardo Da Vinc i project, 2115 takes this kind of work as a challenge and has pioneered several advances 2116 in mark up for similar projects; 2117 2118 Recommendation 58 : Internationally recognized mark up standards, e.g. TEI, should be adopted inasmuch as possible. 2119 Specialized name authority 2120 a reference for the personal names listed by Antinori, to reference external 2121 works, archives, etc., to link to bibliographic records (SBN, WorldCat); for 2122 distributed query ; to harvest citations and build bibliography, perhaps even 2123 to rank citations by complexity and appropriateness for given learning 2124 levels 2125 partnership is recommended; again with an experienced institution such as 2126 the members of the Alliance of Digital Huma nities Organizations. 107 2127 2128 Recommendation 59 : SBN name authority should be adopted. And, ICCU should work with the Library of Congress and OCLC/WorldCat to share or synchronize their name authority data to better ensure resource discovery. 2129 Recommendation 60 : This type of metadata is still in developmental stages where it has been proposed. Work here by ICC U could be ground breaking. Life events metadata gives name authority information tagged structure reflecting relationships and events. Its use supports advanced links and resource discovery, as well as mapping applications insofar as tagging also support s geo referencing. 2130 2131 Gazetteer 2132 a reference of place names, buildings, and monuments listed by Antinori, 2133 to reference variant forms of names, to assign known earth coordinates 2134 (longitude and latitude) ; to associate place with its uses and occupants 2135 partnership is recommended; again with an experienced institution such as 2136 the members of the Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations, or, the 2137 Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 108 2138 organization 2139 Once structures have been agreed and methods have been 2140 established, users could be invited to use Web 2.0 technology to 2141 contribute geographic tags. 2142 2143 106 ( http://www.iath.virginia.edu/ ) 107 T he Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations ( http://digitalhumanities.org/ ) 108 Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology ( http://caa.leidenuniv.nl/ ), based at the University of Leiden, in the Netherlands, it is an international organization of archaeologists, mathematicians and computer scientists.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 60 2144 Recommendation 61 : Presuming contribution to BDI, the ICCU should define standards for geo referencing, as well as authority to make tools available to BDI contributors for resource tagging. 2145 Learning m odules 2146 for classroom teaching directed initially to local and Italian standards and 2147 subsequently to foreign multi cultural, international and history 2148 requirements ; learning modules should be a mix of passive interpretive 2149 lecture and activity based learning (e.g., demonstration of architectural or 2150 artistic techniques that can be performed with minimal materiel 2151 re quirements and simple methods); 2152 in house, volunteer, or vended ; 2153 by invitation is recommended, perhaps through funded competition. 2154 2155 Recommendation 62 : The Planning Committee, in its conduct of the stakeholder exercise, should query local and regional educators to determine who teaches Abruzzo history, how it is taught, and if lesson plans are available to be shared. 2156 Additive projects 2157 to update 2158 2159 lists by grade level; to supplement Antinori with photographs, line 2160 drawings, paintings, and architectural drawings; 2161 in house, volunteer, or vended by request: some additive resources can 2162 be procured simply by asking for them. Architects and tourism industries, 2163 for example, may provide photographs or drawings if not plans in order to 2164 gain passive publicity. Others may provide them as a civil servi ce. 2165 2166 Recommendation 63 : The Planning Committee should plan for periodic assessments of its digital collections and should invite contacts. Information acquired will inform future projects and may be used to provide funding agencies with information abo ut value to the community. 2167 Recommendation 64 : The Abruzzese institutions are encouraged to think creatively about co funding learning modules, data enhancement projects, and additive projects. Nearly all foreign Italian ethnic and cultural organizations encourage language study and cultural understanding. They may fund competition for example. Again, the stakeholder exercise should ask, of every stakeholder, how interests can be turned to funding or support. Volunteer projects should not be declined out of hand. Legal issues that might prevent a volunteer from working on the premises of the Abruzzese institutions premises. 2168 2169

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 61 O THER P ROJECTS 2170 2171 The following projects were discussed in the course of assessment meetings. These projects 2172 are recommended with one outcome in mind: to advance a digitization project that mitigates 2173 the several imposing factors faced by the Abruzzese institutions. Such a project would be (a) 2174 simple as to build experience in advance of more complex projects and (b) popular as to build 2175 community support. 2176 2177 To build a well structured, reasonably approached and sustainable digitization program, the 2178 Abruzzese institutions have to do a lot of planning. Virtually none, for digitization, has been 2179 done. Planning takes a fair bit of time. That is time that the Abruzzese institutions may not 2180 have. The Abruzzese institutions feel a very strong desire to advance a digitization proj ect, 2181 founding a digitization program sooner rather than later. The reasons are multiple. Not all of 2182 them can be listed here. Abruzzo f ac es deadlines for the commitment of European Union 2183 earthquake relief funding The University faces deadlines imposed by the Italian government to 2184 return the student population to pre earthquake levels. 109 The city, province and region feel the 2185 2186 economy. And, city and province of 2187 population pays taxes that underpin civil services at every level of government. 2188 2189 Digitization, as explained earlier, is seen as a mechanism with the potential to aid the delivery 2190 of these things. 2191 2192 In the course of conversations leading to this assessment, those providing information were all 2193 asked the off topic question: What do you think of when you think of Abruzzo? Responses, 2194 whether from Abruzzo, Rome, the United Kingdom, or the United States, 2195 interest rather than an interest in digitization. Information derived from these conversations 2196 was not scientific. It did not point to need, rather it pointed to common and prevailing interests. 2197 These were considered for their poten tial to advance simple, popular digitization projects. 2198 2199 Food and cuisine, and agriculture in general, were common responses. A concentration of 2200 comment focused on the sourcing of food used in local and national cuisine. History and 2201 tourism seemed inescap able common responses. Cultural tourism was mentioned less 2202 frequently tha n nature and leisure tourism. The cultural venues of near by Rome seemed to 2203 obscure the cultural offerings of Abruzzo. And, n ature tourism dominates the English (and 2204 other) languag e version of the Regional Tourism web pages, 110 for example. And, indeed, most 2205 Americans and Britons mentioned winter skiing and the Gran Sasso that rests within sight of 2206 Migration and Genealogy were infrequently mentioned within Italy. They 2207 were mentioned frequently however, by American and Britons. 2208 2209 F OOD AND C UISINE 2210 2211 What might a food and cuisine or gastronomy digital collection look like? The regional 2212 tourism pages suggest that it might look, unsurprisingly like a grocery list. And, fleshing 2213 out a food and cuisine collection might more properly be the work of the regional tourism 2214 office than any of the Abruzzese institution to whom this assessment is offered. Further, 2215 among the Abruzzese institutions, there was no clearly identifiable constituency for food 2216 or cuisine. Agriculture is not a heavily research or frequently studied subject at the 2217 University. No institution seems to be collecting the information out put of local 2218 agriculture, food preparatio n and delivery trades, or the restaurant industries, except 2219 perhaps government statisticians. 2220 2221 2222 109 University funding is based in large part on numbers of students being taught. 110 Abruzzo Regional Tourism (English: http://www.regione.abruzzo.it/turismo/en/index.html ). The Italian version of the regional tourism page ( http://www.regione.abruzzo.it/turismo/index.html ) gives considerably more attention to cultural tourism than do versions in other languages.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 62 But, what might it look like if there were a constituency with a compelling reason to 2223 promote digitization of gastronomic information? Historically, sheep far ming plays a 2224 substantial role in Abruzzo. This was, however, primarily a supply to the wool and 2225 clothing industries rather than to gastronomic industries. Saffron was also historically 2226 risotto alla Milanese might no t exist. Its saffron is 2227 still exported to markets all over Europe and to North America. 2228 2229 A gastronomic collection might look at current supply, markets and statistics. Such a 2230 collection might compile information sources from the industry But, it would not be 2231 terrible exciting except to social scientists and agricultural statisticians. A gastronomic 2232 collection might also aspire to document historic connections: e.g., food in culture, 2233 perhaps even launching a gastronomic tourism trail, a kind of geo cach ing for food, 2234 2235 would be the domain of the regional tourism office. The role played by the Abruzzese 2236 institutions might be limited to digitization of information sourc es not already available in a 2237 digital pre print master, and, to historic research. It would be a small project that allows 2238 the institutions to wet their feet. But, it would probably still be a diversion and could not 2239 be recommended without considerable c ommunity interest. 2240 2241 L OCAL H ISTORY AND T OURISM 2242 2243 Local history and tourism can be seen as contributing to a greater project, defined by the 2244 Renaissance history and Antinori collections discussed above. Those projects defined 2245 here, however, are more atomisti c, smaller than those above. What might a smaller 2246 project look like? A smaller project could take one of several courses. 2247 2248 [First.] It could easily follow the topical suggestions of the regional tourism pages. These, 2249 presumably, already have defined co nstituencies and rationale for use. Digitized works 2250 would be selected from among the holdings of the Abruzzese institutions. They would be 2251 conceived much as an exhibition is conceived and mounted. They might be approached 2252 much as the Depu tazione Abruzzese di Storia Pat r i a approaches one of its monographs. 2253 In fact, it might entail the conversion of one of its monographs, with the addition of items 2254 listed in the bibliographies of papers digitized, perhaps even augmented with historic 2255 maps and commissioned photography. They might be supplemented as well with lesson 2256 plans built around the papers and targeted to various levels: primary school to university. 2257 This approach appears to be viable in that it build on expertise already demonstrated 2258 barring digiti zation among the institutions. 2259 2260 [Second.] Or, as suggested of the Food and Cuisine project, this effort might take on the 2261 appearance of a digital collection exercise. It might collect, with permission and perhaps 2262 the sponsorship of local and regional tourism industries, the information output of those 2263 industries. Such effort might benefit the regional economy more than education, though 2264 the two could be creatively combined. Hiking and skiing with ecological studies, perhaps. 2265 Ancient architecture, monuments and art with architectural study, art history, urban 2266 planning, even military defences and civil history. A combination of this second projection 2267 2268 this second project also retains some of the difficulties of the Food and Cuisine project. 2269 2270 [Third.] Like the Live Memories projects a third projection might reach out into the 2271 community, particularly to those displaced by the earthquake to collect through 2272 s citizens. An Abruzzese iteration 2273 of Live Memories could digitize archive materials, maps and photographs, books from 2274 family libraries (as permitted by copyright and within parameters of topical interest), even 2275 artefacts. Artefacts, usually ignored by this kind of project, have a way of teasing out 2276 storie s that define common lives, the kind of history too often over looked in the history of 2277 big names. And, if migration is of interest to potential foreign partners and funders, it is 2278 the story of the common man that has the potential to engage and hold that interest. 2279 2280 2281

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 63 [Fourth an off shoot of the Third.] The Live Memories projects might be taken one step 2282 further. It might be reconceived as an oral history project, perhaps one that incidentally 2283 digitizes a selection of the items mentioned in the third pr ojection. This project might be 2284 modelled on the StoryCorps 111 in the USA. StoryCorps operates under a simple directive. 2285 It asks pairs of individuals, anyone really, to come in to one of their recording booths to 2286 tell a story about themselves, their lives. An initial iteration of an Abruzzese StoryCorps 2287 might ask individuals to relay thei r stories about their earthquake experiences and what 2288 those experiences have meant to them, what their lives were like, how they have 2289 changed since. Subsequent recordings could be broadened to other topics or to any 2290 topic. Again, such a project is intend ed to be simple, to build experience, and most 2291 importantly to engage the community in advance of more complex projects. 2292 2293 The project could be simply audio. Or, it might allow alternate video recording method s 112 2294 Interviewees could alternately be still 2295 photographed for posterity if not for release with an interview. The project might also 2296 support digitization of related objects, papers or images during the interview. Earthquake 2297 interviewees, for example might be asked to come in with photographs of their homes 2298 both before and after the earthquake. As with StoryCorps stories might be selectively 2299 broadcast, used in teaching, etc. And above all they become resources for future 2300 histories, as well as a means of building support, community pride, and drawing those 2301 now living away back s interviews may be broadcast 2302 throughout Italy, the digitization program of the Abruzzese institutions builds reputation. 2303 2304 Recommendation 65 : Presuming contribution to BDI, the ICCU should build tools that facilitate the creation of metadata. Contribution to BDI currently requires knowledge of professional standards and cataloguing tools. The release of alternate tools that guide their user through the supply of metadata means that quantity data can be supplied by non professionals, and, there by reduces project and program costs. ICCU might look to the Digital Li box 113 for example and, potentially for an exchange of code. It might also emulate the Digital Library of the 114 as a means of en suring low cost quality input. 2305 111 StoryCorps ( http://www.storycorps.org/ ) 112 Video has higher storage costs over audio; but, presuming contribution to the BDI, costs to the Abruzzese institutions should be minimal. A successful example of the use of video recording is the University of South Flor ida (USF) Oral History program ( http://www.lib.usf.edu/public/index.cfm?Pg=OralHistories ) Contact for the program: Dr. Mark Greenberg ( mgreenbe@lib.usf.edu ). See the USF checklist ( http://guides.lib.usf.edu/content.php?pi d=49131&sid=363513 ) for program structure. USF may also be a good partner for sharing Abruzzo stories in the USA. Tampa, Florida, where USF is located has a strong Italian American community and an independent newspaper that continues to publish in Italia n (as well as in English and Spanish translations). Tampa was founded in part by Italian immigrants, many arriving from Abruzzo. 113 s toolbox ( http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?g=dloc1&m=hittoolk see also http://library.gameology.org/2009/12/19/open source mets metadata editor/ ). The Technology Coordinator for the D igital Library of the Caribbean Dr. Laurie Taylor ( lautayl@uflib.ufl.edu ). See also: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/development/DTdb/ 114 is represented in its Manual ( http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?g=dloc1&m=hitmanual ). To discuss training activities and tools, contact Brooke Wooldridge ( dloc@fiu.edu ).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 64 [Fifth] The Abruzzese institutions and the Archivio in particular hold some stunning rare 2306 maps of Abruzzo. Maps usually make for very popular digital content. They are 2307 appealing eye candy, draw attention to digital co llections, and have use in data mining 2308 and historical geo referencing projects that might follow. The maps held are a mix of 2309 sizes. While the smaller maps could be digitized using a flat bed scanner with a platen of 2310 moderate size, the larger maps will re quire different more expensive imaging technology. 2311 (See discussion below, Equipment .) Planning for a map project should engage the 2312 regional tourism office and primary educators. 2313 2314 Recommendation 66 : Presuming contribution to BDI, the ICCU should build tools that allow the generation of catalog records from metadata. Contribution to BDI currently requires cataloguing in advance of contribution. While sound practice, to link digital resources to searchable data, the current method cannot adequately suppo rt the number of new resources arising from the projects suggested above. ICCU might look again and, potentially for an exchange of code. 2315 M IGRATION 2316 2317 Migration to North America ( and presumably other places as well ) particularly between 2318 1890 and 1920 but also in later years, was primarily the interest of individuals outside of 2319 Italy. The majority of those interested were genealogists whose primary interest was in 2320 the availability of name rich resources that help to identified people before they left 2321 Abruzzo However, other interested parties included historians who were more interested 2322 in event rich resources that might explain why people left Abruzzo. These two interests 2323 are signifi cantly different. 2324 2325 Addressing a perceived need for event rich resources from 1890 forward is difficult for 2326 two reasons. First, the date range is in conflict with the limits imposed by copyright. 2327 Second, the type of information sought would likely not have been left in Abruzzo but 2328 carried to new lives elsewhere; and if returned to Abruzzo, it likely rests in family archives 2329 not yet donated to the Abruzzese institutions. While the latter might be made available 2330 for digitization through the community history projects described above, availability of the 2331 former is made problematic through distance. Working toward the exposure of the type of 2332 event rich resources desired again, resources that explain why people left appears 2333 not to be simple, and, should be dismissed as largely impractical at this stage. 115 2334 2335 Addressing a perceived need for name rich resources for this period of time is also 2336 problematic for reasons of copyright. Civic directories, society rosters, church records 2337 (baptisms, marriages, burials, etc.), and newspapers are frequently regarded as highly 2338 desirable resources. A project digitizing materials meeting the need might concentrate on 2339 public records insofar as they might exist. 116 2340 2341 115 If the Abruzzese institutions were to identify a n academic interest with a compelling case for the pursuit of this material they should be encouraged to contact the International Migration, Integration and Social Cohesion (IMISCOE) ( http://www.imiscoe.org/ ) based i n the Netherlands, for further advice and contacts. 116 The Church of Latter Day Saints typically has an interest in this type of project and might be consulted. See its Family Search site ( http://www.familysearc h.org/ ) for contact information.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 65 2342 4. Knowledge and Training 2343 2344 Italy has begun to train its archivists and librarians for the management of digitization 2345 projects. The recent meeting, Fondazione Rinascimento Digitale 117 was sponsored by MiBAC 2346 and the Library of Congress Grazia di Bartolomeo The 2347 conference explore analyze and evaluate the state of the art and future 2348 trends in user communities and cultural contents on the Web from an international perspective, 2349 and bring together academic researchers, policy makers and practitioners, providing a forum 2350 Importantly, it also considered 2351 the PREMIS model for digital prese rvation. 2352 2353 The Abruzzese institutions are fortunate to have several individuals who might coordinate a 2354 Planning Committee and, in future, possibly lead or manage a digitization facility or program. 2355 T Grazia di Bartolomeo has the requisite library management skills, interest and 2356 desire to develop a digitization program. D i Bartolomeo who holds an American university 2357 degree and speaks English fluently, is also open to sabbatical placement in an American 2358 digitization program. She also want s for a more adequate understanding of copyright law and 2359 has the requisite archival management skills, 2360 interest and desire to develop a digitization program. Muzi, who is well regarded among Italian 2361 archivis ts and historians, has very good understanding of analogue imaging, excellent technical 2362 comprehension, and very good practice experience of copyright and copyright clearance also 2363 offers a consortium of Abruzzese institutions good leadership skills. Both a lso have the 2364 supervisory and teaching skills needed both to train staff in various activities and to ensure 2365 quality control. D i Bartolomeo and Muzi, together with Elpidia 2366 Marimpietri should perform well as a management team. 2367 2368 The fundamental structural staffing problem facing the Abruzzese institutions is that they 2369 currently have no support staff, and, any staff that might be assigned to digitization to get a 2370 project running would have no one to train them internally, nor any one with direct experience to 2371 guide them and perform quality control. Di Bartholomeo and Muzi need to build direct relevant 2372 experience. A s taffing solution for the digital production environment appear s to be either 2373 basing the digitization program at the University or allying it with a University program or 2374 programs. Either might then draw labor from a population of students. Imaging production, for 2375 example, might be available as a practicum in computer sciences or digital arts though 2376 imaging producti on is more than a little plodding for both. Geo referencing might be available 2377 as a practicum or part of course work in geography, civil engineering/urban planning, 118 or 2378 similar field again, the production environment of the digitization program will be plodding and 2379 exercise skills redundantly. 2380 2381 Recommendation 67 : Both di Bartholomeo and Muzi should be assigned to the Planning Committee, and encouraged to develop the technical and leadership skills necessary to eventually lead a consortial digitization program 2382 Recommendation 68 : To avoid the potential for conflict over leadership, the Planning Committee should draft bylaws for the foundation of a consortial agreement 2383 2384 117 Fondazione Rinascimento Digitale ( http://www.rinascimento digitale.it/ ) 118 ( bernardino.romano@univaq.it ).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 66 Recommendation 69 : Effort should be made to find di Barthol omeo and Muzi extended placement in a functional digitization program operating a production environment 119 Placements should allow for paid release time, travel funds, living expenses, etc. Granting may be required to meet these ends. Translation assistance may also be required, placement in a program if in North America that also has an Italian language program or an Italian community is advised. Optimal placement would be with an institution that also participates in an internati onal digitization project and has an appreciation of cultural differences. 120 2385 Recommendation 70 : The Planning Committee should review training manuals as they work to define standards and training needs of the future staff of a proposed digitization project or program. More specific references follow. As they identify digitization projects and programs that appear to offer them useful information, the Planning Committee should collect and review as much documentation from those projects and programs as maybe given to the Committee. N.B. The Committee should be prepared to ( be given the authority to ) agree to non disclosure agreements as potentially though unlikely necessary to acquire documentation. Translation needs should be supported by the Abruzzese institutions to facilitate this research. The Planning Committee, perha ps working through MiBAC, should consider seeking rights to publish Italian translations of selected documentation for the benefit of Italian digitization effort broadly. 2386 2387 119 There is no standard definition of a production environment A production environment, for purposes of this recommendation, would be a digitization facility capable of co mpleting a project of 32,000 images the number of pages comprising the Antinori manuscript works within 9 months. 120 Institutions that might meet these criteria and that would have to be approached to discuss placement include the following. Contact names and information can be supplied upon request. The Bibliotheque nationale de France; The British Library; Columbia University Library; Harvard University Library; The Library of Congress; The National Library of Scot land; New York Public Library the Research Library; New York University Library; Oxford University Library; University of California; University of Chicago Library; University of Florida Library; University of Nebraska Library; University of Toronto Libr ary; University of Virginia; and, the major institutions of the various collaborative digital library organizations cited in this assessment.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 67 K NOWLEDGE B ASE 2388 2389 An array of standards and guidelines cover basic and advanced digitization methods. While 2390 there are different standards and guidelines from country to country, most are in general 2391 agreement. Standards and guidelines of immediate interest include those pertaining to 2392 cataloging, metadata more generally, imaging text generation geo referencing and other 2393 referencing standards, and digital archiving. 2394 2395 Cataloging 2396 2397 The base of cataloguing knowledge among the Abruzzese institutions is excellent. 2398 Though experience of the migration of data between catalog records and digi tal object 2399 package metadata is wonting, this is skill and experience easily gained. 2400 2401 In Italy, the Italian National Library Service (SBN), which is coordinated by ICCU, 2402 underlies the 2403 BDI and forms the foundation for contributions to the BDI. SBN records support 2404 cataloging of both published and manuscript/archival documents, together with graphic, 2405 cartographic, and other material types. It should be able to support the n eeds of a 2406 digitization project in Abruzzo. Again, contribution of a record to the SBN union catalog is 2407 a requisite of contribution to the BDI. 2408 2409 Recommendation 04 : ( reiterated ) As the Abruzzese institutions move beyond planning, they should partner with the Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico ( ICCU) and contribute to both the Biblioteca Digitale Italiana (BDI) and the National Library Service (SBN) 2410 Recommendation 71 : The ICCU should ensure timely exchange of records to and from OCLC/WorldCat for Italian imprints with either selection for digitization information (i.e., MARC21 583) or digital version URL information (MARC21 856). 2411 While the SBN union cataloge is disad vantaged in terms of global accessibility, 121 the 2412 SBN is now open to UNIMARC and MARC21, the most widely used bibliographic formats 2413 in the world. 122 MARC21, in particular, is a lingua franca of bibliographic record 2414 exchange between bibliographic utilities. MARC21 cataloging under pins the UNESCO 2415 funded World Digital Library (WDL) 123 currently based at the L ibrary of Congress in the 2416 USA. SBN MARC and MARC21 both are well documented. 124 And, i t appears the ICCU 2417 121 Until recently SBN records were found only in SBN. A North American cataloguer or digital projects manager had to know about SBN to identify Italian holdings of a given title and whether it had been digitized. This has begun to change. But, the exchange of records, particularly records indicating either selection for digitization or the availability of a digital version, needs to be more immediate. Likewise, SBN copy into SBN of records for Italian imprints with, at least, digital copy (i.e., 856/URL) infor mation. Without this information, Italian institutions, the Abruzzese institutions among them, risk duplication of effort; and, their patrons may go without knowing the existence of readily useable, internet accessible versions. 122 infrastructure and the bibliographic Submitted for the International Federation of Libraries and Archives meeting, Milan, Italy, 2009 Availa ble online at: www.ifla.org/files/hq/papers/ifla75/77 contardi en.pdf Section 3 briefly discusses the relationship of SBN MARC to both UNIMAR C and MARC21. 123 World Digital Library ( http://www.wdl.org/ ). Additional contact information can be provided upon request. 124 Though MARC21 is well documented in English, translation of documents into Italian is relatively immature. See: Gruppo Utenti MARC21 at http://gumarc21.unicatt.it/

