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Common Weed Hosts of Insect-Transmitted Viruses of Florida Vegetable Crops
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 Material Information
Title: Common Weed Hosts of Insect-Transmitted Viruses of Florida Vegetable Crops
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Goyal, Gaurav
Gill, Harsimran Kaur
McSorley, R (Robert)
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Weeds -- Florida
Vegetables -- Diseases and pests
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Abstract: This 12-page fact sheet expands upon and updates the information on several weeds reported as virus hosts by UF/IFAS plant pathologists in 2001 and provides links to further information on specific viruses that affect vegetable crops.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "ENY-863."
General Note: "Original publication date April 2012."
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00000993:00001

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ENY-863 Common Weed Hosts of Insect-Transmitted Viruses of Florida Vegetable Crops1Gaurav Goyal, Harsimran K. Gill, and Robert McSorley2 1. This document is ENY-863, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date April 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u.edu 2. G aurav Goyal, postdoctoral research associate; Harsimran K. Gill, postdoctoral research associate; and Robert McSorley, professor; Department of Entomology and Nematology, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611.The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim DeanWeed growth can severely decrease the commercial, recreational, and aesthetic values of crops, landscapes, and waterways. More information on weeds can be found in Hall et al. (2009i). Other than aecting crop production by reducing the amount of nutrients available to the main crop, weeds can also inuence crop production by acting as reservoirs of various viruses that are transmitted by insects. Several insects transmit dierent viruses in dierent crops, but aphids and whiteies are among the most important virus vectors (carriers of viruses) on vegetable crops in Florida. e insect vectors feed on various parts of weeds that are infected by a virus and acquire the virus in the process. ey then can feed on uninfected agricultural crops and transmit the virus to them. Insects are oen attracted to weeds and survive on them because weeds can provide food for insects when preferred food is scarce, or weeds can provide shelter from adverse conditions such as bad weather or pesticide applications. Several weeds have been reported as virus hosts by Kucharek and Purcifull (2001). e current publication includes additional and updated material since that time and provides links to further information on specic viruses that aect vegetable crops. Certain volunteer vegetable plants can also act as sources of viruses that endanger the main crop. Information on weed hosts of various vegetable viruses can be found in Table 1. Virus names are oen based on the name of the vegetable they attack; however, certain viruses aect many dierent vegetables, e.g., Cucumber mosaic virus attacks bell pepper, tomato, spinach, cantaloupe, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, celery, and watercress. References to appropriate publications are provided for easy cross-reference and more details about the virus under consideration. Common viruses with their family and genus names are provided in Table 2. Information is also provided for each vegetable that was reported infected by the virus, and on the insect vectors that transmit the virus. Some viruses, such as Tomato mosaic virus are not transmitted by vectors. Others, such as Bean common mosaic virus can be transmitted by vectors or through seed. Detailed information about viruses and their transmission has been summarized by Adams and Antoniw (2011). Common and scientic names of weeds that act as virus sources are listed in Table 3. Removal of weeds that act as virus sources may be helpful in reducing the initial infestation by a virus of the main crop in the same eld as well as other elds that are near the weeds. Removal of volunteer plants from eld borders may also help in management of viral diseases (Momol and Pernezny 2006). While a number of weeds in and around elds of dierent crops can act as virus sources for the main vegetable crop, some of them are particularly important because of their ability to host a number of dierent viruses. A few of these are balsam apple (Figure 1), creeping cucumber (Figure 2), groundcherry (Figure 3), dayower (Figure 4), American

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2black nightshade (Figure 5), hairy indigo (Figure 6), and citron (Figure 7). e American black nightshade is common in Florida (MacRae 2010), and it is possible that some of the references to nightshade in Table 1 or to black nightshade may actually refer to this plant. Recognition of these common virus host plants is important because they may be reservoirs for viruses, allowing them to survive during the o-season when the main vegetable crops are not grown. References CitedAdams, M. J., and J.F. Antoniw. 2011. Descriptions of plant viruses. Association of Applied Biologists, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK. Available: (http://www.dpvweb. net ). Adkins, S., and E. N. Rosskopf. 2002. Key West nightshade, a new experimental host for plant viruses. Plant Disease 86:1310-1314. Adkins, S., S. E. Webb, C. A. Baker, and C. S. Kousik. 2008. Squash vein yellowing virus detection using nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrates that the cucurbit weed Momordica charantia is a reservoir host. Plant Disease 92:1119-1123. Adkins, S., S. E. Webb, P. D. Roberts, C. S. Kousik, P. A. Stansly, B. D. Bruton, D. Achor, R. M. Muchovej, and C. A. Baker. 2010. A review of Ipomoviruses and Watermelon decline in Florida, pp. 333-337. In P.A. Stansly and S.E. Naranjo (eds.), Bemisia : Bionomics and management of a global pest. Springer Publishing, New York. Figure 1. Balsam apple (Momordica spp.), Credits: Brent Sellers (Hall et al. 2009a) Figure 2. Creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula), Credits: Gaurav Goyal Figure 3. Cutleaf groundcherry (Physalis angulata), Credits: Brent Sellers (Hall et al. 2009b) Figure 4. Dayower (Commelina spp.), Credits: Gaurav Goyal

