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Preemergence Herbicides for Use in Ornamentals
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000861/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preemergence Herbicides for Use in Ornamentals
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Stamps, Robert H.
Savage, Heidi M.
Rock, Diane K.
Norcini, Jeffrey G.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012
 Notes
Abstract: Preemergence herbicides are herbicides that are applied prior to weed seed germination. Control of weeds using preemergence herbicides is most successful when the correct herbicide is applied in the correct manner to a weed-free growing medium prior to weed seed germination.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Publication #OH-94"
General Note: "Original publication date January 1999. Revised March 2012."
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00000861:00001

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OH-94 Preemergence Herbicides for Use in Ornamentals1Robert H. Stamps, Heidi M. Savage, Diane K. Rock, and Jerey G. Norcini2 1. This document is OH-94, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date January 1999. Revised March 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u. edu 2. Robert H. Stamps, professor, Heidi M. Savage, biological scientist, and Diane R. Rock, former research assistant, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka, University of Florida/IFAS Extension; and Jerey G. Norcini, horticulturist, OecoHort, LLC, Tallahassee, FL 32611. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specic information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturers label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturers label.The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim DeanPreemergence herbicides, by denition, are herbicides that are applied prior to weed seed germination. Control of weeds using preemergence herbicides is most successful when the correct herbicide is applied in the correct man ner to a weed-free growing medium prior to weed seed germination.Preemergence Herbicide ApplicationIn eld or landscape situations, the soil should be freshly tilled and large clods of soil broken apart. Additionally, the growing medium, whether soil or soilless, should be settled and rm at the time of herbicide application to prevent the applied herbicide from channeling downward into the root zone of the crop. A couple of irrigation cycles or a good rainfall is oen enough to settle the growing medium. Herbicides should be applied uniformly to the target area and then immediately incorporated into the growing medium. Uniform herbicide coverage is dependent on good application technique and, for mechanized application, on well-maintained and calibrated equipment. Incorporation using water is generally employed to reduce herbicide losses from volatility (Table 1, Vapor pressure) and photodecomposition, but it also serves to activate some herbicides. Soon aer the herbicide has been applied, about 0.5 inch (1.2 cm) of water is applied using overhead irrigation for incorporation/activation. Herbicides can also be mechanically incorporated by mixing the herbicide into the top layer of the growing medium, generally to a depth of 1 inches (2.5.5 cm). Recommendations regarding the depth of mechanical incorporation and/or the amount of irrigation water to apply to activate/incorporate the herbicides should be followed carefully in order to minimize the possibility of crop injury. Read the product labels for specic incorpora tion instructions.Preemergence Herbicide FormulationsMany of the preemergence herbicides used in ornamentals are formulated for application as dry granules. e active ingredient(s) is (are) carried on small, inert particles or pel lets (clay, paper, sand, corn cob, etc.). ese carrier particles typically have low concentrations ( 10%) of herbicides and should be applied evenly over the treated area. e granules should not be applied to moist foliage or to whorled or other foliage types that will accumulate and trap the granules. Application equipment used to broadcast these formulations should not grind the granules or increase the amount of dust as this may generate potentially dangerous conditions to nearby plants and people. Whenever possible, use granular formulations that do not have extremely ne particles.

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2 Preemergence herbicides are also formulated as liquid solutions (aqueous solutions, AS; emulsiable concentrates, E, EC; owable solutions, F) and dry, water-soluble formulations (dry owable, DF; disperable granules, DG; water-dispersable granules, WDG; water-soluble bags, WSB; wettable powders, WP) for spray applications. Spray pressure should be constant and adequate to maintain proper spray pattern for uniformity and to ensure droplet penetration through the plant canopy. Excessive pressure can lead to dri and damage to nontarget plants. Spray volume should be sucient for thorough coverage. Herbicides should be thoroughly mixed (agitated) in spray tanks to obtain uniform results, and spray nozzle openings (orices) should be checked regularly and replaced when wear becomes evident. Spray adjuvants that enhance coverage, penetration, and/or persistence of herbicides can be added to some spray mixtures, especially if the mixtures are applied so that the crop foliage is not treated. Test spray solutions that contain any new adjuvant for phytotoxicity on a small part of your crop, just as you would test any new pesticide.ChemigationChemigation is the least labor-intensive method for applying herbicides; however, few herbicides are labeled for application in this manner (Table 1, Labeled for chemigation). In addition, some types of irrigation systems (e.g., drip) do not apply water to all areas that need to be treated and/or do not have adequate uniformity for this use. Herbicide formulations applied through irrigation systems must not clog nozzle orices. Florida and other states have laws that require safety equipment to be provided if chemicals are to be injected into irrigation systems. Some of the equipment necessary to prevent contamination of the water supply includes check valves, vacuum breakers, low-pressure drains, shuto valves, remote chemical storage tanks, and interconnected power supplies to injector and irrigation pumps. Check with the agency that deals with pesticide compliance in your region for specic details and requirements.Good Herbicide PracticesLiquid herbicides should be measured volumetrically (i.e., using measuring cups, graduated cylinders, etc.). Since dry pesticides vary in density, it is not possible to give accurate volumetric conversions across brands and formulations. erefore, if a volumetric conversion for an herbicide is not listed on its label, those dry formulations must be weighed. It is a good practice to keep recordsincluding EPA registration and product lot numbersof all pesticide applica tions, even of nonrestricted-use pesticides. ese records can be useful for planning future weed control measures. In addition, they can be invaluable if crop damage occurs. Regardless of the herbicide or application method used, it is strongly recommended that the eects be evaluated against untreated controls under your particular conditions before treating large areas. is is especially important when there is a statement on the label permitting use of the product on an ornamental not specically listed on the label (Table 1, General crop labeling). Treat a limited area or number of plants and wait 2 weeks, or longer if the label recommends, for any phytotoxic eects to appear. Be aware that the larger the area treated, the more likely that phytotoxicity may occur, especially due to herbicide volatilization. Also, damage may not occur the rst time an herbicide is applied, but it may show up with repeated applications. Several formulations of an herbicide may be available with varying concentrations; consequently, recommendations on the manufacturers label should be followed explicitly. Note also that there may be limits on the amount of herbicide that can be applied at each application and additional restrictions on the total amount that can be applied to a given area in a years time. Further, herbicide formulations are labeled for application in certain environments (outdoors, in shadehouses, and/or in greenhouses) and specic locations (container, eld, and/ or landscape) and can only be applied in those specied environments and locations. Although most preemergence herbicides labeled for use in ornamentals have relatively low acute mammalian toxicities, they are potentially dangerous if handled improperly and, therefore, the safety precautions on the label(s) must be followed Read the entire label, including the small print, before buying or using the herbicide. Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) and comply with restrictedentry intervals (REI) (Table 1, REI). Keep the telephone number and address of the nearest County Poison Control Center listed in a convenient location in case of an accidental poisoning. Have clean copies of herbicide labels and material safety data sheets (MSDS) available to be taken to the Poison Control Center or hospital in the event of an emergency. If an herbicide is labeled for use specically in a particular state (for example, 24(c) Special Local Need labeling in Florida), obtain a copy of the supplemental label from the supplier when you purchase the product; otherwise, you will be using it illegally.

