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Risk Factors for Uterine Disease in Dairy Cows
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 Material Information
Title: Risk Factors for Uterine Disease in Dairy Cows
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Galvão, Klibs N. A.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Dairy cattle -- Diseases
Uterus -- Diseases
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Abstract: Uterine diseases are highly prevalent in high-producing dairy cows. Predictors of uterine disease include traditional risk factors, BHBA blood concentration, NEFA blood concentration, neutrophil glycogen stores and calcium.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "VM183."
General Note: "Original publication date May 2012."
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00000959:00001

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VM183 Risk Factors for Uterine Disease in Dairy Cows1Klibs N.A. Galvo2 1. This document is VM183, one of a series of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date May 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http:// edis.ifas.u.edu 2. Klibs N.A. Galvo, DVM, MPVM, PhD, assistant professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim DeanUterine diseases are highly prevalent in high-producing dairy cows. Metritis aects about 20% of lactating dairy cows, with the incidence ranging from 8% to >40% at some farms (Curtis et al. 1985; Galvo et al. 2009a; Goshen and Shpigel 2006; Hammon et al. 2006; Huzzey et al. 2007; Markusfeld 1984). Clinical endometritis also aects about 20% of lactating dairy cows, with the prevalence ranging from 5% to >30% in some herds (Galvo et al. 2009a; LeBlanc et al. 2002; McDougall et al. 2007). Subclinical endometritis is the most prevalent of all uterine diseases; it aects ~40%% of lactating dairy cows, with the prevalence ranging from 30% to >70% in some herds (Galvo et al. 2009a; Galvo et al. 2009b; Gilbert et al. 2005; Hammon et al. 2006; Kasimanickam et al. 2004; Kasimanickam et al. 2005). Traditionally, risk factors associated with metritis include primiparity, dystocia, twins, retained placenta (RP), stillbirth, abortion, prolapsed uterus, and ketosis (Erb et al. 1981a; Erb et al. 1981b; Dohoo and Martin 1984; Markusfeld 1984; Curtis et al. 1985; Markusfeld 1985; Markusfeld 1987; Grhn et al. 1990; Correa, Erb, and Scarlett 1993; Kaneene and Miller 1995; Goshen and Shpigel 2006; Dubuc et al. 2010). Risk factors for endometritis include dystocia, twins, RP, stillbirth, abortion, metritis, problems with vulval conformation, male ospring, and ketosis (Grhn et al. 1990; Galvo et al. 2009a; Dubuc et al. 2010; Potter et al. 2010; Cheong et al. 2011). While metritis is more prevalent in primiparous cows (Markusfeld 1985; Markusfeld 1987; Goshen and Shpigel 2006), incidence of endometritis has been found to increase, to decrease, or to be conditional with the level of milk yield in primiparous compared to multiparous cows (Galvo et al. 2009a; Potter et al. 2010; Cheong et al. 2011). Interestingly, multiparous cows have increased bacterial contamination ~50 days aer calving compared to primiparous cows (Galvo et al. 2009a). Milk production has a detrimental eect on leukocyte function (Kimura, Go, and Kehrli 1999; Nonnecke et al. 2003); therefore, leukocytes from multiparous cows are expected to be more severely aected because of greater milk yields. In fact, phagocytic activity of neutrophils in older cows is more markedly reduced aer calving compared to younger cows (Kehrli, Nonnecke, and Roth 1989; Gilbert et al. 1993). erefore, increased levels of pro-inammatory cytokine production in the uterine endometrium might help to prevent metritis; however, because multiparous cows have greater demands for milk yield, they might be less able to clear an infection completely and, therefore, might be more likely to have endometritis. Another important factor that might be involved in the susceptibility to metritis is the circulating levels of immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins work as opsonins, which greatly enhance phagocytic capacity. Primiparous cows have lower immunoglobulin content in colostrums, which indicates lower circulating immunoglobulin levels (Muller and Ellinger 1981); therefore, phagocytosis might not be optimal in early lactation in primiparous cows. Recent studies have focused on the eect of dry matter intake, indicators of energy balance such as nonesteried fatty acids (NEFA) and betahydroxybutyrate (BHBA), haptoglobin, glycogen stores in neutrophils, and calcium