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 68 has completed the initial mappings 125 that will make possible the contribution of content 2418 from the Abruzzese institutions should that be desired, to the WDL 2419 2420 Recommendation 72 : Presuming that the Abruzzese institutions digitize the Antinori, their Renaissance history, or rare maps, they should consider subsequent contribution of these digital resources to the World Digital Library. Contribution should increase the international profile of an Abruzzese digitization program and make t hem more viable as a partner for subsequent (funded or grantable) projects. 2421 Recommendation 73 : ICCU should publish and maintain a direct SBN MARC to MARC21 crosswalk. ICCU should take advantage of the Gruppo Utenti MARC21 and all contacts it and the ICCU may have with the Library of Congress to complete this work. 2422 There remains on e additional cataloging issue. Contribution to the BDI requires 2423 submission of a bibliographic record in advance to the SBN. This practice reflects 2424 normative values. While not bad they assume that cataloging either is already available 2425 or can be created. The assumption is problematic for the Abruzzese institutions. 2426 2427 In many cases, the Abruzzese libraries still maintain large card catalogs that require 2428 conversion. This problem is compounded in the Archivio di Stato. There catalog records 2429 await conversion as well, but catalog records representing archival groups generally ill 2430 reflect individuated holdings within any given group. An a rchive rarely elects to digitize a 2431 whole archival group. Instead, it digitizes selectively. A catalog record for an archiv al 2432 group, Earthquake of 1706 does not adequately describe the 2433 of 1705, which may be the only item from the group to be digitized in a Digital Maps 2434 project. 126 2435 2436 Recommendation 74 : The Abruzzese institutions should seek funding for catalog conversion cards to SBN MARC or MARC21 format within libraries, AND itemization of records within important or frequently consulted archival groups. In the wake of earthquake damage that nece ssitates the relocation of each of the Abruzzese institutions, an inventory project of this nature seems well warranted. The existence of automated records would, then, subsequently support digitization as presumed by ICCU for contribution to the BDI. Pr eservation assessment data ( see the recommendation above ) could also be attached to automated records in SBN 583 (Preservation Actions note) field. See the above recommendation for an alternate method for items to be digitized but never before catalogued, i.e., for the generation of catalog records from metadata 2437 Bibliographic data is almost always used in the construction of a digital resource by 2438 encapsulating it, embedding or copying it, into the metadata record accompanying the 2439 125 Mappings from SBN MARC to MARC21 are also re latively immature, with several steps forward completed in the form of mappings to Dublin Core and PICO. Selective but incomplete mappings of SBN MARC to UNIMARC exist within the published Protocollo SBN MARC. These efforts should be considered worthy bu t inadequate for automated record exchange outside of the SBN / ICCU. 126 This example is fictional. It is given for illustration only.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 69 digital objects that make up the resource. Creating first a catalog record followed by a 2440 metadata record both largely by hand at the present time is a duplication of ef fort. 2441 2442 Recommendation 66 : (reiterated) Presuming contribution to BDI, the ICCU should build tools that allow the generation of catalog records from metadata. Contribution to BDI currently requires cataloguing in advance of contribution. While sound practice, to link digital resources to searchable data, the current method cannot adequately support the number of new resources arising from the projects suggested above. and, potentially for an exchange of code. 2443 Recommendation 75 a c and x : The ICCU should establish digital production support modules that automate the following: a. Import SBN MARC records into the ICCU / BDI metadata (i.e., MAG) records; b. Import MARC21 records into MAG records; and c. Export SBN MARC records from MAG records. Automation reduces cost and staffing need. Record import and export are consid ered to be so basic that they are part of almost all commercially available digital production support software. To the extent that a digitization project is or should be reliant upon the ICCU, the readiness and viability of ICCU systems goes directly to the readiness and viability of a project in Abruzzo. (75 a ) I MPORT SBN MARC TO MAG I f a SBN MARC record is available, a digital production unit should not have to duplicate effort by recreating it in the MAG record that required for contribution of an item to the BDI 127 Automated import of bibliographic information saves time and money and ensures the accuracy of the information. (75 b ) I MPORT MARC 21 TO MAG Occasionally an Italian institution may find a record matching their resource in an external MARC21 database. In that case, a digital production unit should not have to duplicate effort already expended elsewhere by recreating it in the MAG record. This scenario could very well be the case if, for example, the Abruzzese institutions were to part ner with an institution holding Italian resources, for example, with the Newberry Library (Chicago, Illinois, USA) or with the Digital Scriptorium or any one of its participating institutions. 128 2444 2445 127 A digital resource package contains metadata (i.e., a MAG record that references bibliographic and other information along with references to other digital objects in the package) and the digital objects representing the digital resource (e.g., image files such as TIFF, JPG, PDF, JP2, etc.). A package may contain other files that aid interpretation or use of metadata or objects. 128 For more information about the Digital Scriptorium and its participating institutions, see http://scriptorium.columbia.edu/about/

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 70 (75 c ) E XPORT SBN MARC FROM MAG [ This recommendation is a restatement of Recommendation 66 ] production support modules, 129 display and collection or editing of bibliographic information is likely. If bibliographic information may be collected in the process of creating the MAG record, it should be possible to export that information as a SBN MARC record for use in the SBN Un ion Catalog. This function would mitigate duplication of effort. But, more importantly, it would Archivio di Stato to describe content from within an archival group without having to incur the cost of cataloging f irst the parent archival group and subsequently the individuated item within the group. archival record format. (75 x ) A N A LTERNATE R ECOMMENDATION Alternatively the need to place a catalog record in the SBN Union Catalog could be obviated entirely, if ICCU allowed for the aggregation of both a SBN catalog that is for physical (i.e., non digital) resources and a BDI catalog that is for virtual (i.e., digital) res ources. Aggregation is a method of supporting a single search of multiple databases simultaneously and of bringing their result sets (their hits ) together. To the library user it appears that they are searching one polymorphous library system. As the BDI moves forward to include searchable text, aggregation solves another problem looming for the ICCU: SBN does not support searchable text. In fact, no MARC database supports searchable text. And, in many ways, MARC based systems are already antiqua ted. And yet, without aggregation, the SBN will remain the primary search tool for library holdings. SBN searches will simple miss all of text), why not search against it. Aggregation solves the problem. 130 2446 129 production support modules was not available at the time of assessment. 130 This discussion of aggregation glosses over several fine points. The discussion in professional circles at the present time becomes somewhat philosophical quickly. Traditionalists find aggregation to be an anathema. MARC whether SBN MARC, UNIMARC or MARC21 is still good, but it is also very limited. It is not up to the tasks required of metadata by digital libraries. Futurists find aggregation to be something like a car crash, all of the book covers and titles pages in one car, all of the text in another. Smash them together and the bits that come flying apart are your search returns. The analogy may be as ludicrous as it is functional at the present time. It may well be toda collider for the realm of super computing. MARC based systems cannot be thrown out just yet. For all of the metadata that digital library systems systems required by traditional libraries. Aggregation is a marriage of convenience until their off spring, projects like the Open Library Environment (OLE) Project, offer more sensible one stop information collecting. The ICCU should not be expected to adopt this alternative recommendation ... if for no other reason than no other national library has, as yet adopted it.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 71 Basic Metadata 2447 2448 The base of basic metadata knowledge among the Abruzzese institutions is fair and 2449 experience of digital object package metadata creation is wonting. This, however, is skill 2450 and experience easily gained and that can in grained in the course of a small project. 2451 2452 And, with the assistance of automation tools reportedly planned by the ICCU / BDI, the 2453 learning curve should be greatly reduced. 2454 2455 An original requirement for this report was discussion of off the shelf digital library that might be recommended to the Abruzzese institutions. There are a number of systems that might be suitable for their use but none is recommended. Why not? First, the BDI, while lacking some applications, automation tools reportedly being specified f or programming and that will facilitate the creation and management of digital assets, is free to Italian cultural institutions. It is well documented. And, it has the force of MiBAC behind it. It is a defacto national standard digital library system. Second, other free systems, such as the UNESCO recommended Greenstone 131 software or open source Fedora, 132 have costs hidden in launch, programming and technical maintenance. Additionally, Greenstone is rather basic. A digital library built on top of Greens tone such as the Digital Library of the Caribbean, for example, has invested considerable programming the effort of two programmers and a management team to achieve desired ends. Fedora is more capable, but its demand for knowledgeable administration is more complex. BDI has already thought through many of the implementation decisions that are required of rolling out Fedora. Duplication of effort by the Abruzzese institutions would not only require the dedication of staff that they appear to lack but would represent lost productivity. They could simply start using BDI. These will be marks against commercial software as well. As stated above, the Abruzzese institutions might partner with an established digital program that is willing to share its technology in exchange for access to the Abruzzese content. But, this presents other problems, foremost the exchange of digital cont ent among Italian institutions, unless the technology host institution were willing to write additional functionality to exchange records with BDI. Some level of support for the exchange of records will be required if the Abruzzese institutions or the BDI eventually exchange content with / contribute to the Digital Scriptorium, 133 the World Digital Library (WDL), 134 or the European Digital Library Project 135 and its The European Library, 136 or even the contribution of its earthquake resources to the Digital Librar y for Earth System Education (DLESE) 137 if not to the document data parsing earthquake library of the Storia Geofisica Ambiente (SGA) 138 The SBN has already developed methods for contribution to the latter and presumably has or might easily develop them for other collaborative digital libraries. Again, there is no reason for the Abruzzese institutions to recreate this wheel. 2456 131 Greenstone ( http://www.greenstone.org/ ) available with an Italian interface. 132 Fedora ( http://www.fedora commons.org/ ) 133 Digital Scriptorium ( http://scriptorium.columbia.edu/ ) 134 World Digital Library ( http://www.wdl.org/ ) 135 European Digital Library Project ( http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/ ) 136 The European Library ( http://search.theeuropeanlibrary.o rg/ ) 137 Digital Library for Earth System Education ( http://www.dlese.org/library/index.jsp ) 138 Storia Geofisica Ambiente (SGA) ( http://www.sga storiageo.it/ )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 72 Two strikes against commercial software have already been registered. The greater strike is cost, though complexity of roll out decision making is also a factor to be considered. 139 The fee structures of CONTENTdm, 140 DigiTool, 141 and other commercial digital library systems may become considerable as a digital library grows. Even if their costs are affordable for the Abruzzese institutions, they would have to consider if they represented value for money over the free services on a nationally subsidized system. Certainly, the commercial systems, with digital object construction tools and asset management sub systems, are more advanced than BDI now is. But, this appears as though it will change, however, as the ICCU rolls out appl ications to assist digital object creators. This is a simple discussion of basic digital library systems. If the Abruzzese institutions were to go it alone, they would have to deal with secondary systems, such as image zoom, panning and rotation technolo gies or various audio and video technologies, that the BDI has already considered and implemented, and, which the ICCU is better staffed and equipped to deal with. 2457 Recommendation 76 : The ICCU should consider approaching an established digital library program with a good application tool box, such as the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC), for a code exchange At the very least it should look to the applications of ALUKA, dLOC, and similar programs as the model of development needed to ass ist institutions contributing to the BDI. 2458 In Italy the national metadata standard for digital resource description is the MAG, which 2459 is currently in version two 142 MAG is a well defined standard. Where it wonts for greater 2460 definition other digital 2461 also wonts for greater definition. In any case, as a requisite for contribution to BDI and 2462 for access to its support system, MAG should underpin any Abruzzese project. 2463 2464 Recommendation 77 : The Abruzzese institutions should formally adopt MAG as it commit s to contribution to BDI. Anything else would necessitate that the Abruzzese institutions build their own standard which they are not equipped to do and that they build into the systems supporting their own standard the means to make their data shareable with the BDI and other digital libraries to which they might contribute which would consum e resources and effort better spent on production. The Abruzzese institutions could use the standards and tools of a foreign partner and, many of the tools potentially available from foreign, and particularly North American partners, are better than tho se available (and largely still promised) in 139 The CONTENTdm system may be the easiest of the commercial systems for non technically advanced institutions to roll out. If the Abruzzese institutions do opt for a commercial system, CONTENTdm is recommended for initial tems may not be as robust as those of DigiTool. DigiTool would be recommended as their independent digital library matures. For sheer search power and ability to configure systems to user needs, however, Fedora is recommended, despite its programming ove r head, as an optimal system for the matured digital library several years down the road. Again, the 140 CONTENTdm ( http://www.cont entdm.org/ ) 141 DigiTool ( http://www.exlibrisgroup.com/ ) one of the few commercial digital library software packages with an Italian interface. 142 MAG ( http://www.iccu.sbn.it/genera.jsp?id=267 )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 73 Italy. But, the down stream costs of their adoption would be expensive. None of these standards or tools is written in Italian, has Italian interfaces, is SBN or BDI aware for example. And, here too, the A bruzzese institutions do not have the resources to make this viable. Even while foreign partnerships and contribution to international digital libraries are strongly encouraged a s a means of gaining experience and extending their profile, translation and data migration issues loom large. These are best handled by the SBN, ICCU and MiBAC. 2465 Recommendation 65: (reiterated) Presuming contribution to BDI, the ICCU should build tools that facilitate the creation of metadata. Contribution to BDI currently requires knowledge of professional standards and cataloguing tools. The release of alternate tools that guide their user through the supply of metadata means that quantity data can be supplied by non professionals, and, thereby reduces project and progra m costs. 143 for example and, potentially for an exchange of code. It might also emulate the Digital Library of the 144 as a means of ensuring low cost quality input 2466 Cataloging or, rather, bibliographic information is a subset of metadata. Digital library 2467 metadata is much more expansive. Other subsets of metadata collected in digital library 2468 metadata include: administrative information, rights information, technical information, 2469 sequential information, archival information, and various types of references and authority 2470 information. Collecting and maintaining all of this information represents quite a 2471 substantial 2472 production modules will lighten the load for the Abruzzese institu tions. Without it, they 2473 face a somewhat steep learning curve. 2474 2475 2476 basic. Further consideration of metadata enhancements is considered below, cf, Geo 2477 Referencing and other referencing standards 2478 2479 Imaging 2480 2481 Imaging should always pass a fitness for purpose test, where fitness is determined by the 2482 possible uses for which an image is currently required or to which it may be put in future. 2483 2484 The digitization community, at least that of higher education institutions in North America 2485 and other parts of Europe generally agree on resolution and other imaging standards. 2486 These, together with fitness for purpose tests, should be adopted. 2487 2488 Recommendation 78 : The Abruzzese institutions should adopt the imaging standards of the ICCU / BDI (except as suggested below). The ICCU / BDI should consider modifying its guidelines accordingly. 2489 143 s toolbox ( http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?g=dloc1&m=hittoolk see also http://library.gameology.org/2009/12/19/open source mets metadata editor/ ). The Technology Coordinator for the Digital Library of the Caribbean Dr. Laurie Taylor ( lautayl@uflib.ufl.edu ). See also http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/development/DTdb/ 144 is represented in its Manual ( http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?g=dloc1& m=hitmanual ). To discuss training activities and tools, contact Brooke Wooldridge ( dloc@fiu.edu ).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 74 2490 Recommendation 79 : The ICCU / BDI should consider modifying its guidelines to provide more direct instruction to digitization technicians. The BDI provides thoughtful discussion of imaging standards for cartographic and other source documents, cf, http://www.bibliotecadigitaleitaliana.it/genera.jsp? s=33 Unfortunately however, these read as discussion papers, failing to abstract information into easily followed guidelines for use by technicians. See also the follo wing recommendation. 2491 Recommendation 80 : It would be advantageous both to the Abruzzese institutions and to ICCU / BDI to look more closely at training manuals from successful digitization projects, and, for the ICCU / BDI to seek their translation into Italian. ( N.B. This recommendation extends to facets of the digitization chain: imaging, metadata, digital archiving, etc .) 2492 Several handbooks, manuals and tutorials are freely available online including the 2493 following: 2494 2495 Bibliographical Center for Research. Digital Toolbox 2496 http://www.bcr.org/dps/cdp/digitaltb/index.html 2497 English only = Solo in inglese 2498 2499 California Digital Library. CDL Guidelines for Digital Images. 2500 http://www.cdlib.org/inside/diglib/guidelines/bpgimages/index.html 2501 English only = Solo in inglese 2502 2503 Cornell University. Moving Theory into Practice : Digital Imaging Tutorial 2504 English ..... http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/contents.html 2505 Italiano ..... http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/dpm/dpm ita/index.html 2506 French and Spanish versions are also available. 2507 2508 Digital Library of the Caribbean. Partner Training Manual 2509 English ..... http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?c=dloc&m=hitmanual 2510 French and Spanish versions are also available. 2511 2512 France Ministre de la culture et de la communication. Numrisation du 2513 patrimoine culturel 2514 http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/mrt/numerisation/index.htm 2515 French only = Franais seulment = Solo in France se 2516 2517 Sitts, Maxine K. (Northeast Document Conservation Center .) Handbook for Digital 2518 Projects. 2519 English ..... http://www.nedcc.org/resources/digitalhandbook/dighome.htm 2520 A Spanish version is also available. 2521 2522 Partner Training Manual is perhaps the 2523 most direct in providing instruction to novice imaging technicians. The Cornell University 2524 Tutorial meanwhile offers the best instruction for building deeper understanding of the 2525 issues. 2526 2527 2528