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3 Herbicide Persistence and Movementere are many processes aecting preemergence herbicide losses and movement in the environment. Volatilization, the vaporization of the active ingredient into the atmo sphere, has already been mentioned. Breakdown of the active ingredients can occur by means of biological, chemical, and photodegradation processes. Removal of preemergence herbicides from the growing medium surface can reduce weed control. Downward movement of herbicides can lead to crop damage and has the potential to contaminate water resources. e main avenues by which properly applied herbicides may reach surface and ground waters are runo and leaching. Runo is the physical transport of herbicides over the ground surface by water that does not percolate down through the growing medium. e source of the water can be rain or irrigation. e herbicide may be in solution in the water and/or attached to organic matter carried along by the water to a surface water body. As more nurseries install tailwater recovery systems, the potential for runo of herbicide-laden water to retention ponds is increased. When the stored water is later used for irrigation, it has the potential to cause crop damage. Leaching occurs when the herbicide moves down through the soil with water that is percolating. In many areas of Florida, soils are sandy and permeable, and leaching is likely to be a more serious problem than runo. Fortunately, many of the preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops have low solubilities in water and are quite strongly held to binding sites in growing media (see Sorption below); therefore, they are not readily leachable. As relates to runo and leaching, the fate of the herbicides applied to growing media depends largely on two of the herbicides propertiessorption and persistence. Sorption is the process whereby the herbicides are bound to the growing medium. Depending on the herbicides solubility, more or less of the herbicide will dissolve in the water held in the growing medium and be likely to leach. e growing medium organic matter content, temperature, pH, and moisture content can all aect the sorption/desorption process. A useful index for quantifying herbicide sorption is the organic carbon partition coecient, Koc (Table 1). Herbicides with high Koc values are typically not very water soluble and preferentially adhere to the growing medium rather than dissolve in water. Herbicides that are strongly bound to the growing medium are unlikely to be a problem because of leaching, unless they are very persistent (see Per sistence below). However, if there is erosion of the growing medium, the herbicide will move with medium particles. e California Department of Pesticide Regulation has determined that pesticides with Koc values less than 1,900 have the potential to contaminate groundwater. Nonetheless, as alluded to above, the relatively long persistence (long degradation half-lives, T) of some herbicides creates the potential for leaching losses to still occur with potential eects on groundwater. However, from a weed control standpoint, good preemergence herbicide persistence at the surface of the growing medium can be benecial.Herbicide Sites of Action and Weed Resistance ManagementAs an aid to help delay the selection of herbicide-resistant weeds, the herbicide group to which each product belongs is listed in Table 1. e groups are based on primary sites/ modes of action (Mallory-Smith and Retzinger 2003) and can be used to select herbicides that have diering sites/ modes of action. Repeated use of an herbicide or herbicides having the same sites of action can, over time, select for weeds resistant to those herbicides.Herbicide Storage and Container DisposalStore herbicides in their original labeled containers and out of reach of children. All pesticides should be locked in secure facilities. When containers are empty, rinse with water at least three times and pour the rinse water into the spray tank. Dispose of empty containers promptly and safely (according to local, state, and federal disposal laws).Herbicide Ecacy TablesIn Table 2, weeds are listed alphabetically by scientic name along with the preemergence herbicides that control (C), suppress (S), or do not control (N) each weed. Table 3 is similar except that the weeds are listed alphabetically by common name(s). Unfortunately, common names can be misleading, and several weeds may have the same common name. It is important to correctly identify weeds since two very similar weeds may require completely dierent herbicides for eective control. e information in the ecacy tables is derived from product labels as well as published and unpublished research results. An herbicide may provide variable weed control depending on growing medium, irrigation, weed biotypes, and other variables. Where the weed entry in the tables lists only a genus, the labels must be checked to see which species in that genus are controlled by each herbicide.

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4 Crop Herbicide Tolerance Table 4 provides a guide to ornamentals tolerances to preemergence herbicides, with the table subdivided into trees and shrubs, groundcovers, and vining plants, and annuals and perennials. e plants are listed alphabetically by scientic name. Information in Table 4 is derived from product labels and does not imply that an herbicide can be used in or around an ornamental species in all sites (nursery, landscape, greenhouse). e symbol Y indicates that the crop is listed for the common chemical name but may not be listed on all labels because of formulation dierences. Always read the labels for species/cultivar toler ance, special use, and injury instructions. e symbol N indicates that the product should not be used on the crop. Please note that not all plant species and cultivars listed on the herbicide labels are included in the table, and some plants are listed in the table even though, at the current time, they are not listed on any of the herbicide labels. Hopefully, research and future label changes will help alter this situation for this latter group of plants. Table 5 provides a reference of common names for the ornamentals presented by scientic name in Table 4. Readers should be aware that the same common name may be used for more than one plant (genus/species), so the true identity of the crop should be ascertained before herbicides are applied. When selecting an herbicide, both factors listed below must be determined to legally use an herbicide in or around an ornamental species. e information below is on the product label: 1. Determine the tolerances of specic species, varieties, or cultivars, if applicable, AND 2. Determine which sites the herbicide can be used on (i.e., nursery [container or eld]; landscape [commercial, public, or residential]; open and enclosed shadehouses, and greenhouses). Please report any errors, omissions, and/or updates to Bob Stamps ( rstamps@u.edu). ank you.ReferencesMallory-Smith, C. A., and E. J. Retzinger. 2003. Revised classication of herbicides by site of action for weed resistance management strategies. Weed Technology 17 (3): 605.

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5 Table 1. Preemergence herbicides labeled for ornamental crops listed by Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) site of action group number. WSSA herbicide group1Common name (active ingredient) Trade name Manufacturer or distributor Labeled for chemigation REI (hours)2Vapor pressure3en (mPa) Koc 4(mL/g)T1/2 5(days)General crop labeling62 imazaquin Image 70DG BASF NO 12 0.003 20 60 NO 3 DCPA Dacthal 6F, 75WP AMVAC Chemical YES 12 0.333 5,000 80 NO dithiopyr Dimension 1EC, 2EW, Ultra 40WP Dow AgroScience NO 12 0.533 1,638 23 YES Dithiopyr 40WSB QualiPro Dynamo 40WSP Etigra/NuFarm oryzalin Oryzalin 1.67CG Loveland/Crop Protection Services na7 24 <0.001 600 20 NO Oryzalin 4 PRO Quali-Pro NO 248,9NO Suran 4AS, 5WDG United Phosphorus NO 24 8,9YES pendimethalin Corral 2.68G Scotts na 24 1.25 17,200 44 YES Pendulum 2G BASF Pendulum 3.8AC BASF NO Pin-dee 3.3EC Drexel prodiamine Barricade 4FL, 65WG Syngenta NO 12 0.003 13,000 69 NO Cavalcade 65WDG SipcamAdvan ProClipse 65WDG Nufarm Prodiamine 65WDG Quali-Pro YES RegalKade 0.5G, 65WDG Regal Chemical na, NO triuralin Trean 5G Lebanon Seaboard na na 14.7 7,000 45 YES Triuralin 10G Loveland/Crop Protection Services na 12 Triuralin HF (4EC) Loveland/Crop Protection Services NO 12

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6 Table 1. Preemergence herbicides labeled for ornamental crops listed by Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) site of action group number. WSSA herbicide group1Common name (active ingredient) Trade name Manufacturer or distributor Labeled for chemigation REI (hours)2Vapor pressure3en (mPa) Koc 4(mL/g)T1/2 5(days)General crop labeling65 simazine Princep 4L Syngenta NO 12 0.003 130 60 NO Simazine 4L Drexel YES/NO Simazine 90DF Drexel NO Sim-Trol 4L, 90DF SipcamAdvan NO 8 EPTC Eptam 7E Gowan YES 12 4,530 200 6 NO 14 umioxazin BroadStar 0.25G Valent USA na 12 0.321 191 15 YES SureGuard 51WDG Valent USA NO Limited10oxadiazon Oxadiazon 2G Quali-Pro na 12 0.103 3,200 60 NO Oxadiazon 50WSB Quali-Pro NO Ronstar 2G Bayer CropScience na Ronstar 3.17F, 50WSP Bayer CropScience NO oxyurofen Galigan 2E MANA NO11 24120.267 100,000 35 NO Goal 2XL(EC) Dow AgroSciences 15 dimethenamidP Tower 6EC BASF NO 12 36.8 125 20 YES napropamide Devrinol 50DF United Phosphorus NO 12 0.061 700 70 NO propyzamide = pronamide Kerb 50WP13Dow AgroSciences NO 24 11.3 800 60 NO Smetolachlor Pennant Magnum 7.6EC Syngenta YES 24 4.2 75 60 YES 20 dichlobenil Barrier 4G PBI/Gordon na nd14133 400 60 NO Casoron 4G OHP na 12 21 isoxaben Gallery 75DF Dow AgroSciences NO 12 0.051 380 85 NO 3 + 3 benen + oryzalin XL 2G Helena Chemical na 24 10.37 + <0.001 15 YES 3 + 15 pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P FreeHand 1.75G BASF na 24 36.8 + 1.25 YES

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7 Table 1. Preemergence herbicides labeled for ornamental crops listed by Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) site of action group number. WSSA herbicide group1Common name (active ingredient) Trade name Manufacturer or distributor Labeled for chemigation REI (hours)2Vapor pressure3en (mPa) Koc 4(mL/g)T1/2 5(days)General crop labeling63 + 21 triuralin + isoxaben Preen Plus 1.875G Lebanon Seaboard na 12 14.7 + 0.051 NO Quali-Pro T/I 2.5G Quali-Pro na NO Snapshot 2.5TG Dow AgroSciences na NO 14 + 3 oxadiazon + pendimethalin Jewel 3.25G Scotts na 12 0.103 + 1.25 YES oxadiazon + prodiamine RegalStar II, 1.2G Regal Chemical na 12 0.10 + 0.003 NO oxyuorfen + oryzalin Double O E-Pro 3G Etigra/NuFarm na 24 0.267 + <0.001 YES Rout 3G Scotts na YES oxyuorfen + pendimethalin OH2 3G Scotts na 24 0.267 + 1.25 YES oxyuorfen + prodiamine Biathlon 2.75G OHP na 24 0.267 + 0.003 YES oxyuorfen + triuralin Granular Herbicide 75 5G Harrells na 24 0.267 + 14.7 YES 14 + 14 oxyuorfen + oxadiazon OO-Herbicide 3G Regal Chemical na 24 0.267 + 0.103 NO Two OX E-Pro 3G Etigra/NuFarm na YES 15 + 14 napropamide + oxadiazon PrePair 6G Loveland/Crop Protection Services na 12 0.61 + 0.103 YES 3 + 21 + 14 triuralin + isoxaben + oxyuorfen Showcase 2.5G Dow AgroSciences na 24 14.7 + 0.051 + 0.267 YES

