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Outbreaks of Foodborne Diseases Associated with Tomatoes
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000992/00001
 Material Information
Title: Outbreaks of Foodborne Diseases Associated with Tomatoes
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Valadez, Angela M.
Schneider, Keith Ralph 1963-
Danyluk, Michelle D.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Foodborne diseases
Tomatoes
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Spatial Coverage:
 Notes
Abstract: Concerned about the safety of fresh-market tomatoes? This 5-page fact sheet highlights tomato-related outbreaks in the United States and Europe and reviews the locations and venues of tomato preparations as well as the severity of outbreaks.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "FSHN12-08."
General Note: "Published May 2012."
General Note: "This review was supported by the Center for Produce Safety."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00000992:00001

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FSHN12-08 Outbreaks of Foodborne Diseases Associated with Tomatoes1Angela M. Valadez, Keith R. Schneider, and Michelle D. Danyluk2 1. This document is FSHN12-08, one of a series of the Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agr icultural Sciences, University of Florida. Published May 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u.edu 2. Angela M. Valadez, gr aduate research assistant, CREC (Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL); Keith R. Schneider, associate professor, FSHN (Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, UF Main Campus); Michelle D. Danyluk (contact author), assistant professor, CREC; Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. This review was supported by the Center for Produce Safety.The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim DeanFresh-market tomatoes are a popular commodity in homes and food service around the world. e inherent risks of contamination by foodborne pathogens present a challenge to the produce industry and regulators. Since freshmarket tomatoes are intended to be consumed fresh, there is no kill-step in the processing that would eliminate pathogens in the event that tomatoes become contaminated (Maitland et al., 2011). Public health ocials oen meet numerous challenges when conducting traceback investigations in the event of a produce outbreak, such as tomatoes. It is oen dicult for them to isolate organisms from the raw product, when the raw product may have been consumed, discarded, or reached the end of its shelf-life (Lynch et al., 2009). It dicult for public health determine where the implicated food was produced. As a consequence, recognizing unusual food vehicles, such as certain items of fresh produce, can delay the foodborne outbreak investigation (Lynch et al., 2009). A case in a foodborne illness outbreak is identied as an infected patient carrying a strain that was isolated from a collected stool sample and documented to be associated with an outbreak. e number of sporadic cases linked to the consumption of contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables is unknown (Heaton and Jones 2008). is document is intended to serve as a reference for everyone concerned about the safety of fresh-market tomatoes by highlighting tomato-related outbreaks in the United States and Europe and reviewing locations and venues of tomato preparations as well as the severity of outbreaks. ree tables are presented, separated by foodborne outbreaks where tomatoes are conrmed as the food vehicle (Table 1); conrmed as part of complex foods vehicles (Table 2); and suspected, but not specied or conrmed, as the food vehicle (Table 3). Figure 1. Tomatoes Credits: USDA Photo by Scott Bauer

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2ReferencesACMSF (Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food). 2005. Information Paper ACM/745: Microbiological status of ready to eat fruit and vegetables. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.food.gov.uk/ multimedia/pdfs/acm745amended.pdf CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2011. Foodborne Outbreak Online Database (FOOD). Data retrieved February 1, 2012 from http://wwwn.cdc.gov/ foodborneoutbreaks/Default.aspx. FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). 2009. Safe Practices for Food Processes, Chapter IV: Outbreaks Tables, Analysis and Evaluation of Preventive Control Measures for the Control and Reduction/Elimination of Microbial Hazards on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/ ResearchAreas/SafePracticesforFoodProcesses/ucm091270. htm Heaton, J. C., and K. Jones. 2008. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: A review. Journal of Applied Microbiology 104(3): 613. Hedberg, C. W., F. J. Angulo, K. E. White, C. W. Langkop, W. L. Schell, M. G. Stobierski, A. Schuchat, J. M. Besser, S. Dietrich, L. Helsel, P. M. Grin, J. W. McFarland, and M. T. Osterholm. 1999. Outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with eating uncooked tomatoes: Implications for public health. Epidemiology and Infection 122 385. Lynch, M. F., R. V. Tauxe, and C. W. Hedberg. 2009. e growing burden of foodborne outbreaks due to contaminated fresh produce: Risks and opportunities. Epidemiology and Infection 137(3): 307. Maitland, J. E., R. R. Boyer, J. D. Eifert, and R. C. Williams. 2011. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces Salmonella enterica serovars in diced and whole tomatoes. International Journal of Food Microbiology 149(2): 113. SSI (Statens Serum Institut). 2012. Outbreak of Salmonella Strathcona. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www. ssi.dk/English/News/News/2012/2012_01_EPI-NEWS%20 4%20-%202012%20-%20Outbreak%20of%20salmonella%20Strathcona.aspx.

