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Advancement of Integrated Pest Management in University Housing
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/IPM10011 ( DOI )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000910/00001
 Material Information
Title: Advancement of Integrated Pest Management in University Housing
Series Title: J. Integ. Pest Mngmt. 2(3): 2011
Physical Description: Journal Article
Creator: Leppla, Norman
Juneau, Kevyn J.
Walker, A. Wayne
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Place of Publication: 10001 Derekwood Lane, Suite 100; Lanham, Maryland
http://www.entsoc.org/
Publication Date: December 1, 2011
 Notes
Abstract: Research was conducted in collaboration with the University of Florida (UF), Department of Housing and Residence Education (DOHRE) to assess and advance the campus integrated pest management (IPM) program they initiated in 2003. Beginning in 2008, the UF, DOHRE advanced IPM program was based on resident education, periodic inspection, and a systematic decision-making process whereby apartments were monitored, pests identified, action thresholds determined, and safe and effective pest management options used. The continuously improved process began with pest management methods based on resident behavior, such as sanitation and pest exclusion accomplished by the residents, accompanied by physical controls, including barriers installed by maintenance personnel and pest control devices maintained by DOHRE IPM technicians. If pest problems persisted, low risk materials were used, for example, dishwashing detergent solutions, boric acid, diatomaceous earth, bait stations, and botanical or microbial insecticides. There was a significant improvement in pest prevention behavior of the residents after the 2008 DOHRE IPM education and inspection campaign; however, there was no change in the already low annual number of pest complaints. From 2003 through 2008, ants were the most common pest reported, followed in order by cockroaches, stored product pests, and termites. The amount of insecticide active ingredient used per year decreased by ≍92%, virtually eliminating the use of hydramethylnon, borate, desiccants, organophosphates, fipronil, and pyrethroids. Further advancements can be made in campus IPM by increasing resident education and DOHRE IPM technician training, and the level of pest preventative inspection and maintenance.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Norman Leppla.
Publication Status: Published
Funding: Funding was provided by USDA, NIFA through IPM Florida and a Steinmetz Endowment to the UF, Entomology and Nematology Department. Publication of this article was funded in part by the University of Florida Open Access Publishing Fund.
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00000910:00001

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AdvancementofIntegratedPestManagementinUniversityHousingKevynJ.Juneau,1NormanC.Leppla,2andA.WayneWalker31SchoolofForestResourcesandEnvironmentalScience,MichiganTechnologicalUniversity,1400TownsendDrive,Houghton,MI49931.2Correspondingauthor,EntomologyandNematology,Department,UniversityofFlorida,P.O.Box110620,Gainesville,FL32611-0620(e-mail: ncleppla@ufl.edu).3DepartmentofHousingandResidenceEducation,UniversityofFlorida,P.O.Box112100,Gainesville,FL32611-2100. J.Integ.PestMngmt.2(3):2011;DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/IPM10011ABSTRACT. ResearchwasconductedincollaborationwiththeUniversityofFlorida(UF),DepartmentofHousingandResidenceEducation(DOHRE)toassessandadvancethecampusintegratedpestmanagement(IPM)programtheyinitiatedin2003.Beginningin2008, theUF,DOHREadvancedIPMprogramwasbasedonresidenteducation,periodicinspection,andasystematicdecision-makingprocess