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2on uterine disease (Hammon et al. 2006; Huzzey et al. 2007; Dueld et al. 2009; Dubuc et al. 2010; Galvo et al. 2010; Ospina et al. 2010; Martinez-Patino et al. 2011). Dry matter intake has been recognized as an important risk factor for the development of uterine disease. Recent observations show that cows that developed metritis and endometritis had a decrease in dry matter intake up to two weeks before calving (Hammon et al. 2006; Huzzey et al. 2007). is decrease in dry matter intake was accompanied by an increase in NEFA and BHBA in blood, indicating a greater degree of negative energy balance and immunosuppression in those cows (Hammon et al. 2006; Galvo et al. 2010). Others have tried to nd cuto levels for NEFA and BHBA preand postpartum that can determine the risk of cows developing uterine disease postpartum. Dueld et al. (2009) observed that the best cuto for BHBA at the rst week postpartum to predict metritis was >1200 ml/l. Cows with BHBA >1200 ml/l had 2.1x greater likelihood of developing metritis postpartum. Ospina et al. (2010) found a lower cuto for BHBA in the rst two weeks postpartum as a predictor of metritis (>700 ml/l). Dubuc et al. (2010) observed that NEFA concentrations mml/l one week before calving were predictive of metritis postpartum. Ospina et al. (2010) found that NEFA concentrations >360 mml/l either two weeks before or two weeks aer calving were predictive of metritis. It is not clear why dierences exist in the cutos between these two reports because both used Holstein cows and had a similar sample size (about 1,400 cows). e timing of sampling may be the most striking dierence. Dubuc et al. (2010) sampled cows one week before calving, which may have resulted in higher concentrations and less variation. In that study (Dubuc et al. 2010), the cuto for endometritis was found to be ,100 ml/l of BHBA in the rst week postpartum. Neutrophils mainly depend on glucose uptake and glycolysis for the energy required for chemotaxis, but they almost exclusively depend on glycogen stores for phagocytosis and microbial killing even in the presence of extracellular glucose (Weisdorf, Craddock, and Jacob 1982a; Weisdorf, Craddock, and Jacob 1982b). One recent study found that cows that develop metritis or endometritis had decreased neutrophil glycogen stores around the time of calving, which could be a predisposing factor for uterine disease later in lactation (Galvo et al. 2010). Hypocalcemia has been consistently associated with RP (Curtis et al. 1983; Curtis et al. 1985; Correa, Erb, and Scarlett 1993), and, in some studies, with metritis (Grhn et al. 1990). Calcium is a key mediator in several cell processes, including activation of immune cells. In a recent study, cows that developed metritis had decreased calcium concentrations in the rst two weeks postpartum, and lower calcium was associated with decreased neutrophil function (Martinez-Patino et al. 2011). Interestingly, the ability to maintain calcium concentration in blood in the rst three days aer calving was more important than the absolute calcium concentration. It has been found that the greater the drop in calcium concentration in the rst three days postpartum, the greater the probability of developing metritis later in lactation (Figure 1).SummaryUterine diseases are highly prevalent in high-producing dairy cows. Risk factors associated with metritis include primiparity, dystocia, twins, RP, stillbirth, abortion, prolapsed uterus, and ketosis. Risk factors for endometritis include dystocia, twins, RP, stillbirth, abortion, metritis, problems with vulval conformation, male ospring, and ketosis. BHBA blood concentration ,200 ml/l in the rst week postpartum is predictive of metritis, while BHBA blood concentration ,100 ml/l in the rst week postpar tum is predictive of endometritis. NEFA blood concentration mml/l in the rst week postpartum is predictive of metritis. If samples are collected in the rst two weeks postpartum, the cuto for predicting metritis is ml/l for BHBA and mml/l for NEFA. Neutrophil glycogen stores and calcium are associated with the development of uterine disease. Particularly, a drop in calcium in the rst three days postpartum is a strong predictor of metritis. Figure 1. Eect of calcium change in the rst three days postpartum on the probability of development of metritis in the rst two weeks postpartum. Credits: Martinez-Patino et al. (2011).

