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Hollies at a Glance
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ ( Publisher's URL )
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000833/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hollies at a Glance
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Brown, Sydney Park
Ingram, Dewayne L. (Dewayne Lebron) 1952-
Barrick, William Edgar 1946-
Publisher: ■University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2012
 Notes
Abstract: Hollies are reliable, low-maintenance plants for Florida landscapes. Diverse sizes, forms, and textures exist, ranging from large trees to dwarf shrubs. Some hollies can be used as informal or formal hedges or as foundation plants, while others make beautiful accent or specimen plants. Many are valued for their colorful berries, which provide food for birds and brighten the fall and winter seasons. Several hollies are native to Florida. This 5-page fact sheet includes a list of dozens of popular hollies sold in Florida.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Diana Hagan.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "ENH42"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00000833:00001

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ENH42 Hollies at a Glance 1 Sydney Park Brown, Dewayne L. Ingram, and William E. Barrick 2 1. This document is ENH42, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date June 1990. Revised March 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u.edu 2. Sydney Park Brown, associate professor and consumer horticulture Extension specialist, Environmental Horticulture Department, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Plant City, FL; Dewayne L. Ingram, former Extension horticulturist, and William E. Barrick, former assistant professor, Environmental Horticulture Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean Hollies ( Ilex spp.) are reliable, low-maintenance plants for Florida landscapes. Diverse sizes, forms, and textures exist, ranging from large trees to dwarf shrubs (Figures 1 and 2). Some hollies can be used as informal or formal hedges or as foundation plants, while others make beautiful accent or specimen plants. Many are valued for their colorful berries, which provide food for birds and brighten the fall and winter seasons. Several hollies are native to Florida. Table 1 lists some of the more popular hollies sold in Florida. Description Most hollies, including all those listed in Table 1, are ever green. A few native hollies lose their leaves in winter but are rarely commercially grown and sold in Florida. Hollies are dioecious plants, meaning male and female owers are located on separate plants. Female plants produce berries (Figure 3); male plants do not. For this reason, nurserymen oen propagate only female plants. Male and female plants produce small white blooms in spring. Bees are the primary pollinators, carrying pollen from male hollies 1.5 miles, so it is not necessary to have a male holly in the immediate area. Figure 1. The large, weeping form of Ilex vomitoria Pendula Credits: Sydney Park Brown, UF/IFAS Figure 2. The dwarf, compact form of Ilex cornuta Rotunda Credits: Sydney Park Brown, UF/IFAS

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2 General Culture Hollies generally prefer partial shade, but most grow satisfactorily in full sun. Slightly acidic, well-drained soils are essential for most hollies, although a few, like Dahoon holly ( Ilex cassine ), are native to moist areas and can be planted on wetter sites. Planting Container-grown hollies can be planted at any time of the year with proper postplanting care. e planting hole should be 1 foot (30 cm) wider than the root ball and slightly shallower than the height of the root ball. e planting site should be watered thoroughly to settle soil around the roots. A 2 inch (5 cm) depth of organic mulch should be added and maintained to moderate soil temperature, conserve moisture, and help control weeds; however, mulch should not be placed over the root ball. Trees and shrubs that are regularly irrigated through the rst growing season aer transplanting require from 3 months (USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 9) to 6 months (USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 8) to become well established. More detailed planting procedures are provided in Speci cations for Planting Trees and Shrubs in the Southeastern U.S. ( http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ep112 ). Watering and Fertilizing Irrigation is necessary to establish newly planted hollies and to encourage optimal growth. Care should be taken not to waterlog the soil since holly roots require good aeration. Established hollies should be watered as needed during dry periods. Fertilize newly planted and established hollies in March and September if faster growth is desired or when plants exhibit nutrient deciencies. For more information, see Fertiliza tion and Irrigation Needs for Florida Lawns and Landscapes ( http://edis.ifas.u.edu/ep110 ). Pruning Hollies may need occasional light grooming to maintain their form. Major structural pruning may be necessary to maintain a single leader (trunk) on a specimen tree or when training plants for special purposes (Figure 4). Detailed pruning techniques are provided in Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs ( http://edis.ifas.u.edu/mg087 ). Propagation Hollies are primarily propagated from tip cuttings in order to produce plants with the same characteristics as the parent plant. Cuttings should be 3 inches (7 cm) long and treated with a rooting hormone. For optimal rooting, hollies require a humid environment to minimize water loss and tissue desiccation. Growing holly from seed takes longer to produce new plants and results in seedlings that do not have the same characteristics as the mother plant. Pests Insects and diseases are not a major problem when hollies are selected, planted, and cared for properly. Poor performance is usually associated with inadequate growing Figure 3. Holly berries attract birds and add color to the winter landscape. Credits: Sydney Park Brown, UF/IFAS Figure 4. Hollies can be pruned into special forms. Credits: Sydney Park Brown, UF/IFAS