wherebyapartmentsweremonitored,pestsidentified,actionthresholdsdetermined,andsafeandeffectivepestmanagementoptions used.Thecontinuouslyimprovedprocessbeganwithpestmanagementmethodsbasedonresidentbehavior,suchassanitationandpest exclusionaccomplishedbytheresidents,accompaniedbyphysicalcontrols,includingbarriersinstalledbymaintenancepersonneland pestcontroldevicesmaintainedbyDOHREIPMtechnicians.Ifpestproblemspersisted,lowriskmaterialswereused,forexample, dishwashingdetergentsolutions,boricacid,diatomaceousearth,baitstations,andbotanicalormicrobialinsecticides.Therewasa significantimprovementinpestpreventionbehavioroftheresidentsafterthe2008DOHREIPMeducationandinspectioncampaign; however,therewasnochangeinthealreadylowannualnumberofpestcomplaints.From2003through2008,antswerethemost commonpestreported,followedinorderbycockroaches,storedproductpests,andtermites.Theamountofinsecticideactiveingredient usedperyeardecreasedby 92%,virtuallyeliminatingtheuseofhydramethylnon,borate,desiccants,organophosphates,fipronil,and pyrethroids.FurtheradvancementscanbemadeincampusIPMbyincreasingresidenteducationandDOHREIPMtechniciantraining,and thelevelofpestpreventativeinspectionandmaintenance. KeyWords: urbanIPM;insecticides;pestinsects Asinagriculture,urbanIPMisasystematicapproachtomanaging pestsbasedonlong-termpreventionorsuppressionbyavarietyof methodsthatarecosteffectiveandminimizeriskstohumanhealth andtheenvironment(Lewisetal.1997,USDA2004).Urbanpestscan justbeanuisanceorcausesignificanthealthproblems,damageto buildings,andadditionaleconomiclossesbecauseoffoodcontamination,diminishedesthetics,andpestmanagementcosts.Theuseof insecticidestomanageurbanpestsalsocanhavenegativeconsequences,suchasenvironmentalpollutionandadversehealtheffects forhumansandanimals(Buckley2000,Alarconetal.2005).By systematicallypracticingsustainableurbanIPM,risksassociatedwith pestsandpesticidescanbeminimized(IPMInstitute2011). UrbanIPM,developedbyincorporatingmanyoftheestablished conceptsofagriculturalIPM(Sternetal.1959),integratedbioticand abioticfactors,includingtheappropriateuseofpesticides.Concepts, suchasscouting,accuratepestidentification,actionthresholds,and conservationofnaturalcontrolswereadaptedforuseinstructuraland landscapepestmanagement(Flintetal.1991).AsurbanIPMadvanced,educationbecameakeyfactorinpreventingpestinfestations, improvingsanitation,andincreasingtoleranceofnonriskpests(Byrne etal.1984,RobinsonandZungoli1985,GreeneandBreisch2002). Today,thegoalofurbanIPMistomanagepestsprimarilybypreventionandeliminationoftheiraccesstofood,waterandharborages, alongwithchanginghumanbehavior.Low-riskinsecticidesareused onlywhennecessaryandrarelythosewiththesignalwords“warning” or“danger”indicatedontheirU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency (EPA)labels.Insecticideuseinurbanhousingandassociatedhealth risks(Buckley2000,Alarconetal.2005)canbeminimizedby institutingIPMbasedonlow-riskpracticesthatmaintainpestsatvery lowlevels(Williamsetal.2006). UniversitiesoftenhavecampusIPMprogramsatsomestageof developmentbutrarelyobtain,analyzeandpublishdataontheir methods,materials,experiences,andsuccesses.IPMstudieshave beenconductedinpublichousing(GreeneandBreisch2002)butmost wererestrictedtolowincomeunitsprimarilyininner-cityneighborhoods(Rosenstreichetal.1997,Campbelletal.1999,Brenneretal. 