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8 1 Herbicide groups are based according to primary sites of action ( Weed Technology 17:605, [2003]) and can be used to select herbicides that have diering sites of action. This information can be used to help select herbicides so as to minimize the potential for the development of herbicide-resistant weeds. 2 = ALS/AHAS inhibitors, 3 = microtubule assembly inhibitors, 5 = photosystem II inhibitors, 8 = lipid synthesis inhibitors, 14 = PPO inhibitors, 15 = very long-chain fatty acids synthesis inhibitors, 20 = cellulose synthase inhibitors, 21 = inhibition of cell wall synthesis site B.2 Restricted entry interval.3 Vapor pressure at 77F (25C); the smaller the value, the less quickly the active ingredient will volatilize (vaporize) and be released into the atmosphere.4 K oc = average partition coecient normalized to organic carbon. This is the ratio of the herbicide concentration bound to the soil and dissolved in the soil water. The larger the Koc value, the lower the concentration of the herbicide dissolved in the soil water and less likely the herbicide will leach. See Behavior of Pesticides in Soils and Water (University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service, Soil and Water Science Department Fact Sheet SL 40, available at http://edis.ifas.u.edu) for more details. Sources of the Koc values are the Herbicide Handbook, 9th edition, Weed Science Society of America and/or information provided by the herbicide company.5 T = eld degradation half-life. This is the approximate length of time it takes for one half of the herbicide to be deactivated in the soil and is an indicator of the persistence of the herbicide. The lower the number, the less likely for herbicide movement and the shorter the duration of weed control. See Behavior of Pesticides in Soils and Water (University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service, Soil and Water Science Department Fact Sheet SL 40, available at http://edis.ifas.u.edu) for more details. Sources of the T values are the Herbicide Handbook, 9th edition, Weed Science Society of America and/or information provided by the herbicide company.6 The product can be applied to plants not specically listed on the label. However, the user should rst conrm the products safety on a small number of plants grown under typical conditions BEFORE using the product on a wide scale commercial basis. In addition, the user assumes responsibility for any damage that results from the use of the product to nonlisted plants.7 na = not applicable.8 Exception: If the product is soil-injected or soil incorporated, the Worker Protection Standard, under certain circumstances, allows workers to enter the treated area if there will be no contact with anything that has been treated.9 Workers may enter treated areas without required PPE during the reentry interval following to 1 inch of rainfall or irrigation, if they are performing tasks that do not involve contact with the soil subsurface.10 Deciduous tree species only.11 Except conifer seedbeds irrigated with center pivot sprinkler irrigation.12 Except for conifer seedlings (REI = 3 days) and conifer trees (REI = 6 days); see Agricultural Use Requirements section on label for all REI requirements.13 Kerb is a restricted-use pesticide.14 nd = no data.15 See individual active ingredient listings for values.

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9 Table 2. Weeds, listed alphabetically by scientic name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Scientic NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAmaranthus spp.13C C S C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Ambrosia rtemisiifolia S N S-C C C C N S C S N S C S C C S N C S Anthemis cotula C C C C C C C C Bidens bipinnata C N C S-C Brassica spp.1314/C N S C C C C C S C C C N C C C S Bryum spp. C C C C Capsella bursapastoris C C S C C C C C C C C C C C S-C C C C C C C C C C C Cardamine spp.13C C N S C S-C N-C C C C C C C C C C C S S C S-C C C S-C C S S-C S Cerastium vulgatum C N C C C C C N C C C N C Chamaesyce hirta (synonym Euphorbia hirta) C C C C N C C16C C C C. humistrata (synonym Euphorbia humistrata) C S N C C C C C N C S-C N C C C C S C C S C S C C S-C C. hyssopifolia (synonym Euphorbia hyssopifolia) C C C C S C C C C C C. maculata, (synonym E. maculata, E. supina) C C S N C S-C C N-S C S-C N C S-C S-C C S-C S-C C S C C C S C N S-C S

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10 Table 2. Weeds, listed alphabetically by scientic name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Scientic NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLC. vermiculata, (synonym Euphorbia vermiculata) C N C Chenopodium spp.13C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C S C C C C C S C C C Commelina benghalensis S C15S C N S C15C15C S S C N Cuscuta spp.13C C C N-S S-C C C S Cyperus compressus N S C C C C. croceus (synonym C. globulosus) C C S-C C. esculentus N N S C C C N S-C N N N N N N N C N N N C N C. rotundus N C S-C Daucus carota N C C N C N C S-C Desmodium tortuosum C S Digitaria spp.13C C C C C C C C N-S C S C C C C S-C S-C C C C C C C C C N-S C C C C Eclipta spp.13N-C C N-S N-C C C S N-C S N C N-S S N-S S-C N-S N S-C Eleusine indica C C S C C C C N C C C C C S-C S C C C S-C C C C C S-C C C C C Emilia fosbergii C N S N N S S-C C

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11 Table 2. Weeds, listed alphabetically by scientic name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Scientic NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLEupatorium capillifolium C C C C C S C N S3C C C Euphorbia heterophylla 14/C C E. hirta (see Chamaesyce hirta) E. humistrata (see C. humistrata) E. maculata, E. supina (see C. maculata) E. vermiculata (see C. vermiculata) Fatoua villosa S-C C N-S C S C C C C C S S-C C S S-C S-C Galium aparine C S C N Gamochaeta spp.13C S C C C S C N-C C C C C C C S C Geranium carolinianum C C C C C C C C16C S C Gnaphalium spp.13 (see Gamochaeta spp.13) Heterotheca subaxillaris C C C Ipomoea spp.13C S S S Isopteryguim albesceus C C Kyllinga brevifolia C C S-C S C S-C S S C S S-C S-C C Lamium amplexicaule N-S C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

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12 Table 2. Weeds, listed alphabetically by scientic name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Scientic NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLLepidium spp.13C C C C C C C C C S C C C C C C C Marchantia polymorpha C N N C N S S N C C N C C C N C Medicago lupulina C C C S-C S C S C Mollugo verticillata C C C C C C C S C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C S S C Murdannia nudiora C N C N N N-S N N N N C N N C N Oenothera spp.13N C C S-C C C C S C16C C S C N N C C C Oxalis corniculata (synonym O. stricta) C C N C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N-S C C C C N-S S C C Parthenium hysterophorus C N S-C C N C S S-C C S N C S S-C Phyllanthus tenellus C N C N-S C C C C C S-C N S-C S-C S-C C N-C P. urinaria N-S C S S S S S N S-C C S-C C N N-C Pilea microphylla C C Poa annua C C C C C C C N C S C C C C S C C C C C C C C C C C Portulaca oleracea C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C S C C C C C C C C C Richardia scabra C C N C C C S C C C C C S C C C S C

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13 Table 2. Weeds, listed alphabetically by scientic name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Scientic NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLSenecio vulgaris S C C C S S S S S C C C C Solanum spp.13C S N C C C C C C S C N C C C S-C S C S Sonchus spp.13C C S C C C C C C C S C C C C C C N C C S C S Stachys oridana C N S-C N Stellaria media C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N S C C C N-S C C C C C C C C Vicia sativa S S S C1 Barrier, Casoron dichlobenil is highly volatile and, therefore, has the potential to be phytotoxic. Use with caution, avoid situations where gaseous concentrations can build up, apply when temperatures are low (volatility increases with increasing temperature), and incorporate immediately after application. 2 Dimension, Dithiopyr, Dynamo3 Oryzalin, Suran4 Oxadiazon, Ronstar5 Galigan, Goal6 Double O E-Pro, Rout7 O-O Herbicide, Two OX E-Pro8 Corral, Pendulum, Pin-dee9 Barricade, Cavalcade, ProClipse, RegalKade10 Princep, Simazine, Sim-Trol11 Trean, Triuralin12 Preen Plus, Quali-Pro T/I, Snapshot TG13 Check product labels for species controlled.14 = weed not on the label of this formulation.15 May not control seedlings produced from seed of underground owers.16 Not all formulations of this active ingredient are labeled to control this weed(s).

