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Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants in North Florida Forests
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Title: Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants in North Florida Forests
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Demers, Chris
Long, Alan J.
Williams, Rick
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012
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Abstract: Invasive non-native organisms are one of the greatest threats to the natural ecosystems of the United States. Invasive plants reduce biodiversity, encroach on endangered and threatened species, and rob native species of habitat. This 8-page fact sheet describes many of the current methods used to manage some of the more common and troublesome invasive exotic plants in north Florida forests.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "First published in June 2002, reviewed and revised June 2008, revised January 2012."
General Note: Publication #SS-FOR19
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00000841:00001

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SS-FOR19 Controlling Invasive Exotic Plants in North Florida Forests1Chris Demers, Alan Long and Rick Williams2 1. This document is SS-FOR-19, one of a series of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. First published in June 2002, reviewed and revised June 2008, revised January 2012. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u.edu 2. Chr is Demers, Florida Forest Stewardship Coordinator, UF/IFAS Cooperative Extension Service, Gainesville, FL; Dr. Alan Long, Professor Forest Operations, Fire and Extension, UF/IFAS School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Gainesville, FL; Dr. Rick Williams, Associate Professor Forest Management and Extension Forestry Specialist, UF/IFAS School of Forest Resources and Conservation, West Florida Research and Education Center, Milton, FL; Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturers label. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specic information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim DeanOf the more than 4,000 known plant species growing in Florida, approximately 30% are not native to Florida or the Southeast. Organisms are considered non-native when they occur articially in locations beyond their known historical native ranges. e term non-native can refer to species brought in from other continents, regions, ecosystems, and habitats. e most important aspect of a non-native (exotic) plant is how it responds to a new environment. An invasive species is one that displays rapid growth and spread, allowing it to establish over large areas. Invasive species are free from the complex array of natural controls, including herbivores, parasites, and diseases, that are present on their native lands. e term noxious is a legal designation used specically for plant species that have been determined to be major pests of agricultural ecosystems and are subject, by law, to certain restrictions. Invasive non-native organisms are one of the greatest threats to the natural ecosystems of the United States. According to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, an estimated 42% of the nations endangered species have declined as a result of encroaching invasive species. Invasive species cause billions of dollars in economic losses and expenditures each year for agriculture, forestry, range lands, and roadways management (Westbrooks 1998). Known ecological impacts of invasive plants include reduction of biodiversity; loss of and encroachment upon endangered and threatened species; loss of habitat for native insects, birds, and other wildlife; and alterations to the frequency and intensity of res and disruption of native plant-animal associations such as pollination, seed dispersal, and host-plant relationships. In addition, invasive plants can hybridize with native plants and alter their genetics; they grow rapidly, sometimes girdling native shrubs and trees; they increase the incidence of plant disease and stress in forested areas; and they reduce the amount of space, water, sunlight and nutrients that would otherwise be available for native species. is publication describes many of the current methods used to manage some of the more common and troublesome invasive exotic plants in north Florida forests. Consult the sources referenced at the end of the paper for additional details about these and several other methods. is publication is intended to assist private forest landowners in managing their existing forests or establishing