2003,Williamsetal.2006,Petersetal.2007).Wearenotawareof apublishedstudyontheeffectivenessofanIPMprograminuniversity graduatestudentandfamilyhousing,eventhough 2.4millionstudentsliveincollegeanduniversityhousingnationwide(U.S.Census Bureau2009).Thepurposeofthisresearchwastodocument,assess andadvancetheUniversityofFlorida(UF)DepartmentofHousing andResidenceEducation(DOHRE)IPMprogramafteritsfirst5 years,2003–2008.SpecificobjectivesinmaintainingUF,DOHRE propertieswithminimalexposureofresidentstopestsandpesticides wereto(1)educateresidentsaboutpestsandpestprevention,(2) assesspestproblemssystematicallytodeterminethebestIPMoptions, (3)baseIPMactionsonaccurateidentificationofpests,knowledgeof theirbiology,andreasonablethresholds,and(4)increasetheeffectivenessoftheIPMprogram.MaterialsandMethodsTheDOHREbeganusingbasicIPMpracticesforUFhousingand residencehallsin2003,includingroutineapartmentinspections,sanitationrequirements,requestsformaintenancetoUFFacilitiesManagement,anduseoflow-riskinsecticidesandbaits.Low-riskproducts hadthesignalword“caution”ontheirEPAlabels.Toadvancethe initialUF,DOHREIPMprogram,allbaitstationsforantsand cockroacheswereremovedfromtheapartmentsandprophylactic insecticidetreatmentswerediscontinued.In2008,weinstitutedthe following:awrittenIPMpolicy,adedicatedIPMspecialisttrainedat UF,prescribedpestpreventionpractices,educationofresidentsabout insects,apestmonitoringsystem,accuratepestidentification,an electronicpestcomplaintprocedure,arapidresponseandcollaborativedecision-makingprocess,preferentialuseofnonchemicalpest managementmethods,applicationoflow-riskinsecticidesifnecessary,continuousIPMprogramevaluation,andcomprehensiverecord keeping.TheadvancedDOHREIPMprogramhasbeendocumented inatrainingmanualthatdescribeshowtoinstitutionalizeIPM,preJou J o u r nal n a l o o f Inte I n t e g rated r a t e d P est e s t Management M a n a g e m e n t CASE STUDY OPEN ACCESS

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ventpestproblems,andselectpest-specificIPMoptions(Juneauetal. 2009). ThesystematicDOHREIPMdecision-makingprocessisbasedon experiencegainedfrom2003to2008(Fig.1).IPMactionsbeginwith apestcomplaint(pestmanagementrequest)submittedbyaresidentor apestsightingbyaDOHREIPMtechnicianduringroutineservice.In eithercase,thepestisidentifiedandathoroughassessmentmadeto determineifithasreachedalevelofabundanceorcauseddamagethat triggersanIPMaction.GeneralactionthresholdsforthepestsencounteredinUFhousingandresidencehallswereindicatedintheIPM trainingmanual(Juneauetal.2009).Continuedmonitoring,perhaps withanincreasedfrequencyofinspection,istheonlyrequirementif theactionlevelhasnotbeenreached.Abovetheactionthreshold,IPM optionsareselectedbytheDOHREseniorIPMtechnicianinconsultationwiththeresidentsbasedontheireffectiveness,safety,andcost. Examplesofsafeoptionsaremodificationstothephysicalenvironment,changesinresidentbehavior,animaltrapswithfingerguards, andthejudicioususeofreducedriskinsecticides(EPA2011)to mitigatepestinfestations.Asubsequentevaluationismadetodetermineifthepestproblemhasbeensolved;ifnot,theIPMactionsare reassessed.Thisdecision-makingprocesshastwofeedbackloopsto monitoring:(1)monitoring—assessment—belowactionlevel—continuedmonitoringand(2)monitoring—assessment—aboveaction level—IPMoptions—evaluation—problemnotsolved—reassessment.Eventually,ifthepestisnolongerapparentorcausingdamage, continuedmonitoringistheonlyrequiredIPMaction. StudyLocation. IncollaborationwithDOHRE,an 50-year-old U.S.DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment(HUD)apartmentcomplexlocatedontheUFmaincampusinGainesville,FL,was selectedtoserveasthestudysite.Thecomplexconsistedof28 residentialbuildingsencompassing220apartmentsandoneadditional