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3Baker, C., S. Webb, and S. Adkins. 2008. Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of watermelon vine decline in Florida. Plant Pathology Department Circ. 407. Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant industry, Gainesville, FL. Available: (http://www. freshfromorida.com/pi/enpp/pathology/pathcirc/pp407. pdf ). Bracero, V., and L. I. Rivera. 2003. DNA analysis conrms Macroptilium lathyroides as alternative hosts of bean golden yellow mosaic virus. Plant Disease 87:1022-1025. Brown, L. G., and G. W. Simone. 1994. Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus. Plant Pathology Circ. 366. Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL. Available:(http://www.freshfromorida com/pi/enpp/pathology/pathcirc/pp366.pdf ). Dikova, B. 1946. Establishment of tobacco rattle virus (trv) in weeds and Cuscuta. Biotechnology and Biotechnology Equipment 20:42-48. Ferreira, S. A., and R. A. Boley. 1992. Cucumber mosaic virus. Crop Knowledge Master. Department of Plant Pathology, CTAHR, University of Hawaii, Manoa. Available: (http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/ cucvir.htm). Ferrell, J. A., G. E. MacDonald, and B. J. Brecke. 2009. Benghal dayower (Commelina benghalensis L.), identication and control. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-223. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ag230). Fukumoto F., F. Terami, and M. Ishii. 1993. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolated from wax gourd (Benincasa hispida Cogn.) and balsam pear (Momordica charantia L.) (in Japanese). Proceedings of Kanto Plant Protection Society 40:101. Gilman, E. F. 2011. Asclepias curassavica butteryweed, milkweed, silkweed. Environmental Horticulture FPS-49. Figure 5. American black nightshade (Solanum americanum), Credits: Gaurav Goyal Figure 6. Hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), Credits: Robert McSorley Figure 7. Citron (Citrullus lanatus), Credits: Gaurav Goyal

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4Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/fp049). Groves, R. L., J. F. Walgenbach, J. W. Mayor, and G. G. Kennedy. 2002. e role of weed hosts and Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca in the epidemiology of tomato spotted wilt virus Plant Disease 86:573-582. Hall, D., V. V. Vandiver, and B. A. Sellers. 2009a. Balsamapple, Momordica charantia L. Excerpt from Weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/fw028). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and B. A. Sellers. 2009b. Cutleaf ground-cherry, Physalis angulata L. Excerpt from Weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/fw031). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009c. Horsenettle, Solanum carolinense L. Excerpt from Weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/fw040). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009d. Jimson weed, Datura stramonium L. Excerpt from Weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/fw016). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009e. Lambs quarters (Common lambs-quarters), Chenopodium album L. Excerpt from Weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/fw011). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009f. Sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia L. Excerpt from weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ fw007). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009g. Wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum L. Excerpt from weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/fw032). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009h. Common Beggars-tick (Hairy Beggars-tick), Bidens alba (L.) DC. Excerpt from weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/fw005). Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009i. Weeds in Florida: Introduction. Excerpt from weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ fw001). Jenner, C. E., and J. A. Walsh. 1996. Pathotypic variation in turnip mosaic virus with special reference to European isolates. Plant Pathology 45:848. Johnson, C. S. 2011. Tobacco. Disease and Nematodes: Tobacco. Department of Plant Pathology, Southern Piedmont, AREC. Available: (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/456/456-016/ Section_3_Diseases_and_Nematodes-6.pdf ). Koike, S. T., and R. M. Davis. 2009. Lettuce mosaic virus. UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines. Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of California. Available: (http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r441101011.html). Kucharek, T., and D. Purcifull. 2001. Aphid-transmitted viruses of cucurbits in Florida. Plant Pathology Department Circ. 1184. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://plantpath.ifas.u.edu/takextpub/FactSheets/ circ1184.pdf ). Kucharek, T., D. Purcifull, and E. Hiebert. 1996. Viruses that have occurred naturally in agronomic and vegetable crops in Florida. Extension Plant Pathology Report no. 7, Plant Protection Pointers, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Available: (http://plantpath.ifas.u.edu/takextpub/ ExtPubs/ppp7.pdf ).