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 75 I MAGE R ESOLUTION 2529 2530 While images destined for Internet delivery may be scanned at as little as 150 dots per 2531 inch (DPI), as are the majority of images currently available through the BDI, this 2532 threshold is substandard for other uses. An institution needs to look beyond immediate 2533 ne ed, for this reason it should identify stakeholders and assess their needs, current and 2534 2535 2536 Recommendation 81 : Recommended imaging standard: 300 dpi scanning for pages with printed text, and, should consider 600 dpi scanning for manuscripts, photographs, maps and other item intended as or used for illustration. A 600 dpi image may be over kill in many cases Fitness for purpose considerations should note that some uses may seek either to use an image segment for a highly specialized reproduction 145 or to perform highly detailed inspection 146 e.g., the need to examine photographic details included depicted signage, or, the need to examine handwriting to make accurate transcriptions, among other potential uses. I mage resolution can always be down sampled; but, it cannot be meaningfully up sampled. Resolution may be down sampled for a derivative, but consideration should first be given to the research needs that the institution is attempting to meet. 147 2537 B IT D EPTH C OLOR AND C OLOR S PACE 2538 2539 Recommendation 82 : With regard to bit depth, color, and color space, when fitness for purpose considerations are not definitive, deference should be given to the production of 24 bit ( true color ) images, with a preference for the sRGB color space. I mages can always be modified for the worse ; but, they cannot always be modified for the better 2540 Many of the manuscript images contributed to the BDI are available as bi tonal ( black and 2541 white ) or 8 bit ( grey scale ) images. Relative to the nature of aging processes, the lack of 2542 color information, or rather the down grading of images from source document quality, 2543 has a detrimental impact on legibility. Institutions generally limit or reduce bit dept to sa ve 2544 space. Relative to the declining cost of digital storage, space should be increasingly less 2545 145 As the Abruzzese institutions consider sustainability, they should not the potential profitable commercial (and licensed) uses of highly graphical resources, e.g., maps, illuminated manuscripts, etc. 146 Examples of need to examine photographic details include : inspection of depicted signage; examination of handwriting to make accurate tran scriptions; examination of articles of clothing or jewellery for period reproduction or personal identification; among other uses 147 institutions of higher education. Its library digitizes collections, ostensibly for access. The copies that it makes available to its use rs, however, have been down sampled to prevent theft and (commercial) mis use, rendering the images virtually illegible and too small for most research uses. One assumes, kindly, that the purpose is to encourage world wide. One presumes, however good and detailed the digital masters m ay be, that the institution just If the Abruzzese institutions feel inclined to protect their resources from commercial misuse and theft, they should consider use of licensing and technical methods that prevent download, image reuse, or retention for more than a given amount of time.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 76 of a concern. In any regard, when comparing space and utility ( image quality 2546 concern should always be given the greater weight. Users almost alwa ys assign more 2547 value to usefulness, to utility. 2548 2549 Bit depth, color and color space should also meet a fitness for purpose test. If a 2550 document contains color, whether of illustration or text, at least two determinations must 2551 be made: (1) how important is color to the user of the resource? and, (2) how should the 2552 image file be saved to facilitate use? 2553 2554 Response to the firs t question usually employs common sense. Perhaps, color 2555 designates a difference between or the alliances of countries on a map. Perhaps, color 2556 Perhaps, color is a 2557 useful tool to dist inguish annotations with a manuscript, or, annotation by multiple hands 2558 or an individual's hand writing at different times in a typescript. The common sense 2559 and 2560 white ( i.e., 1 bit ) is smaller than one in shades of grey (i.e., grey scale or, 8 bit ), which in 2561 turn is smaller than one color (i.e., true color or, either 24 bit or 42 bit ), space savings at 2562 2563 2564 And, as i n deciding on imaging resolution, the planner has to consider both what is 2565 needed now and what may be needed in the future. Otherwise, the planner has to face 2566 the possibility of having to image a source document once, if not several times, more 2567 thereby piling on costs. The user of, for example, a digital catechism today may be quite 2568 happy to read it in black and white, but black and white does not help reader understand 2569 the juxtaposition of question in red text with answer in black text. A grey scale v ersion of 2570 the same page, while preserving the juxtaposition of question and answer, does not allow 2571 2572 manuscript history may be content with page images generated in black and white from 2573 black and 2574 may find the work more difficult, more time consuming and ultimately more expensive 2575 from black and white images or reproductions from microfilm. So too, another of 2576 2577 illumination, in pigmentation and shading frustrated by a grey scale image and, certainly, 2578 by a black and white image. 2579 2580 Response to the second question is mor e technical, perhaps more academic. Balancing 2581 assessment against information for instruction, discussion of this question will not be 2582 provided here. 2583 2584 If anticipated uses include both online display and high quality printing, that is, if future 2585 facsimile printing is considered possible, the institution should save the image twice at the 2586 time of its initial capture: one in the sRGB color space used for on line display and once in 2587 a YMCK color space using either a generalized print profile or the prevailing profile used 2588 by Italian commercial printers. Though institutions may not wish to make files at higher 2589 resolution available for general use online, the y may wish to publish, even sell facsimile 2590 reproductions of digitized works. They or the researchers using digital resources may 2591 wish to generate searchable text to enhance resource utility. For these and other 2592 purposes, higher resolution files will be n ecessary, even if they are stored away, off line 2593 and beyond the reach of uncontrolled use. 2594 2595 O THER C ONSIDERATIONS 2596 2597 Other technical issues will be glossed over here in the interest of completing this 2598 assessment of digitization readiness and project viability. Technical issues, in any case, 2599 are largely elsewhere in readily available resources. Other considerations are e ither 2600 better recommended following review of the sources listed above or are uniformly agreed 2601 among digitization programs and need no consideration here. 2602 2603

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 77 Presuming that the Abruzzese institutions and their Planning Committee have done their 2604 best to understand the advice of the listed sources, over riding consideration should be 2605 given to the findings of the Stakeholder exercise. 2606 2607 Recommendation 02 : ( reitera ted and restated ) The Abruzzese institutions should complete a stakeholder exercise to identify the stakeholders in a digital project / program and the various needs, current and future of those stakeholders. 2608 The product of the exercise, a matrix of stakeholders and their interests, should be vetted 2609 by an individual or panel of individuals who have experience building digital collections. 2610 2611 have this experience. As a l ast resort, and, with well developed partnerships, digital 2612 librarians at universities across Europe and North America might be interested in 2613 2614 stakeholders. 2615 2616 A stakeholder is someone who maintains an interest in the resources digitized. 2617 Stakeholders commonly include individuals, researchers, students, etc. for whom a 2618 resource is digitized. Stakeholders also include the agencies and donors funding 2619 digitization as well as the administrators responsible for the accounting of the use of 2620 funds. Stakeholders include individuals involved in the creation of digital assets: 2621 managers and technicians, for example. Those individuals who retrieve and reshelve 2622 content al so form a stakeholder group. Individuals who maintain Internet delivery and 2623 2624 who archive or manage archives of digital assets form yet more stakeholder groups. If 2625 the Abruzzese institutions for partnerships for any reason technical assistance, digital 2626 archiving, content sharing, etc. the partners and their stakeholders, in turn, become 2627 stakeholders in the Abruzzese project(s) as well. 2628 2629 Every stakeholder group can characterize its use or interest in digital resources. The 2630 exercise should endeavour to determine desired as well as current uses of a particular 2631 set of resources. A researcher, for example, who may initially be thankful to have Internet 2632 access will likely ask for the ability to download and use a resource off line, then to print, 2633 to search and a host of other tasks. Common uses include Internet access; download 2634 and read later; download and print; quoting (i.e., copy and paste); even an activity as 2635 simple as searching metadata or full text. Less commonly regarded uses include but are 2636 not limited to reporting on productivity, quality control, and costs; to digital archiving and 2637 facsimile reproduction. 2638 2639 Information compiled during the exercise allows project planners to determine needs, 2640 whether they are in staffing, expendable supplies, dura ble equipment, travel, or services 2641 both in house and vended. 2642 2643 The product of the stakeholder exercise allows planners to outline a vision and rationale 2644 for the project that can be defended or which support funding decisions. 2645 2646 Recommendation 83 : Several recommendations may be grouped under improvement of ICCU and BDI systems. The following recommendations pertain only to systems facilitating imaging and, indirectly, image archiving. Note that instruction to the Abruzzese institutions is also made b elow. 83.1 ICCU should anticipate future storage need both for ready access online and for off line archival storage if it has not done so already. 2647 2648

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 78 83.1.1. A digital master should never be stored in an online environment only. Note that this statement is made for information to general readers only. ICCU does currently archive all content, including both that available online and digital masters, in off line storage. 83.1.2. Need to should anticipate storage of a high resolution digital master (TIFF ) and several derivative versions optimized for online access (e.g., JPG, PDF, JP2, as well as TXT, HTML, SGML, XML and other searchable text versions and metadata supplements). 83.1.2.1. And, as necessary the Abruzzese institutions should be asked to incorporate the cost of any needed storage expansion into their projects budgets (i.e., as possible, when project planning, the Abruzzese institutions should seek to fund at least the initial cost of their storage needs; n.b., in the USA, granting agencies often consi der request for funding digital preservation storage costs to be legitimate and will fund a portion if not all of these costs). 83.1.2.2. The Abruzzese institutions should adopt, as standard practice, the practice of creating sample images (masters and derivatives) of the type (i.e., resolution, bit depth, color space, etc.) that they plan to generate for the materials that they propose to digitize. The size of these sample images should inform storage planning needs. 83.1.3. ( Information :) The original term of funding, for the creation of the BDI, has now ended. The BDI presently works on a reduced continuation budget. 83.1.3.1. External funding agencies will likely require at least restricted ( eyes only ) access to these documents as they deliberate funding. N.B. While no sustainability documents were provided for this assessment, certainly the diligence reflected in BDI design suggests that those documents exist. If those documents do not reflect capacity for storage needs (on the basis of image production and archiving specifications recommended here), they should be revised to do so. And, planning to meet need should not be taken as having met need. While fundi ng agencies certainly will appreciated having capacity in place, they will not necessarily decline a funding request, as long as capacity needs have been anticipated and contingencies for meeting it have been outlined. 8 3 .1.3.2. ( Reiteration and restatem ent of Recommendation 77.1.2.1. ) An Abruzzese digitization project should be planned to account for all costs associated with imaging and image archiving. A digitization production grant should consider inclusion of funds required to increase storage c apacity commensurate with the production levels of the project. This is standard practice in grant writing. 83.2. ( Reiteration and restatement of Recommendation 65 .) ICCU should release program modules designed to facilitate image production and metadata assignment. 83.2.1 The BDI was in some ways a start up experiment. It allowed the ICCU and participating institutions to gain experience and list infrastructure and procedural improvements necessary to enter a production environment. While an excellent m eans of building services for broader use, the entry of the Abruzzese institutions without those improvements would incur a fairly large start up commitment and costs for them. 83.2.2. The ICCU has indicated that it is currently working on such modules. It was unable, however, to provide additional information or specifications for this assessment. 2649 2650