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2 new plantations. All of the control methods involve some combination of mechanical and chemical treatments. Biological control agents for some of these plants are currently under investigation. Pictures of each species can be found at the following websites: http://plants.ifas.u.edu/ or in Langeland and Burkss book, Identication and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Floridas Natural Areas.Disclaimere use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval or the exclusion of other suitable products. Treatment recommendations involve general herbicide prescriptions that have provided acceptable levels of control in experimental trials and operational experience, and are consistent with product labeling. Always follow current herbicide label instructions for determining approved application use sites (i.e., forests), herbicide application rates, mixing instructions, personal protective equipment, and use precautions. Additional information about various herbicides used in forestry applications may be found in: Osiecka, A., and P.J. Minogue. 2011. Forest herbicide characteristics. http://edis.ifas.u.edu/fr345 Osiecka, A., and P.J. Minogue. 2010. Developing herbicide prescriptions for forest vegetation management. http://edis. ifas.u.edu/fr335 Osiecka, A., P. Minogue, A. Long, J. Nowak, and M. Mossler. 2009. Herbicides registered for pine plantation management in Florida 2008. http://edis.ifas.u.edu/fr158Trees/ShrubsChinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera)Chinese tallow, a.k.a. popcorn tree, was introduced from China in the early 1900s and has since invaded most of the southeastern states. It is a small tree whose seeds are widely dispersed by birds and water runo. e trees attractive, light green, heart-shaped leaves that yield bright yellow and orange fall colors have made it a popular ornamental. It is also used by beekeepers for honey production. However, this tree is threatening to become the prominent component of marshes, river margins, and dry uplands within its expanding range. Further planting of this tree is prohibited by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), and it is listed as a noxious weed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Exotic Pest Plant Council (EPPC).CO ntNT ROLBackpack foliar applications are eective on trees less than 8 tall to ensure adequate coverage. Cut-stump or basal bark treatments will need to be used on larger trees when using hand-held equipment. Foliar applications are eective from full leaf-out in spring until just prior to the onset of fall colors. Basal bark or cut stump treatments can be performed at any time of the year. See Table 1.Mimosa or Silk Tree (Albizia julibrissin)Mimosa is a small to medium-sized tree with attractive, fern-like leaves and showy pink owers. It establishes vigorously on disturbed areas, oen spreading by seed from nearby ornamentals. It was introduced to the United States as an ornamental in 1745 and continues to be used as such because of its attractive form, foliage, and owers. It reproduces both vegetatively and by seed. If cut or top-killed, it will re-sprout quickly, growing 3 feet in a single season. Due to its ability to produce large seed crops and re-sprout when damaged, mimosa is a strong competitor to native trees and shrubs in open areas or forest edges. Dense stands of this tree can signicantly reduce sunlight and nutrients available for other plants.CO ntNT ROLMimosa can be controlled with the use of mechanical (cutting, chopping, mowing) and chemical treatments. Because of suckers and re-sprouts, chemical treatments are necessary for full control. See Table 2.Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense), Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum), and Glossy Privet (Ligustrum lucidum)ese members of the olive family are shade-tolerant, tall, evergreen-leaved shrubs that can grow to about 30 feet in height. ey spread by bird-dispersed seeds or underground runners and form dense stands that prevent pine and hardwood regeneration and/or land access. ese plants were introduced from Asia.CO ntNT ROLAdequate control of these shrubs can be achieved through herbicide application. Oen dense thickets of privet need to be cut down or mowed and the sprouts treated with herbicides. See Table 3.