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3References/Suggested ReadingCheong, S.H., D.V. Nydam, K.N. Galvo, B.M. Crosier, and R.O. Gilbert. 2011. Cow-level and Herd-level Risk Factors for Subclinical Endometritis in Lactating Holstein Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94:762-70. Correa, M.T., H. Erb, and J. Scarlett. 1993. Path Analysis for Seven Postpartum Disorders of Holstein Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1305-12. Curtis, C.R., H.N. Erb, C.J. Snien, R.D. Smith, P.A. Powers, M.C. Smith, M.E. White, R.B. Hillman, and E.J. Pearson. 1983. Association of Parturient Hypocalcemia with Eight Periparturient Disorders in Holstein Cows. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183:559-61. Curtis, C.R., H.N. Erb, C.J. Snien, R.D. Smith, and D.S. Kronfeld. 1985. Path Analysis of Dry Period Nutrition, Postpartum Metabolic and Reproductive Disorders, and Mastitis in Holstein Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 68:2347-60. Dohoo, I.R., and S.W. Martin. 1984. Subclinical Ketosis: Prevalence and Associations with Production and Disease. Can. J. Comp. Med. 48:1-5. Dubuc, J., T.F. Dueld, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Walton, and S.J. LeBlanc. 2010. Risk Factors for Postpartum Uterine Diseases in Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:5764-71. Dueld, T.F., K.D. Lissemore, B.W. McBride, and K.E. Leslie. 2009. Impact of Hyperketonemia in Early Lacta tion Dairy Cows on Health and Production. J. Dairy Sci. 92:571-80. Erb, H.N., S.W. Martin, N. Ison, and S. Swaminathan. 1981a. Interrelationships between Production and Reproductive Diseases in Holstein Cows. Path Analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 64:282-9. Erb, H.N., S.W. Martin, N. Ison, and S. Swaminathan. 1981b. Interrelationships between Production and Reproductive Diseases in Holstein Cows. Conditional Relationships between Production and Disease. J. Dairy Sci. 64:272-81. Galvo, K.N., L.F. Greco, J.M. Vilela, M.F. S Filho, and J.E.P. Santos. 2009a. Eect of Intrauterine Infusion of Ceiofur on Uterine Health and Fertility in Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:1532-42. Galvo, K.N., M. Frajblat, S.B. Brittin, W.R. Butler, C.L. Guard, and R.O. Gilbert. 2009b. Eect of Prostaglandin F2alpha on Subclinical Endometritis and Fertility in Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4906-13. Galvo, K.N., M.J. Flaminio, S.B. Brittin, R. Sper, M. Fraga, L. Caixeta, A. Ricci, C.L. Guard, W.R. Butler, and R.O. Gilbert. 2010. Association between Uterine Disease and Indicators of Neutrophil and Systemic Energy Status in Lactating Holstein Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:2926-37. Gilbert, R.O., Y.T. Grhn, P.M. Miller, and D.J. Homan. 1993. Eect of Parity on Periparturient Neutrophil Function in Dairy Cows. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 36:75-82. Gilbert, R.O., S.T. Shin, C.L. Guard, H.N. Erb, and M. Frajblat. 2005. Prevalence of Endometritis and Its Eects on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows. eriogenology 64:1879-88. Goshen, T., and N.Y. Shpigel. 2006. Evaluation of Intrauterine Antibiotic Treatment of Clinical Metritis and Retained Fetal Membranes in Dairy Cows. eriogenology 66:2210-18. Grhn, Y.T., H.N. Erb, C.E. Mcculloch, and H.S. Saloniemi. 1990. Epidemiology of Reproductive Disorders in Dairy Cattle: Associations among Host Characteristics, Disease and Production. Prev. Vet. Med. 8:25-39. Hammon, D.S., I.M. Evjen, T.R. Dhiman, J.P. Go, and J.L. Walters. 2006. Neutrophil Function and Energy Status in Holstein Cows with Uterine Health Disorders. Vet. Im munol. Immunopathol. 