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 79 83.2.3. While its metadata scheme (MAG 2) is slightly different from schemes used elsewhere, the ICCU may find some advantage in looking more closely at production modules used in successful digital production environments One such set of modules, optimized for use by technicians with little fore knowledge or previous training, is that of the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC). Contact may be made with dLOC at http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?m=hitcontact 2651 Text Generation 2652 2653 This s ection presumes that the Abruzzese institutions will avail themselves of the ICCU / 2654 BDI digital library systems. Currently those systems support searchable text embedded 2655 in metadata. While this text may include mark up (i.e., specialized tagging that gives 2656 more meaning to the text and is used for advanced search and discovery), like similar 2657 systems texts embedded to date tend to exclude mark up. I n virtually all digital library 2658 systems mark up tends to get in the way of search. 148 2659 2660 Recommendation 32 : (reiterated) The BDI should continue its move toward implementation of optical character recognition (OCR) technology 2661 It is important that the ICCU move as quickly as possible toward a standard definition of 2662 up? Will it 2663 support text with bounding box mark up, i.e., tagging that identifies the graphical location 2664 of search terms and query results in page images? 149 And, if they implement bounding 2665 boxes, will they implement the Alto 150 standard or define an alternate standard? Or, will it 2666 support text with other forms of mark up? Why is this impor tant? Texts made now, failing 2667 to meet a future standard will have to be regenerated at additional cost. But, will the 2668 Abruzzese institutions need to generate text? If anticipated user requirements are 2669 confirmed in the course of the Stakeholder exercise, then yes; they will almost certainly 2670 need to generate text. The Abruzzese institutions could, of course, hold back on meeting 2671 a user demand for text until the BDI standard has been defined. Generating text later is 2672 less expensive than generating it now to meet a current demand and reprocessing it later 2673 to meet the requirements of the digital library systems. But, even generating text later 2674 has greater cost than generating it when the image is first to hand. 2675 2676 2677 148 Sadly, relative to the simplicity of the problem virtually all digital libraries have difficulty dealing with mark up in searchable text. A notable exception is for Advanced Technology in the Humanities ( http://www.iath.virginia.edu/ ), which have been optimized for the specialized uses of mark u p. Other Libraries working toward more appropriate handling of text with mark up include the Bibliotheque national de France and the Library of Congress (USA). 149 Many digital library systems, like the current iteration of the BDI, allow text, make it se archable, but often because of its imperfections hide that text behind a page image, opting to display the page image rather than the imperfect text. 150 Alto ( http://www.ccs gmbh.com/alto/general. html ). Alto has gained ground as the defacto international standard, see also: http://www.loc.gov/standards/alto/news.php It has been or is in process of being implemented by various national libr aries including the Bibliotheque nationale de France, the British Library, and the Library of Congress (USA).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 80 Recommendation 84 : While the Abruzzese institutions await a decision from the ICCU / BDI, should they wish to generate text, they should use either of two methods for text generation: (a) double keying or (b) OCR 84a .. Double keying 151 84a1 ...... Double keying will be the preferred method of text generation for handwritten / manuscript resources since neither OCR nor Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) system have yet been optimized for the conversion of the wide range of holographs encountered among archives and manuscripts. There are a number of vendors, most off shore in low cost labor markets, that will generate double key text out put from (master) digital images. As with all vended services, vendors should be chosen only in response to a Request for Proposals (RFI) that requires return of a standard sample. 84a2 ...... Double keying should be accurate to 99.95% of characters. The Abruzzese institutions should always spot verify the accuracy of texts. 84b .. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) 84b1 ...... OCR will be the preferred method of text generation for typescript resources, unless pretests show that double keying would be more accurate or cost effective. There are a number of vendors 152 that will generate OCR text out put from (master) digital images. As with all vended services, vendors should be cho sen only in response to a Request for Proposals (RFI) that requires return of a standard sample. 84b2 ...... OCR should be accurate to 99.9% of characters for modern boo k texts, although the Abruzzese institutions may need to define accuracy on a source type by s ource type basis and against a sliding scale based upon samples generated by multiple vendors for a given source type. Text generated from newspapers for example is often far less accurate than that from books. The Abruzzese institutions should always spo t verify the accuracy of texts. 84c ... Single keying 153 84c1 ....... Single keying should not be preferred. Generally, this method produces more errors and is more expensive than other methods. The greater expense results from the greater time spent in proof reading the product. Even then, human proof reading and human proof reading combined with machine spell checking, will be less accurate than double keying. Even when volunteers have been used, as has been suggested above, it will be cost effective to have two vo lunteers type the same text, and then use automation to compare the contributed texts. 84c2 ....... Single keying, if used, should be accurate to 99.95% of characters. The Abruzzese institutions should always spot verify the accuracy of texts. 2678 2679 151 Double Keying is a process of text generation that entails re keying (re typing) a document twice over, comparing the two products, identifying differences through programming, and correcting the identified differences. Double Keying usually results in a more accurate text than does OCR. 152 OCR text is commercially out put in low moderate and high cost labor markets. But, because OCR is an automated process the cost of labor is not particularly important. High cost labor markets often, but not always, work at greater levels of production and can usually offer the lower price. 153 Double Keying is a process of text generation that entails re keying (re typing) a document twice over, comparing the two products, identifying differences through programming, and correcting the identified differences. Double Keying usually results in a more accurate text than does OCR.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 81 Geo Referencing a nd Other Referencing Standards 2680 2681 This s ection presumes that the Abruzzese institutions will avail themselves of the ICCU / 2682 BDI digital library systems. Currently those systems support geographic elements in 2683 metadata. While texts may include geographic mark up, BDI systems are not optimized 2684 to take advantage of this mark up (see Text Generation above). 2685 2686 Recommendation 85 : ICCU / BDI should extend MAG to allow subject elements such as geography, time, personal names, proper nouns and events to be recorded at the page level as well as at the bibliographic / package level. An example of how this can be achieved may be found in the UFDC metadata 154 used by the Digit al Library of the Caribbean. 2687 Recommendation 86 : The Abruzzese institutions are encouraged to use geographic temporal, name, and event tagging withi n MAG to their fullest advantage, associating these with the pages on which they occur. The nature of the Abruzzese resources suggests that geo referencing is important. Indeed, these are resources for which the importance of geography, of time, of persons, and of events will likely be born out in a Stakeholder exercise. The role of geography is especial Corografia 2688 Here, however, is the problem or, rather, the limitation of tagging geography and other 2689 points of reference in MAG: MAG is essentially a bibliographic standard. It is metadata 2690 that applies to the dig ital package as a whole. Specialized data encoded here will help 2691 users to locate resources of interest; but, it is something like pointing to a hay stack and 2692 2693 images, th e hay s 2694 matches the term(s) found on the page. 2695 2696 Every referencing system needs an authority: personal names name authority; events 2697 subject authority; time/temporal elements subject authority; geography a gazetteer; 2698 specialized subjects a thesaurus if not an ontology. The Abruzzese institutions can and 2699 2700 national geographic name authority. The A bruzzese institutions, however, will have need 2701 of the ability to enhance existing records as their digital library and digitization program 2702 both mature. These next few recommendations go into the future rather than to the 2703 immediate viability of their proj ects. 2704 2705 Recommendation 87 : ICCU is encouraged to investigate the extension of its name authority systems with life events metadata. Traditional library name authority systems are concerned with form of personal name and its variants. Leonardo, da Vinci, 1452 1519 = Lionardo, da Vinci, 1452 1519 = Leonardo, da Vinchi, 1452 1519 = Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci 1452 1519 for differentiate two individuals with the same name. 1452 in the record for da Vinci, for example, is a birth year. 2706 2707 154 UFDC metadata ( http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc2/technical/Metadata/metadata.htm )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 82 Recommendation 87 : ( continued ) Life events meta data adds structured event data to the record, for example: 14520415< /birthDate> Italy Florence Vinci Italy Florence Florence The purpose of the data is to facilitate research connections in some ways what used to be thought of as serendipity rather than to differentiate. 155 2708 Recommendation 88 : ICCU is encouraged to collaborate with the Istituto Geografico Militare 156 to make both (a) an Italian gazetteer accessible to Italian cultural institutions for geographic tagging, and (b) an application by which authorized institutions with trained staff can make additions or enhancements to existing geographic records (to reflect h istoric names to associate features, etc.) 2709 2710 155 A number of organizations are working on what is here http://www.vrafoundation.org/ccoweb/index.htm ) provide additional examples. 156 Istitu to Geografico Militare ( http://www.igmi.org/ ) Italy is listed by the United Nations as not having an authorized geographic name authority (cf, h ttp://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/Authorities_listJan09.pdf ); however, the Instituto supports the work of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) ( http://unstats.un.org /unsd/geoinfo/ungegn.htm ).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 83 Sampling (Digital Audio and Video) 2711 2712 While ICCU / BDI reports that it accepts digital audio and digital video, it provides no 2713 guidance for their creation. This section provides recommendations without much 2714 discussion. It should be noted that there is something of a schism in the USA regarding 2715 these guidelines. The guidelines provided here are allied with the camp that asserts 2716 provisions for a higher rather than a lower level of sampling. 157 2717 2718 Recommendation 89 : Optimal and r ecommended minimum audio mastering standard: Optimal: 24 bit sampling at 96.0 kHz stereo, saved as uncompressed WAV; Minimum: 16 bit sampling at 44.1 kHz, stereo, saved as uncompressed WAV. Both, using constant bit rate (CBR) encoding unless ICCU / BDI indicates that they have appropriate means of archiving and migrating variable bit rate (VBR) encoding which is generally reported to reproduce sound more faithfully than CBR. Distributable versions for public use should be made using the prevailing file format, currently MP3 with standard compression. Targeting the Abruzzo and Italian market may require availability in multiple formats. 2719 Recommendation 90 : Optimal and r ecommended minimum video mastering standard: Optimal: 1080i resolution at 25 frames per second, PAL color space saved as uncompressed MP4 ( preferred ) or MP2 ( acceptable ) (with sound as above) ; Minimum: 720p resolution at 25 frames per second, PAL color space saved as uncompressed MP4 ( preferred ) or MP2 ( acceptable ) (with sound as above) This recommendation assumes digital display devices rather than older analogue displays. Distributable versions for public use should be made using the prevailing file format, currently MP G with standard compression. Targeting the Abruzzo and Italian market may require availability in multiple formats. Note that this standard is defined for European systems. For North American Internet accessible display (in partnership projects) deviati on should not be necessary. However, for North American non Internet display devices (in partnership projects), modification may be necessary for some distribution formats. 158 2720 Recommendation 91 : ICCU should optimize forthcoming tools for the automated extraction of technical metadata from digital objects (audio, video, and still image) into the MAG metadata. This is to ensure accurate and adequate record for digital archiving. 2721 157 Sampling guidelines here are roughly commensurate with those cited by European Union national libraries performing digital audio and digital video conversion from analogue sources. 158 North American video for some display formats on some display devices may require 29.9/30 frames per second, using the NTSC color space.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 84 Digital Archiving 2722 2723 This s ection also presumes that the Abruzzese institutions will avail themselves of the 2724 ICCU / BDI digital library systems. Currently, those systems provide a digital archiving 2725 service, presently at no fee. 159 2726 2727 Recommendation 92 : The Abruzzese institutions should always archive (a) digital masters (TIFF), (b) derivatives such as TXT, JPG, JP2, PDF, etc., and (c) metadata and associated references in compliance with the PREMIS 160 standard. N.B. The BDI supports dark storage for digital masters. Dark storage is indicated in BDI records but files cannot be accessed without owning institution authorization. 2728 Recommendation 40 : (reiterated) The Planning Committee should consider strategies for digital archiving. Insofar as the Abruzzese institutions agree to contribute their content to the BDI, they should utilize the digital archiving services of the BDI. Insofar as the Abruzzese institutions do not or are unable to contribute their content to the BDI, for example, as may be the case for scientific data and lesson plans, they should seek out reliable, standards compliant services for digital archiving. Again, CASPUR offers digital archiving services within a super region including the Region of Abruzzo. 2729 Recommendation 83 : (partially reiterated) 83.1.2.1. And, as necessary the Abruzzese institutions should be asked to incorporate the cost of any needed storage expansion into their projects budgets (i.e., as possible, when project planning, the Abruzzese institutions should seek to fund at least the initial cost of their storage needs; n.b., in the USA, granting agencies often consider request for funding digital preservation storage costs to be legitimate and will fund a portion if not all of these costs). 83.1.2.2. The Abruzzese institutions should adopt, as standard practice, the practice of creating sample images (masters and derivatives) of the type (i.e., resolution, bit depth, color space, etc.) that they plan to generate for the materials that they propose to digitize. The size of these sample images should inform storage planning needs. 2730 Among the Abruzzese institutions, the University has a support unit with some of the skills 2731 necessary to archive digital content to the PREMIS standard. Reliance upon this unit, 2732 however, is not recommended. More appropriate, more advanced skills are avai lable 2733 through ICCU / BDI and, as necessary, through the for fee services of CASPUR. 2734 2735 Recommendation 93 : The ICCU should revise its metadata verification procedures to require MD5 or SHA checksum for all files in a package, and, its applications should both (a) calculate and store a checksum upon digital file creation and (b) recalculate the checksum upon receipt to verify that the files were received without degradation or modification. MAG allows a record of checksum but, currently, simply stores it w ithout verification 2736 159 ICCU reported no immediate plans to implement a digital archiving fee structure. The Abruzzese institutions, however, should have contingency plans at th e ready should this change. 160 PREMIS ( http://www.loc.gov/standards/premis/ )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 85 Recommendation 94 : The ICCU should revise contribution practice to allow direct, authorized submission via wire / Internet. Contribution is currently a batch process via shipment of hard drives or DVDs 2737 The Abruzzese institutions have one digital archiving need that should be localized to 2738 themselves. Before content can be archived with ICCU / BDI it has to be archived locally 2739 ( intermediate archiving ), from the time of its completion until verification o f load and 2740 archiving has been received from ICCU / BDI The Abruzzese institutions will also need 2741 storage for items in production, prior to completion. 2742 2743 Recommendation 95 : As possible, rather than establishing their own infrastructure for intermediate archiving or production storage, the Abruzzese institutions should contract with CASPUR to provide the service(s). The amount of space needed for either or both production storage and intermediate archiving may be calculated as recommended above This is envisioned as a remote but authenticated direct wire connection. Transmission speeds should be such that institutions are based and Rome where CASPUR is headquarter ed. CASPUR already provides document delivery over high speed Internet transmission without delay. Importantly, CASPUR has in place the services and skills necessary to maintain systems and perform necessary tasks. The Abruzzese institutions would have to develop both skills and services, delaying a start date for even a relatively small project. More importantly, CASPUR affords the Abruzzese institutions with a level of redundancy, that is, some degree of crash protection. Systems, optimized for proce ss efficiency, should gate keep resources automatically. Digital packages marked as finalized could be sent automatically from a CASPUR intermediate archive / production storage environment to the ICCU for load into BDI. Systems could receive, as well, l oad and archive information from BDI ( preferably with confirmation of package checksum) and, presuming that checksums match, the intermediate archive of a given package could then be discarded, making room for new packages. A model for these behaviors tog ether with code based on well founded business logic Center (UF DLC) 161 Services (FCLA / DLS) 162 / Florida Digital Archive (FDA) 163 2744 2745 161 ( http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/ ) contact information is available. 162 ( http://www.fcla.edu/dlini/dlinipg.html ) contact information is available. 163 Florida Digital Archive ( http://www.fcla.edu/digitalArchive/index.htm ) is internationally recognized as a leader in digital archiving and the development of digital preservation s tandards and infrastructure contact information is available.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 86 Recommendation 95 : ( continued ) Recommendation 95x : The Abruzzese institutions in collaboration with ICCU and CASPUR should investigate partnership opportunities with the University of Florida and the University of South Florida in collaboration with the FCLA DLS and FDA. There are a number of reasons for the suggestion of this partnership. Several of those reasons can be argued for partnerships with other North American institutions. Cornell University and the University of Chicago both, for example have developed systems with the kinds of supporting ap plications that could advance the ICCU / BDI systems. Because both CASPUR and FCLA have similar missions; because the Abruzzese and Italian institutions and the Florida institutions have similar missions; and because CASPUR staff has worked previously wit h FCLA staff though not directly with Digital Library Services there is some ground for partnership The Florida institutions might offer the Italian institutions the following: access to programming code or applications based upon well reasoned business logic in: various faceted modules for the digitization work chain, including: production; quality control; asset management; intermediate archiving and data transmission; and digital preservation; possibly a content mir ror for both extended access and redundant preservation ; 164 and opportunity for indirect access to U.S. funding sources e.g., a project fashioned as an Institute for Museum and Library Services Leadership Award, perhaps with a broadcast component for use in both Italy and North America. The Abruzzese institutions might offer the Florida institutions: access to Italian content, if by as little as OAI PMH / metadata harvesting ; increase national and international profile through : broadcast bearing institutional names ; increased program awareness among granting agencies ; community out reach ( perhaps Italian American community) development of research objectives ( perhaps exemplified by library development with the Un iversity of Florida European Studies Center) opportunity for indirect access for Italian funding sources (N.B. any contribution from Italy, even the contribution of staff time can be valued and used as cost share for grant funding from a US source). T ogether, the institutions might work toward various joint objectives, perhaps including: extension of the harvesting pro tocol for the exchange of texts; joint research projects that build education modules for various grade levels in both English and Itali an; joint broadcast products on a variety of topics, and, that give students opportunities to build practical skills 2746 164 While ICCU provides BDI with digital archiving, it is not clear that the ICCU itself has a redundant archive as is required for certification by the Digital Curation Center ( http://www.dcc.ac.uk/ ).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 87 5. Equipment and Infrastructure 2747 2748 Equipment recommendations very much depend upon the projects selected for development, 2749 and, the specific needs of those projects and target materials. 2750 2751 I MAGING E QUIPMENT 2752 2753 All scanners, regardless type, should be capable of producing uncompressed TIFF 2754 images. 2755 2756 When looking at equipment one needs to consider the rate at which it pays for itself, 2757 together with amortization. Industry amortization is approximately three years. 165 The 2758 equipment listed below has specific uses. Bound book scanner for bound books and 2759 oversized sheets. Rotary scanner for strong modern unbound paper. And, flat bed 2760 scann er for all other unbound papers, photographs, etc. Each piece can be justified 2761 (against most grant criteria) for specific projects that the Abruzzese institutions might 2762 undertake. The Abruzzese institutions are encouraged to consult with their funding 2763 agencies to explain need, the threshold at which equipment pays for itself, and its costs 2764 relative to labor and productivity 2765 2766 Consider three pieces of equipment in particular. For the sake of argument even 2767 though this argument is not true, consider that any resources the Abruzzese institutions 2768 might digitize may be imaged using any of three pieces of equipmen t: flat bed scanner, 2769 rotary scanner, and book scanner. Also assume for the sake of argument, consider that 2770 scanning technician labor costs $10. This number simply makes calculations easy; actual 2771 scanning technician costs should be lower ( in Italy and some USA states ). 2772 2773 The flat bed scanner costs roughly $1000. Imagine that the average scan takes two 2774 minutes ; actual time will vary depending upon scanning parameters, resolution, bit depth, 2775 etc. Using these figures, l abor costs may be calculated at $ 0. 3 3 per image. That sounds 2776 good, right. Most commercial vendors still charge between $0.25 and $0.50 to their low 2777 volume customers; of course, that figure includes post production (e.g., quality control, 2778 color correction, rotation and straightening, etc.) And, p roductivity then, in this example, 2779 comes in at 30 images per hour, before any image processing or description. 2780 2781 The rotary scanner costs roughly $3000. It scans two pages (fr ont and back of sheet) in 2782 two second s ; again actual times will vary depen ding upon scanning parameters. This 2783 type of scanner works best when producing bi tonal ( black and white ) images, so actual 2784 time is far greater than that used in this example. Labor, then, costs $ 0.003 Productivity 2785 is 36 00 images per hour, again without any post processing or description. Post image 2786 processing will be higher when rotary scanning than when flat bed scanning, but the 2787 difference even when halved remains enormous. 2788 2789 to be 2790 unbound. And, the process is not particularly gentle. Then, again, images look best 2791 when they are only black and white. It becomes easy to see why this scanner is 2792 recommended only for a retrospective theses and dissertations projects. There might be 2793 a second copy that can be unbound. Or, if only one copy, it probably has wide margins 2794 2795 rebinding costs into the budget for the project!) 2796 2797 Likewise, it becomes easier to u nderstand why one uses a flat bed for photographs; small 2798 rare maps; and brittle, fragile or thin papers. Unfortunately, many scanning projects 2799 point comparison, or, because they lack the 2800 165 Amortization, generally, is the time before which either equipment within normal use has worn out or standards or replacement equipment efficiencies dictate that replacement is more cost effective than hang ing onto old equipment. Much of the equipment listed here should last more than three years; and, most of it can be made more efficient though software up grades. Nonetheless, when planning, it is generally acceptable to use a three year amortization calculation.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 88 needed start up capital for 2801 bed scanners for everything. 2802 2803 power. And, that i s to say nothing of the damage done to book spines when scanning 2804 books on a flat bed scanner. Cost point comparisons are certainly necessary when trying 2805 to justify a bound book / large sheet scanner. 2806 2807 The bound book scanner cost roughly $50000. It scans two facing pages in roughly ten 2808 seconds; again, actual times will vary depending upon scanning parameters (and upon 2809 scanner manufacturer software). Labor, then, costs $0.003. Productivity is 360 images 2810 per hour, again without any post processing or descr iption. There you have it: if an 2811 institution can make that initial outlay, the book scanner is more cost effective over time 2812 than is the flat bed scanner. 2813 2814 Labor / Productivity comparisons for example. 2815 2816 Scanner Cost per Image 166 Productivity per Hour Flat bed $0.33 30 Rotary $0.003 3600 Book $0.028 360 2817 The Abruzzese institutions can be confident that a book scanner is both cost effective 2818 over the long term and, most importantly most appropriate for the bulk of their resources 2819 and their most valuable, most fragile resources at that. 2820 2821 Recommendation 96 : Flat bed scanners : Recommended ........... Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL (without transparency lid) Reference ................... http://ww3.microtek.com.tw/eu/modules/myalbum/ photo.php?lid=17&cid=3 Price ( USA ) ................ between $900 and $1 500 from rep utable dealers. Project Type ............... flat documents (e.g., unbound paper, photographs, and small maps); books that open flat Not recommended for tig htly bound books, over sewn books, etc Comment .................... a very good, reliable intermediate range scanner with very good interface controls; relatively easy to use; image and color fidelity is very good; tonal range is excellent. Caution ....................... never purchase a consumer market (low price) scanner; these lack adequate interface control, generally have poor image and color fidelity, and generally have poor tonal range. 2822 Recommendation 97 : Rotary scanners (also known as sheet feed scanners) Recommended ........... Panasonic KV S2046C Reference ................... ftp://ftp.panasonic.com/pub/panasonic/business/office/ brochures/KV S2046C Brochure SS.pdf Price (USA) ................ between $2300 and $2500 from reputable dealers. Project Type ............... modern, unbound / single sheet (single sided or double sided), sturdy book and office papers Supports bi tonal grey scale, and color imaging. Recommended for bi tonal imaging. Not particularly recommended for grey scale or color imaging. 166 This is a cost per image calculation excluding equipment purchase price.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 89 2823 Recommendation 97 : ( continued ) May be used with but not recommended for highly or plasticized papers. Not recommended for photographic papers, thick papers or card stock, brittle paper, thin papers or tissues, fragile papers, vellum or similar writing surfaces. Comment .................... This device requires a lot of maintenance including: periodic dust removal, cleaning of rotaries / rollers and cleaning of glass platens. Bi tonal imaging is recommended because defects introd scanning text than it is when scanning images with graphical and color content. Caution ....................... Other rotary or sheet feed scanners tend to be much slower than this unit. If another rotary scanner is being cons idered, perform through put tests to determine if productivity is range of professional moderate to high speed document scanners. The Kodak range, however, is considerably more (+20x) expensive t han the recommended Panasonic. The Kodak range requires less maintenance. (Kodak support software is optimized for office scanning and may not support the output necessary for digital library needs. Additional investigation is required.) Additionally, most consumer market rotary / sheet feed are optimized for office environments. They have several faults in a digital library production environment. Firstly, most are slow. Nearly all image only one side at a time (unlike the Kodak and Panasonic rotary scanners). And, virtually all produce images in PDF or other non master (per digital library standards) format. All scanners, regardless type, should be capable of producing uncompressed TIFF images. 2824 Recommendation 98 : Microfilm scanners. Recommended ........... Microfilm scanners are not recommended for use by the Abruzzese institutions. They appear to lack the number of (quality, copyright clear) microfilm reels required to justify the price of microfilm scanners. N.B. Quality microfilm scanners st art at $35000 from reputable suppliers. N.B. Microfilm scanners are notoriously temperamental. They require a great deal of maintenance and skill if not plain luck to work reliably. Alternately .................. Microfilm digitization may be commercially vended. To secure against damage during out bound transit the Abruzzese institutions should ensure that they have retained a copy in Italy. Out bound shipment should be insured. Film used for digitization should always be returned insured and undamaged, under separate shipment from digital product. When shipping out of country or out of the European Union, the Abruzzese institutions are advised to be mindful of export/import requirements and, particularly, valuation. Most vendors will advise. Normally, it is a cceptable to digitize from a second generation master, retaining a master in preservation storage. The

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 90 A bruzzese institutions may not have that luxury, though the film they do have appears to be in excellent condition with near perfect microfilming. They should retain their current copy as a designated master, and, seek a reputable microfilm duplication agency to produce a second copy for digitization from that designated master. Typically, microfilm duplication by a reputable vendor will result in a fractional but acceptable loss of i mage quality. If they do not know of a reputable vendor, they should consult MiBAC or ICCU. Again, digitization of the microfilm was recommended above only as a last resort, with digitization from the source document preferred. To secure against damage during in bound transit the Abruzzese institutions should require that all returns be insured The vendor should retain digital copy of all files until files have been received in verified by the Abruzzese institutions. Typically, an institution will have a limited number of days in which to inspect and verify receipt of acceptable product. N.B. Staff of the Abruzzese institutions will to be trained in methods to verify acceptable vendor product. This process is not d ifficult and should be viable for them. And, for their continuing benefit, all files should be redundantly returned, once in the fixed media of DVD and once on hard drive each shipped separately, or alternately on two redundant hard drives shipped separat ely. N.B. It will be easier to verify contents of hard drives than of DVDs. Some vendors will include the cost of media in their bid; others will require that the institution cover this cost as an additional fee. The request for proposals (RFP) should responsibility to specify how this expense is to be handled in their bid. Reference s ................. Vendor references ( selection ) with large volume experience. Additional contact details will be supplied upon request. As with any vendor selection, it is recommended that the Abruzzese institutions seek request for proposals (RFP) with mandated text conversion of a sample. Aptara ( http://www.aptaracorp.com/ ) ByteManagers ( http://www.bytemanagers.com/ ) i Archives ( http://www.iarchives.com ) iArchives holds the largest volume of contracts and contract work from the U l Newspaper Program. iArchives is a high capacity, high volume production environment with state of the art scanners. For purposes of price comparisons, iArchives provided an estimate (not firm pricing) of $5000 for conversion (i.e., simple imaging, splitt ing 2 page frames into single images, minor image correction and straightening) of the Antinori manuscript works estimated to be 32000 pages. That is a unit price of approximately $0.157, with delivery on redundant media, both DVD and hard drive. OCLC Preservation Service Center (formerly Preservation Resources) ( http://www.oclc.org/us/en/preservation/default.htm ) Price (USA ) ................ varies from $0.15 to $0.50 from reputable vendors for simple image conversion with some post processing (e.g., straightening) Project Type ............... microfilm conversion.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 91 Comment .................... RFP should specify how film is formatted (e.g., cine or comic mode, film size, negative or positive, etc.), how digital product is to be imaged (e.g., resolution, bit depth, etc.), how images are to be processed (e.g., frames split into pages, straightened, any image correction, etc.), how files are to be arranged (e.g., by original volume number used as a directory, sequential file / page numbering within each directory, etc.). An institution that has successfully completed vendor film digitization may be willing to share its RFP documentation. Caution ....................... The limited time period for v erification and certification of returned files means that the Abruzzese institutions will have to have planned return and that the necessary staff time and automation resources are available for this activity. Before seeking large production vendor servic es, whether from film or from other sources, the Abruzzese institutions should program (or have programmed for them) an application that reads file headers and verifies that file characteristics meet those required by RFP / Bid / Contract. It may be possi ble to acquire this programming from an institution that has successfully completed vendor film digitization. 2825 Recommendation 99 : Bound volume & oversized document scanners. Recommended ........... i2S CopiBook Reference ................... http://www.i2s bookscanner.com/ Price (USA) ................ upwards of $45000 from authorized dealer. i2s is a French company with scanners manufactured in France Pricing should be somewhat lower for the European market than it is for the North American market as the result of European Union rules. Note, however, that the price of this unit in the United Kingdom at the start of 2009 was £42,000. As a result of the economic downturn, this market has been volatile even while the CopiBook remains in high demand. Contact with i2s is required to fix a price for the Abruzzese institutions. Project Type ............... bound books, rare books, tightly bound books, moderately large unbound sheets, newspaper pages, moderately large maps and photo graphs. Comment .................... Other bound book scanners are available, including models from Konica/Minolta and from BookEye the latter, available from Image Access Europe, is manufactured by a German company. An acceptable bound book scanner is one that images the book in page up, right reading position rather than placed page down on a platen. The CopiBook is recommended for its speed, capture method, is close to that of a moderately (sufficiently) high resolution digital camera, without parts movement. Parts movement (scanning head) of the Konica/Minolta has been reported to be somewhat jolting. The CopiBook, Konica/Minolta and BookEye scanners all ha ve built in book cradles. That of the CopiBook is probably the most sympathetic to rare books. Lighting ....................... Each of these bound book scanners utilize reflective mirror technology to eliminate page curvature. There is little difference