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3 Coral Ardisia (Ardisia crenata)Coral ardisia, or spice ardisia, is an evergreen shrub, 2 tall, with dark green scallop-margined leaves. Flowers and fruit are produced in axillary, not terminal, clusters, usually drooping below the foliage. Fruit are small, bright red, one-seeded drupes. It was introduced into Florida for ornamental purposes in the early 1900s and has spread and become naturalized in hardwood hammocks across the north part of the state. It does not grow well in full sunlight. Seedlings of native plant species are shaded out where it forms dense thickets of more than 100 plants per square meter.CO ntNT ROLSeedlings can be hand-pulled. Mowing can keep the plants at ground level and inhibit seed production, but most eective control of this plant can be achieved through herbicide application. With the herbicide treatments below, application timing in mid to late fall, when many native desirable plants are dormant, improves selectivity in control. See Table 4.VinesKudzu (Pueraria montana)Kudzu was introduced into the United States at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. By 1900 kudzu was available through mail order as an inexpensive livestock forage, and was later sold by the USDA to be planted for erosion control purposes along rights-of-way and gullies. It now exists in impenetrable patches as large as 100 acres and will overtop and kill trees, even aer they are mature. Kudzu is an aggressive leguminous vine capable of growing 1 foot per day. It can easily grow 60 feet in a single growing season. It also establishes roots sporadically as it covers an area, layering vines and foliage on top of each other. One key to this plants eciency is its ability to orient each leaf so that the maximum amount of sunlight possible is absorbed. is multidirectional orientation of leaves also poses special problems with suciently wetting the top sides of foliage with herbicide.CO ntNT ROLSpecial eort is required to control kudzu. e older the patch, the harder it will be to control and the longer it will take to completely eradicate the plant. In severe cases, follow-up spot treatments may be required for 5 to10 years. It is best to rst evaluate the kudzu problem by determining the age of the patch. Do this by looking at the root crowns (the top of the primary root). If the root crowns are 2 inches or larger in diameter, the patch is about 10 years of age or older. In some cases, patches of kudzu greater than 10 years old may require higher rates of herbicide for adequate control. For easiest access, it is best to evaluate kudzu problems in winter when vines and foliage are withered. Where kudzu is draping trees, a foliar application of Transline, as shown in the table below, provides eective control. If kudzu is in a drain or around open water, Veteran 720TM or VanquishTM, both labeled for ditch banks, is the best choice. Where kudzu invades hardwoods or young pine stands, a broadcast application of EscortTM may control the kudzu without harming pines and most hardwoods (with the exception of cottonwoods, elms, and legumes such as redbud or locusts). TranslineTM is specically formulated to control legumes and other plants. All treatments will likely need to be followed by a second treatment 1 year aer the initial treatment. Repeat follow-up treatments until acceptable control is achieved. See Table 5.Air Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera)is invasive vine from Africa was introduced into Florida in 1905 when a horticulturalist discovered the vines rapid growth into dense masses. Aside from kudzu, it is the most aggressive invasive vine in Florida. It quickly grows to 60 feet in length, high enough to overtop and shade out native trees. e air potato is a member of the yam family and produces many aerial tubers (potato-like growths) called bulbils that are attached to the vines. Bulbils eventually fall o and grow into new plants. It is listed as invasive by EPPC.CO ntNT ROLBegin by collecting all bulbils, if any, from the ground and removing them from the site. Dispose of the bulbils by putting them in a garbage bag and placing it with yard debris for pick-up. Municipalities dispose of them by incinerating them or incorporating them into hard turf. Bear in mind that many bulbils will be underground: either dig them up or apply herbicide to their emergent vines before they can produce more bulbils. Once this is done, adequate control can be achieved with the use of herbicides. Guidelines for herbicide control are listed below. Follow-up treatments may be necessary in all cases. See Table 6.