113:21-9. Huzzey, J.M., D.M. Veira, D.M. Weary, and M.A. von Keyserlingk. 2007. Prepartum Behavior and Dry Matter Intake Identify Dairy Cows at Risk for Metritis. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 3220-33. Kaneene, J.B., and R. Miller. 1995. Risk Factors for Metritis in Michigan Dairy Cattle Using Herdand Cow-Based Modeling Approaches. Prev. Vet. Med. 23:183-200. Kasimanickam, R., T.F. Dueld, R.A. Foster, C.J. Gartley, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Walton, and W.H. Johnson. 2004. Endometrial Cytology and Ultrasonography for the Detection of Subclinical Endometritis in Postpartum Dairy Cows. eriogenology 62:9-23. Kasimanickam, R., T.F. Dueld, R.A. Foster, C.J. Gartley, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Walton, and W.H. Johnson. 2005. e Eect of a Single Administration of Cephapirin or

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4Cloprostenol on the Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows with Subclinical Endometritis. eriogenology 63:818-30. Kehrli, M.E. Jr., B.J. Nonnecke, and J.A. Roth. 1989. Alterations in Bovine Neutrophil Function during the Periparturient Period. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50:207-14. Kimura, K., J.P. Go, and M.E. Kehrli, Jr. 1999. Eects of the Presence of the Mammary Gland on Expression of Neutrophil Adhesion Molecules and Myeloperoxidase Activity in Periparturient Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2385-92. LeBlanc, S.J., T.F. Dueld, K.E. Leslie, K.G. Bateman, G.P. Keefe, J.S. Walton, and W.H. Johnson. 2002. Dening and Diagnosing Postpartum Clinical Endometritis and Its Impact on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2223-2236. McDougall, S., R. Macaulay, and C. Compton. 2007. Association between Endometritis Diagnosis Using a Novel Intravaginal Device and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 99:9-23. Markusfeld, O. 1984. Factors Responsible for Post Parturient Metritis in Dairy Cattle. Vet. Rec. 114:539-42. Markusfeld, O. 1985. Relationship between Overfeeding, Metritis and Ketosis in High Yielding Dairy Cows. Vet. Rec. 116:489-91. Markusfeld, O. 1987. Periparturient Traits in Seven High Dairy Herds. Incidence Rates, Association with Parity, and Interrelationships among Traits. J. Dairy Sci. 70:158-66. Martinez-Patino, N., C.A. Risco, F. Maunsell, K.N. Galvo, and J.E. Santos. 2011. Presentation at the 44th Annual Conference of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, St. Louis, Missouri, September 22-24, 2011. Muller, L., and D. Ellinger. 1981. Colostral Immunoglobulin Concentrations among Breeds of Dairy Cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1727-30. Nonnecke, B.J., K. Kimura, J.P. Go, and M.E. Kehrli, Jr. 2003. Eects of the Mammary Gland on Functional Capacities of Blood Mononuclear Leukocyte Populations from Periparturient Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2359-68. Ospina, P.A., D.V. Nydam, T. Stokol, and T.R. Overton. 2010. Evaluation of Nonesteried Fatty Acids and Beta-hydroxybutyrate in Transition Dairy Cattle in the Northeastern United States: Critical resholds for Prediction of Clinical Diseases. J. Dairy Sci. 93:546-54. Potter, T.J., J. Guitian, J. Fishwick, P.J. Gordon, and I.M. Sheldon. 2010. Risk Factors for Clinical Endometritis in Postpartum Dairy Cattle. eriogenology 74:127-34. Weisdorf, D.J., P.R. Craddock, and H.S. Jacob. 1982a. Glycogenolysis versus Glucose Transport in Human Granulocytes: Dierential Activation in Phagocytosis and Chemotaxis. Blood 60:888-93. Weisdorf, D.J., P.R. Craddock, and H.S. Jacob. 1982b. Granulocytes Utilize Dierent Energy Sources for Movement and Phagocytosis. Inammation 6:245-56.