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 92 between them. For opt imal scanning with any of them however, it is recommended that the Abruzzese institutions also deploy a separate lighting system. For more information on lighting systems see the University of Florida reference page at http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/technologies/hardware/ bookscanners.htm Daylight balance (i.e., natural lighting 6500K ), low energy cool fluorescent system is recommended. Keypad ....................... It is recommended that the CopiBook be purchased with a supplemental Keypad available from i2s. Hard drive ................... It is recommended that the CopiBook be purchased with a supplem ental hard drive available from independent computer retailers. See i2s documentation for specification. Monitor ....................... It is recommended that the CopiBook be purchased with a supplemental monitor available from independent computer retailers. The i2s has a built in monitor; but, it is small. The additional screen real estate afforded by a separate monitor makes image quality control easier and quicker. UPS ............................ It is recommended that the CopiBook be purchased with a supplemental Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) available from selected independent computer retailers. USP provides advanced protection from surges and, supplies power depending upon model from 15 up to 60 minutes following a power outage. UPS is recommended for all equipment over capital investment threshold Surge protection is recommended for all other scanning and computing equipment Caution ....................... Regardless the book scanner purchased, this is a large capital outlay. The Abruzzese institutions are encouraged to visit deployment locations to assess qualities of use. Justification ................. 167 generally utilizes more expensive equipment in its foreign book imaging facilities. ( Additional reference information will be made available upon request. ) Total price of this equipment exceeds $800000. The CopiBook is an acceptable substitute. It is easy to use, has a lower learning cu rve and is easy to maintain. The CopiBook has been used extensively by the Digital Library of the Caribbean, with eight units in Florida, seven units in the Republica Dominicana, and one unit in Haiti. (The Haitian unit is currently deployed within the U .S. Embassy in Haiti.) Other digitization programs make use of digital camera backs for high end uses with large documents. 168 This is not recommended for the Abruzzese institutions. High end, very high resolution imaging, as necessary, may be vended. 2826 167 USA Library of Congress International Programs ( http://international.loc.gov/intldl/intldlhome.h tml ) 168 Digital Camera Backs for example, see: http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/technologies/hardware/ cameraback.htm

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 93 2827 Recommendation 100 : Basic computer workstation for imaging and image processing Note ............................ As a general rule, the Abruzzese institutions should deploy one image processing computer workstation for every image capture workstation deployed. Recommended ........... Relative to the consumer computer market, the Abruzzese institutions should always purchase the best computers that they can afford to buy. Computers, however, do not need to be as good as those on the market for computer gaming fanatics. Minimum ..................... 32bit A MD Quad Core (or equivalent) processor with 4GB RAM running Windows 7. N.B. 64bit processors still present some applications/software challenges and, so, might be avoided. Note that most scanner interfaces are optimized for Microsoft Windows rather than Macintosh Linux, etc. Graphics cards should be equipped with not less than 1GB on board RAM. Dual monitor card is recommended for image processing workstations. Two monitors allow image editing and metadata description to occur side by side. Monitors should be not less than 17 inch (43cm) screen, with 19 inch (48cm) screen the preferred minimum. Optimal Storage ......... See Recommendations 95 and 40. Optimally, the Abruzzese institutions will commit their work product directly to a production environment to r outinely generated periodic back ups. If the Abruzzese institutions utilize hard drives (see below), it would be advantageous if there were automated backup and disk logging routines in place for use at the end of each business cycle. 169 Data devices .............. See Optimal Storage (above), alternately (not preferred): External 500GB hard drives (USB2) durable brand (use current ratings), with a sufficient number of hard drives on hand to accommodate productivity and keep images in rotation between image capture, im age processing, metadata finalization, transmission to archive, etc. assessment. Drive size should not be greater than that for which it is willing to accept loss in a crash. Price (USA) ................ between $650 and $1200 from reputable dealers. Comment .................... Imaging workstations will be producing large files. Efficiency and productivity are in part factors of the processing power and memory that is provided. Caution ....................... Purchase only known and rated workstations from reputable dealers. Time spent with a failing machine is productivity lost. Prohibit unnecessary Internet access from these workstations. Internet access increases risk to the machine. All computers should be equipped with reputable ant i virus software. 2828 2829 169 Consult the University of Florida Digital Library Center for sample business logic and programming code.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 94 Recommendation 101 : Image processing (software) suite. Recommended ........... Adobe Photoshop (current version) Reference ................... http://www.adobe.com/it/products/photoshop/family/ ?promoid=BPBPX Price ( Italia ) ................ from reputable dealers depending upon purchasing agreements with Adobe or software supplier Project Type ............... Imaging projects (all types) Comment .................... For image processing work stations only Most scanners come with their own image capture software. Presuming that capture workstations are used for capture only, additional software should not be required. Note ............................ Other image processing suites are available (e.g ., Adobe Elements, Corel Draw, PaintShop Pro, etc.). While Photoshop has more bells and whistles that will go unused, it also has more tools that will be used to increase productivity. Note ............................ ICCU should consider methods and applications adopted by established digitization programs 170 that incorporate image processing (such as derivative generation and metadata extraction) into automation as a means of increasing productivity. 2830 A UDIO E QUIPMENT 2831 2832 Recommendation for audio conversion whether by vendor or by equipment/samplers is 2833 lacking from this assessment. No recorded audio was reported among the collections of 2834 the Abruzzese Institutions. 2835 2836 Recommendation 102 : Audio recorders. Recommended .......... Podcaster Pro Package 3 ( tentative recommendation Other combinations of equipment possible find an Italian supplier of a comparable package program ) Reference ................... http://www.studiocare.com/store/index.php?main_page= product_info&cPath=244_245&products_id=63973&zenid= arpekn03d8s8p8vd412s5lrpo7 Price (USA) ................ £1782.50 from dealer in the United Kingdom Project Type ............... Oral History (audio) Comment .................... Ideal system may be a portable studio that can be moved from location to location. Caution ....................... System should be voice isolating, minimizing environmental noise. System should be relatively easy to use, but should not be as simple as a business voice recorder. System must be capable of producing quality audio to recommended standards. 2837 2838 170 For example, s toolbox ( http://web1.dloc.com/ufdc/?g=dloc1&m=hittoolk see also http://library.gameology.org/2009/12/19/open source mets metadata editor/ ). The Technology Coordinator for the Digital Library of the Caribbean Dr. Laurie Taylor ( lautayl@uflib.ufl.edu ).

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 95 Recommendation 103 : Basic computer workstation for audio processing. Note ............................ Depending upon the amount and types of interviews conducted, a single workstation may process audio and video. Note that processing run times, particularly for video, can be one to one, i.e., they may process in real time. If an original was one hour in length, processing of that video could take one hour as well Recommended ........... Relative to the consumer computer market, the Abruzzese institutions should always purchase the best computers that they can afford to buy. Computers, however, do not need to be as good as those on the market for computer gaming fanatics. Minimum ..................... 32bit or 64bit AMD Quad Core (or equivalent) processor with 4GB to 6GB RAM running Windows 7 or Mac OS10. N.B. May consider 64bit processors as most audio processing software now operates under either 32 or 64bit systems. N.B. Most audio process ing software is available for both Windows and Macintosh While some audiophiles consider Macintosh to have the edge, consider networking implications of mixing Macintosh (for audio) with Windows (for imaging). It may be preferable to maintain a Windows only shop. Audio card : SoundBlaster X Fi Platinum Fatal1ty Champion Series 171 or equivalent Graphics cards should be equipped with not less than 1GB on board RAM. Dual mon itor card is recommended for image processing workstations. Two monitors allow image editing and metatadata description to occur side by side. Monitors should be not less than 17 inch (43cm) screen, with 19 inch (48cm) screen the preferred minimum. Optimal Storage ......... See Recommendation 100. Data devices .............. See Recommendation 100 Price (USA) ................ between $650 and $20 00 from reputable dealers. Comment .................... Audio workstations will be producing large files. Efficiency and productivity are in part factors of the pr ocessing power and memory that is provided. Caution ....................... Purchase only known and rated workstations from reputable dealers. Time spent with a failing machine is productivity lost. Prohibit unnecessary Internet access from these workstations. Internet access increases risk to the machine. All computers should be equipped with reputable anti virus software. 2839 Recommendation 104 : Audio processing (software) suite Audio component Recommended ........... Adobe Audition (current version) Reference ................... http://www.adobe.com/it/products/audition/ Price ( Italia ) ................ 419 from Adobe Project Type ............... Oral History (audio) 2840 2841 171 S oundBlaster X Fi Platinum Fatal1ty Champion Series audio card ( http://www.soundblaster.com/products/ product.asp?category=1&subcategory=208&produc t=16559&nav=1 )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 96 Recommendation 105 : Audio processing (software) suite Transcription component Recommended ........... ExpressScribe Reference ................... http://www.nch.com.au/scribe/ Price ........................... Freeware (Internet download) Project Type ............... Oral History (audio) 2842 V IDEO E QUIPMENT 2843 2844 Recommendation for video conversion whether by vendor or by equipment/samplers is 2845 lacking from this assessment. No recorded video was reported among the collections of 2846 the Abruzzese Institutions. 2847 2848 Recommendation 106 : Video recorders. Recommended ........... Sony Handycam HDR FX1000E (PAL color space) Reference ................... http://www.sony.it/product/hdd hdv/hdr fx1000e Price ( Italia ) ................ @ from reputable de alers, excluding supplemental items. Project Type ............... Oral History (video) Comment .................... May substitute a comparable high density (HD) camera Caution ....................... Other HD (high density) video cameras may substitute. If substituting take care to select a unit with audio recorder and built in noise reduction. Supplemental ............. If using video for the recommended oral history project, consult configuration with lights, umbrellas, tripod, camera bag, recording media, etc. The visual arts program should be able to identify local sources. 2849 Recommendation 107 : Basic computer workstation for video processing. Note ............................ Depending upon the amount and types of interviews conducted, a single workstation may process audio and video. Note that processing run times, particularly for video, can be one to one, i.e., they may process in real time. If an original was one hour in length, processing of that video could take one hour as well. Recommended ........... Relative to the consumer computer market, the Abruzzese institutions should always purchase the best computers that they can a fford to buy. Here, computers do as good as those on the market for computer gaming fanatics would be optimal Minimum ..................... 32bit or 64bit AMD Quad Core (or equivalent) processor with 4GB to 6GB RAM running Windows 7 or Mac OS10. N.B. May consider 64bit processors as most audio processing software now operates under either 32 or 64bit systems. N.B. Most audio processing software is available for both Windows and Macintosh While some audiophiles consider Macintosh to have the edge, consider network ing implications of mixing Macintosh (for audio) with Windows (for imaging). It may be preferable to maintain a Windows only shop. 2850

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 97 Audio card: SoundBlaster X Fi Platinum Fatal1ty Champion Series 172 or equivalent Graphics cards should be equipped with not less than 2GB (preferably more) on board RAM. Dual monitor card is recommended for image processing workstations. Two monitors allow image editing and metatadata description to occur side by side. Monitors shou ld be not less than 17 inch (43cm) screen, with 19 inch (48cm) screen the preferred minimum. Optimal Storage ......... See Recommendation 100. Data devices .............. See Recommendation 100 Price (USA) ................ between $650 and $2200 from reputable dealers. Comment .................... Video workstations will be producing large files. Efficiency and productivity are in part factors of the processing power and memory that is provided. Caution ....................... Purchase only known and rated workstations from reputable dealers. Time spent with a failing machine is productivity lost. Prohibit unnecessary Internet access from these workstations. Internet access increases risk to the machine. All computers should be equipped with reputable anti virus software. 2851 Recommendation 108 : Video processing (software) suit e Video component Recommended ........... Adobe Premier Elements (current version) See also, Comment below. Reference ................... http://www.adobe.com/it/products/premiereel/ Price ( Italia ) ................ 100 from Adobe Italia Project Type ............... Oral History (video) Comment .................... For batched generation of derivatives use the e RightSoft Super software may be considered Super is freeware. Note that finding the download page can be a bit tricky. 2852 Recommendation 109 : Video processing (software) suite Transcription component Recommended ........... ExpressScribe Reference ................... http://www.nch.com.au/scribe/ Price ........................... Freeware (Internet download) Project Type ............... Oral History ( video ) 2853 2854 172 SoundBlaster X Fi Platinum Fatal1ty Champion Series audio card ( http://www.soundblaster.com/products/ product.asp?category=1&sub category=208&product=16559&nav=1 )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 98 O THER S OFTWARE 2855 2856 Recommendation 110 : OCR software for (a) the Abruzzese institutions and (b) ICCU / BDI (a) the Abruzzese institutions Recommended ........... either Abbyy Fi neReader (current version) or OmniPage Pro (current version) Abbyy Reference ........ http://finereader.abbyy.com/ OmniPage Reference http://www.nuance.com/imaging/products/omnipage.asp Price ( Italia ) ................ OmniPage Pro 479 Project Type ............... printed text projects Caution ....................... Neither of these products supports ALTO consult ICCU for status. Follow MAG instructions for saving and tagging page level text. (b) ICCU / BDI Recommended ........... A specific recommendation cannot be made at this time. ICCU / BDI must first make a decision on ALTO deployment. For ALTO base solutions, ICCU may request recommendations from the Bibliotheque nationale de France the British Library, or Library of Cong ress (USA). Various commercial solutions exist for both ALTO and non engines. Note ............................ If ICCU wishes to consider the more complicated issue of synchronization of Oral History audio or video with corresponding transcripts, then they should investigate use of the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) standard. ICCU may request advice and recommendations which has succe ssfully deployed SMIL in it digital library. 2857 Recommendation 111 : JP2 (zoom image format) software Note ............................ ICCU / BDI currently supports zoom image standard (JP2 base standard solution from LuraTech) for both file encoding and display. Recommended ........... Display Should ICCU / BDI wish to migrate to a freeware solution, it should consult the World Digital Library at the Library of Congress. Contact information will be supplied upon request. Encoding Should ICCU / BDI wish to integrate a freeware JP2 encoding solution with image processing and management, it should contact the University of Florida Digital Library Center, which uses the Kakadu JP2 SDK in its automated processes. 2858 2859

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 99 Recommendation 112 : Geographic Information Software (GIS) Note ............................ Architecture. 173 Recommended ........... Aula Didattica ARC GIS (licenses / seats ) Price (USA) ................ price to be determined; see also, Comment below Project Type ............... Projects with GIS component Comment .................... A project with geo referencing need not deploy an advanced ARC GIS solution, particularly if only longitude and latitude are to be encapsulated in MAG metadata. Longitude and latitude can be determined, saved to and extracted from XML formats for import into MAG by either Microsoft Pro Photo Tools 174 or Google Earth. 175 Supplemental ............. The Department of Architecture indicates that project budgets supporting a GIS component would also need to equip a laboratory with workstations and subsidize student assistants These requests should be viewed as reasonable, as long as they are commensurate with project time tables to be set in project planning. 2860 6. Maintenance and Sustainability 2861 2862 Maintenance, for most digital libraries, is a big issue. Sustainability looms so large that, for 2863 many digital libraries based in cultural institutions, it would doom many commercial ventures. 2864 2865 The Abruzzese institutions are fortunate in that they have the ICCU / BDI. The Abruzzese 2866 institutions and the financial backers of their projec ts can rest assured that the ICCU offers 2867 continuity. The ICCU acts in the national interest to maintain the collections that have been 2868 built. These collections inform Italian research and cultural awareness. And, it is in the 2869 national interest both to g row these collections and the technological maturity of them. In 2870 addition to its own interests in projecting awareness of Italy, the ICCU indeed MiBAC has 2871 the European Union behind it, not to mention competition from and potential collaboration with 2872 o ther national, state and cultural digital libraries. Not the least of these is the Bibliotheque 2873 nationale de France the British Library and the National Library of Scotland 2874 awareness of digital preservation issues and the implementation of d igital archiving procedures 2875 offer a degree of security that could be envied elsewhere. Funding agencies working with the 2876 Abruzzese institutions should feel confident that the work they make possible will be well and 2877 properly maintained. 2878 2879 Sustainability is not maintenance. Sustainability goes to maintaining not the objects of a 2880 digitization project or program, but to maintaining the vitality, the continuing existence of the 2881 program that engendered the digital objects now in the BDI. The clearest evidenc e of 2882 sustainability, of course, is growth of the collections. Italy, while funding BDI maintenance and 2883 In fairness, ICCU has 2884 entered a period of evaluation and continues to accept contribu tions to the BDI. This suggests 2885 that Italy intends to sustain the BDI. But, to contribute to the BDI, the Abruzzese institutions 2886 need planning, demonstration project, and eventually program funding of their own. 2887 2888 173 ( bernardino.romano@univaq.it ). 174 Microsoft Pro Photo Tools 2 ( http://www.microsoft.com/prophoto/downloads/tools.aspx ) is the freeware 175 Google Earth ( http://e arth.google.com/ ) is freeware in its simplest application.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 100 Most digital library programs, those that grow beyond their demonstration projects with or 2889 sadly sometimes without planning are sustained only through the funding of their institutions. 2890 There is a tremendous sense in Abruzzo, particularly within the Archivio and the University, that 2891 digitiza tion will be planned, will work through demonstration projects and will be sustained as 2892 institutional programs. The evidence of their desire is clear; this assessment is one of its 2893 indicators. The evidence of their willingness, the verification that desi re is grounded, will come 2894 with the completion of planning, first, for demonstration projects, then, presuming successful 2895 projects with institutional benefits, for program definition. Funding agencies including the 2896 Italian government and the European Uni on (though funds set aside for Abruzzo) are 2897 encouraged to fund planning projects and demonstration projects with the Abruzzese 2898 institutions. 2899 2900 But, how can digitization projects and eventually a digitization program among the Abruzzese 2901 institutions contri bute to their own sustainability? Several recommendations follow. It is 2902 important to note, as the Abruzzese institutions realize, that none of these recommended 2903 activities alone or together will wholly sustain project development or a digitization program. 2904 2905 Recommendation 113 : Mandate that funds committed to planning, project and program development (including staff training, time, etc.) be leveraged as cost share in granting or other fund raising activity. The Abruzzese institutions should expect to funds. To receive training funds and a travel grant for Di Bartholomeo and Muzi, for example, they might expect to continue paying salary and providing the necessary release time to them while training. Thes e institutional funds should be included, obviously, in funding request budgets. Grants are like restaurants Most fail. Initially, at least one of every five proposals should be expected to be funded. The Planning Committee should analyze failures, c orrect problems and resubmit as possible. Eventually, and to some considerable extent, with awareness of granting agency interests, granting should become cyclical. A well tuned granting program should be expected to bring in one third of program costs. Examples of successful grants may usually be acquired from other institutions. North American institutions frequently share their documentation with the awareness that the success of competing institutions for digital projects makes more resources available to their patrons even if not in their digital library. Some institutions make their grant example, are available at http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?g=ufirg&m=hra&t=grant%20 libraries,,,&f=MD,+TX,+FC,+TI (or at http://ww.ufli b.ufl.edu/ufdc/?g=ufirg by searching A sample grant (albeit for newspaper digitization) may be found at http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF90000017 The Planning Committee shou ld review as many digitization grant proposals as possible from as many different sources, and review them for structure. Sometimes projects go bad, usually for unexpected reasons. The unexpected represent planning needs; the need for projects planning is reiterated here and the model of the exceptionally sound. Other planning proces ses are listed by the University of Florida at http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/technologies/ projectplanning/index.htm Once fu nded plans should be reviewed frequently and updated accordingly through the implementation of contingencies as needed. Nothing ensures sustainability of the grant funding cycle better than success. 2906 2907