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4 Japanese Climbing Fern (Lygodium japonicum) and O O ld World Climbing Fern (Lygodium microphyllum)Japanese climbing fern is a perennial, delicate looking, climbing vine that forms dense clumps that can cover trees and shrubs. Introduced from Japan as an ornamental, it is scattered throughout the lower portions of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina, and south into central Florida. Further planting of this vine is prohibited by FDACS. Japanese and Old World climbing ferns are presently the only non-native invasive ferns in the South. At this time, Old World climbing fern has been a problem for many years in central and south Florida but it is moving north. e northern edge of its advance is now just south of Marion County. Both ferns reproduce readily by windblown spores. Animals, equipment, and even people that move through an area with climbing fern are also very likely to pick up spores and move them to other locations on the property or even to other properties.CO ntNT ROLAdequate control of both climbing ferns has been achieved with multiple applications of glyphosate. Other herbicides have also been used to control Japanese climbing fern. As with most invasive plants, repeated treatments may be necessary. See Table 7.GrassesCogongrass (Imperata cylindrica)Cogongrass is a fast-growing, rhizomatous, perennial grass that has become one of the most troublesome weeds in the world. It was accidentally introduced from Japan as packing material in Mobile, Alabama, in 1911. It was later intentionally introduced from the Philippines into Mississippi as forage. e Mississippi population was shared with the University of Florida, USDA Plant Introduction Station, and Soil Conservation Service in 1937 for forage and soil stabilization. It has proved to be an excellent soil stabilizer, but it is extremely dicult to prevent its escape into unintended areas. It spreads predominantly by transported rhizomes in soil. Cogongrass is listed as a noxious weed by FDACS and USDA, and it is ranked among the 10 most invasive weeds in the world.CO ntNT ROLRecommendations to control cogongrass are to treat these infestations in the late summer and early fall with glyphosate and/or imazapyr herbicides (Miller 2003; Faircloth et al. 2005). Fluazifop (FusiladeTM) is also an eective option. Because of the extensive rhizomes of cogongrass, repeated applications of herbicide are always necessary to obtain eradication. Remember to thoroughly wet the plants with the herbicide mixture when they are green and growing, not during droughts or time of plant stress. Our demonstration areas indicate that successful treatments have been achieved from late May through October. For all recommendations, retreat as necessary. See Table 8.Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), Giant Fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense)ese grasses have been widely planted and continue to provide forage for livestock, but they can present problems for forest landowners wanting to establish pine stands and/or restore native groundcover on sites they dominate. Introduced as improved pasture grasses from the Mediterranean region of Europe and Africa, they are now distributed worldwide.CO ntNT ROLAdequate control of these grasses can be achieved with a summer application of Accord followed by a spring application of an Arsenal ACTM and OustTM tank mix. See Table 9.Conclusione invasive exotic species described in this publication represent those most likely to be found in forestlands in north Florida. More complete information on these and other non-native plants can be found in Langeland and Burkss Identication and Biology of Non-native Plants in Floridas Natural Areas (1998) and Langeland and Stockers Control of Non-native plants in Natural Areas of Florida (1997). Another good source of information on invasive plants can be found in Millers Non-native Invasive Plants of Southern Forests (2003).Other resources, including several on the web are listed below. Learn to identify these invasive plants, and if they show up on your property treat them quickly before they can spread and increase the diculty of controlling them. Treated areas should be periodically examined to determine if retreatment is necessary. It is normal for areas infested with invasive plants to receive multiple treatments to eectively reduce the impact and presence of these plants.