PAGE 14

14 Table 3. Weeds, listed alphabetically by common name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Common NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLartilleryweed C C bedstraw, catchweed C S C N beggarweed, Florida C S betony, Florida C N S-C N bittercress13C C N C C S-C N-C C C C C C C C C C C S S C S-C C C S-C C S S-C S bluegrass, annual C C C C C C C N C S C C C C S C C C C C C C C C C C camphorweed C C C carpetweed C C C C C C C S C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C S S C carrot, wild N C C N C N C S-C chamberbitter N-S C S S S S S N S-C C S-C C N N-C chamomile, stinking C C C C C C C C chickweed, common C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N S C C C N-S C C C C C C C C chickweed, mouseear C N C C C C C N C C C N C crabgrass C C C C C C C C N-S C S C C C C S-C S-C C C C C C C C C N-S C C C C crabweed, hairy S-C C N-S C S C C C C S S-C C S S-C S-C cudweed C S C C C S C N-C C C C C C C S C

PAGE 15

15 Table 3. Weeds, listed alphabetically by common name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Common NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLCupids-shavingbrush C N S N N S S-C C dayower, Benghal S C14S C N S C14C14C S S C N dayower, spreading C dodder C C C N-S S-C C C S dogfennel C C C C C S C N S C C C doveweed C N C N N N-S N N N N C N N C N eclipta N-C C N-S N-C C C S N-C S N C N-S S N-S S-C N-S N S-C evening primrose N C C S-C C C C S C15C C S C N N C C C geranium, Carolina C C C C C C C C15C S C goosegrass C C S C C C C N C C C C C S-C S C C C S-C C C C C S-C C C C C groundsel, common S C C C S S S S S C C C C henbit N-S C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C kyllinga, green C C S-C S C S-C S S C S S-C S-C C lambsquarters13C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C S C C C C C S C C C liverwort, common C N N C N S S N C C N C C C N C

PAGE 16

16 Table 3. Weeds, listed alphabetically by common name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Common NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLmayweed C C C C C C C C medic, black C C C S-C S C S C morning glory C S S S moss13C C C C mulberry weed S-C C N-S C S C C C C C S S-C C S S-C S-C mustard1316/C N S C C C C C S C C C N C C C S nightshade, black C S N C C C C C C S C N C C C S-C S C S nutsedge, purple N N C S-C nutsedge, yellow N N S C C C N S-C N N N N N N N C N N N C N parthenium weed C N S-C C N C S S-C C S N C S S-C pepperweed13C C C C C C C C C S C C C C C C C phyllanthus, longstalked C N C N-S C C C C C S-C N S-C S-C S-C C N-C pigweeds13C C S C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C poinsettia, wild 16/C C purslane, common C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C S C C C C C C C C C pusley, Florida C C N C C C S C C C C C S C C C S C ragweed, common S N S-C C C C N S C S N S C S C C S N C S sedge, annual N S C C C sedge, globe C C S-C

PAGE 17

17 Table 3. Weeds, listed alphabetically by common name, and their susceptibilities to preemergence herbicides labeled for use on ornamental crops (N = no/ poor control, S = suppression, C = good control). Weed Common NameBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLshepherdspurse C C S C C C C C C C C C C C S-C C C C C C C C C C C sowthistle C C S C C C C C C C S C C C C C C N C C S C S Spanish needles C N C S-C spurge, garden C C C C N C C17C C C spurge, hairy C N C spurge, hyssop C C C C S C C C C C spurge, prostrate C S N C C C C C N C S-C N C C C C S C C S C S C C S-C spurge, spotted C C S N C S-C C N-C C S-C N C S-C S-C C S-C S-C C S C C C S C N S-C S ticktrefoil, Dixie C S vetch, common S S S C woodsorrel, yellow C C N C C C C C C C C C C C C C C N-S C C C C N-S S C C1 Barrier, Casoron dichlobenil is highly volatile and, therefore, has the potential to be phytotoxic. Use with caution, avoid situations where gaseous concentrations can build up, apply when temperatures are low (volatility increases with increasing temperature), and incorporate immediately after application.2 Dimension, Dithiopyr, Dynamo3 Oryzalin, Suran4 Oxadiazon, Ronstar5 Galigan, Goal6 Double O E-Pro, Rout7 O-O Herbicide, Two OX E-Pro8 Corral, Pendulum, Pin-dee9 Barricade, Cavalcade, ProClipse, RegalKade10 Princep, Simazine, Sim-Trol11 Trean, Triuralin12 Preen Plus, Quali-Pro T/I, Snapshot TG13 Check product labels for genera and/or species.14 May not control seedlings produced from seed of underground owers.15 Not all formulations of this active ingredient are labeled to control this weed(s).16 = weed not on the label of this formulation.

PAGE 18

18 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Abelia grandiora Y13Y/14Y Y15Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Abies balsamea Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y A. concolor /Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y A. fraseri Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Abies spp. (r) Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Acacia spp. Y/ Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13 Y13Acalypha wilkesiana Y Y Y Y Acca sellowiana (synonym Feijoa sellowiana) Y Y Y13Y Acer ginnala Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y A. palmatum Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y A. pensylvanicum Y/ A. rubrum Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y A. saccharinum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y A. saccharum Y Y Y Y Y Acer spp. /Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Aesculus pavia Y Y

PAGE 19

19 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Afrocarpus gracilior (synonym Podocarpus gracilior) Y Y Allamanda cathartica Y Araucaria heterophylla Y Y Y Arecastrum romanzoanum (see Syagrus romanzoana) Astilbe spp. Y Y Y13Y13Y13Aucuba japonica Y Y15Y Y Y Banksia menziesii Y Bauhinia galpinii Y Berberis julianae Y Y B. thunbergii Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Berberis gladwynensis Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Berberis spp. Y/ Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Y Y 13Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Betula nigra Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Betula spp. Y/Y Y Y15Y Bougainvillea spp. Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y

PAGE 20

20 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Buddleja davidii Y13Y13Y Y Buddleja spp. Y/ Y13Y Bucida buceras Y Y Y13Y Y Y Buxus microphylla Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Buxus spp. Y13Y/ Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Callistemon citrinus Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y C. viminalis Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Callistemon spp. Y/ Y Y13Camellia japonica Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y C. sasanqua Y Y Y Y Y Y Camellia spp. Y/ Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Carissa macrocarpa (synonym C. grandiora) Y Y Y Y Y Carya spp. Y13/Y Y13Y Caryota spp. Y Castanea mollissima Y Y Castanea spp. Y/Y Y13Y13Cercis canadensis Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 21

21 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Y Y C. obtusa Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y C. pisifera Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Chamaecyparis spp. Y/ Y Y Y Y13Y Y Chamaedorea cataractarum Y Y C. elegans Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y C. erumpens Y Chamaedorea spp. Y/ Chamaerops humilis Y Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Y Y Y Y Y Citrus spp. Y/Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Cleyera japonica N/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Codiaeum variegatum Y Y Cornus orida Y/ Y Y15Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y C. kousa Y Y15Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y C. stolonifera Y13Y Y15Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 22

22 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Cornus spp. /Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Cotoneaster apiculatus Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Cotoneaster spp. Y13Y/ Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y Y13Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13 Cupressocyparis leylandii Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Cupressus arizonica Y Y Y Y Y Y Y C. glabra (see C. arizonica) C. sempervirens Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Cupressus spp. Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Cycas revoluta Y Y Y Y Y Deutzia gracilis Y13N/ Y Y N Y Y Y N Deutzia spp. Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Elaeagnus angustifolia Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y E. pungens Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Elaeagnus spp. Y/ Eriobotrya japonica Y13Y Escallonia spp. Y13Y Y Eucalyptus camaldulensis Y/ Y Y Y

PAGE 23

23 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs E. cinerea Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y E. citriodora Y Eucalyptus spp. -/Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y13Euonymus alatus N E. fortunei Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13E. japonica Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13E. kiautschovicus Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Euonymus spp. Y13/ Y Y Y Y13Y Y13Y Y15Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13 Fatshedera lizei Y Y Fatsia japonica Y Y13Y Feijoa sellowiana (see Acca sellowiana) Ficus benjamina Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y F. lyrata Y Ficus spp. Y13Y13Y Forsythia intermedia Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y F. suspensa Y/ Forsythia spp. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y13Fraxinus americana Y/ Y Y Y Y F. pennsylvanica Y/ Y Y Y Y

PAGE 24

24 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Gardenia jasminoides Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Gardenia spp. Y13Y/ Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Ginkgo biloba Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Hibiscus rosasinensis Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y H. syriacus Y13Y15Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Hydrangea macrophylla Y 13Y Y Y Ilex attenuata N N/ Y N Y Y13Y Y Y N Ilex attenuata Savannah Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y I. cornuta Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13I. crenata N13/ N Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13I. glabra Y13Y13Y Y13I. opaca Y Y Y Y I. vomitoria N Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Ilex Nellie Stevens Y Y Y Y Ilex spp. Y13Y/ Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y 13Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y13Illicium anisatum Y Y Y Y I. oridanum Y/ Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 25