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3 conditions, such as poor soil aeration, drought, improper planting, or lack of fertilization. Common but infrequent pests include scale, leaf miner, and spittlebug insects, as well as mites. Many dierent scale insects feed on hollies by sucking plant juices from leaves and stems. A substance called honeydew is secreted by some scales, and a black, sooty mold fungus grows on the honeydew. Although sooty mold does not harm plants, it is unattractive. Leaf miner larvae feed inside the leaf between the upper and lower surfaces. Blotch or serpentine mines appear on the upper surface of infested leaves. New leaves infested with leaf miners are oen stunted and deformed. is pest is seldom severe enough to threaten the health of a holly. Spittlebugs are inch long, black-brown in color, and oval shaped with two orange bands across their wings. ey are most common in north and northwest Florida on Ilex cassine and I. opaca plants. ey feed on young leaves and stems by sucking plant juices. Leaves oen are killed and dropped from the plant. Spider mites can be found on the underside of holly leaves, especially during hot, dry weather. Infested leaves turn gray or brown and fall from the plant. More information about managing pests can be found in Landscape Integrated Pest Management ( http:// edis.ifas.u.edu/in109 ) and by contacting your local county Extension oce ( http://solutionsforyourlife.com/map/ ). Diseases known to attack hollies include stem gall, twig dieback, and root rot. Stem gall, or witches broom ( Sphaeropsis tumefaciens ), is a usually fatal disease of hollies in Central and South Florida. Stem galls form on twigs and branches, causing the stems to enlarge and initiate an abnormal number of shoots, producing a broom eect (Figure 5). e disease is spread by infected pruning tools as well as by wind and rain. See Sphaeropsis Gall of Holly and Other Landscape Ornamental Plants ( http://mrec.ifas. u.edu/jos/Sphaeropsis.htm ) for more information. Numerous fungi can cause twig dieback, which starts at twig tips and gradually progresses toward the base. Leaves oen wilt and drop from the plant. Root rots are usually associated with overirrigation or hollies planted in poorly drained, wet soils. Poor soil aeration weakens holly roots, allowing fungi to invade and cause considerable damage. Hollies with diseased roots appear weak, and branches, sections, or the whole plant can die. A particular root rot disease known as mushroom root rot can be diagnosed by scraping the bark of large roots or lower trunk tissue. If the area between the bark and the wood shows a white layer of fungal growth, mushroom root rot is involved. Mushroom fruiting bodies may appear in advanced stages of infection. Dead or dying plants aected by mushroom root rot should be removed with as much of the root system as possible, and the soil should be replaced before replanting anything. Fungicides cannot control stem gall, twig dieback, or root rot once these diseases have become established. Acknowledgements e author wishes to thank Joe Sewards, Putnam County horticulture agent, for reviewing this publication and Mary Derrick, horticulture program assistant, for her help in developing it. Figure 5. Witches broom disease ( Sphaeropsis tumefaciens ) Credits: Sydney Park Brown, UF/IFAS