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5 RR eferencesAnon. Air Potato Dioscorea bulbifera University of Florida, IFAS, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, Invasive Nonindigenous Plants in Florida. [Online] http://plants. ifas.u.edu/node/133 Anon. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. [Online] http://www.eppc.org/ Ezell, A.W. 1998. Eective kudzu control. Mississippi State University Extension Service. 4 p. [Online] http://www.sref. info/resources/publications/print_pubs/pub_505/view Faircloth, W. H., M. G. Patterson, J. H. Miller and D. H. Teem. 2005. Wanted Dead Not Alive: Cogongrass. Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities, Alabama Cooperative Extension publication ANR-1241. 4 p. Jacono, C.C., and C.P. Boydstun. 1998. Proceedings of the workshop on databases for nonindigenous plants, Gainesville, FL, September 24-25, 1997. (Revised November,1998) Johnson, K. 1998. Exotic plant species prole: kudzu. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Nashville, TN. Jose, S., J. Cox, D.L. Miller, D.G. Shilling, and S. Merritt. 2002. Alien Plant Invasions: e Story of Cogongrass in Southeastern Forests. Journal of Forestry 100(1): 41-44. Kline, W.N. and J.G. Duquesnel. 1996. Management of Invasive Exotics with Herbicides in Florida. Down to Earth. 51(2):22-28. Langeland, K.A. and K.C. Burks. 1998. Identication and biology of Non-native Plants in Floridas Natural Areas. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Pub. No. 257. 166 p. Langeland, K.A. and R.K. Stocker. 1997. Control of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. SP 242. 38 p. [Online] http://edis.ifas.u.edu/WG209 Langeland, K.A. 1997. Help Protect Floridas Natural Areas from Non-native Invasive Plants. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Circular 1204. 6 p. [Online] http://edis.ifas.u.edu/AG108 Miller, J.H. 1999. Controlling exotic plants in your forest. Forest Landowner 58(2):60-64. Miller, J.H. 2003. Non-native Invasive Plants of Southern Forests: A Field Guide for Identication and Control. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, General Technical Report SRS-62, Asheville, NC. 93 p. Muller, R. 1998. Invasion Ecology: the Successful Colonization of Plant Communities by Exotic Species. Natural Resources Newsletter. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. Lexington. 23 p. Osiecka A., J. Nowak, A. Long, and M. Mossler. 2005. Herbicides Registered for Pine Management in Florida 2005 Update. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Cir. No. 1475. 24 p http://edis.ifas.u.edu/FR158 Remaley, T. 1998. Silk Tree: Albizia julibrissin Native Plant Conservation Initiative, Alien Plant Working Group. U.S. National Park Service. Gatlinburg, TN. [Online] http:// www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/alju1.htm Shilling, D.G. et al. 1997. Ecology, Physiology, and Management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica ): Final Report. University of Florida. Gainesville. 128 p. Westbrooks, R. G. 1998. Invasive plants: Changing the Landscape of America Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds, Washington, D.C., USAWeb RR esourcesCogongrass.org, http://www.cogongrass.org/ Invasive and Exotic Species of North America. http://www. invasive.org/ e Plant Conservation Alliances Alien Plant Working Group. Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas, http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/index.htm UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, http:// plants.ifas.u.edu/

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6 Table 1. Control of Chinese Tallow Herbicide Treatment Garlon 4 Ultra Basal Bark: Treat the trunk to a height of 12 to 15 inches from the ground, thoroughly wetting with 1 to 5% Garlon 4 in oil or oil-water mixtures (see label).1Basal bark treatments are only eective on saplings and seedlings less than 6 inches in stem diameter. (Caution: Garlon 4 can volatilize in hot weather, potentially injuring nearby plants through foliar contact of vapors, so spray early in the day or on cooler days) Garlon 3A Cut Stump: Cut down the tree and spray or paint the cambium layer (the thin band of growing wood, usually light green or light brown, just inside the bark) of the freshly cut stump with 20% Garlon 3A in water2, 3. Using a paint brush, or by