25 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs I. parviorum Y Y Y Itea ilicifolia Y13/ Y Y Y Y Ixora coccinea Y Y Y Y Y Juniperus chinensis Y13/Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y13J. conferta Y13Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y13J. horizontalis Y /Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Y Y13J. procumbens Y13Y Y Y Y13J. sabina Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Y13 J. squamata Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y13J. virginiana Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Juniperus spp. Y13Y/ Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Lagerstroemia indica Y13N13/Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Lagerstroemia spp. Y13Y13/ Y Y Leptospermum scoparium Y Leucophyllum frutescens Y Leucothoe axillaris Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y L. fontanesiana Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 26

26 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Ligustrum japonicum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y L. lucidum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y L. sinense Variegatum Y Y Y Y Ligustrum vicaryi Y N Y Y Y Y Y Ligustrum spp. Y13N/ Y Y Y Y Y13Y N Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Liquidambar styraciua Y/Y Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Liriodendron tulipifera Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Livistona chinensis Y Y Y Y Y Loropetalum chinensis Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y Magnolia grandiora Y Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Magnolia soulangeana Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Magnolia spp. Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Mahonia spp. Y/ Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y13Morus alba Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Murraya paniculata Y Y Y

PAGE 27

27 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Musa aluminata Y Y Y Y Myrica cerifera Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Myrtus communis Y Y Y Y Y Nandina domestica Y N/ Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Nerium oleander Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Nerium spp. Y/ Y Y13Nyssa sylvatica Y Y Y Osmanthus fragrans Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Osmanthus fortunei Y Y Y Y Y Y O. heterophyllus Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Osmanthus spp. Y15Y15Y13Y Paeonia cultivars Y Y Philadelphus spp. Y Y13Y Y13Y Phoenix roebelinii Y Y Y Y Y Y Photinia fraseri Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Photinia spp. Y/ Y Pinus banksiana Y/Y Y P. bungeana Y/

PAGE 28

28 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs P. canariensis Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y P. clausa Y/Y P. contorta Y/Y Y Y Y Y P. echinata Y/Y Y P. elliottii Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y P. mugo Y/ Y Y Y Y Y P. palustrus Y/Y Y Y Y Y P. ponderosa Y/Y Y P. strobus Y/Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y P. sylvestris Y Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y P. taeda Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y P. virginiana Y/Y Y Y Y Pinus spp. Y Y Y15Y13Y Y13 Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Pittosporum tobira Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Pittosporum spp. Y13Y/ Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Platanus occidentalis Y/ Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y P. racemosa Y/Y Y Platycladus orientalis (synonym Thuja orientalis) Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 29

29 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Plumbago auriculata Y Y Y Y Y Podocarpus gracilior (see Afrocarpus gracilior) P. macrophyllus Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Podocarpus spp. Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Populus deltoides Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Populus spp. Y/Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Prunus caroliniana Y Y Y Y Y P. laurocerasus Y Y Y Y Y Y Prunus spp. Y13Y/Y Y Y13Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y13 Y Y13Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Psidium littorale var. lucidum (synonym P. cattleianum) Y Pyracantha coccinea Y Y Y Y Y Y Y P. koidzumii Y13Y Y P. crenatoserrata (synonym P. fortuneana) Y Y Y Y Y Pyracantha spp. Y/ Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Pyrus calleryana Bradford Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 30

30 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Pyrus spp. Y13/Y Y13Y13Quercus ilicifolia Y/ Y Y Q. laurifolia Y Q. nigra Y Y Q. palustris Y/ Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Q. phellos Y/ Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Q. prinus Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Q. rubra Y/ Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Q. shumardii Y Q. virginiana Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Quercus spp. /Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Rhaphiolepis indica Y/ Y15Y Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13R. umbellata Y15Y Y13Y Y Y Y Rhapis excelsa Y13Rhododendron spp. Y13Y/ Y Y15Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y N Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Rosa spp. Y13Y/ Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y13Y Rosmarinus ocinalis Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 31

31 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Salix babylonica Y Y Y Y Y Salix spp. Y Y Y Y Y Y Spiraea cantoniensis N/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y S. japonica Y13N/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Spiraea vanhouttei N/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Spiraea spp. Y13Y Y Y13Swietenia mahogani Y Y Y Y Y Y Syagrus romanzoanum (synonym Arecastrum romanzoanum) Y Y Y Y Y Y Tabebuia caraiba Y Y Y Y Y Y Taxodium distichum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Ternstroemia gymnanthera Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Thuja occidentalis Y13Y/Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13T. orientalis (see Platycladus orientalis)

PAGE 32

32 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLTrees and Shrubs Thuja spp. Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Tibouchina urvilleana Y Trachycarpus fortunei Y Trachycarpus spp. Y Ulmus parvifolia Y/ Y Y Y Y Ulmus spp. Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Veitchia merrillii Y Y Y Y Y Y Viburnum japonicum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y V. suspensum Y Y Y Y13Y Viburnum spp. Y13Y/ Y Y13Y Y Y13Y N Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Washingtonia robusta Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Washingtonia spp. Y Weigela orida Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Xylosma congestum Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 33

33 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLGroundcovers and Vining Plants Aquilegia spp. & cultivars Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Aspidistra elatior Y Calluna vulgaris Y Y Y Y Y Y Cortaderia selloana Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Dietes iridioides (synonym Dietes vegeta) Y Y13Y13Gelsemium sempervirens Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Hedera canariensis Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y H. helix Y/ Y Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Hemerocallis spp. Y13Y13 Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Hypericum spp. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Jasminum mesnyi Y Y Y Y J. nitidum Y Y Y Y J. nudiorum Y Y Jasminum spp. Y13Y Y13Y Y Lantana camara Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 34

34 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLGroundcovers and Vining Plants L. sellowiana or L. montevidensis Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Lantana spp. Y/ Y Y Y Liriope muscari Y15Y Y Y13Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y13L. spicata Y15Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Lonicera japonica Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y L. sempervirens Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Lonicera spp. Y Y Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y13Y13 Y13Y13Y13Muhlenbergia capillaris Ophiopogon japonicus Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Ophiopogon spp. Y13Pachysandra terminalis Y/ Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Pennisetum spp. Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Polystichum polyblepharum Y Y Y13Y Y Rumohra adiantiformis Y Y Y Ruscus hypophyllum Y

PAGE 35

35 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLGroundcovers and Vining Plants Trachelospermum asiaticum Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Y T. jasminoides Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Tulbaghia violacea Y Y13Y Wedelia trilobata Y Wisteria sinensis Y Y Y Y Y Annuals and Perennials Achillea spp. Y13Y15Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Agapanthus africanus Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y A. orientalis Y Agapanthus spp. Y Y13Y Y13N Y Agave spp. Y13Y13Y 13Y Y Y Ageratum Hawaii Blue N Ageratum spp. Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y13Ajuga spp. N Y Y13Y13N Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13N Y13Allamanda cathartica Y Allium spp. Y Y13

PAGE 36

36 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Aloe spp. Alstroemeria cultivars Alyssum spp. Y Y13Y Y Y Amaranthus cultivars N Y13Ammi majus Anemone coronaria Y Y13Anthurium andraeanum Y Antirrhinum majus Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Antirrhinum spp. N Aquilegia spp. & cultivars Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Asclepias tuberosa Y Y Y Asparagus virgatus Y Y Y Y Asparagus spp. Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Aspidistra elatior Y Aster spp. Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y 13Astilbe species & cultivars Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y13

PAGE 37

37 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Athyrium nipponicum Y Y Y13Y Begonia spp. Y Y13N N Y Y Y N Bouvardia hybrids Bracteantha bracteata (see Helichrysum bracteatum) N Y13Buddleja davidii Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y bulbs, ornamental Y13N N Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Caladium bicolor Y Y Y13Y Calendula ocinalis Y Campanula spp. Y Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13Canna spp. Y13Y Carthamus tinctorius Caryopteris incana Catharanthus roseus N Y Cattleya cultivars Celosia cristata Y Y

PAGE 38

38 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Chrysanthemum superbum Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Chrysanthemum spp. Y Y Y13Y N Y13Y Y13Y Y13Y Y Y13Cirsium japonicum Coleus spp. Y Y13N N Coreopsis spp. Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Cosmos spp. Y Y Costus spp. Cuphea hyssopifolia Y Y Y13Y Cyathea australis Cyclamen persicum Cymbidium cultivars Dahlia spp. Y Y Y13Y Y Y Delphinium spp. Y Y N Y Y Dendranthema grandiorum (synonym Chrysanthemum moriforium) Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y

PAGE 39

39 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Dendrobium cultivars Dianthus barbatus Y Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y Y D. caryophyllus N Y Y13Y D. deltoides Y D. plumarius Y Y Y13Y13Y Dianthus spp. N N Y13Digitalis spp. Y Y Y Y13Dracaena spp. N Y13Echinacea purpurea N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Echinacea spp. N Y N Erigeron cultivars Eustoma grandiorum Freesia spp. Gaillardia spp. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Gerbera jamesonii Gladiolus spp. Y Y Y Y Y 13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Gloriosa superba