supportbuildingcontainingacommonareaforresidents,anoffice, andalaundryroom.Twenty-sevenoftheresidentialbuildingseach hadtwo1-bedroomandtwo2-bedroomapartmentsdownstairsand upstairs.Anotherbuildinghadfour1-bedroomapartments.Thecomplexhousedsinglegraduatestudentsandbothmarriedundergraduate andgraduatestudentsandtheirfamilies.Mostoftheresidentswere internationalstudentswithawiderangeoflivinghabitsandattitudes aboutpestsandpestmanagement. ResidentEducation. TheDOHREseniorIPMtechnicianprovided a1-hourverbalorientationfornewresidentsoftheapartmentcomplex atthebeginningofthespringsemesterinJanuary2008.Duringan evening,thenewresidentsgatheredasagroupinthecommonareato learnaboutpestpreventionandassociatedapartmentinspectioncriteria(Table1).TheywereencouragedtocontactDOHREforpest managementservices,ratherthanattempttocontrolpestswithoverFig.1. TheIPMdecision-makingprocessdevelopedbetween initiationoftheIPMprogramon1January2003andits advancementin2008.Theprocessbeginswitheitherapest complaintbyaresidentorpestsightingduringaroutineservice inspection.Thepotentialinfestationisassessedandappropriate actiontakenifathresholdisreached.Theoutcomeisevaluatedand additionalactiontakenifwarrantedormonitoringisresumed. Table1.Improvementininspectioncriteriabetweenthefirst(Mar.11–April11,2008)andsecond(Jan.5–26,2009)inspection( n 155 apartments) Inspectioncriteria Numberofdeficiencies %Improvement FirstinspectionSecondinspection 1.Outdoorpestharborage187 11(61.1%) 2.Screendooropen39401( 2.6%) 3.Odorinapartment3626 10(27.8%) 4.Moldpresent451 44(97.8%) 5.Carpetinpoorcondition110 6.Garbagecansnotcovered11377 36(31.9%) 7.Garbagespilledaroundcan156 9(60.0%) 8.Foodstoredopenoncounter7544 31(41.3%) 9.Foodstoredinroomsnotkitchen1512 3(20.0%) 10.Rottingfoodpresent1511 4(26.7%) 11.Kitchensinkdirty169 7(43.8%) 12.Kitchenfloordirty148 6(42.9%) 13.Kitchencountersdirty1412 2(14.3%) 14.Kitchencabinetscluttered134 9(69.2%) 15.Foodspillsinkitchencabinets4423 21(47.7%) 16.Bathroomsinkortubdirty92 7(77.8%) 17.Bathroomfloordirty71 6(85.7%) 18.Carpetdirty127 5(41.7%) 19.Clutterthroughoutapartment1615 1(06.3%) 20.Stovedirty61 5(83.3%) 21.Underrefrigeratordirty2314 9(39.1%) 22.Improperfoodcontainment70755(07.1%) 23.Poorgeneralorganization1811 7(38.9%) NetimprovementinIPM634407 227(35.8%) 2JOURNALOFINTEGRATEDPESTMANAGEMENTVOL.2,NO.3

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the-counterpesticides.Asanalternativetoinsecticides,a1-literspray bottlewasprovidedtoeachhouseholdwithinstructionsonhowtomix a6%solutionofdishwashingdetergent.Householdcleaners,includingdetergents,havebeenshowntokillinsectsoncontact(Baldwin andKoehler2007)andcanbeusedtoremoveinsects,pheromone trails,frass,andassociateddebris.Theresidentsreceivedadditional IPMinformationandinstructionduringroutineinspectionsandin responsetopestcomplaints.TheyalsoweregiveneducationalbrochuresproducedfortheDOHREIPMprogram:BedBugPrevention, TipstoKeepPestsOutofanApartment,ExtendedVacationChecklist,CampusGardening,andIdentificationofCommonInsectPestsin UFHousing(Juneau2009).Thesedocumentsweree-mailedtothe residents,linkedtotheiron-linenewsletter,TheVillager,placedinthe apartmentcomplexcommonareas,andmadeavailableontheIPM FloridaWebsite(http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu). ApartmentInspections. Aninitialinspectionofapartmentswas conductedbetweenMarch11andApril11,2008,followedbyanother duringJanuary5–26,2009.Vacantapartmentsandthosewithnew residentsduringthesecondinspectionwerenotincludedinthestudy. Thefinal155apartmentswereinspectedforpest-conducivephysical defectsanddeficienciesinresidentbehaviorbasedon23criteria (Table1).Therewere11typesofmaintenanceproblems,including