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5Larson, B. C., M. A. Mossler, and O. N. Nesheim. 2011. Florida crop/pest management prole: Watermelon. Agronomy Department CIR 1236. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/pi031). MacRae, A. W. 2010. American black nightshade biology and control in fruiting vegetables, cucurbits, and small fruits. Horticultural Sciences Department HS 1176. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/hs1176). McGovern, R. J., J. E. Polston, G. M. Danyluk, E. Hiebert, A. M. Abouzid, and P. A. Stansly. 1994. Identication of a natural weed host of tomato mottle geminivirus in Florida. Plant Disease 78:1102-1106. Momol, T., and K. Pernezny. 2006. Florida plant disease management guide: Tomato. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-53. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/pg059). Momol, T., R. Raid, and T. Kucharek. 2005. Florida plant disease management guide: Crucifers. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ pg045). Mossler, M. A. 2010. Florida crop/pest management prole: Muskmelon. Agronomy Department CIR 1272. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/pi047). Mossler, M. A., B. C. Larson, and O. N. Nesheim. 2010. Florida crop/pest management proles: Celery. Horticultural Sciences CIR 1235. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/pi035). Mossler, M. A., B. C. Larson, and O. N. Nesheim. 2011. Florida crop/pest management prole: Cabbage. Agronomy Department CIR 1256. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/pi042). Mossler, M. A., and O. N. Nesheim. 2011. Florida crop/pest management prole: squash. Agronomy Department, CIR 1265. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/pi046). Newman, Y. C., A. R. Blount, and J. Vendramini. 2010a. Alyceclover summer annual legume. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-47. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ds123). Newman, Y. C., J. Vendramini, and A. R. Blount. 2010b. Minor use summer annual forage legumes. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-79. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ ag156). Orsenigo, J. R., and T.A. Zitter. 1971. Vegetable virus problems in south Florida as related to weed science. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 84: 168-171. Pernezny, K., and R. Raid. 2008. 2006 Florida plant disease management guide: Lettuce and endive. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-40. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ pg048). Raid, R., and Kucharek, T. 2006a. Florida plant disease management guide: Celery. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-36. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/pg044). Raid, R., and T. Kucharek. 2006b. 2006 Florida Plant disease management guide: spinach. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-48. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/pg054).

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6Rodrguez-Alvarado, G., S. Fernandez-Pavia, R. Creamer, and C. Liddell. 2002. Pepper mottle virus causing disease in Chile peppers in southern New Mexico. Plant Disease 86:603-605. Sellers, B. 2011. Mexican prickly poppy: Biology and control. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-304. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ag311). Sellers, B., and J. Ferrell. 2010. istle control in pastures. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-95. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ag253). Sellers, B., J. Ferrell, J. Mullahey, and P. Hogue. 2010. Tropical soda apple: biology, ecology and management of a noxious weed in Florida. Agronomy Department SSAGR-77. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/uw097). Sikora, E. J. 1998. Virus Disease of Tomato. Alabama Cooperative Extension System ANR-836. Department of Plant Pathology. Alabama A & M and Auburn Universities. Available: (http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-0836/ ANR-0836.pdf ). Stephens, J. M. 2009a. ChicoryCichorium intybus L. Horticultural Sciences Department HS580. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/mv047). Stephens, J. M. 2009b. Citron Citrullus lanatus (umb.) Mansf. Var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. Horticultural Sciences Department HS 585. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/mv052). Stephens, J. M. 2009c. Nasturtium, Garden Tropaeolum majus L. Horticultural Sciences Department HS632. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/mv099). Stephens, J. M. 2009d. Pokeweed Phytolacca americana Horticultural Sciences Department HS 648. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/mv115). Stephens, J. M. 2009e. Amaranth Amaranthus spp. Horti cultural Sciences Department HS539. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas. u.edu/mv006). Webb, S. E., D. J. Schuster, P. A. Stansly, J. E. Polston, S. Adkins, C. Baker, P. Roberts, O. Liburd, T. Nyoike, E. McAvoy, and A. Whidden. 2011. Recommendations for management of whiteies, whitey-transmitted viruses, and insecticide resistance for production of cucurbit crops in Florida. Department of Entomology and Nematology ENY-478 (IN871). Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/in871). Webb, S. E., F. Akad, T. W. Nyoike, O. E. Liburd, and J. E. Polston. 2010. Whitey-transmitted cucurbit leaf crumple virus in Florida. Entomology and Nematology Department ENY-477. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.u.edu/in716). Zitter, T. A., and M. L. Daughtrey. 1989. Virus diseases and disorders of tomato. Coop. Ext. Fact Sheet 735.40. Dept. of Plant Pathology, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Available: (http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/factsheets/Viruses_Tomato.htm). Zitter,T.A., and R. Provvidenti. 1984. Vegetable crops: Virus diseases of leafy vegetables and celery. Vegetable MD Online, Coop. Ext. Fact Sheet 737.00. Dept. of Plant Pathology, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Available: (http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/factsheets/ Viruses_LeafyVege.htm).