PAGE 40

40 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Gomphrena cultivars Gypsophila spp. Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13N Y13Helianthus spp. Y13Y Y Y Helichrysum bracteatum Y Heliconia spp. Hemerocallis spp. Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Heuchera spp. Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Hippeastrum cultivars Hosta spp. Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Hyacinthus spp. Y Iberis sempervirens Y Y13Y Y N Impatiens walleriana Y Y Y Y13Y Y Iris pumila Y I. sibirica Y Iris spp. Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y13

PAGE 41

41 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Kalanchoe cultivars Kniphoa uvaria Y Lathyrus odoratus Y Liatris spicata Y Y Y Y Y Lilium spp. Y Y13Y Y Y Limonium perezii Y Y Limonium spp. Y Y Y Lobelia spp. Y13Y Y13Y Lunaria annua Lupinus spp. Y N Y Y Y Lysimachia spp. Y Y Mirabilis jalapa Y Y Monarda didyma Y Y Narcissus spp. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Nigella damascena Pachysandra terminalis Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Y Y Y Y Pachysandra spp. Y Paeonia cultivars Y Y Y13Y

PAGE 42

42 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Pelargonium hortorum Y Y Y Y Y Y13Y Y Pentas lanceolata Y Petunia hybrida N Y Y Y13Y13Y Y13N Y13Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y Phalaenopsis cultivars Philodendron spp. Y Y Phlox spp. N N Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y N16Platycodon grandiorus Portulaca grandiora Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Primula spp. Protea spp. & cultivars Y13Y Y13Ranunculus asiaticus Y Rosmarinus ocinalis Y Y Y Y Y Y Rudbeckia spp. Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Y13Saintpaulia ionantha Y Salvia farinacea Y13Y Y Y

PAGE 43

43 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials S. sylvestris Y Salvia spp. N Y13Y13N Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Scabiosa spp. & cultivars N Y Y Scheera arboricola Y Scilla siberica Sedum spp. Y Y Y13Y N Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y13Y N Y13Senecio cineraria Y Y Y13Solidago cultivars Y Strelitzia reginae Y15Y Y Tagetes spp. Y Y Y13Y13N Y Y13Y Y13Y Y Trachelium caeruleum Tradescantia virginiana Y Tulbaghia violacea Y Y Y13Y Tulipa spp. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Verbena spp. Y Y Y13Y13Y13Y Vinca spp. Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y13Y13Y Y Y Y Y Viola spp. N Y13Y13N Y13Y13Y Y13

PAGE 44

44 Table 4. Ornamentals tolerant of some preemergence herbicides (Y = crop is listed for common chemical name, but may not be listed on all labels due to formulation dierences, N = do not use product on indicated genus, species or hybrid). Always read the label for species/cultivar tolerance, special use, and injury instruction. Scientic name or label designationBiathlon BroadStar/SureGuard Dacthal Devrinol dichlobenil1dithiopyr2Eptam FreeHand Gallery Granular Herbicide 75 Image Jewel Kerb OH2 oryzalin 3oxadiazon4oxyuorfen5oxyuorfen + oryzalin6oxyuorfen + xadiazon7pendimethalin8Pennant Magnum PrePair prodiamine9RegalStar II Showcase simazine10Tower triuralin11triuralin + isoxaben12XLAnnuals and Perennials Xerochrysum bracteatum (see Helichrysum bracteatum) N Y13Y13N Y Y13Y13Y13Y Y Y13Y13Y Y Yucca lamentosa Y Y N Y Y13Y Y Y Zantedeschia cultivars Y13Zinnia elegans N Y Y Y13Y Y Zinnia spp. N Y Y Y13Y13N1 Barrier, Casoron dichlobenil is highly volatile and, therefore, has the potential to be phytotoxic. Use with caution, avoid situations where gaseous concentrations can build up, apply when temperatures are low (volatility increases with increasing temperature), and incorporate immediately after application.2 Dimension, Dithiopyr, Dynamo3 Oryzalin, Suran4 Oxadiazon, Ronstar5 Galigan, Goal6 Double O E-Pro, Rout7 O-O Herbicide, Two OX E-Pro8 Corral, Pendulum, Pin-dee9 Barricade, Cavalcade, ProClipse, RegalKade10 Princep, Simazine, Sim-Trol11 Trean, Triuralin12 Preen Plus, Quali-Pro T/I, Snapshot TG13 Check product labels for species and/or varieties, as well as treatment method and application instructions.14 = crop not on the label of this formulation. 15 Label(s) list only common names so species/cultivars tested for safety are not known. Test on a small number of plants prior to widespread use.16 Do not use on Phlox drummondii.

PAGE 45

45 Table 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops. Common Name Scientic name or label designation abelia, glossy Abelia grandiora acacia Acacia spp. Adams needle, yucca Yucca lamentosa African iris Dietes iridioides (synonym Dietes vegeta) African violet Saintpaulia ionantha agapanthus Agapanthus africanus ageratum Ageratum spp. ajuga Ajuga reptans Algerian ivy Hedera canariensis allamanda Allamanda cathartica allium Allium spp. alyssum Alyssum spp. amaryllis Hippeastrum cultivars American arborvitae Thuja occidentalis American dogwood Cornus stolonifera American holly Ilex opaca American plane tree Platanus occidentalis angelwing jasmine Jasminum nitidum anise, Chinese Illicium anisatum anise, Florida Illicium oridanum anise, purple Illicium oridanum anise, star Illicium parviorum anthurium Anthurium andraeanum aralia, Japanese Fatsia japonica arborvitae, American Thuja occidentalis arborvitae, Oriental Platycladus orientalis (synonym Thuja orientalis) areca palm Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Arizona cypress Cupressus arizonica arum lily Zantedeschia cultivars ash Fraxinus spp. asparagus fern Asparagus spp. aster Aster spp. astilbe Astilbe spp. aucuba, gold-dust plant Aucuba japonica

PAGE 46

46 Australian tree fern Cyathea australis azalea spp. Rhododendron spp. babys breath Gypsophila paniculata bachelors button Gomphrena cultivars bald cypress Taxodium distichum balloon ower Platycodon grandiorus bamboo, heavenly Nandina domestica bamboo palm Chamaedorea erumpens banana Musa aluminata banana shrub Michelia go barberry Berberis spp., Berberis gladwynensis barberry, Japanese Berberis thunbergii bee balm Monarda didyma begonia Begonia spp. bellower Campanula spp. bergamot Monarda didyma birch, river Betula nigra bird-of-paradise Strelitzia reginae bishops ower Ammi majus black gum Nyssa sylvatica black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida, R. hirta blanket ower Gaillardia spp. blazing star Liatris spicata blue lace ower Trachelium caeruleum blue Pacic juniper Juniperus conferta blue star juniper Juniperus squamata blue throatwort Trachelium caeruleum bluebeard Caryopteris incana bottlebrush, lemon Callistemon citrinus bottlebrush, weeping Callistemon viminalis bougainvillea Bougainvillea spp. boxwood Buxus spp. boxwood, littleleaf Buxus microphylla Bradford pear Pyrus calleryana Bradford buckeye, red Aesculus pavia bush, buttery Buddleja davidii (synonym Buddleia davidii)Table 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 47

47 bush lantana Lantana camara butchers broom Ruscus hypophyllum buttercup Ranunculus asiaticus buttery weed Asclepias tuberosa caladium Caladium bicolor calla lily Zantedeschia cultivars camellia Camellia spp. camellia, Japanese Camellia japonica camellia, sasanqua Camellia sasanqua Canary Island pine Pinus canariensis candytuft, evergreen Iberis sempervirens cape jasmine or jessamine Gardenia augusta (synonym G. jasminoides) carnation Dianthus caryophyllus Carolina jessamine Gelsemium sempervirens cast iron plant Aspidistra elatior cedar, Eastern red Juniperus virginiana cedar, Southern red Juniperus silicicola century plant Agave americana chalcus Murraya paniculata cherry Prunus spp. cherry laurel, American Prunus caroliniana cherry laurel, English Prunus laurocerasus chestnut Castanea spp. chestnut oak Quercus prinus Chinese anise Illicium anisatum Chinese elm Ulmus parvifolia Chinese fan palm Livistona chinensis Chinese holly Ilex cornuta Chinese juniper Juniperus chinensis Chinese privet, variegated Ligustrum sinense Variegated Christmas palm Veitchia merrillii chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum spp., Dendranthema grandiorum citrus, ornamental Citrus spp. cleyera Cleyera japonica; see also Ternstroemia gymnanthera climbing lily Gloriosa rothschildiana; see G. superba Rothschildiana coastal leucothoe Leucothoe axillarisTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 48