cracksorholesinwalls,windowscreensnotsecured,windowsnot sealed,inadequatedoorsweepsorseals,impropergutterdrainage, wallswithevidenceofwaterleaks,improperescutcheonplateinstallation,condensationonplumbing,pipeleaks,inadequateventilation, andcracksorholesintheceiling.Thenumberandtypesofresident behavioraldeficienciesandphysicaldefectswererecordedduringthe initialandsubsequentinspectionforeachapartment.Changesin inspectioncriteriawereanalyzedwithapaired t -testusingJMP7.0 (SASInstitute2007). PestComplaints. Pestcomplaintshadbeenrecordedforeachofthe 220apartmentssinceJanuary1,2003.Theseandsubsequentcomplaintsduringthisstudyweregroupedbythemostabundantpesttypes orlistedasunknown,includingspiders,mites,booklice,bedbugs, mice,mosquitoes,andwasps.Thedataweretotaledforeachpesttype bymonthandatimeseriesanalysiswasusedtodeterminepossible seasonalpatterns.ThenumbersofpestcomplaintsalsowerecomparedbeforeandafterresidentIPMeducationandapartmentinspectionswereintensifiedinJanuary2008.Pestcomplaintswereusedas aproxybecausetherewerenohistoricalrecordsoftheexactnumbers ofspecifickindsofpestspresentintheapartments.Becausemany pestswerenotreported,complaintsservedasaconservativeestimate oftheactualpestexposurefortheresidents.Thepestcomplaintdata wereanalyzedasatimeseriesusingJMP7.0(SASInstitute2007). InsecticideApplications. DOHREinsecticideuserecordsincluded theapartmentnumbers,productnamesandamounts,andapplication dates.MonthlydatafromJanuary1,2003toDecember3,2008were analyzedbycomparingtheweight(mass)ofactiveingredientsin insecticideproductsacrosswidelyvaryingformulations.Recordsfor eachapartmentwerekeptonthetotalweightofactiveingredientsfor solidandgelformulationsbutonlyonthevolumeappliedforliquids andaerosols.Becausetheseliquidproductsarealmostallwater,the massofeachwasestimatedbyfirstmultiplyingitsspecificgravity (SG)derivedfromtheMaterialSafetyDataSheet(MSDS)bythe densityofwater(1g/ml)todeterminethedensityoftheproduct.The densityofaproductwasthenmultipliedbyitsvolumetodetermineits mass.Thepercentageofactiveingredientineachsolid,gel,liquid, andaerosolproductislistedontheEPAlabel,sothepercentagetimes themassoftheproductyieldedanestimateofthemassofactive ingredient:Densityproduct SpecificGravityproduct DensitywaterMassproduct Volumeproduct DensityproductMassactiveingredient Massproduct %ActiveIngredientintheProductTheinsecticidesweregroupedaccordingtoclass(Kegleyetal.2008) andthemassofactiveingredientsappliedineachclasswastotaled monthly.ResultsResidentEducationandApartmentInspections. TheUF,DOHRE IPMresidenteducationandapartmentinspectioncampaignimproved pestpreventionpracticeswithinthefirstyear.Residentsshouldhave learnedaboutproperfoodstorageandsanitationfromtheorientation meetingandbrochuresprovidedinJanuary2008.However,thefirst inspectionsconductedinMarchthroughApril2008revealedthatthey stillhadmajorshortcomingsintheirpestpreventionbehavior(Table 1).Theapartmentinspectionsreinforcedtheimportanceofsanitation andotherpestpreventionpractices.Duringthesecondinspectionsin January2009,theaveragenumberofdeficienciesininspectioncriteria perapartmentdecreasedsignificantlyfrom4.14 0.27to2.65 0.22 (mean SD; n 155;paired t -test, t 5.29; P 0.0001).The maintenancedefectsremainedunchangedfrom2.85 0.14to2.86 0.14.IPMcleanersolutionspraybottleswerepresentinall155 apartments;however,thenumberofapartmentswithover-the-counter insecticideswasreducedonlyfrom57to52.DOHREIPMtechnicians couldconductroutineapartmentinspectionsbutdidnothavethe authoritytorequireresidentstodiscardinsecticidestheyhad purchased. Theapartmentswereevaluatedforall23inspectioncriteriaduring