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 101 2908 Recommendation 11 4 a b : The Planning Committee should work with specialists to learn how to market their collections and develop plans accordingly. Marketing is twofold : (a) reaching audience and (b) generating income (a) Reaching Audience Reaching an audience rarely generates immediate income. Audiences contribute to sustainability more frequently by developing good word of mouth; by building awareness of abilities, loyalty to your brand, and even willingness to write letters of support in favor of funding proposals. of that exercise, it should also have been determined how that audience communicates among its own members. During planning, throughout p roduction and after product launch, planners should be communicating with audiences. Approaches will be as varied as the audiences. A primary goal is to get audience members to contribute to planning and to use the resources created for them. Email, blo gging, viral videos communication commonly used. Updating Wikipedia pages is another useful technique. The entry for Anton Antinori, for example, could be updated with the URL for the collection of his works in BDI. (And, it could be updated in each of the languages under which the entry appears in Wikipedia.) Faculty could be directed to presentations at meetings. Bookmarks could be deployed in libraries and archives. Spon soring competition: award for best contribute learning module, for best viral video, for best paper on a topic using digital collections are sometimes good ways to reach an audience, to get them to use resources, and to contribute new resources to digital collections, as well as to build the profile of the digital collections within an audience. Means both traditional and non traditional are endless. (b) Generating Income Too many institutions place too much commercial value in their resources. At the same time, too many institutions fail to realize the potential of their resources in the market. Often, when they do reach out for assistance optimizing that potential they find s with this experience react by taking marketing tasks upon themselves. Cultural institutions, with rare exceptions, know the archives, library and museum business but no nothing to too little about commercializing their products. The Planning Committee should seek out a firm that can assist them with the commercialization of their digital assets. One firm with a good track record of making connections without excessive compensation is Unlimited Priorities Corporation It s Archiva l Initiatives Division (AID) 176 starting 15 January 2010, will focus on finding commercial markets for archival, library and museum resources. At the same time, the Planning Committee should assess the structures currently in place for the sale of resource s in analogue copy. These may or may not continue to work well for the Abruzzese institutions. Licensing agreements, however, are recommended to replace out right sale of copy. Without a license a digital copy is sold without restriction. In most count ries, digitization of historic resources free of copyright protections is considered sweat of the brow which may be used regardless an limited use of a digital resourc e, but, prohibit reuse, copy (except as allowed), derivation (except as allowed), etc. Licensing shifts the legal argument from copyright to property 176 Division ( www.unlimitedpriorities.com ) launches on 15 January 2010. Contact information will be provided upon request.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 102 ownership. Legal counsel may be required to short out templates, particularly as national laws rare cross boarders well. As possible, they should consider starting with the Creative Commons licenses. 177 2909 2910 177 Creative Commons Italia ( http://creativecommons.org/international/it/ )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 103 2911 2912 Appendices 2913 2914 Appendix 1a : 2915 Biblioteche con struttuta inagibile patrimonio a rischio 2916 Libraries with unusable structures heritage at risk. 2917 2918 Appendix 1b : 2919 Biblioteche con struttura inagibile patrimonio in sicurezza e parzialmente integro 2920 servizio non attivato. 2921 Libraries with unusable structures heritage safe and largely intact service unavailable. 2922 2923 Appendix 1c: 2924 Biblioteche con struttura risanata patrimonio integro servizio riattivato censimento. 2925 Libraries with structures restored heritage intact services available. 2926 2927 Appendix 2a : 2928 T he manuscripts of Anton Ludovico Antinori 2929 Inventory of Microfilm held by the Archivio di Stato 2930 2931 Appendix 2 b : 2932 Page images copied from the manuscripts of Anton Ludovico Antinori 2933 Corografia (Parte II, Volume 25) 2934 2935 Appendix 2 c : 2936 Page images copied from the manuscripts of Anton Ludovico Antinori 2937 Annali Degli Abruzzi (Volume 1 ) 2938 2939 Appendix 3a : 2940 Progetto di Digitalizzazione 2941 ( Versione italiana ) 2942 2943 Appendix 3 b : 2944 Digitization Project (notes) 2945 ( English version supplemented with limited notes) 2946 2947 Appendix 4 : 2948 De Bartholomaeis, Vincenzo, 1867 1953 : Selected Bibliography 2949 2950

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 104 Appendix 1a : 2951 Biblioteche con struttuta inagibile patrimonio a rischio. 2952 Libraries with unusable structures heritage at risk. 2953 2954 ( Copied from an official document of the Region of Abruzzo, dated 10 September 2009 2955 and supplemented with an English translation. ) 2956 2957 2958 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTUTA INAGIBILE PATRIMONIO A RISCHIO LIBRARIES WITH UNUSABLE STRUCTURES HERITAGE AT RISK CENSIMENTO DEL 10.09.09 Biblioteca Arcivescovile Carlo Via S. Marciano, 25 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: parte trasferimento. parte antica non recuperata. Ca. 200.000 volumi moderni Ca. 6.000 volumi antichi Ca.100 riviste 20 manoscritti Structure: unusable. Heritage: the modern and 'started the transfer. old part not recovered. Approx. 200,000 modern volumes Approx. 6000 ancient volumes. 100 magazines 20 manuscripts Biblioteca Ist i tuto Salesiani. Viale Don Bosco, 6 67100 Struttura: inagibile Patrimonio: non recuperato. Patrimonio moderno non quantificato ma numericamente esiguo. Structure: unusable Heritage: not recovered. Heritage modern not quantified but numerically small. Biblioteca Agenzia Regionale per la Promozione Culturale. Via Roio, 12 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato Ca. 2.000 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered Approx 2,000 modern volumes 2959

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 105 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTUTA INAGIBILE PATRIMONIO A RISCHIO LIBRARIES WITH UNUSABLE STRUCTURES HERITAGE AT RISK CENSIMENTO DEL 10.09.09 Biblioteca Accademia dell'Immagine Viale Collemaggio, 1 67100 L'Aquila Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato Ca. 3.400 volumi moderni Ca.9.500 documenti video (anche rari) Ca.50.000 fotografie e diapositive Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered Approx. 3400 modern volumes Approx. 9500 video files (also rare) Approx.50.000 photographs and slides Biblioteca Convento di San Bernardino Via Vittorio Veneto, 1 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato. Ca. 10.000 volumi moderni e antichi Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered Approx 10,000 modern and ancient volumes Biblioteca Camera di Commercio. Corso Vitt. Emanuele, 86 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato. Ca. 8.000 volumi 200 periodici Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered Approx. 8000 volumes Approx. 200 periodicals Biblioteca Provinciale Piazza Palazzo, 30 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato. Ca. 260.000 volumi moderni Ca.15.000 volumi antichi Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered Approx 260,000 modern volumes Approx. 15.000 ancient volumes Biblioteca Polo Roio Facolt di Economia. Piazza del Santuario, 19 Roio Poggio (AQ) Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato Ca. 20.000 volumi moderni Ca.1.491 tesi Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered Approx 20,000 modern volumes Approx. 1491 thesis 2960

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 106 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTUTA INAGIBILE PATRIMONIO A RISCHIO LIBRARIES WITH UNUSABLE STRUCTURES HERITAGE AT RISK CENSIMENTO DEL 10.09.09 Biblioteca Polo Roio Facolt di Ingegneria. P.le Pontieri Monteluco di Roio (AQ) Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: parzialmente recuperato Ca. 21.000 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: partially recovered Approx 21,000 modern volumes Biblioteca Polo Centro Facolt di Lettere Filosofia Scienze della Formazione Via Burri, 21 Palazzo Camponeschi 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato Ca. 120.000 volumi moderni 150 volumi antichi 1.500 riviste Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered Approx 120,000 modern volumes 150 ancient books 1500 magazines Biblioteca Polo Centro Facolt di Scienze Motorie. Via Card.le Mazzarino 67100 Struttura: parzialmente danneggiata Patrimonio: non recuperato. Ca. 2.500 volumi moderni Structure: partially damaged Heritage: not recovered. Approx 2,500 modern volumes 2961 2962 2963

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 107 Appendix 1b : 2964 Biblioteche con struttura inagibile patrimonio in sicurezza e parzialmente 2965 integro servizio non attivato. 2966 Libraries with unusable structures heritage safe and largely intact 2967 service unavailable. 2968 2969 ( Copied from an official document of the Region of Abruzzo, dated 10 September 2009 2970 and supplemented with an English translation. ) 2971 2972 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTURA INAGIBILE PATRIMONIO IN SICUREZZA E PARZIALMENTE INTEGRO SERVIZIO NON ATTIVATO LIBRARIES WITH UNSUABLE STRUCTURES HERITAGE SAFE AND LARGELY INTACT SERVICE UNAVAILABLE CENSIMENTO DEL 10. 09. 09 Biblioteca Comunale Piazza Municipio 67044 Cerchio (AQ) Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: patrimonio recuperato in condizioni di integrita. Ca. 3.012 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: fully recovered Approx. 3,012 modern volumes Biblioteca Consiglio Via Michele Iacobucci 67100 L' Aquila Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato ma integro ed in sicurezza. Ca. 5.700 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered but intact and safe Approx. 5,700 modern volumes Biblioteca CONI Provinciale Via Montorio Al Vomano, 18 67100 L'Aquila Struttura: danneggiata. Patrimonio: non recuperato. Ca. 720 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered but intact and safe. Approx. 720 modern volumes 2973

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 108 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTURA INAGIBILE PATRIMONIO IN SICUREZZA E PARZIALMENTE INTEGRO SERVIZIO NON ATTIVATO LIBRARIES WITH UNSUABLE STRUCTURES HERITAGE SAFE AND LARGELY INTACT SERVICE UNAVAILABLE CENSIMENTO DEL 10. 09. 09 Biblioteca Convento Santa Chiara Via Borgo Rivera, 2 67100 L' Aquila Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: messo in sicurezza richiesto intervento urgente di restauro del patrimonio conservato in n. 13 casse allocate nei locali del primo pioano del convento dei ff. Mm. Cappuccini di avezzano Ca. 31.000 volumi moderni Ca. 3.000 volumi antichi Structure: unusable. Heritag e: secured but contents of case no. 13 (located on the first floor ) requires urgent restoration Approx. 31,000 modern volumes Approx. 3,000 ancient volumes Biblioteca Soprintendenza P.S.A.E. C/o Castello Cinquecentesco Via O. Colecchi 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: integro e trasferito in ambienti sicuri dello stesso castello. Structure: unusable. Heritage: intact and transferred to a safe location in the same Castello. Biblioteca Polo Coppito Facolt di Medicina Chirurgia Psicologia P.le Salvatore Tommasi, 1 Localit Coppito 67010 L' Aquila Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: parzialmente recuperato in condizioni di Ca. 6.100 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: partially recovered and expected resume operations ( in a new location ) Approx. 6,100 modern volumes 2974

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 109 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTURA INAGIBILE PATRIMONIO IN SICUREZZA E PARZIALMENTE INTEGRO SERVIZIO NON ATTIVATO LIBRARIES WITH UNSUABLE STRUCTURES HERITAGE SAFE AND LARGELY INTACT SERVICE UNAVAILABLE CENSIMENTO DEL 10. 09. 09 Biblioteca Polo Coppito Facolt di Scienze MM. FF. NN. Via Vetoio Localit Coppito 67010 L' Aquila Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: parzialmente recuperato in condizioni di Ca. 30.000 volumi moderni 4.000 tesi di laurea Structure: unusable. Heritage: partially recovered and expected resume operations Approx. 30,000 modern volumes 4,000 theses Biblioteca Conservatorio di Musica "A. Casella" P.le Collemaggio 67100 L'Aquila Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato ma integro ed in sicurezza. 30.000 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered but intact and safe 30,000 modern volumes Biblioteca Privata "Di Ruscio Via Del Falco, 26/28 angolo Via Del Bargello, 12/14 67100 Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: recuperato (3.500/4.000 volumi) in condizioni di Ca. 6000 volumi sia antichi che moderni n. Q. Manoscritti Structure: unusable. Heritage: 3,500 to 4,000 volumes recovered in relatively good condition Approx. 6,000 ancient and modern volumes A number of manuscripts Biblioteca Comunale Via Del Lago 67038 Scanno (AQ) Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato ma integro ed in sicurezza. Ca. 10.000 volumi moderni Ca. 250 volumi antichi Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered but intact and safe Approx. 10,000 modern volumes Approx. 250 ancient volumes 2975

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 110 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTURA INAGIBILE PATRIMONIO IN SICUREZZA E PARZIALMENTE INTEGRO SERVIZIO NON ATTIVATO LIBRARIES WITH UNSUABLE STRUCTURES HERITAGE SAFE AND LARGELY INTACT SERVICE UNAVAILABLE CENSIMENTO DEL 10. 09. 09 Biblioteca Comunale Piazza S. Tommasi 67039 Sulmona (AQ) Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato ma integro ed in sicurezza. Ca. 15.456 volumi moderni Ca. 3.000 volumi antichi Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered but intact and safe Approx. 15,456 modern volumes Approx. 3,000 ancient volumes Biblioteca e Archivio storico Palazzo France schelli De Santis 65022 Bussi sul Tirino (PE) Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato ma integro ed in sicurezza. N. Q. Volumi antichi e moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered but intact and safe A number of ancient and modern volumes Biblioteca Via Duca Degli Abruzzi, 2 64024 Notaresco (TE) Struttura: inagibile. Patrimonio: non recuperato ma integro ed in sicurezza Ca. 3.550 volumi moderni Structure: unusable. Heritage: not recovered but intact and safe Approx. 3,550 modern volumes 2976 2977 2978

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 111 Appendix 1c: 2979 Biblioteche con struttura risanata patrimonio integro servizio riattivato 2980 censimento. 2981 Libraries with structures restored heritage intact services available. 2982 2983 ( Copied from an official document of the Region of Abruzzo, dated 10 September 2009 2984 and supplemented with an English translation. ) 2985 2986 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTURA RISANATA PATRIMONIO INTEGRO SERVIZIO RIATTIVATO LIBRARIES WITH STRUCTURES RETORED HERITAGE INTACT SERVICES AVAILABLE. CENSIMENTO DEL 10.09.09 BIBLIOTECA CONSISTENZA PATRIMONIO RIATTIVAZIONE DEL SERVIZIO BIBLIOTECARIO LIBRARY HOLDINGS STATUS Regionale Giunta Regionale L'AQUILA Ca. 5.500 volumi moderni. Struttura risanata. Patrimonio integro. Servizi riattivati. Approx. 5,500 modern volumes Structure repaired. Heritage intact. Services resumed. Statale L'AQUILA Ca. 14.000 volumi antichi e moderni 11 manoscritti. 153 periodici. Struttura inagibile. Patrimonio integro e trasferito nella sede del nucleo industriale di bazzano. S ervizi riattivati. Approx. 14,000 ancient and modern volumes 11 manuscripts 153 periodicals Structure repaired. Heritage intact and moved to new facilities in Bazzano. Service resumed. Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria L'AQUILA Ca. 20.000 volumi moderni. Ca. 2.500 volumi antichi. Struttura inagibile. Patrimonio integro e trasferito nella sede del nucleo industriale di bazzano. S ervizi riattivati. Approx. 20,000 modern volumes Approx. 2,500 ancient volumes Structure repaired. Heritage intact and moved to new facilities in Bazzano. Service resumed. Universitaria L'AQUILA N on quantificata. Struttura inagibile. Patrimonio integro e parzialmente trasferito nella sede atrio di coppito 1. S ervizi riattivati. Unknown. Structure repaired. Heritage intact and partially transferred to Coppito 1 city hall. Service resumed. 2987

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 112 BIBLIOTECHE CON STRUTTURA RISANATA PATRIMONIO INTEGRO SERVIZIO RIATTIVATO LIBRARIES WITH STRUCTURES RETORED HERITAGE INTACT SERVICES AVAILABLE. CENSIMENTO DEL 10.09.09 BIBLIOTECA CONSISTENZA PATRIMONIO RIATTIVAZIONE DEL SERVIZIO BIBLIOTECARIO LIBRARY HOLDINGS STATUS Comunale POPOLI (PE) Ca. 8.000 volumi moderni e antichi. Struttura inagibile. Patrimonio integro e trasferito nella sede provvisoria sita in via decondre S ervizi riattivati Approx. 8,000 ancient and modern volumes Structure repaired. Heritage intact and transferred to temporary headquarters in Via Decondre Service resumed. Ecclesiastica TOCCO DA CASAURIA (PE) Ca. 253.000 volumi moderni Ca. 500 volumi antichi Struttura messa in sicurezza ma da risanare. P atrimonio integro. S ervizi riattivati. Approx. 253,000 modern volumes Approx. 500 ancient volumes Structure secured but to be repaired. Heritage intact. Service resumed. Istituto Culturale di Studi Peligni A. De PRATOLA PELIGNA (AQ) 300 volumi moderni (abruzzesistica) Struttura risanata. Patrimonio integro. Servizio da riattivarsi a seguito di accorpamento del patrimonio con quello della biblioteca comunale. 300 modern volumes (on Abruzzo) Structure repaired. Heritage intact. Service will be restored after merging the holdings with those of the Biblioteca Comunale Comunale Biblioteca Comunale PRATOLA PELIGNA (AQ) Ca. 7.300 volumi moderni. Struttura agibile Patrimonio integro Servizi riattivati. Approx. 7,300 modern volumes Structure repaired. Heritage intact. Service resumed. Diocesana SULMONA (AQ) Ca. 5.000 volumi antichi. Ca. 18.000 volumi moderni. Struttura agibile. Patrimonio integro Servizi riattivati. Approx. 5,000 ancient volumes Approx. 18,000 modern volumes Structure repaired. Heritage intact. Service resumed.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 113 Appendix 2a : 2988 The manuscripts of Anton Ludovico Antinori 2989 Inventory of Microfilm held by the Archivio di Stato 2990 2991 The following is a version of Archivio di Stato document Fotoriproduzioni \ Unit.doc (19/01/2002), modified 2992 with the addition of English translation and redaction of unnecessary information, e.g., shelf mark, 2993 chronology of the original. 2994 2995 Manoscritti (voll. 32 56) = Manuscript (volumes 32 56) 2996 Indice delle opere inedite ed edite di Anton Ludovico Antinori, in Anton Ludovico 2997 Antinori. Elogio storico letto dal Prof. Enrico Casti, Aquila, Vecchioni, 1887) 178 2998 2999 ARCHIVIO DI STATO L'AQUILA STATE ARCHIVES L'AQUILA Laboratorio di Fotoriproduzione Photoreproduction Laboratory FONDI, SERIE e UNITA FOTORIPRODOTTI PHOTOREPRODUCTION TITLE, SERIES and UNITS Denominazione Data riprod. Supporto Leggibilit Identification Reprod. Date Description Legibility vol. 32, Corografia storica degli Abruzzi, (lettere G, I) vol. 32, Corografia storica degli Abruzzi, (letters G, I) apr. 19 84 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 318 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 318 images @ 636 pages Buona Good vol. 33, Idem, (lettera L) vol. 33, Ibid., (letter L) ott. 19 83 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 633 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 633 images @ 1266 pages Buona Good vol. 34/ I Idem, (lettera M, Mac Mon) vol 34/ I ibid., (letter M, Mac Mon) f eb. 19 84 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 419 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 419 images @ 838 pages Buona Good vol. 34/II, Idem, (lettera M, Mon Muc) vol 34/ II ibid., (letter M, Mon Muc ) f eb. 19 87 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 313 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 313 images @ 626 pages Buona Good 3000 178 The original Antinori manuscripts are held by the Facsimile reprints are held by each of the Abruzzese institutions The microfilm is held in parts by the Biblioteca provinciale and the Archivio di Stato. Per the SBN catalog, other Italian institutions hold other reprints in incomplete sets. No report of holdings of this title in any form has been made to WorldCat, suggesting that there are no North American holdings. Records in both SBN and WorldCat may be incomplete.