48 cockscomb, cocks comb Celosia cristata coleus Coleus spp. columbine Aquilegia cultivars coneower Echinacea purpurea Confederate jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoides copperleaf Acalypha wilkesiana coral bells Heuchera sanguinea coreopsis Coreopsis spp. cosmos Cosmos spp. cotoneaster Cotoneaster spp. cotoneaster, cranberry Cotoneaster apiculatus cottonwood, Eastern Populus deltoides crape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica creeping juniper Juniperus horizontalis croton Codiaeum variegatum cypress, Arizona Cupressus arizonica cypress, bald Taxodium distichum cypress, false Chamaecyparis spp. cypress, Hinoki Chamaecyparis obtusa cypress, Italian Chamaecyparis sempervirens cypress, Lawsons Chamaecyparis lawsoniana cypress, Leyland Cupressocyparis leylandii cypress, Sawara Chamaecyparis pisifera cypress spp. Cupressus spp. daodil bulbs, ornamental; Narcissus spp. dahlia Dahlia spp. daisy, gloriosa Rudbeckia hirta daisy, shasta Chrysanthemum superbum date palm, pigmy Phoenix roebelinii daylily Hemerocallis spp. delphinium Delphinium spp. deutzia Deutzia spp. dianthus Dianthus plumarius dogwood, American Cornus stolonifera dogwood, owering Cornus orida dogwood, kousa Cornus kousaTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 49

49 dracaena Dracaena spp. drake elm Ulmus parvifolia drooping leucothoe Leucothoe fontanesiana dusty miller Senecio cineraria Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides Eastern red cedar Juniperus virginiana Eastern white pine Pinus strobus elaeagnus, thorny Elaeagnus pungens elm Ulmus spp. elm, Chinese Ulmus parvifolia elm, drake Ulmus parvifolia English ivy Hedera helix escallonia Escallonia spp. eucalyptus Eucalyptus spp. eucalyptus, silver dollar Eucalyptus cinerea euonymus Euonymus spp. euonymus, creeping Euonymus fortunei euonymus, evergreen Euonymus japonica euonymus, spreading Euonymus kiautschovicus euonymus, winged Euonymus alatus European fan palm Chamaerops humilis false bird of Paradise Heliconia spp. false cypress Chamaecyparis spp. false holly Osmanthus heterophyllus false saron Carthamus tinctorius false spiraea Astilbe spp. and cultivars fan palm, Chinese Livistona chinensis fan palm, European Chamaerops humilis fan palm, Mexican Washingtonia robusta fan palm, Washington Washingtonia robusta fatshedera Fatshedera lizei fern, asparagus Asparagus spp. fern, tree Asparagus virgatus fern, Australian tree Cyathea australis fern, Japanese painted Athyrium nipponicum fern, leatherleaf Rumohra adiantiformisTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 50

50 cus Ficus spp. cus, mini Ficus benjamina g, ddleleaf Ficus lyrata g, weeping Ficus benjamina r Abies spp. r, balsam Abies balsamea r, Fraser Abies fraseri r, white Abies concolor rethorn Pyracantha spp. rethorn, Formosa Pyracantha koidzumii rethorn, scarlet Pyracantha coccinea shtail palm Caryota spp. ame lily Gloriosa superba ame maple Acer ginnala eabane Erigeron cultivars Florida anise Illicium oridanum orists chrysanthemum Dendranthema grandiorum orists cyclamen Cyclamen persicum owering dogwood Cornus orida forsythia Forsythia spp. forsythia, border Forsythia intermedia Fortunes osmanthus Osmanthus fortunei fountain grass Pennisetum spp. four oclock Mirabilis jalapa foxglove Digitalis spp. Frasers photinia Photinia fraseri freesia Freesia spp. gaillardia Gaillardia spp. gallberry Ilex glabra gardenia Gardenia jasminoides garlic, society Tulbaghia violacea gazania Gazania spp. geranium Pelargonium hortorum gerbera daisy Gerbera jamesonii ginkgo Ginkgo biloba gladiolus Gladiolus spp.Table 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

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51 globe amaranth Gomphrena cultivars gloriosa daisy Rudbeckia hirta gloriosa lily Gloriosa rothschildiana; see G. superba Rothschildiana glory lily Gloriosa superba glossy abelia Abelia grandiora glossy privet Ligustrum lucidum gold-dust plant Aucuba japonica golden everlasting Helichrysum bracteatum goldenrod Solidago spp. & cultivars grass, fountain Pennisetum spp. grass, mondo Ophiopogon japonicus grass, pampas Cortaderia selloana guava, pineapple Acca sellowiana guava, strawberry Psidium littorale var. lucidum gum, black Nyssa sylvatica gum, lemon scented Eucalyptus citriodora gum, sweet Liquidambar styraciua hawthorn, Indian Rhaphiolepis indica; Rhaphiolepis umbellata heather, Mexican Cuphea hyssopifolia heather, Scotch Calluna vulgaris heavenly bamboo Nandina domestica hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis hickory Carya spp. Hinoki cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa holly Ilex spp. holly, American Ilex opaca holly, Chinese Ilex cornuta holly, false Osmanthus heterophyllus holly, Japanese Ilex crenata holly, Nellie Stevens Ilex Nellie Stevens holly, Savannah Ilex attenuata Savannah holly, yaupon Ilex vomitoria honesty Lunaria annua honeysuckle Lonicera spp. honeysuckle, Japanese Lonicera japonica hosta Hosta spp.Table 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

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52 hyacinth Hyacinthus spp. hydrangea Hydrangea spp. impatiens Impatiens walleriana Indian hawthorn Rhaphiolepis indica inkberry Ilex glabra iris Iris spp. iris, African Dietes iridioides (synonym Dietes vegeta) iris, bulbous bulbs, ornamental Italian cypress Cupressus sempervirens ivy, Algerian Hedera canariensis ivy, English Hedera helix ixora Ixora coccinea Jack pine Pinus banksiana Japanese aralia Fatsia japonica Japanese barberry Berberis thunbergii Japanese camellia Camellia japonica Japanese holly Ilex crenata Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Japanese maple Acer palmatum Japanese painted fern Athyrium nipponicum Japanese privet Ligustrum japonicum Japanese spiraea Spiraea japonica Japanese star jasmine Trachelospermum asiaticum Japanese thistle Cirsium japonicum Japanese viburnum Viburnum japonicum jasmine Jasminum spp. jasmine, angelwing Jasminum nitidum jasmine, Confederate Trachelospermum jasminoides jasmine, Japanese star Trachelospermum asiaticum jasmine, orange Murraya paniculata jasmine, pinwheel Jasminum nitidum jasmine, primrose Jasminum mesnyi jasmine, shining Jasminum nitidum jasmine, small-leaf Trachelospermum asiaticum jasmine, star Trachelospermum jasminoides jasmine, winter Jasminum nudiorumTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 53

53 jessamine, Carolina Gelsemium sempervirens juniper Juniperus spp. juniper, blue Pacic Juniperus conferta juniper, blue star Juniperus squamata juniper, Chinese Juniperus chinensis juniper, creeping Juniperus horizontalis juniper, Japanese garden Juniperus chinensis juniper, nana-dwarf Juniperus procumbens juniper, Parsons, Juniperus squamata juniper, savin Juniperus sabina juniper, shore Juniperus conferta kousa dogwood Cornus kousa lady palm Rhapis excelsa lantana, bush Lantana camara lantana, trailing Lantana sellowiana laurel, American cherry Prunus caroliniana laurel, English cherry Prunus laurocerasus laurel oak Quercus laurifolia Lawsons cypress Chamaecyparis lawsoniana leatherleaf fern Rumohra adiantiformis lemon bottlebrush Callistemon citrinus lemon scented gum Eucalyptus citriodora leucothoe, coastal Leucothoe axillaris leucothoe, drooping Leucothoe fontanesiana Leyland cypress Cupressocyparis leylandii liatris Liatris spicata ligustrum Ligustrum spp. lily Lilium spp. lily of the Incas Alstroemeria cultivars lily turf Liriope muscari lily turf, creeping Liriope spicata liriope Liriope muscari lisianthus Eustoma grandiorum littleleaf boxwood Buxus microphylla live oak Quercus virginiana lobelia Lobelia spp.Table 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