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7 Table 1. Weed hosts of several important vegetable viruses in Florida Weed host Virus Reference Alyceclover Watermelon mosaic virus Mossler and Nesheim (2011) American burnweed Bidens mottle virus Pernezny and Raid (2008) American pokeweed Cucumber mosaic virus Ferreira and Boley (1992) Balsam apple Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Webb et al. (2010), Webb et al. (2011) Balsam apple Papaya ringspot virusType W Kucharek and Purcifull (2001), Larson et al. (2011) Balsam apple Squash vein yellowing virus Baker et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2010) Balsam pear Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Fukumoto et al. (1993) Beggarticks Bidens mottle virus Pernezny and Raid (2008) Beggarticks Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Big chickweed Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Bull thistle Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Burr clover Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Butterweed Bidens mottle virus Pernezny and Raid (2008) Canadian horseweed Bidens mottle virus Pernezny and Raid (2008) Canadian toadax Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Carolina cranesbill Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Carolina desertchicory Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Cheeseweed mallow Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Cheeseweed mallow Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey(1989) Chicory Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Citron Watermelon mosaic virus Kucharek and Purcifull (2001) Clasping Venus looking-glass Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Cocklebur Tobacco rattle virus Dikova (1946) Common chickweed Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Common chickweed Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989), Groves et al. (2002) Common groundsel Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Common plantain Tobacco mosaic virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Common sowthistle Tobacco etch virus Sikora (1998) Creeping cucumber Papaya ringspot virus type W Kucharek and Purcifull (2001), Mossler and Nesheim (2011), Larson et al. (2011) Creeping cucumber Squash vein yellowing virus Baker et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2010) Creeping cucumber Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Kucharek and Purcifull (2001), Mossler and Nesheim (2011), Mossler (2010) Curlytop knotweed Tobacco rattle virus Dikova (1946) Dayower Cucumber mosaic virus Momol and Pernezny (2006), Raid and Kucharek (2006a), Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley ( 1992) Dogfennel Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Field bindweed Cucumber mosaic virus Rodrguez-Alvarado et al. (2002) Field bindweed Pepper mottle virus Rodrguez-Alvarado et al. (2002) Field bindweed Tobacco rattle virus Dikova (1946) Florida beggarweed Watermelon mosaic virus Larson et al. (2011) Groundcherry Cucumber mosaic virus Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992) Groundcherry Pepper mottle virus Rodrguez-Alvarado et al. (2002) Groundcherry Tobacco etch virus Johnson (2011) Hairy bittercress Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002)