applying a straight stream from a squirt bottle, place the herbicide on the cambium, where it does the most good. Hack-n-squirt: Using a sharp hatchet, make cuts through the bark and cambium at a downward angle with overlapping cuts completely around the tree and spray 1 milliliter (usually one pull on a typical squirt bottle) of a 50% solution of Garlon 3A in water into each cut. (Eective on large trees) Directed Foliar Application: Treat foliage with 1% Garlon 3A in water between July and October. Add 0.25 to 1% nonionic surfactant to improve coverage and foliar uptake. Arsenal AC or Chopper Gen2 Foliar: Treat foliage of seedlings and saplings with 0.75 to 1% Arsenal AC or 1.5 to 2% Chopper herbicide in water plus 0.25 to 1% non-ionic surfactant3, 4. (Caution: Arsenal is very soil active and has a high potential for non-target damage, especially to hardwood trees and shrubs through root uptake)1Kline and Duquesnel 19962Langeland and Stocker 19973Langeland 20034Miller et al. 2010.Table 2. Control of Mimosa Herbicide Treatment Garlon 4 Ultra Basal Bark: Treat the trunk to a height of 12 to 15 inches from the ground, thoroughly wetting with 1 to 5% Garlon 4 in oil or oil-water mixtures (see label)1. Basal bark treatments are only eective on saplings and seedlings less than 6 inches in stem diameter.Cut stump: Apply 10% Garlon 4 in oil covering the outer 20% of the stump (the root collar area, sides of the stump, and the outer portions of the cut surface, including the cambium) until wet, but not to the point of runo1. May be applied year-round. Foliar: Treat all foliage until wet with 2% Garlon 4 in water plus 0.25 to 1% non-ionic surfactant 2. (Caution: Garlon 4 can volatilize in hot weather, potentially injuring nearby plants through foliar contact of vapors, so spray early in the day or on cooler days) Garlon 3A Cut stump: Apply 25% solution covering the outer 20% of stump (the root collar area, sides of the stump, and the outer portions of the cut surface, including the cambium) until wet but not to the point of runo.1, 3May be applied year-round. Foliar: Treat all foliage until wet with 2% Garlon 3A in water plus 0.25 to 1% non-ionic surfactant. 2 Hack-n-squirt: Using a sharp hatchet, make cuts through the bark and cambium at a downward angle with overlapping cuts completely around the tree and spray 1 milliliter (usually one pull on a typical squirt bottle) of a 50% solution of Garlon 3A in water into each cut. Accord XRT II Cut stump: Apply 50% Accord in water covering the freshly cut surface. Foliar: Apply 2% Accord in water plus 0.25.0% non-ionic surfactant. 2Transline Foliar: Apply 0.25% Transline plus 4% Garlon 3A in water from July to September3. Transline shows selectivity, such that grasses and many native plants are tolerant1Langeland and Stocker 19972Miller 19993Miller et al. 2010

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7 Table 3. Control of Privets Herbicide Treatment Accord XRT II Foliar: In the fall, spray the foliage of Chinese privet thoroughly with a mixture of 3% Accord in water.4Garlon 3A Cut stump: Apply 25% Garlon 3A in water to cover the entire cut surface immediately after cutting the stem at ground level.3Garlon 4Ultra Thinline Basal-bark: Apply 15% Garlon 4 in oil or oil-water mixture to a narrow band on stems16 inches from the ground.1, 2 (Basal bark mixtures are herbicides combined with mineral oils [such as diesel], vegetable oils [such as methylated seed oil], or oil-water emulsions as herbicide carriers to penetrate the bark.) Arsenal AC Foliar: Spray all foliage until wet with 1% Arsenal in water plus 0.25 to 1.0% non-ionic surfactant from August to September.2, 4 (Caution: Arsenal is very soil active and has a high potential for non-target damage, especially to hardwood trees and shrubs through root uptake.)1Langeland and Stocker 19972Miller 19993UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants4Miller et al. 2010Table 4. Control of Coral Ardisia Herbicide Treatment Garlon 4 Ultra Basal-bark: In fall, apply a basal spray using 10% Garlon 4 in a labeled basal oil to the bottom 12 inches of stems. Foliar: Treat all leaves thoroughly with a 3% solution of Garlon 4 in water. Garlon 3A Cut stem treatment with 50% concentration. Langeland and Stocker 1997Table 5. Control of Kudzu Herbicide Treatment Escort XP + Accord XRT Broadcast non-selective: Apply 4 oz Escort plus 3 quarts Accord in 50 to 100 gallons water per acre as a broadcast foliar spray from June through September. Spot