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3 Table 1. Outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tomatoes, 1990 YearMonthLocationPathogenbLocation of consumptionCases (deaths) Food Vehicle Reference 1990NRaUS (multistate) S. Javiana Various 176 (0)TomatoHedberg et al., 1999 1993NR US (multistate) S. MontevideoVarious 100 (0)TomatoHedberg et al., 1999 1994NR US (AK)Hepatitis AFood handler 92 (0)Diced tomato FDA, 2009 2002FebruaryUS (CT) S. NewportPrivate home 7 (0)Grape tomato CDC, 2011 2004JuneUS (multistate) S. BraenderupPrivate home; Restaurant other or unknown type 137 (0)Roma tomato CDC, 2011 2004JulyUS (multistate) S. Anatum; Javiana; Muenchen; Thompson; Typhimurium Restaurant other or unknown type 429 (0)Roma tomato CDC, 2011 2005JulyUS (multistate) S. NewportRestaurant other or unknown type 52 (0)TomatoCDC, 2011 2005NovemberUS (multistate) S. BraenderupRestaurant other or unknown type 84 (0)Roma tomato CDC, 2011 2006SeptemberUS (ME) S. TyphimuriumUnknown 8 (0)TomatoCDC, 2011 2006JanuaryUS (PA) S. Berta Hospital; Nursing home, assisted living facility, home care; Restaurant other or unknown type 16 (0)TomatoCDC, 2011 2007JuneUS (multistate) S. NewportPrivate home; Restaurant other or unknown type 65 (0)TomatoCDC, 2011 2009 May US (MI) S. SaintpaulPrivate Home; Restaurant Fast-food (drive-up service or pay at counter); Restaurant Sit-down dining 21(0)TomatoCDC, 2011aNR Not reportedbPathogens abbreviated and associated with outbreaks include various serotypes of Salmonella (S.).

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4 Table 2. Outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with complex foods including tomatoes, 1979 Year Month Location PathogenbLocation of consumption Cases (deaths) Food Vehicle Reference 1979 NRaUS (MA) L. monocytogenes Hospitals 20 (5) Tomato, lettuce, celery FDA, 2009 1989 NR US (multistate) G. lamblia Unknown 21 (0) Lettuce, onion, tomato FDA, 2009 1992 NR UK Norovirus Hospital NR Lettuce, tomato ACMSF, 2005; Hughes et al., 2007 1995 NR UK S. Typhimurium DT104 Hotel NR Sandwich of turkey and tomato ACMSF, 2005; Hughes et al., 2007 1995 NR UK E. coli O157 Pub NR Lettuce, tomato ACMSF, 2005; Hughes et al., 2007 1996 NR UK Campylobacter Hotel NR Lettuce, tomato ACMSF, 2005; Hughes et al., 2007 1996 NR UK Norovirus Club NR Tomato and cucumber salad ACMSF, 2005; Hughes et al., 2007 2003 NR UK B. cereus Unknown NR Quiche (tomato, lettuce, mushroom) ACMSF, 2005; Hughes et al., 2007 2008 July US (CA) S. Blockley Private home 9 (0) Mole (sauce); and, pasta with tomato sauce CDC, 2011aNR Not reportedbPathogens abbreviated and associated with outbreaks include various serotypes of

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5 Table 3. Outbreaks of foodborne disease where tomatoes are suspected, but not specied or conrmed, 1998 Year Month Location PathogenaLocation of consumption Fo od Vehicle 1998/9 December/ January US ( ultista t e) S. Baildon Nursing home, assisted living facility, home care 86 (3) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2000 November US ( ultistate) S. Thompson Private home 43 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2002 July US ( ultistate) S. Newport Hospital; Restaurant other or unknown type; School 510 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2002 June US (MA) S. Javiana Other; Restaurant other or unknown type 3 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2002 June US (FL) S. Javiana Restaurant other or unknown type 159 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2003 March US (CA) S. Virchow Other 11 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2003 June US (CA) S. Saintpaul Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type 17 (0) Mango, unspecied; Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2003 November US ( ultistate) S. Saintpaul Restaurant other or unknown type 33 (0) Chicken, unspecied; Iceberg lettuce, unspecied; Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2005 July US (NY) S. Newport Grocery store; Picnic; Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type 27 (0) Onion, unspecied; Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2005 June US (WY) S. Enteritidis Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type 20 (0) Egg, unspecied; Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2005 June US (CA) S. Enteritidis Picnic; Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type; Workplace, not cafeteria 85 (0) Salsa, unspecied CDC, 2011 2006 June US (MD) S. Typhimurium Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type 18 (0) Lettuce, unspecied; Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2006 September US ( ultistate) S. Typhimurium Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type 192 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2006 June US ( ultistate) S. Newport Restaurant other or unknown type 115 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2007 June US S. Newport Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type 46 (0) Avocado, unspecied; Cilantro; Guacamole, unspecied; Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2007 June US (MD) S. Javiana Private home; Restaurant other or unknown type 5 (0) Cheese, unspecied; Chicken, unspecied; Toma to, unspecied; and, Unspecied fruit CDC, 2011 2007 July US (NY) S. Newport Unkno wn or undetermined 10 (1) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2007 October US (MN) S. Typhimurium Restaurant other or unknown type 23 (0) Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2008 July US (CA) S. Braenderup Restaurant other or unknown type 17 (0) Salsa, unspecied CDC, 2011 2008 April US (IA) S. Braenderup Restaurant other or unknown type 12 (0) Green salad; Tomato, unspecied CDC, 2011 2011 October Denmark S. Strathcona Various locations 43 (0) Tomato, unspecied SSI, 2012aPathogens abbreviated and associated with outbreaks include various serotypes of Salmonella (S.). Cases (deaths)