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54 loblolly pine Pinus taeda lobster claw Heliconia spp. lodgepole pine Pinus contorta longleaf pine Pinus palustris loquat Eriobotrya japonica love-in-a-mist Nigella damascena love-lies-bleeding Amaranthus caudatus lupine Lupinus spp. magnolia Magnolia spp. magnolia, saucer Magnolia soulangeana magnolia, Southern Magnolia grandiora mahogany Swietenia mahogani mahonia Mahonia spp. Manila palm Veitchia merrillii maple Acer spp. maple, ame Acer ginnala maple, Japanese Acer palmatum maple, red Acer rubrum maple, silver Acer saccharinum maple, sugar Acer saccharum marigold Tagetes spp. Mexican fan palm Washingtonia robusta Mexican heather Cuphea hyssopifolia mondo grass Ophiopogon japonicus money plant Lunaria annua moneywort Lysimachia nummularia moss rose Portulaca grandiora moth orchid Phalaenopsis cultivars mulberry, white Morus alba myrtle Myrtus communis myrtle, crape Lagerstroemia indica myrtle, wax Myrica cerifera nana-dwarf juniper Juniperus procumbens nandina Nandina domestica narcissus Narcissus spp. natal plum Carissa macrocarpa (synonym C. grandiora)Table 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 55

55 Nellie Stevens holly Ilex Nellie Stevens no-azami Cirsium japonicum Norfolk Island pine Araucaria heterophylla oak Quercus spp. oak, chestnut Quercus prinus oak, laurel Quercus laurifolia oak, live Quercus virginiana oak, pin Quercus palustris oak, red Quercus rubra oak, Shumard Quercus shumardii oak, water Quercus nigra oak, willow Quercus phellos oak-leaf hydrangea Hydrangea quercifolia old-fashioned weigela Weigela orida oleander Nerium oleander olive, black Bucida buceras olive, Russian Elaeagnus angustifolia orange jasmine Murraya paniculata orchid tree Bauhinia galpinii Oriental arborvitae Platycladus orientalis (synonym Thuja orientalis) osmanthus Osmanthus fragrans osmanthus, Fortunes Osmanthus fortunei pachysandra Pachysandra terminalis painted fern, Japanese Athyrium nipponicum palm, areca Chrysalidocarpus lutescens palm, bamboo Rhapis excelsa palm, cat Chamaedorea cataractarum palm, Chinese fan Livistona chinensis palm, Christmas Veitchia merrillii palm, European fan Chamaerops humilis palm, shtail Caryota spp. palm, lady Rhapis excelsa palm, Manila Veitchia merrillii palm, Mexican fan Washingtonia robusta palm, parlor Chamaedorea elegans palm, pigmy date Phoenix roebeliniiTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 56

56 palm, queen Syagrus romanzoanum palm, sago Cycas revoluta palm, Washington fan Washingtonia robusta palm, windmill Trachycarpus fortunei pampas grass Cortaderia selloana pansy Viola spp. parlor palm Chamaedorea elegans Parsons juniper Juniperus squamata pear, Bradford Pyrus calleryana Bradford pentas Pentas lanceolata peony Paeonia cultivars periwinkle, common Vinca spp. periwinkle, Madagascar Catharanthus roseus Persian buttercup Ranunculus asiaticus Persian violet Cyclamen persicum Peruvian lily Alstroemeria cultivars petunia Petunia hybrida philodendron Philodendron spp. phlox Phlox spp. photinia, Frasers Photinia fraseri pigmy date palm Phoenix roebelinii pin oak Quercus palustris pincushion ower Scabiosa cultivars pine Pinus spp. pine, Canary Island Pinus canariensis pine, Eastern white Pinus strobus pine, Jack Pinus banksiana pine, loblolly Pinus taeda pine, lodgepole Pinus contorta pine, longleaf Pinus palustris pine, Norfolk Island Araucaria heterophylla pine, sand Pinus clausa pine, slash Pinus elliottii pineapple guava Acca sellowiana pinks Dianthus plumarius pinwheel jasmine Jasminum nitidumTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

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57 pittosporum Pittosporum spp. pittosporum Pittosporum tobira plane tree, American Platanus occidentalis plum, natal Carissa macrocarpa (synonym C. grandiora) plumbago Plumbago auriculata podocarpus Podocarpus macrophyllus, Podocarpus spp. podocarpus, weeping Podocarpus gracilior portulaca Portulaca grandiora pot marigold Calendula ocinalis prairie gentian Eustoma grandiorum primrose Primula spp. primrose jasmine Jasminum mesnyi princes ower Tibouchina urvilleana privet Ligustrum spp. privet, glossy Ligustrum lucidum privet, Japanese Ligustrum japonicum privet, variegated Chinese Ligustrum sinense Variegatum privet, Vicaryi Ligustrum vicaryi purple anise Illicium oridanum pyracantha Pyracantha spp. pyracantha Pyracantha crenatoserrata (synonym P. fortuneana) Queen Annes lace Ammi majus queen palm Syagrus romanzoanum red buckeye Aesculus pavia red cedar, Eastern Juniperus virginiana red cedar, Southern Juniperus silicicola red maple Acer rubrum red oak Quercus rubra red-hot poker Kniphoa uvaria redbud Cercis canadensis rhaphiolepis Rhaphiolepis umbellata river birch Betula nigra rose Rosa spp. rose, moss Portulaca grandiora rose of China Hibiscus rosa-sinensis rose of Sharon Hibiscus syriacusTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 58

58 rosemary Rosmarinus ocinalis ruscus Ruscus hypophyllum Russian olive Elaeagnus angustifolia saower Carthamus tinctorius sage Salvia spp. sage, Texas Leucophyllum frutescens sago palm Cycas revoluta salvia Salvia farinacea sandankwa viburnum Viburnum suspensum sasanqua camellia Camellia sasanqua saucer magnolia Magnolia soulangeana Savannah holly Ilex attenuata Savannah savin juniper Juniperus sabina Sawara cypress Chamaecyparis pisifera scheera Scheera arboricola Scotch heather Calluna vulgaris sea lavender Limonium perezii sedum Sedum spp. shasta daisy Chrysanthemum superbum shining jasmine Jasminum nitidum shore juniper Juniperus conferta shrub, banana Michelia go Shumard oak Quercus shumardii Siberian squill Scilla siberica silver dollar Lunaria annua silver dollar tree Eucalyptus cinerea silver maple Acer saccharinum slash pine Pinus elliottii small-leaf jasmine Trachelospermum asiaticum snapdragon Antirrhinum majus society garlic Tulbaghia violacea Southern magnolia Magnolia grandiora Southern red cedar Juniperus silicicola spiderwort Tradescantia virginiana spiraea Spiraea cantoniensis spiraea, false Astilbe spp.Table 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 59

59 spiraea, Japanese Spiraea japonica spiraea, Van Houtte Spiraea vanhouttei spiral ag Costus spp. St. Johns wort Hypericum spp. star anise Illicium parviorum star jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoides statice Limonium perezii strawberry guava Psidium littorale var. lucidum strawower Xerochrysum bracteatum, Bracteantha bracteata (see Helichrysum bracteatum) sugar maple Acer saccharum summer lilac Buddleja davidii sunower Helianthus spp. sweet gum Liquidambar styraciua sweet tea Osmanthus fragrans sweet William Dianthus barbatus sweetpea Lathyrus odoratus sweetspire Itea ilicifolia sycamore Platanus occidentalis tabebuia Tabebuia caraiba tea, sweet Osmanthus fragrans tea tree Leptospermum scoparium ternstroemia Ternstroemia gymnanthera Texas sage Leucophyllum frutescens trailing lantana Lantana sellowiana tree fern Asparagus virgatus tree fern, Australian Cyathea australis tree, orchid Bauhinia galpinii tree, tea Leptospermum scoparium tree, tulip Liriodendron tulipifera tulip bulbs, ornamental; Tulipa spp. tulip tree Liriodendron tulipifera Van Houtte spiraea Spiraea vanhouttei variegated Chinese privet Ligustrum sinense Variegatum verbena Verbena spp. viburnum Viburnum spp. viburnum, Japanese Viburnum japonicumTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.

PAGE 60

60 viburnum, sandankwa Viburnum suspensum Vicaryi privet Ligustrum vicaryi vinca Vinca spp. violet, African Saintpaulia ionantha Washington fan palm Washingtonia robusta water oak Quercus nigra wax myrtle Myrica cerifera wedelia Wedelia trilobata weeping bottlebrush Callistemon viminalis weeping g Ficus benjamina weeping podocarpus Podocarpus gracilior weigela, old-fashioned Weigela orida willow Salix spp. willow oak Quercus phellos willow, weeping Salix babylonica wind ower Anemone coronaria windmill palm Trachycarpus fortunei winter jasmine Jasminum nudiorum wintercreeper Euonymus fortunei wintergreen barberry Berberis julianae wisteria Wisteria sinensis wort, St. Johns Hypericum spp. xylosma Xylosma congestum yarrow Achillea spp. yaupon holly Ilex vomitoria yucca, Adams needle Yucca lamentosa zinnia Zinnia elegansTable 5. Common name reference list for ornamental crops.