treat emerging crowns in June or July annually for eradication. Garlon 4 Ultra or Accord XRT For partial control and no soil activity: Broadcast 4% Garlon 4 or 4% Accord using at least 50 gallons water per acre. Repeated applications are needed for control.4Garlon 4 Ultra Cut stem: Cut the stem 5 cm (2 in.) above ground level. Immediately apply a 25% solution to the cross section of the stem. A subsequent foliar application (2% Garlon 4 in water) may be necessary to control new seedlings.2Accord XRT Cut stem: Cut the stem 5 cm (2 in) above ground level. Immediately apply a 25% solution to the cross section of the stem. This may require a subsequent foliar application (2% Accord in water) during the late growing season.2Escort XP Broadcast 4 oz. per acre in mid-summer as a foliar spray.1May be used with some selectivity for kudzu control in hardwood stands; however, red maple, cherry, locust, and wax myrtle may be injured by root uptake. In young pine stands: Broadcast 1 oz. per acre in mid-summer as a foliar spray.3 Severe stunting to pines, especially slash, will occur. Use a handgun to direct the spray away from pines when possible. Transline When safety to surrounding vegetation is desired: Broadcast 0.5% solution (2 oz. in 3-gal. sprayer) in July to September as a foliar spray for partial control.3,4In young pine stands: Broadcast 22 oz. per acre.1 1Ezell19982Johnson 19983Miller 19994Miller et al. 2010

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8 Table 6. Control of Air Potato Herbicide Treatment Glyphosate product (Accord, Roundup) Foliar: Spray with a 2% solution using a glyphosate product that contains 4 lb active ingredient per gallon.4 Apply late in the growing season for best results.5Garlon 4 Ultra Frill/girdle: Treat girdle cuts with 10% Garlon 4 in water.1Stems: Treat stems emerging from bulbils with 10% Garlon 4 in water.2Foliar: Thoroughly wet all leaves with 2% Garlon 4 in water from July to October.3Garlon 3A Treat girdle cuts with 50% Garlon 3A in water.1Foliar: Thoroughly wet all leaves with 2% Garlon 3Ain water from July to October.3 1Kline and Duquesnel 19962Langeland and Stocker 19973Miller 20034UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants5Langeland and Meisenburg 2011Table 7. Control of Japanese Climbing Fern Herbicide Treatment Glyphosate product (Accord, Roundup) Foliar: Spray the leaves with a 2% solution using a product that has 4 lb active ingredient/gal from July to October. Follow up with annual applications until controlled.1Arsenal AC Foliar: Spray the leaves with 2% Arsenal in water plus 0.25% non-ionic surfactant. Follow up with annual applications until controlled.2Escort XP Foliar: Spray 1 to 2 ounces product per acre. Mix 0.3 to 0.6 dry ounces Escort per 3 gallons water. Add 0.25% non-ionic surfactant.3 1Miller 19992Miller 20033UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive PlantsTable 8. Control of Cogongrass Herbicide Treatment Arsenal AC or Chopper* Foliar: Treat with 1% Arsenal or 2% Chopper solution with 0.25 to 1% non-ionic surfactant or 1% methylated seed oil (MSO) in September or October. Mowing, burning, and/or disking in the spring prior to treatment can enhance the eectiveness of herbicide treatments.2, 3, 4 Imazapyr, the active ingredient in both Chopper and Arsenal, is a persistent soil active herbicide that will kill or severely damage hardwood trees or shrubs, although pines are tolerant. In hardwood stands, the use of Fusilade or Accord is preferred. Fusilade Foliar: Treat with 0.5 qt. per acre herbicide plus label recommended surfactant.1Glyphosate (Accord or Roundup) Foliar: Treat with a 2% solution using a product containing 4 lb active ingredient per gallon when the plants are green and growing. Glyphosate products can be enhanced with addition of 1% methylated seed oil.1Langeland and Stocker 19972Miller 19993Jose et. al. 20024Miller 2003Table 9. Control of Bahiagrass Herbicide Treatment Accord XRT (or comparable generic product) Treat with 2% Accord in water in late summer before planting. Then follow up after planting pines with a tank mixture of Arsenal AC + Oust XP (see below). Follow-up tank mix Using a calibrated sprayer, apply 4 oz Arsenal AC plus 2 oz Oust XP over pines in early spring (late MarchApril) but at least one month after planting to ensure pine vigor and better herbicide tolerance. Do not add surfactants. Where planted rows are present, herbicides may be applied in a 6-ft-wide band centered on the row. Miller 1999