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 114 Denominazione Data riprod. Supporto Leggibilit Identification Reprod. Date Description Legibility vol. 35, Idem, (lettere N, O) vol 35 ibid., (letter s N, O ) f eb. 19 87 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 Lav. 2055, ftg. 266 Microfilm negative, 1 reel (item 2055), 266 images @ 532 pages Buona Good vol. 36, Idem, (lettera P, Pac Pic) vol 36 ibid., (letter P, Pac Pic ) f eb. 19 87 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 idem Microfilm negative, 1 reel, ibid (?) Buona Good vol. 37, Idem, (lettera P, Pie Pul ) vol 37 ibid., (letter P, Pie Pul ) mag. 19 87 Micro f. neg. bob, 1 ftg. 377 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 377 images @ 754 pages Buona Good vol. 38, Idem,, (lettera R) vol 38 ibid., ( letter R ) lug. 198 6 Micro f. neg. bob. I ftg. 387 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 387 images @ 774 pages Buona Good vol. 39, Idem, (lettera S, Sab San) vol 39 ibid., ( letter S, Sab San ) f eb. 198 4 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg..517 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 517 images @ 1028 pages Buona Good vol. 40, Idem, (lettera S, San Sur) vol 40 ibid., ( letter S, San Sur ) f eb. 198 4 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 463 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 463 images @ 926 pages Buona Good vol. 41, Idem, (lettera T) vol. 41, ibid., (letter T) feb. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 fftg. 589 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 589 images @ 1178 pages Buona Good vol. 42, Idem, (lettera V) vol 42 ibid., ( letter V ) feb. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 479 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 479 images @ 958 pages Buona Good vol. 43, I scrizioni I a pidarie degli Abruzzi. (lettere A G) vol. 43, Iscrizioni Iapidarie degli Abruzzi. (letters A G) feb. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 351 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 351 images @ 702 pages Buona Good vol. 44, Idem (lettere H O) vol 44 ibid., ( letters H O ) giu. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 443 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 443 images @ 886 pages Buona Good 3001

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 115 Denominazione Data riprod. Supporto Leggibilit Identification Reprod. Date Description Legibility vol. 45 Idem (lettere P S) vol 45 ibid., ( letters P S ) giu. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 292 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 292 images @ 584 pages Buona Good vol. 46 Idem (lettere T V) vol 46 ibid., ( letters T V ) giu. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 243 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 243 images @ 486 pages Buona Good vol. 47 Monumenti, uo mini ittustri e cose varie C hiese della diocesi aquilana (ordine alfab S. Agnese S. Maria ad Graianum) vol. 47 Monumenti, uomini ittustri e cose varie Churches in the Diocese Saint Agnese Saint Maria of Graianum) giu. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 .ftg. 810 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 810 images @ 1620 pages Buona Good vol. 48 Idem (S. Maria de Raccomandati S. Pietro in Poppleto) vol. 48, Ibid., (Saint Maria de Raccomandati Saint Peter in Poppleto) giu. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 640 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 640 images @ 1280 pages Buona Good vol. 49, Idem, (SS. Quattro Coronati S. Vittorino). Notizie delle Chiese di Chieti e Sulmona. Uomini illustri vol. 49, Ibid. (SS. Quattro Coronati S. Vittorino). News of the Churches of Chieti and Sulmona. Illustrated. giu. 1987 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 659 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 659 images @ 1318 pages Buona Good vol. 50, Idem Arcivescovi e vescovi vol. 50, Ibid, Archbishops and Bishops 1983 84 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 766 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 766 images @ 1532 pages Buona Good vol. 51, Idem, Sinopsi della storia dell'Aquila dal 1256 al 1512 vol. 51, Ibid, Overview of the history of 1256 to 1512 1983 84 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 481 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 481 images @ 962 pages Buona Good vol 52, Appendi ce, Successioni di papi, re, principi e signori di a l cune citta d'ltalia vol. 52, Appendix, Succession of Popes, kings, princes and lords of the cities of Italy 1983 84 Micro f. neg. bob. 1 ftg. 72 Microfilm negative, 1 reel, 72 images @ 144 pages mancano 66 ftg. I niziali Missing the first 66 im g @132 pgs 3002

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 116 Denominazione Data riprod. Supporto Leggibilit Identification Reprod. Date Description Legibility vol. 53, Idem, Sigle lapidarie vol. 53, Ibid., Acronyms 1983 84 I n stessa. bob. f tg 37 On same the reel, 1 reel, 37 images @ 74 pages See above vol. 54, Idem, Notizie storiche sulla vita e gli scritti di A.L. Antinori, redatte dal pronipote. vol. 54, Ibid., Historical perspectives on the life and writings of A.L. Antinori, written by his great grandchild. 1983 84 I n stessa. bob. ftg. 134 On same the reel, 1 reel, 134 images @ 268 pages See above vol. 55, Estratti di scritture vol. 55, Extracts of writings 1983 84 I n stessa. bob. ftg. 113 On same the reel, 1 reel, 113 images @ 226 pages See above vol. 56, Est ratti di scritture di San Marti no d'Ocre vol. 56, Extracts of the writings on ( the village of ) San Martino d'Ocre 1983 84 I n stessa. bob. ftg. 10 On same the reel, 1 reel, 10 images @ 20 pages M ediocre Poor TOTAL A.L. ANTINORI, Manoscritti (voll. 32 56) Indice delle opere inedite ed edite di Anton Ludovico Antinori, in Anton Ludovico Antinori. Elogio storico lett o dal Prof. Enrico Ca s ti, Aquila, Vecc h ioni, 1887) 1983 87 Microf., neg. bob. 26 (duplicate per integrazione dalla Biblioleca Prov.le) Microfilm negative, 26 reels (duplicated in whole from the Provincial Library copy) 26 reels, 9812 images @ 19 624 pages Buona Good 3003

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 117 Appendix 2 b : 3004 Page images copied from the manuscripts of Anton Ludovico Antinori 3005 Corografia (Parte II, Volume 25) 3006 3007 3008

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 118 3009

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 119 3010 3011

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 120 3012 3013

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 121 3014 3015

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 122 Appendix 2 c : 3016 Page images copied from the manuscripts of Anton Ludovico Antinori 3017 Annali Degli Abruzzi (Volume 1) 3018 3019 3020

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 123 3021 3022

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 124 Appendix 3a : 3023 Progetto di Digitalizzazione 3024 ( Versione italiana originally compiled by Grazia Di Bartolomeo ) 3025 3026 Elenco delle istituzioni e loro referenti : 3027 1. Universit degli Studi ................................ ... Grazia DI BARTOLOMEO 3028 2. ................ Elpidia MARIMPIETRI 3029 3. Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria: ...................... Paolo MUZI 3030 4. Archivio di Stato ................................ ........... Paolo MUZI 3031 3032 1. Universita degli Studi dell'Aquila 3033 3034 Le biblioteche dell'Universita degli Studi deU'Aquila costituiscono il Sistema Bibliotecario di 3035 Ateneo, istituito nel 2005. II Sistema bibliotecario di Ateneo (SBA) co ordina la conservazione, 3036 l 'incremento e la fruizione del patrimonio bibliografico e documentale dell'Ateneo, che consta di 3037 circa 205.000 volumi e di migliaia di periodici in formato cartaceo ed elettronico, al fine di 3038 consentire le attivita di didattica e di ricerca, obiettivi fondamentali dell'istituzione. 3039 3040 II Sistema Bibliotecario di Ateneo dell'Universita degli studi dell'Aquila aderisce dal 1991 al 3041 Servizio Bibliotecario Naziona le (S BN). Aderisce anche al CIBER, coordinamento 3042 interuniversitario finalizzato alia condivisione in rete di risorse elettroniche b ibliografiche e 3043 documentarie. 3044 3045 Oltre alle pubblicazioni cartacee reperibili attraverso il Catalogo collettivo del Polo aquilano SBN 3046 (OPAC SBN), il Sistema Bibliotecario mette a disposizione anche una biblioteca digitale che 3047 consente di ricercare e consultare in linea numerose pubblicazioni in edizione elettronica (libri, 3048 riviste, atti di convegni). 3049 3050 II Sistema bibliotecario di Ateneo e articolato in tre biblioteche di Polo che fanno capo alle aree 3051 territoriali del Centro, di Coppito e di Roio: 3052 3053 Biblioteca di Polo Centro (Facolta di Lettere e Filosofia, Facolta di Scienze della Formazione, 3054 Facolta di Scienze Motorie) 3055 Biblioteca di Polo Coppito (Facolta di Scienze MM., FF. e NN., Facolta di Medicina e 3056 Chirurgia, Facolta di Biotecnologie, Facolta di Psicologia) 3057 Biblioteca di Polo Roio (Facolta di Ingegneria, Facolta di Economia) 3058 3059 Materiale proposto per la digitalizzazione: 3060 3061 Tesi di dottorato (da far confluire nei progetti nazionali attualmente gia attivi) 3062 Libri di testo 3063 Manualistica scientifica e tecnica 3064 Libri esauriti e fuori catalogo 3065 Alcuni libri rari (un centinaio circa) 3066 Un manoscritto 3067 II fondo "De Bartholomeis" 3068 3069 2. 3070 3071 La Biblioteca Provinciale "Salvatore Tommasi", aperta ufficialmente nel 1848, e una biblioteca 3072 pubblica. La sede principale e al centro della citta, in Piazza Palazzo; una sezione staccata 3073 opera nei locali del complesso abbaziale di Collemaggio. Essa ha il duplice compito della 3074 conservazione e della divulgazione, al fine di promuovere le condizioni perche si eserciti effettivo 3075 diritto di ogni cittadino allo studio, alia ricerca, all'informazione e alia cultura. 3076 3077

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 125 Attuahnente il patrimonio e costituito ci rca da 260 mila unita bibliografiche. 3078 3079 II fondo antico e costituito da 911 manoscritti, 31 libri corali, 131 incunaboli, circa 3080 3500 cinquecentine, e da migliaia di secentine e settecentine. 3081 3082 Ha una ricca sezione di Abruzzesistica che ha il compito di documentare e conservare la 3083 cultura del territorio. 3084 3085 Svolge la funzione di Istituto per il deposito legale delle pubblicazioni per la provincia 3086 dell'Aquila. Ha un settore periodic! nel quale sono presenti giornali e riviste che datano fin dal 3087 1700. Possie de molti giornali locali, attraverso i quali e possibile ricostruire storia e tradizioni 3088 della citta e della provhicia e, in alcuni casi, anche della regione. 3089 3090 Possiede molti fondi di donazioni private. 3091 3092 Partecipa dal 1991 al Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale (SEN) insieme a circa tremila 3093 biblioteche italiane. 3094 3095 3. Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria 3096 3097 Fondata all'Aquila il 26 settembre 1888, come "Societa di storia patria A. L. Antinori negli 3098 Abruzzi". 3099 3100 Elevata a "Regia Deputazione di storia patria", con Regio Decreto del 16 01 1910, n 3101 264. Approvato il relative Statuto con Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica del 16 11 3102 1950. 3103 3104 La Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria ha lo scopo di favorire gli studi storici regional! 3105 principalmente con la pubbl icazione e illustrazione di documenti della Regione. Svolge la 3106 sua funzione di promozione culturale, con una sempre piu vigile e vivace artenzione 3107 alPaffinamento delle metodologie, per 1'opportune adeguamento della cultura storiografica 3108 regionale ai metodi rigorosi degli istituti cultural! nazionali. 3109 3110 Pubblica un "Bollettino" periodico dal 1889 e cura otto collane editoriali. 3111 3112 La Biblioteca della Deputazione di Storia Patria negli Abruzzi, intitolata al polistore 3113 abruzzese Antinori (1704 1778) corrispondent e del Muratori, e nata contemporaneamente 3114 alia Deputazione stessa (1888), raccogliendo subito le numerose pubblicazioni di cui la 3115 Istituzione storica veniva in possesso per singole donazioni, acquisizioni dirette e recensioni 3116 sul proprio periodico. Si e successivamente arricchita di importanti donazioni, tra le quali va 3117 ricordata innanzi tutto quella della nobile Famiglia Rivera i cui principal! esponenti sono 3118 sempre stati legati attivamente alia storia della Deputazione; e quelle, piu recent!, dell'aw. 3119 G abriele Sartorelli, gia Presidente del Sodalizio, dell'aw. Ciarletta e della Famiglia 3120 Bafile. I fondi librari sono owiamente e quasi esclusivamente a carattere storico, sia in 3121 relazione alPAbruzzo e al Molise (Regione quest'ultima sulla quale la Deputazione estende la 3122 propria competenza istituzionale) che a dimensione nazionale ed internazionale. 3123 3124 Consistenza del patrimonio librario: circa 25.000 monografie e 350 periodici di cui 85 correnti. 3125 3126 Materiale pregiatorManoscritti: 7 codici (secc. XVI XVIII) e numerosi carteggi con autografi 3127 di illustri studiosi e personaggi storici abruzzesi e molisani (secc. XIX XX); 3128 C inquecentine 37; Edizioni rare 229. 3129 3130 Partecipa dal 2002 al Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale (SBN) e dal 2006 all'Archivio 3131 Collettivo 3132 3133 Nazionale dei Periodici (ACNP). 3134 3135 3136

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 126 4. Archivio di Stato 3137 3138 L'Istituto e sorto nel 1835 nell'ex convento di S. Agostino trasformato in Palazzo del Governo. 3139 Nel tempo ha acquisito oltre cento fondi archivistici, con documenti che vanno dal 1193 agli 3140 anni Novanta del Novecento. Tra i piu importanti si segnalano il fondo Pergamenaceo, 3141 VArchivio Civico Aquilano (1193 1820), il fondo Notarile (dal XV al XX sec.), i Catasti antichi 3142 (1544 1804) e vari archivi nobiliari. 3143 3144 E organo periferico a competenza provinciale del Ministero per i Beni e le Attivita 3145 Cultural! (MiBAC). NeH'ambito della propria circoscrizione, ha il compito di: 3146 3147 conservare, a seguito di versamento (consegna obbligatoria all'Archivio di Stato), gli archivi 3148 prodotti dagli organ! e dagli uffici degli Stati preunitari; la documentazione relativa agli affari 3149 esauriti da oltre quarant'anni prodotta dagli organ! giudizia ri e amministrativi statali; gli 3150 archivi dei notai che cessarono esercizio professionale anteriormente all'ultimo centennio; 3151 gli archivi degli uffici statali soppressi e degli enti pubblici estinti; 3152 conservare gli archivi ricevuti da enti pubblici a segu ito di comodato o deposito, o da privati a 3153 seguito di comodato, deposito, donazione o acquisto; 3154 rendere consultabili gli archivi; 3155 3156 Sono articolazioni dell'Archivio di Stato di L'Aquila le due Sezioni di Archivio di Stato di Sulmona e 3157 Avezzano. 3158 3159 La Biblioteca deiPIstituto, ricca di 14.000 volumi, nel 2008 e entrata nel Servizio Bibliotecario 3160 Nazionale (SBN). 3161 3162 Materiale proposto per la digitalizzazione: 3163 3164 Opere manoscritte / Antonio Ludovico Antinori (1704 1778) 3165 3166 1 manoscritti furono donati nel 1886 alia Biblioteca Provinciale dai marchesi Giulio e Giovanni 3167 Dragonetti. II primo e stato uno dei fondatori nel 1888 e primo presidente della Societa di Storia 3168 Patria negli Abruzzi. 3169 3170 Essi sono stati riordinati e descritti da Enrico Casti, al tempo bibliotecario della Provinciale 3171 (Indice delle opere inedite ed edite di Anton Ludovico Antinori, hi Anton Ludovico Antinori. Elogio 3172 storico letto dal Prof. Enrico Casti, Aquila, Vecchioni, 1887). 3173 3174 Struttura del opera: 3175 3176 Annali degli Abruzzi, voll. l 24 3177 Corografia storica degli Abruzzi e de' luoghi circonvicini, voll. 25 42 3178 Iscrizioni lapidarie degli Abruzzi e de' luoghi circonvicini, voll. 43 46 3179 Monumenti, uomini illustri e cose varie, voll. 47 49 3180 Arcivescovi e vescovi, vol. 50 3181 Sinopsi della storia dell'Aquila dal 1256 al 1512, vol. 51 3182 Appendice, voll. 52 56 3183 3184 Tutta l 'opera ora e divisa, a seguito di restauro, in 106 tomi, per un totale di circa 32 mila 3185 pagine. 3186 3187 La Biblioteca Provinciale possiede il microfilm dell'intera opera. L'Archivio di Stato di L'Aquila 3188 possiede il microfilm dei voll. 32 56. 3189 3190 Sicuramente l 'opera nel suo complesso costituisce una delle fonti storiche pi accreditate 3191 per l 'intero Abruzzo, ed attuahnente utilizzata da studiosi di varie discipline (es. storici, 3192 architetti, storici del arte ed altri). 3193 3194 3195