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8 Hairy buttercup Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Hairy indigo Watermelon mosaic virus Mossler and Nesheim (2011), Kucharek and Purcifull (2001) Henbit deadnettle Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Horse nettle Cucumber mosaic virus Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992) Horse nettle Tobacco mosaic virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Horse nettle Tobacco etch virus Johnson (2011) Indian chickweed Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Ivy gourd Papaya ringspot virus type W Mossler and Nesheim (2011) Jimson weed Pepper mottle virus Kucharek et al. (1996) Jimson weed Potato virus Y Kucharek et al. (1996) Jimson weed Tobacco etch virus Sikora (1998) Jimson weed Tomato yellow leaf curl virus Brown and Simone (1994) Johnsongrass Tobacco rattle virus Dikova (1946) Lambsquarter Tobacco etch virus Sikora (1998) Lambsquarter Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Lambsquarter Tobacco rattle virus Dikova (1946) Lambsquarter Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Little hogweed Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Lupine Watermelon mosaic virus Mossler and Nesheim (2011) Mallows Tomato yellow leaf curl virus Brown and Simone (1994) Marsh parsley Western Celery mosaic virus/Celery mosaic virus Mossler et al. (2010) Mexican pricklypoppy Bidens mottle virus Pernezny and Raid (2008) Milkweed Cucumber mosaic virus Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992) Mock bishopweed Western Celery mosaic virus/Celery mosaic virus Mossler et al. (2010) Mustard type weeds* Turnip mosaic virus Momol et al. (2005), Mossler et al. (2011) Nasturtium Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Nettleleaf goosefoot Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Nettleleaf goosefoot Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Nightshade Cucumber mosaic virus Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992) Nightshade Pepper mottle virus Rodrguez-Alvarado et al. (2002) Nightshade Potato virus Y Orsenigo and Zitter (1971), Momol and Pernezny (2006) Nightshade Pseudo curly top virus Momol and Pernezny (2006) Nightshade Tomato yellows virus Momol and Pernezny (2006) Nightshade Tobacco etch virus Momol and Pernezny (2006), Sikora (1998) Nightshade Tobacco mosaic virus Adkins and Rosskopf (2002) One leaf clover Watermelon mosaic virus Kucharek and Purcifull (2001) Prickly lettuce Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Prickly lettuce Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Ragweed Cucumber mosaic virus Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992) Ragweed Pseudo curly top virus Momol and Pernezny (2006) Redstem storks bill Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Rough pigweed Tobacco rattle virus Dikova (1946) Scarlet pimpernel Lettuce mosaic virus Koike and Davis (2009) Shepherds purse Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Showy rattlebox Watermelon mosaic virus Larson et al. (2011), Kucharek and Purcifull (2001)

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9 Sicklepod Tobacco etch virus Sikora (1998) Sowthistle Tomato spotted wilt virus Zitter and Daughtrey (1989) Sowthistle Tomato yellow leaf curl virus Brown and Simone (1994) Spiny sowthistle Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Spoonleaf purple everlasting Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) Tropical soda apple Tomato mottle virus McGovern et al. (1994) Virginia pepperweed Bidens mottle virus Pernezny and Raid (2008) Wild bushbean Bean golden mosaic virus Bracero and Rivera (2003) Wild radish Tobacco rattle virus Dikova (1946) Wild radish Tomato spotted wilt virus Groves et al. (2002) mustard type weeds Shepherds purse (Zitter and Provvidenti 1984), Brassica spp. (Jenner and Walsh 1996)

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10 Table 2. Common viruses, families, vegetable crop hosts, and their vectors Virus Family Genus Crop hostsVector Bean common mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Beans, snap beansAphids Bean golden mosaic virus GeminiviridaeBegomovirusBeans, snap beansWhiteies Bean yellow mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Snap beansWhiteies Bidens mottle virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Endive, escarole lettuce Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) Cabbage leaf curl virus GeminiviridaeBegomovirusWatercress Whiteies Cucumber mosaic virus BromoviridaeCucumovirusBell pepper, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, pumpkin, spinach, squash, tomato, watercress Aphids Cucurbit leaf crumple virus GeminiviridaeBegomovirusCantaloupe, cucumber, green beans, pumpkin, squash, watermelon, zucchini Whiteies Dasheen mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Malanga Several species of aphids Groundnut ringspot virus BunyaviridaeTospovirusTomato Thrips Lettuce mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Endive, escarole lettuce Green peach aphid Papaya ringspot virusType W PotyviridaePotyvirus Cantaloupe, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, watermelon Aphids Pepper mottle virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Bell pepperAphids Potato virus Y PotyviridaePotyvirus Bell pepper, potato, tomato Aphids Pseudo-curly top virus GeminiviridaeBegomovirusTomato Whiteies Squash vein yellowing virus PotyviridaeIpomovirusSquash, watermelonWhiteies Tobacco etch virus, PotyviridaePotyvirus Bell pepper, tomatoAphids Tobacco mosaic virus VirgaviridaeTobamovirusBell pepper, tomato Tobacco rattle virus VirgaviridaeTobravirusPotato Stubby-root nematode Tobacco streak virus BromoviridaeIlarvirus Snap beansThrips Tomato chlorosis ClosteroviridaeClosterovirusTomato Whiteies Tomato mosaic virus VirgaviridaeTobamovirusTomato Tomato mottle virus GeminiviridaeBegomovirusTomato Whiteies Tomato spotted wilt virus BunyaviridaeTospovirusBell pepper, tomato, watermelon Western ower thrips (Franklinella occidentalis), tobacco thrips (F. fusca) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus GeminiviridaeBegomovirusTomato Whiteies Turnip mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Cabbage, spinachAphids Papaya ringspot virusType W PotyviridaePotyvirus Squash, watermelonAphids Watermelon mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Cantaloupe, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, watermelon Aphids Western Celery mosaic virus/ Celery mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Celery Aphids Zucchini yellow mosaic virus PotyviridaePotyvirus Cantaloupe, cucumber, squash, watermelon Aphids