boththefirstandsecondinspection(Table1).Forthefirstinspection, 634deficiencieswereobservedbutthenumberdeclinedto407forthe secondinspection,a35.8%overallimprovement.Decreasesoccurred inallbuttwooftheinspectioncriteria,screendooropenandimproper foodcontainment.Therewere12majordeficiencies,thosein 15% oftheapartments,duringthefirstinspection.Theseincludedoutdoor pestharborage,screendooropen,odorinapartment,moldpresent, garbagecansnotcovered,foodstoredopenoncounter,kitchensink dirty,foodspillsinkitchencabinets,clutterthroughoutapartment, underrefrigeratordirty,improperfoodcontainment,andpoorgeneral organization.Oftheentiresetof23deficiencies,allexceptfivewere reducedby 25%,includingscreendooropen,foodstoredinrooms notkitchen,kitchencountersdirty,clutterthroughoutapartment,and improperfoodcontainment.Nevertheless,thepercentageofapartmentswithscreendooropen,garbagecansnotcovered,foodstored openoncounter,andimproperfoodcontainmentremained unacceptable. PestComplaints. Therewasnooverallpatternintheannualnumber ofpestcomplaintspreadvancement(2003–2007)andpostadvancement(2008)oftheIPMprogram(Fig.2).However,complaintsabout antsandcockroachesappearedtoincreaseafter2005,asdidcomplaintsforallpesttypesin2008,exceptstoredproductpests.The mean SDnumbersofmonthlypestcomplaintsrecordedfor72 monthsfrom2003to2008wereants(4.03 0.53),cockroaches (1.38 0.16),storedproductpests(0.21 0.05),termites(0.31 0.09),andunknown(1.0 0.13). Therewere290complaintsinvolvingants,themajorpestbeingthe darkroverant, Brachymyrmexpatagonicus Mayr(Hymenoptera:Formicidae),anadventivespeciesfromSouthAmerica.Thoughnot statisticallysignificant( P 0.09,autocorrelation 0.314),antcomplaintsappearedtohavea12monthcyclewithincreasesduringthe summermonthsanddecreasesduringthewinter(Juneau2009).There wasapeakinantcomplaintsduringMay2008probablyresulting fromantsbeingdisruptedbytheinstallationofhigh-speedInternet cables.Trenchingaroundbuildingsredistributedthesoilandcreated abarriertoforagingthatforcedantsindoors.Inresponsetothese complaints,theantsweretreatedalmostexclusivelywithaborateand honeybaitformulation.Insideapartments,theantsaccumulatedmost ofteninkitchens.Theywereobservedenteringthroughairconditioningductsandcracksinthedrywall.Althoughwedidnotopenwalls tofollowthetrails,largecoloniesof B.patagonicus previouslyhad DECEMBER2011JUNEAUETAL.:IPMINUNIVERSITYHOUSING3

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beendiscoveredinbathroomandkitchenwallswhenapartmentswere renovated.Theseantshavebeenreportedtonestinsidewalls (MacGownetal.2007). Therewere99complaintsaboutcockroachesfromJanuary2003to December2008withnodistinctionbetweenthetwocombinedspecies,theGermancockroach, Blattellagermanica L.,andAmerican cockroach, Periplanetaamericana L.(Blattodea:Blattidae).ThecomplaintswerenotcyclicbecauseGermanandAmericancockroaches aredomesticandperidomestic,respectively(Hagenbuchetal.1988, Atkinsonetal.1990),andareonlyindirectlyaffectedbyoutdoor weather.Therelativeabundanceofthetwocockroachspecieswasnot noted.Complaintsaboutcockroachinfestationsincreasedin2008but remainedinfrequentregardlessofdeficienciesinapartmentsanitation. Thepresenceoffood,water,andharboragessupportscockroach infestations(Schal1988),soincreasedsanitationpossiblycouldreducethenumberofcomplaints. Theremainderofthepestcomplaintsinvolvedstoredproductpests (15),subterraneantermites(Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)(9),drywood termites(Isoptera:Kalotermitidae)(13),andunknown(72).Complaintsaboutstoredproductpestswereintermittentandtheunidentifiedinsectswerediscardedwiththecontaminatedfood.Termite