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 127 Questo per la sua caratteristica fondamentale costituita dal fatto che Antinori ha 3196 reperito e utilizzato gran parte delle fonti documentarie al tempo disponibili, kidicandole 3197 dettagliatamente. Molte di esse pertanto sono oggi conosciute, anche se non piu 3198 esistenti, grazie alle citazioni antinoriane. 3199 3200 Molti sono stati gli srudi sull'opera. In merito si possono ricordare i principal!: 3201 3202 Regesto Antinoriano, a cura di Salvatore Piacentino. L'Aquila, Deputazione Abruzzese di 3203 Storia Patria, 1977 (Documenti per la storia d'Abruzzo, 1). 3204 3205 Antinoriana. Studi per il bicentenario della morte di A. L. Antinori, 1978 voll. 4, 3206 L'Aquila, Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria, 1978 79. 3207 3208 Una parziale edizione in trascrizione della Corografia, promossa ai primi del Novecento da 3209 Vincenzo De Bartholomaeis, e stata pubblicata sul "Bullettino della Deputazione Abruzzese 3210 di Storia Patria" negli a nni 1913 1934, relativamente ai primi due volumi (esclusa peraltro la 3211 voce Aquila). 3212 3213 Una parziale edizione in copia anastatica e stata pubblicata dall'Editore Forni di Bologna 3214 negli anni 1971 1980 ed ha riguardato gli Annali degli Abruzzi e parte della Corografla (voll. 3215 25 31). Sarebbe auspicabile una edizione digitale integrale dell'intera opera, con 3216 supporto di adeguati Indici, come piu volte considerate in varie occasion i d'incontro dai 3217 soci della Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria, poiche essa costituisce tuttora una 3218 fonte essenziale per la storia dell'intero Abruzzo e dei suoi monumenti. 3219 3220 Notizie biografiche: 3221 3222 Anton Ludovico Antinori (L'Aquila, 26 agosto 1704 L'Aquila, 1 marzo 1778) e stato un 3223 arcivescovo cattolico, storico ed epigrafista italiano. Appartenente alia 3224 Congregazione dell 'Oratorio, occupo le sedi di Lanciano e poi di Acerenza e Matera. 3225 Come erudito, interessandosi in particolar modo di epigrafia ed archeologia, contribui con 3226 segnalazioni, studi ed interpretazioni all'opera del Muratori. 3227 3228 Di padre bolognese e madre napoletana, dopo aver iniziato gli srudi di grammatica nella 3229 sua citta natale, ando a Napoli, sotto gli auspici dell'abate Galiani, laureandosi in 3230 giurisprudenza. To mato a 25 anni a L'Aquila, decise di approfondire la storia della sua 3231 citta, la cui introduzione invio a Ludovico Antonio Muratori, che la inseri nella raccolta degli 3232 scrittori d'Italia (Rerum Italicarum Scriptores). Alcuni testi di epigrafi scovate dal re ligiose 3233 aquilano furono dallo stesso Muratori inserite nel tomo VI delle Antiquitates italicae Medii 3234 Aevi. 3235 3236 A 30 anni Antinori venne ordinato sacerdote e in seguito, dopo aver trascorso tre anni 3237 ne ll 'Oratorio di San Filippo Neri del capoluogo abruzzese, si trasferi a Roma. Qui, 3238 Benedetto XIV lo destino al ruolo di bibliotecario di una istituenda biblioteca di Bologna, 3239 senza pero partire per la citta paterna. A causa di ragioni di salute viaggio tra Napoli e 3240 L'A quila, dove fu canonico della Collegiata di San Silvestro. 3241 3242 Nel 1745 fu nominato con regio decreto di Carlo III arcivescovo di Lanciano, mentre nel 3243 1754 fii trasferito a capo dell'arcidiocesi di Acerenza e Matera, dove fece abbellire la 3244 Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta e San Canio Vescovo. Per causa di salute chiese, e 3245 ottenne, nel 1758, di ritirarsi, ritornando nuovamente all'Aquila, ottenendo peraltro una 3246 pensione regia, oltre ai benefici legati ad una chiesa nei pressi di Giulianova e, dal 1770, 3247 al Mona stero di San Pietro ad Oratorium di Capestrano, in cui si trasferi nel 1775. 3248 3249 Pubblico numerosi documenti di storia abruzzese, confluiti in particolare nei 4 volumi 3250 della Raccolta di memorie istoriche delle tre provincie degli Abruzzi (Napoli 1781 1783). La 3251 maggior parte delle sue opere sono conservate manoscritte presso la Biblioteca 3252 provinciale "Salvatore Tommasi" dell'Aquila, molte delle quali edite postume, anche su 3253 iniziativa della Societa abruzzese di storia patria a lui intitolat a. 3254 3255

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 128 Appendix 3 b : 3256 Digitization Project (notes) 3257 (English version supplemented with limited notes ) 3258 3259 3260 List of institutions and their contact persons: 3261 1. Universit degli Studi ................................ ... Grazia DI BARTOLOMEO 3262 2. ................ Elpidia MARIMPIETRI 3263 3. Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria: ...................... Paolo MUZI 3264 4. Archivio di Stato ................................ ........... Paolo MUZI 3265 3266 1. 3267 3268 Sistema Bibliotecario di Ateneo 3269 established in 2005. The Sistema bibliotecario di Ateneo (SBA) coordinates preservation, 3270 development and use of bibliographic collections of the University, which consists of 3271 approximately 205,000 volumes and thousands serials both in paper and in electr onic form. It 3272 supports teaching and research activities which is the mission of the institution. 3273 3274 In 1991 the SBA ed the Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale ( SBN ), 3275 a national network of cataloguing and bibliographic 3276 ACNP ), a national online catalogue of periodicals, and CIBER, an 3277 interuniversity institution whose aim is sharing via Web bibliographic resources. 3278 3279 Besides books searchable through the collective Online Catalogue of Polo aquilano SBN 3280 ( OPAC SBN ), the SBA offers a digital library which allows search ing and downloads many 3281 publications in digital form (books, serials, conference proceedings). 3282 3283 The SBA consists of three main libraries which include the libraries located in the town 3284 geographical areas of Centro, Coppito and Roio: 3285 Biblioteca di Polo Centro (Faculty of Liberal Arts, Faculty of Educational Training, Faculty of 3286 Physical Sciences) 3287 Biblioteca di Polo Coppito (Faculty of Mathematic s, Physics and Natural Sciences, School of 3288 Medicine, Faculty of Biotechnologies Faculty of Psychology ) 3289 Biblioteca di Polo Roio (Faculty of Engineering, School of Economics) 3290 3291 Materials proposed for digitization: 3292 3293 Ph. D. Theses (to be included in national projects already existing) 3294 Textbooks 3295 Scientific and technical manuals 3296 Out of print books 3297 Rare books (approximately a hundred) 3298 A manuscript 3299 3300 3301 2. 3302 3303 3304 building is located in Piazza Palazzo, in the downtown district; a branch is located in the 3305 ssion is to preserve collections 3306 and to spread information in order to promote the right of each citizen to reading, research, 3307 information and culture. 3308 3309

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 129 Presently its collections consist of approximately 260,000 volumes. Rare books collection 3310 consists of 911 manuscripts, 31 choir books, 131 incunabula, about 3,500 sixteenth century 3311 books, and thousands seventeenth and eighteenth century books. 3312 3313 The library boasts a rich section of books about Abruzzo, whose aim is to document and 3314 preserve local culture. 3315 3316 It is the official institution in charge of legal deposit for all the publications issued in the province 3317 3318 3319 Its serials collection consists of newspapers and magazines which date back to 1700. Many are 3320 local newspapers which document the histor y and tradition of the town, of the province and, in 3321 some cases, of the whole region of Abruzzo. Many are the private donations owned by the 3322 library. 3323 3324 In 1991 the Biblioteca Provinciale join ed the Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale (SBN) together 3325 with about 3,000 other Italian libraries. 3326 3327 Materials proposed for digitization: 3328 3329 Manuscript Works / by Antonio Ludovico Antinori (1704 1778) 3330 3331 The manuscripts were given to the Biblioteca Provinciale in 1886 by Marquis Giulio and 3332 Marquis Giovanni Dragonetti. The former is among the founders in 1888 and first Chair of 3333 3334 3335 They were reorganized and described by Enrico Casti, at that time librarian of the Biblioteca 3336 Provinciale ( Indice delle opere inedite ed edite di Anton Ludo vico Antinori in Anton Ludovico 3337 Antinori Elogio storico letto dal Prof. Enrico Casti Aquila, Vecchioni, 1887). 3338 3339 The work consists of: 3340 3341 Annali degli A bruzzi, volumes 1 24 ; 3342 42 ; 3343 46 ; 3344 Monumenti, uomini illustri e cose varie, volumes 47 49 ; 3345 Arcives covi e vescovi, volume 50 ; 3346 ; 3347 Appendice, volumes 52 56 3348 3349 Following a restoration, the whole work is made of 106 volumes, for a total amount of about 3350 32,000 pages. 3351 3352 This selection has the strong backing of each of the Abruzzese institutions. 3353 Of its sections, the Corografia is considered to be the most important 3354 3355 The Archivio di Stato provides these additional notes on the Antinori manuscripts: 3356 3357 The work on the whole is one of the most important and reliable historical sources for 3358 Abruzzo and is presently used by scholars of several disciplines (historians, architects, 3359 art historians, etc.). 3360 3361 This is due to the fact that Antinori gathered and used many of the documentary 3362 sources available at his time, citing them very accurately. Thanks to his citations, 3363 therefore, many of them are still known today though n o longer existing. 3364 3365 Many studies were carried out on his Works, among which the following are 3366 considered the most important: 3367 3368 Regesto Antinoriano 3369 Abruzzese di Storia Patria, 1977 (Documenti per 3370 3371 3372

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 130 Antinoriana. Studi per il bicentenario della morte di A. L. Antinori 1978 voll. 4, 3373 79. 3374 3375 In 1913 1934 a partial transcribed edition of Corografia (the first two volu mes only, 3376 without the entry Aquila), promoted at the beginning of the 20th century by Vincenzo 3377 3378 3379 3380 In 1971 1980 a partial anastatic reprint was published by the Pu blisher Forni, 3381 Bologna (only the Annali degli Abruzzi and part of Corografia (volumes 25 31 ) 3382 3383 The unabridged digital edition of the whole Works with Indexes would be desirable 3384 and very useful, as already considered in many meetings with the members of 3385 Deputazione Abruzzese di Storia Patria, since the work is a basic source for the 3386 history of Abruzzo and its monuments. 3387 3388 3. Deputazione Abruzzese di S toria Patria 3389 3390 September 26 th 1888 3391 3392 3393 3394 January 16 th 1910. Its charter was approved by a decree of the President of Italian Republic on 3395 November 16 th 1950. 3396 3397 3398 research and preserve local culture mainly by publishing docu ments about the region. 3399 3400 3401 3402 (1704 1778) correspondent of L.A. Muratori. It was opened in 1888, the same year as 3403 Deputazione; it soon started to collect the many publications owned by the institution as 3404 donations or acquisitions. Afterwards its collection continually became enriched by important 3405 donations especially by local noble families such as Famiglia Rivera, lawyer Gabriele 3406 Sartorelli, lawyer Ciarletta and Famiglia Bafile. The collections, therefore, are relevant as far as 3407 the history of Abruzzo and Molise (this region, too, falls under the institutional competence of 3408 Deputazione) are concerned but they also document national and international events. 3409 3410 The collections consist of about 25,000 volumes and 350 periodicals, of which 85 are current. 3411 Rare books section: Manuscripts: 7 codes (16th 18th centuries) and several collections of 3412 l etters signed by eminent scholars and famous historical personalities from Abruzzo and Molise 3413 (19 th 20 th centuries); Sixteenth century books: 37; Rare editions: 229. 3414 3415 In 2002 it join ed the Servizio Bibliotecario Nazionale (SBN). In 2006 it also join ed the 3416 3417 3418 Materials proposed for digitization ( added subsequently during conversation ) : 3419 3420 None specifically. 3421 3422 monographic series might be suitable for digitization. 3423 3424 3425

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 131 4. Archivio di Stato 3426 3427 The institution was founded in 1835 and was located in the former monastery of St. Augustine 3428 which then became the headquarters of the Palazzo del Governo (Government Offices). 3429 3430 It later acquired over a hundred archival materials, with documents which date back to 1193 up 3431 to the late 1990s. Among the most important, it is worth mentioning: archive Pergamenaceo 3432 the Archivio Civico Aquilano (1193 1820), archive Notarile (from 15 th to 20 th cent.), the Catasti 3433 antichi (1544 1804) and several other archives which were owned by noble families. 3434 3435 Presently it is a local branch of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities (MiBAC). Its 3436 mission is: 3437 3438 to preserve the archiv es (subject to compulsory submission to Archivio di Stato) issued by 3439 the bodies and offices of the several States existing prior to the unification of Italy; 3440 documents issued by judicial and administrative state bodies concerning matters settled 3441 from over forty years; archives which belonged to notaries who ceased their profession 3442 prior to last century; the archives which belonged to state offices and to public bodies which 3443 closed down; 3444 3445 to preserve the archives received by public bodies following to accom modate or deposit, or 3446 by private bodies following to accommodate deposit, donation or acquisition ; 3447 3448 to make the archives available. 3449 3450 The Archivio di Stato of Sulmona and Avezzano are local branches of the Archivio di Stato of 3451 3452 3453 The library of the institution consists of 14,000 volumes. In 2008 it join ed the Servizio 3454 Bibliotecario Nazionale (SBN) 3455 3456 Materials proposed for digitization: 3457 3458 The microfilmed Manuscript Works / by Antonio Ludovico Antinori (1704 1778) 3459 3460 The Biblioteca Provinciale owns the microfilm of the whole work. The Archivio di Stato of 3461 ( The microfilm negative is comprised of 3462 26 reels containing 9,812 images or approximately 19,624 pages.) 3463 3464 Additional m aterials t hat might be d igitized ( added subsequently during conversation ) : 3465 3466 3467 3468

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 132 Appendix 4 : 3469 De Bartholom a eis, Vincenzo, 1867 1953 : Selected Bibliography 3470 3471 This bibliography was made for purposes of random sampling (non scientific sample) of availability 3472 to a researching public of De Bartholomaeis titles. For this small sample, only libraries in Canada, 3473 the United Kingdom and the United States were checked. In each of these countries, titles were 3474 generally held by the same institutions. Holdings might be taken as an indication of potential for 3475 interest or for a letter of support. Several titles were also located in other European and Asian 3476 Pacific librarie s. 3477 3478 A more complete sampling would select titles either by scientific method (mathematically random 3479 selection method) or without exclusion (i.e., the complete bibliography). That more complete 3480 sampling would include: a bibliographic component as below; a preservation component; general 3481 assessment of availability through lending from holding institutions both for research use and for 3482 reproduction use; statements of alternate availability whether by reprint, preservation microfilm or a 3483 digital version either available to researchers fixed in physical medium (e.g., a disk) or via the 3484 Internet, together with a characterization of access terms, e.g., freely available, available as part of 3485 a digital collection that must be purchased whole, or available at cost fo r fixed term (term limited) 3486 use; etc. Given a template, OCLC, the WorldCat maintenance agency, will run a report against a 3487 given bibliography, classification, etc. 3488 3489 N.B. De Bartholom a eis, Vincenzo, 1867 1953 is recognized in SBN name authority records as De 3490 Bartholomaeis, Vincenzo and, in USA Library of Congress name authority records as De 3491 Bartholom a eis, Vincenzo, 1969 3492 3493 3494 Held by at least 6 Ital ian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3495 Held by at least 1 other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3496 A preservation microfilm copy of this imprint also exists. 3497 3498 La Lingua di un rifacimento chietino della Fiorita d'Armannino da Bologna, in Zeitschrift fr 3499 romanische Philologie, 23, 1899. 3500 Not reported as h eld by any other Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3501 Not reported as h eld by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3502 3503 Libro delle tre scritture e dei Volgari delle vanit di Bonvesin da la Riva, Presso la Societ, 3504 Roma 1901. 3505 Held by at least 22 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3506 Held by multiple world libraries, including 1 library in Canada, 5 libraries in the United 3507 Kingdom, and 25 libraries in the United States per the WorldCat union catalog. 3508 Digital copy freely available from the Internet Archive 3509 3510 Note that this item is listed by the Internet Archi Under 3511 the copyright legislation of the United States of America, the volume is no longer 3512 protected by copyright in the USA. However, under Italian copyright legislation, this 3513 title remains under copyright protection until someti me in 2023. 3514 3515 This copy was originally digitized by the Google Books project under contract with 3516 the Harvard University Libraries. Harvard subsequently provided a copy of its copy 3517 to the Internet Archive. 3518 3519 The copyright question here points to the issue of applicable copyright l aw. That 3520 question is being argued in cases currently lodged against the Google Books project 3521 in several European and Asian countries, including a case recently lost by Google in 3522 3523

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 133 the French courts. The De Bartholomaeis works in both Google Books and the 3524 Internet Archive were produced, in the United States, legally under U.S. copyright 3525 legislation. 179 The problem here is that these digital libraries are available across 3526 international borders without regard to various national imple mentations of the Berne 3527 Copyright Convention. 180 As a matter of law alone decisions against Google may 3528 be the right conclusion made for all of the wrong reasons. 3529 3530 It is unclear if the French decision will be applied or be seen to apply to other 3531 European 3532 with U.S. institutions working under U.S. rather than European copyright legislation 3533 is also unclear. And, while defending the letter of European copyright law, the 3534 benefit of the decision is unclear. If the works are the fruit of the forbidden tree the 3535 decision appears to poison the fruit, at least outside the United States. 3536 3537 In any case, Google Books maintains a freely available collection of De 3538 Bartholomaeis works as of this writing numbering 153 volumes. See 3539 http://books.google.com/books?q=+inauthor:"+Vincenzo+De+Bartholomaeis"& 3540 source=gbs_authref ine_t for the most current complete listing. The Internet Archive 3541 currently holds only two De Bartholomaeis titles at http://www.archive.org/ and one 3542 3543 3544 Rime antiche senesi, trovate da E. Molteni e illustrate da V. De Bartholomeis, con 3545 appendice, Presso la Societ, Roma 1902. 3546 Held by at least 14 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3547 Held by multiple world libraries, including at least 4 libraries in the United Kingdom 3548 and 6 libraries in the U nited States per the WorldCat union catalog 3549 3550 3551 Not reported as h eld by any other Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3552 Not reported as h eld by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3553 3554 Cronaca aquilana rimata di Buccio di Ranallo di Popplito di Aquila, a cura di V. De 3555 Bartholomaeis, Roma 1907. 3556 Held in origina l imprint by at least 37 Italian libraries and by an additional 9 libraries 3557 in 1970 reprint edition, per the SBN union catalog. 3558 Held by multiple world libraries, including at least 2 libraries in Canada 7 libraries in 3559 the United Kingdom and 39 libraries in the United States per the WorldCat union 3560 catalog 3561 3562 Prose e rime aquilane del Sec. XIV, in Bullettino della Regia Deputazione abruzzese di 3563 Storia Patria, 1914. 3564 Held by at least 4 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3565 Not reported as h eld by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3566 3567 Un documento relativo a Buccio di Ranallo, in Bullettino della Regia Deputazione abruzzese 3568 di Storia Patria, S. III, anno V, 1914. 3569 Held by at least 3 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3570 Not reported as h eld by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3571 3572 Monumenti Paleografici degli Abruzzi, Pompeo Sansaini, Roma 1924. 3573 Held by at least 4 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3574 Held by multiple world libraries, including at least 6 libraries in the United States per 3575 the WorldCat union catalog 3576 3577 3578 179 U.S. copyright law ( http://www.copyright.gov/title17/ ) 180 Berne Copyright Convention ( http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html )

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Abruzzese Cultural Institutions : Digitization Readiness & Project Viability Erich Kesse, Consultant in Library Digitization 134 Il teatro abruzzese nel medioevo, Bologna 192 4 3579 Held in the original imprint by at least 22 Italian libraries by an additional 14 libraries 3580 in 1979 reprint and by 8 more libraries in 1997 reprint, per the SBN union catalog. 3581 Held by multiple world libraries, including at least 5 libraries in Canada, 4 libraries in 3582 the United Kingdom, and 47 libraries in the United States per the WorldCat union 3583 catalog 3584 3585 Le origini della poesia drammatica italiana, N. Zanichelli, Bologna 1924. 3586 Held in the original imprint by at least 18 Italian libraries, by an additional 37 libraries 3587 in 1952 reprint, and 1 more library in 2009 reprint, per the S BN union catalog. 3588 Held by multiple world libraries, including at least 6 libraries in Canada, 7 libraries in 3589 the United Kingdom, and 61 libraries in the United States per the WorldCat union 3590 catalog 3591 3592 Poesie provenzali storiche relative all'Italia, Tipografia del Senato, Roma 1931. 3593 Held by at least 45 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3594 Held by multiple world libraries, including at least 1 librar y in Canada, 6 libraries in 3595 the United Kingdom, and 48 libraries in the United States per the WorldCat union 3596 catalog 3597 3598 Niccol da Borbona rimatore, Nicola De Arcangelis, Casalbordino 1932. 3599 Not reported as h eld by any other Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3600 Not reported as held by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3601 3602 Storia dei Normanni di Amato di Montecassino volgarizzata in antico France se, Fonti per la 3603 Storia d'Italia, n. 76, Roma 1935. 3604 Held in the original imprint by at least 38 Italian libraries and by an additional 10 3605 libraries in 1970 reprint, per the SBN union catalog. 3606 Not reported as held by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3607 3608 uila 1935. 3609 Held by at least 5 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3610 Not reported as held by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3611 3612 Un volgarizzamento abruzzese della postilla di Niccol da Lira, Coop. Tip. Azzoguidi, 3613 Bologna 19 40. 3614 Held by at least 1 Italian library, per the SBN union catalog. 3615 Not reported as h eld by any other world library, per the WorldCat union catalog. 3616 3617 Primordi della lirica d'arte in Italia, Societ editrice internazionale, Torino 1943. 3618 Held by at least 46 Italian libraries, per the SBN union catalog. 3619 Held by multiple world libraries, including at least 6 libraries in Canada, 6 libraries in 3620 the United Kingdom, and 27 libraries in the United States per the WorldCat union 3621 catalog 3622 3623 3624 3625 3626 3627 3628