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11 Table 3. Common and scientic names of various weed hosts of viruses Alyce clover, Alysicarpus ovalifolius (Newman et al. 2010a) American burnweed, Erechtites hieraciifolius American pokeweed, Phytolacca americana (Stevens 2009d) Balsam pear (= Balsam apple), Momordica charantia (Hall et al. 2009a) Beggarticks, Bidens spp. (Hall et al. 2009h) Big chickweed, Cerastium fontanum subsp. Vulgare Bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Sellers and Ferrell 2010) Burr clover, Medicago polymorpha Butterweed, Packera glabella Canadian horseweed, Conyza (=Erigeron) Canadensis Canadian toadax, Linaria Canadensis Carolina cranesbill, Geranium carolinianum Carolina desertchicory, Pyrrhopappus carolinianus Cheeseweed mallow, Malva parviora Chicory, Cichorium intybus (Stephens 2009a) Citron, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) var.citroides (Bailey) Mansf. (Stephens 2009b) Clasping Venus looking-glass, Triodanis perfoliata Cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium Common chickweed, Stellaria media Common groundsel, Senecio vulgaris Common plantain, Plantago major Common sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus Creeping cucumber, Melothria pendula Curlytop knotweed, Polygonum lapathifolium Dayower, Commelina spp. (Ferrell et al. 2009) Dogfennel, Eupatorium capillifolium Field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis Florida beggarweed, Desmodium tortuosum Groundcherry, Physalis spp. (Hall et al. 2009b) Hairy bittercress, Cardamine hirsute Hairy buttercup, Ranunculus sardous Hairy indigo, Indigofera hirsuta (Newman et al. 2010b) Henbit deadnettle, Lamium amplexicaule Horse nettle, Solanum carolinense (Hall et al. 2009c) Indian chickweed, Mollugo verticillata Ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis Jimson weed, Datura stramonium (Hall et al. 2009d) Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense Lambsquarter (Common lambsquarters), Chenopodium album (Hall et al. 2009e) Little hogweed, Portulaca oleracea (MacRae 2010) Lupine, Lupinus spp. Mallows, Malva sp. Marsh parsley (= wild cherry), Cyclospermum leptophyllum (=Apium leptophyllum) Mexican pricklypoppy, Argemone mexicana (Sellers 2011) Milkweed, Asclepias curassavica (Gilman 2011) Mock bishopweed, Ptilimnium capillaceum

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12 Nasturtium, Tropaeolum majus (Stephens 2009c) Nettleleaf goosefoot, Chenopodium murale Nightshade, Solanum spp. (MacRae 2010) One leaf clover (White moneywort), Alysicarpus vaginalis Prickly lettuce, Lactuca serriola Ragweed, Ambrosia spp. Redstem storks bill, Erodium cicutarium Rough pigweed, Amaranthus retroexus (Stephens 2009e) Scarlet pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis Shepherds purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris Showy rattlebox (=showy crotalaria), Crotalaria spectabilis Sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia (Hall et al. 2009f) Sowthistle, Sonchus spp. Spiny sowthistle, Sonchus asper Spoonleaf purple everlasting, Gnaphalium purpureum Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Sellers et al. 2010) Virginia pepperweed, Lepidium virginicum Wild bushbean, Macroptilium lathyroides Wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum (Hall et al. 2009g)