infestationswereuncommonandvariouskindsofunknownpestswere handledonacasebycasebasis. InsecticideApplications. Theclassesofinsecticidesusedatthe apartmentcomplexin2003–2004wereprimarilyamidinohydrazone (hydramethylnon),borate(boricacid),desiccants(silicagelanddiatomaceousearth),andanorganophosphateusedtoexterminatedrywoodtermites(Fig.3).Borateanddesiccantinsecticideswereusedto controlants,cockroaches,andothercrawlinginsects.After2004,EPA registrationswerediscontinuedformostorganophosphates.During 2004–2005,formulationofcockroachbaitschangedfromhydramethylnontofipronil,apyrazole.Thisdecreasedtheweightofactive ingredientnecessarytotreatforcockroachesin2006becausethe proportionoffipronilperproduct(0.05%)islessthanhydramethylnon (2%).Mosquitoesthatrestedinstairwellsweretreatedwithpyrethroidsbeginningin2004butonlyminoramountsofhydramethylnon, silicagelandbifenthrinhavebeenusedattheapartmentcomplex since2006.Synergistsandaninsectgrowthregulatorwereused infrequentlyandthereforenotincludedintheanalysis.In2007,trench androdapplicationsofaninsecticideproductcontainingfipronilwere madearoundtheapartmentbuildingstocontrolsubterraneantermites. Pyrethroidscontinuedtobethepredominantinsecticidesapplied becausetheirformulationsareeffective,easytouse,repellant,and labeledforuseonmanyinsects. Theamountofinsecticidesusedperyearincreasedfrom1952.45 gin2003–4318.60gin2005,andthendecreasedto155.61gin2008 astheadvancedIPMprogramwasimplemented(Fig.4).Theswitch fromapplyinginsecticidesroutinelytoaddressingonlyidentifiedpest problemsaccountedformostofthesubsequentlowquantityand intermittentuseofthesechemicals.Afterspring2008,boratesand otherdesiccantswerenolongerroutinelyplacedinwallvoids,under cabinets,andthroughoutthekitchens,andallbaitswereremovedfrom theapartments.Therewasabedbug, Cimexlectularius L.(Hemiptera: Cimicidae),infestationinJune2008thatwarrantedtheuseofa desiccantandpyrethroid(Fig.3).Theseinsecticideswereconfined insidewallvoids,behindbaseboards,andincracksandcrevices.In conjunctionwiththeinsecticides,aheattreatmentshowntokillbed bugs(Pereiraetal.2009),wasusedforsensitiveitems,suchasa mattressandboxsprings,bedding,furniture,andclothing.From SeptembertoNovember2008,ahydramethylnonproductwasusedto eliminatepotentiallyharmfulredimportedfireants, Solenopsisinvicta Buren(Hymenoptera:Formicidae).Alsoin2008,thereweremany complaintsaboutants,requiringapplicationsofaboricacidandhoney bait.DiscussionThisresearchdocumentedandadvancedtheIPMpoliciesand practicesinstitutedbyUF,DOHREforthebuildingsandgroundsthey manage.Asaresult,DOHREIPMtechniciansaretrainedtoassess pestproblemssystematically,determinethebestIPMoptionsin consultationwiththeresidents,andbasetheiractionsonaccurate identificationofpests,knowledgeofpestbiology,andreasonable thresholds(Juneauetal.2009).ThresholdsarereachedbeforeappropriateIPMoptionsareselected,rangingfromnonchemicalmethods and,ifnecessary,theuseofeffective,lowriskinsecticides. Nonchemicalmethodsincludeexclusion,sanitation,trapping,orperhapstoleratingthepest.Ifinsecticidesbecomenecessary,theyare appliedaftertheresidentsarenotifiedandduringappropriatetimesto maximizetheireffectivenessandprotecthumanhealthandtheenvironment.Low-riskproductsareselectedandplacedinlocationswhere humanexposureisminimal.Allinsecticidesarehandledaccordingto stateandfederallawsandtherearenoroutine,periodicapplications. Fig.2. Thetotalnumberofpestcomplaintsperyearforeachofthe pesttypesfrom220apartmentspreadvancement(2003…2007)and postadvancement(2008)oftheIPMprogram. 4JOURNALOFINTEGRATEDPESTMANAGEMENTVOL.2,NO.3