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4 Table 1. Popular hollies for Florida landscapes Botanical name Common name Plant type Height/ spread Description FL Region 1 Native Ilex cassine var. cassine Dahoon holly Small tree 20/15 20 Pyramidal to oval with open crown; shiny, dark green leaves with spines; red berries; good for wet areas N, C, S Yes Tensaw Tensaw Dahoon holly Small tree 15/8 Pyramidal; dark green; red berries; good for wet areas N, C, S Yes Ilex cassine var. myrtifolia Myrtle-leaved holly Small tree 15/10 15 Dark green leaves without spines; red to yellow berries; good for wet areas N, C, S Yes Ilex cornuta Burfordii Burford holly Large shrub 12/8 Dense form; leathery, dark green leaves; abundant red berries N, C No Burfordii Nana Dwarf Burford holly Small shrub 5/5 Dense, compact; glossy green foliage; red berries N, C No Carissa Carissa holly Small shrub 3/4 Compact mounding; glossy green leaves with thin white margin and spine at tip; no fruit N, C No Needlepoint Needlepoint holly Large shrub 10/10 15 Dense, rounded; dark green, glossy, slender leaves with spine at tip; red berries N, C No Rotunda Dwarf Chinese holly Small shrub 3/3 Dense, compact; sti, dark green leaves with many sharp spines; red berries N, C No Ilex crenata Compacta Japanese holly Small shrub 4/4 Dense, rounded; small, medium green leaves; no berries N, C No Green Luster Green Luster holly Small shrub 3/8 Compact shrub; somewhat at topped; wider than it is tall; dark green leaves; black fruit N No Helleri Hellers holly Small shrub 3/5 Compact mounding; small, dark green leaves without spines; infrequent black berries N No Sky Pencil Sky Pencil holly Medium shrub 6/2 Dense, columnar; dark green leaves; inconspicuous purple fruit N No Soft Touch Soft Touch holly Small shrub 2/2 Dense, rounded; small, soft, glossy green leaves with silver midvein; black berries N, C No Ilex glabra Gallberry or inkberry Medium shrub 6/8 Open, vase shaped; long, dark green leaves; black fruits; good for wet areas N, C, S Yes Compacta Compact gallberry Small shrub 4/4 More compact than species; dark green leaves; black berries; good for wet areas N, C, S Yes Nigra Nigra gallberry Small shrub 4/2 Compact; dark green leaves; abundant berries; good for wet areas N, C, S Yes Ilex krugiana Krugs holly Medium tree 20/12 15 Open, irregular crown; long, dark green leaves; berries turn red to black S Yes Ilex opaca American holly Medium tree 35/15 25 Dense, pyramidal; long, dark green leaves with spines; red berries; many cultivars exist that are hybrids of I. opaca (see Ilex x attenuata) N, C, S Yes Ilex vomitoria Yaupon holly Small tree 15/15 25 Upright, vase shaped; grey-green, leathery leaves; red berries on females; suckers; salt tolerant; good for wet sites N, C Yes Bordeaux Bordeaux dwarf yaupon holly Small shrub 2/3 Compact, dense, ne textured; small, green leaves that emerge maroon; no berries N, C Yes

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5 Botanical name Common name Plant type Height/ spread Description FL Region 1 Native Nana Dwarf yaupon holly Small shrub 3/3 Dense, ne textured, rounded; small, dark green leaves emerge with yellow tinge; scarlet berries N, C, S Yes Pendula Weeping yaupon holly Small tree 15/6 Upright, open, weeping habit; small, oval, grey-green leaves; red berries N, C Yes Pride of Houston Pride of Houston holly Small tree 15/8 Denser than species; small, toothed, dark green leaves; red berries N, C Yes Schellings Dwarf Schellings holly or dwarf yaupon holly Small shrub 4/6 Dense, ne textured, rounded; small, dark green leaves; reddish new growth; no berries; also sold as Schillings N, C, S Yes Taylors Rudolph Taylors Rudolph dwarf yaupon Small shrub 3/4 Dense, ne textured, rounded; small green leaves emerge with purplish tinge; red berries N, C, S Yes Ilex hybrids: Hollies derived from crosses between two or more species of hollies Ilex x attenuata Hybrids of I. opaca and other species Eagleston Eagleston holly Small tree 18/6 Pyramidal, dense; medium green leaves with soft spines; red berries N, C Yes East Palatka East Palatka holly Medium tree 30/10 15 Tight pyramidal shape; rounded, dull green leaves with spine at tip; bright red berries; insect and disease resistant N, C Yes Foster #2 Fosters holly Small tree 15/8 Pyramidal, dense, very dark green leaves with spines; abundant red berries N, C Yes Savannah Savannah holly Medium tree 40/15 25 Narrow pyramidal to columnar form; medium, dull green; dark red berries N, C Yes Ilex x Conaf Oak Leaf holly Large shrub 14/8 Pyramidal, dense; emerald-green leaves emerge bronze; oak leaf shaped; fast growing; red berries N, C No Ilex x Mary Nell Mary Nell holly Small tree 10/10 15 Dense, pyramidal; glossy, olivegreen leaves with many short spines; abundant red berries N, C No Ilex x Nellie R. Stevens Nellie R. Stevens holly Small tree 20/10 12 Pyramidal, dense; glossy, dark green leaves; red berries N, C No 1 N = North : north of State Rd 40; C = Central : between State Rds 40 and 70; S = South : south of State Rd 70