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TheDOHREIPMtechniciansandresidentscooperateindetermining thattheIPMoptionstheyselectareacceptableandeffectivein eliminatingpestinfestations. TheDOHREIPMprogramforuniversityhousingachievedthe goalofminimizingexposureofresidentstopestsandpesticidesby alteringthebehaviorofbothresidentsandDOHREIPMtechnicians. AnIPMpolicywasinstitutedthatemphasizededucationaboutpests andpestprevention.Inarelatedpilotstudy,abriefeducationalsession andbookletinfluencedresidentstoacceptandcomplywithanIPM program(Campbelletal.1999).Inourstudy,residentsimprovedtheir sanitationandfoodhandlingpracticessignificantlyafterreceiving verbalguidance,associatedwrittenIPMeducationalmaterials,and thoroughapartmentinspections.However,afternearlyayearofthe advancedDOHREIPMprogram,manyoftheresidentsstillprovided insectsaccessthroughopenscreendoors,continuedtohaveunacceptableodorsandclutterthroughouttheirapartments,anddidnot storefoodproperly.Severalyearsmayberequiredtoreducethe numberandkindsofpestsinfestingtheapartments,asinprevious studiesofpublicbuildings(GreeneandBreisch2002).Furtherreductionsarepossible,however,becauseresidentswillreceiveIPMinstructionrepeatedlyduringtheir3-to6-yeareducationalprograms.It hasbeenshownthatcontinuingeducationisessentialforchanging attitudesaboutthepresenceofarthropodsandimplementinganurban pestmanagementprogram(Byrneetal.1984). Thepublicwantsapest-freeenvironmentbutpreferspestmanagementpracticesthatminimizetheuseofpesticides(Potterand Bessin1998).TheUF,DOHREIPMprogramisdesignedtoachieve thisgoal.Iteffectivelymaintainedminimalpestlevels,indicatedbya continuouslownumberofpestcomplaints,whiledecreasingthe amountofinsecticideappliedby92%.From2005–2008,cockroach andantcomplaintsaveragedlessthantwoandfivepermonth,respectively,for220apartments.ThenumberofpestcomplaintsfluctuatedwidelyastheIPMprogramadvancedandadditionalreductions maynotbeachievable.Pestcomplaintsinvolveattitudesaboutpests andpesticides,aswellasthelevelofpestexposure(Byrneetal.1984, PotterandBessin1998).Theuseofamidinohydrazone,borate,and desiccantinsecticideswasminimizedandorganophosphateandpyrazoleinsecticideswereeliminated.Conversely,pyrethroidswereused inrelativelylargequantities,althoughlessfrequently.Activeingredientsshouldberotatedtoreducetheprobabilitythatthepests developinsecticideresistanceoravoidance.TheIPMprogramreFig.3. Theaverageamount(weight)ofinsecticideactiveingredientinindicatedclassesusedeachyearfrom2003to2008. Fig.4. Thetotalamount(weight)ofinsecticideactiveingredients usedperyearbetween2003and2008. DECEMBER2011JUNEAUETAL.:IPMINUNIVERSITYHOUSING5

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centlyachievedGreenShieldcertification(IPMInstitute2011)but canbeimprovedfurtherbyincreasingcommunicationandcooperationbetweentheresidents,DOHREIPMtechnicians,andFacilities Management.AcknowledgmentsWethankNorbertDunkle,TerryMcDonald,andotherpersonnel ofUF,DOHREfortheirguidanceanduseoftheirfacilities.The faculty,staffandstudentsoftheUF,EntomologyandNematology Departmentcontributedtechnicalassistance.Fundingwasprovided byUSDA,NIFAthroughIPMFloridaandaSteinmetzEndowmentto theUF,EntomologyandNematologyDepartment.Expertreviewsof themanuscriptwerecontributedbyPhilKoehlerandCarrieKoplinkaLoehr.DanHahnassistedwithpresentationofthedata.ReferencesCitedAlarcon,W.A.,G.M.Calvert,J.M.Blondell,L.N.Mehler,J.Sievert,M. Propeck,D.S.Tibbetts,A.Becker,M.Lackovic,S.B.Soileau,R.Das, J.Beckman,D.P.Male,C.L.Thomsen,andM.Stanbury.2005. Acute illnessesassociatedwithpesticideexposureatschools.Journalofthe AmericanMedicalAssociation294:455–465. Atkinson,T.H.,P.G.Koehler,andR.S.Patterson.1990. 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