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 Material Information
Title: Planning and Managing Digital Projects
Physical Description: Conference Papers
Creator: Society for Florida Archivists Annual Meeting ( Conference )
Nemmers, John
Sullivan, Mark
Publication Date: May 1, 2012
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Competencies
Genre:
Spatial Coverage:
 Notes
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Mark Sullivan.
General Note: Presented during a pre-workshop as a guide and presentation on project planning.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the Commons by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
System ID: IR00000812:00001


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John Nemmers and Mark Sullivan University of Florida Smathers Libraries

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2 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Has a time frame (start/end dates) Has a scope/purpose Has a project manager Requires resources/inputs Has a work plan Produces digital outputs 3 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Digital Project Breakdown 1/3 effort = project planning, pre imaging preparation, preservation, oversight, evaluation 1/3 effort = description, metadata creation, database creation/maintenance 1/3 effort = digitization 4 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Questions to Answer: Who will be served by project? Have we identified the Primary/Secondary/Other audiences? What will be digitized ? What are our priorities? What will be the impact on the institution? How much should we digitize? What is our timeline? Start/end dates? 5 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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What resources do we need to support project? What are funding sources? Will project activities be undertaken in house or outsourced? What standards and best practices will be adopt? What technologies will we use to create/maintain/deliver/preserve digital objects? What is our sustainability plan beyond the project end? 6 Questions to Answer: Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Initial Steps in the Process Identify holdings to be digitized Identify stakeholders and participants (internal/external) Create a planning team Determine project goals/objectives Environmental scan of other projects Identify needed resources Develop work plan with timeline of activities 7 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Identify Holdings for Digital Projects Archival collections (papers, photos, AV, etc.) Special collections Reformatting microfilmed holdings Born digital holdings Digitization projects with partner holdings 8 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Selective Digitization Focus on holdings with high research/educational /commercial value Often not feasible to digitize everything > representative sample Not everything merits digitization Are the originals fragile/in jeopardy? Rights? No known copyright holder > Take down notices are option. Permissions? Deed of gift? 9 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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What are Priorities R esearcher demand? Preservation? Administrative mandate? Donor driven? Matching priorities of funding agency/partners? Exposing hidden collections to increase use? 10 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Prioritizing Example: Everglades Collections at UF Collections in demand Hot subject area Preservation issues Easy formats Viable funding source 11 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Potential Stakeholders/Participants Archivists/Curators Imaging personnel Metadata personnel Cataloging personnel IT/Web personnel Preservation or Conservation personnel Advisors (e.g. panel of subject specialists) Development/Fundraising personnel Grant writer/manager Administration Donors PR/Marketing personnel External partners Vendors 12 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Creating a Team 13 Need for clear leadership (project manager or co managers) Consensus building Group decision making Expect resistance (both justified and not) Admin support usually = successful elimination of resistance Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Collaboration & Partnerships Gain holdings/knowledge/support/IT from partners Shared knowledge/experiences can lead to better workflow/products Some granting agencies favor collaborative digital projects Requires better communication/negotiation of expectations/activities/outcomes 14 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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In House vs. Outsourcing (or Hybrid) Outsourcing costs can be lower if infrastructure/expertise not already in house Vendors set up to handle high volume; have equipment, training, software Vendors often offer multiple services in addition to imaging Vendor security risks materials going off site/out of country (loss of control) Have to evaluate, select, contract and communicate with vendors 15 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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In House vs. Outsourcing (or Hybrid) In house projects lead to in house expertise/infrastructure, but can require significant start up costs Complete control over in house projects (fewer security risks) Other pros/cons? Hybrid approach: use vendors to handle one portion of project (e.g., only imaging) 16 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Common Outsourced Activities Scanning Transcription (e.g ., oral histories ) Translation Metadata creation OCR Database management Online hosting Preservation 17 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Planning Discussions Brainstorming! Consider all ideas/options Identify impacts Staffing (extant or hire new or outsource) Space, equipment, software Impact on regular workflow Holdings (e.g., preservation/access issues) Evaluate all info and make decisions 18 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Base Decisions on Data Review/gather statistics Extent (e.g., # of page images) Reference/Usage statistics Scholarship produced based on holdings Can create surveys/suggestion forms Focus/advisory groups 19 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Work Plan Development Work plan focuses on quantifiable goals (e.g., producing a certain # of images) What steps/activities will you implement to achieve goals? Shows how inputs/resources are used to produce outcomes/products Detailed budget (calculate all costs) 20 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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TIP! Review grant guidelines, which usually call for: S pecific goals and objectives Scope of project Description of the materials and their importance/significance Budget templates Scanning/Metadata standards Specific work plan Evaluation criteria 21 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Work Plan Projects usually have phases and benchmarks as part of a project timeline Project activities are tied to project goals Activities also tied to project resources Identify staff who (extant or new), how much time needed, etc. Identify space, equipment, supplies needed (extant or new) 22 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Work Plan Identify other costs (e.g., consultants, vendors, training, travel, shipping) Hidden costs (administrative, PR) can be cost share in grants Technology issues: software/hardware/metadata/standards 23 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Work Plan 24 Work plan provides details about workflow / methodology Simple workflow: Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Project Timeline Example Months Actions Steps Responsibility 1 3 Hire/train staff; buy equipment/supplies Interview candidates; training Project manager, digital supervisor 3 12 Scanning and Metadata creation Scanning, QC, loading into system Digital technicians; IT experts 13 16 Evaluation, promotion Focus groups, listserv emails, presentations, journal article Project manager; publicity dept, project staff 25 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Gantt Charts Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GanttChartAnatomy.png 26 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Possible Project Budget Items Salaries & Benefits Hourly wages for temp staff Vendors Consultants Equipment /supplies Training/travel Indirect Costs 27 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Scanners (flatbed, ADF, slide, etc.) Digital cameras AV conversion Servers (storage, delivery, etc.) 28 Hardware Options Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Software Options 29 In house development: Requires programmers/database admins /metadata specialists Requires constant maintenance/testing Off the shelf software: E.g., Photoshop, DigiTool Requires knowledge/evaluation/comparison of vendors How will software be upgraded/maintained? Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Sustainability Considerations Digital technology is constantly/rapidly changing Upgrade/replacement of software/hardware Migration of digital objects/metadata Costs of long term digital preservation Costs of staffing over time (managing content, hardware/software) 30 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Exercise 1: Entire Group Handout includes a description of holdings to be digitized, target audience and other pertinent info Create goals for project List activities to achieve those goals 31 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Exercise 1: Goals & Activities Goal 1: 32 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Implementing Digital Projects Imaging Theory & Best Practices Digitization Equipment Metadata for Digital Resources Digital Asset Management Software Archiving and Preserving Digital Projects 34 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Imaging Theory & Best Practices Bit Depth & Color Space Resolution File Types Image Compression OCR Questions 36 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bit Depth & Color Space Bi Greyscales 8 bit ( 256 shades of gray ) 16 bit (65536 shades of gray ) RGB ( usually 24 bit ) CMYK ( usually 32 bit ) 37 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bit Depth & Color Space Image: Nevit Dilmen found at Wikimedia commons 38 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bit Depth & Color Space Color Fidelity Meaningful color should be retained 39 Bi tonal 8 bit Greyscale 24 bit Color Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bit (Almost) never scan 1 bit Completely grey items should (usually) be scanned 8 bit greyscale. Items with meaningful color should be scanned 24 bit RGB Trade offs between quality and file size 40 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Text Optical Character Recognition 41 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Resolution Resolution of an image expressed in pixels PPI pixels per inch DPI dots per inch 42 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Resolution : Recommended R ESOLUTION U SE F OR 300 pixels per inch ( ppi ) Printed text with normal sized fonts Oversized documents and maps Manuscripts with legible script 600 pixels per inch ( ppi ) Photographs and select graphic arts Printed text with very small fonts Manuscripts with difficult scripts 43 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Resolution : Rationale 1 Newspaper graphics printed at 80 dpi Magazine graphics printed at 120 dpi High end graphics printed at 300 dpi Scanning at 300 dpi is sufficient 44 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Resolution : Rationale 2 Text Optical Character Recognition 45 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Resolution : Rationale 3 Photographs Use 600 dpi Continuous tone images Unexpected use capture all details 46 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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File Types Save archival masters as TIFF Internet delivery as JPEGs or JPEG2000s 47 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Image Compression Save archival TIFFs as non compressed Lossy 48 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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OCR Optical Character Recognition Creation of plain text from an image file Just as important is the positional information! Text highlighting Text analysis 49 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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OCR : ALTO XML LOC XML schema / standard Contains position (and style) of each word, with possible variants Can be embedded within a METS file Used by NDNP 50 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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OCR : ALTO XML 51 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Review of Topics Bit Depth & Color Space Resolution File Types Image Compression OCR 52 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Scanning Equipment Flatbed scanners Sheet feed scanners Book scanners Map scanners Microfilm 55 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Flatbed Scanners Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL Epson Expression 10000XL 56 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Sheet feed Scanners Panasonic KV S2046C 57 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Book Scanners i2S CopiBook ( 24 bit color ) Konica Minolta PS7000 with grayscale up grade 58 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Oversized Document Scanners Camera back, vacuum table, etc.. Betterlight Super 8K HS 59 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Microfilm Scanners 60 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Metadata for Digital Resources What is metadata ? What is your digital resource? Standards Standards Comparison Tools Questions 62 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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What is metadata? 64 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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What is metadata? 65 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Library and Museum Metadata 66 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Greek Vase 470 460 BC 35 centimeters Odysseus and Eumaios the Swineherd from Odyssey 67 Library and Museum Metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Format: Greek Vase Date: 470 460 BC Height : 35 centimeters Title : [Greek Vase of Odysseus and Eumaiosthe Swineherd ] Notes : the Odyssey 68 Library and Museum Metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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69 Library and Museum Metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Title: L Isle St. Domingue Alternate Title: Atlas portatif Universel .. Physical Desc : 1 Map. : col; 17 x 22 cm on sheet 23 x 32 cm. Language: French Creator: Robert de Vaugondy Gilles 1688 1766 Date: 1749 Place of Publ : Paris 1749 Subjects : Maps -Early works to 1800 -West Indies ( lcsh ) Maps -Early works to 1800 -Hispaniola ( lcsh ) Genre: single map( marcgt ) Maps ( lcsh ) Early works to 1800 ( lcsh ) Spatial Coverage: Haiti Dominican Republic Note : Outline color. 70 Library and Museum Metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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71 Library and Museum Metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Title: Avanzamos o retrocedemos ? : reflexiones sobre Physical Desc : 165 p. Language: Spanish Creator : Mejia, Radhames Publisher: Santo Domingo : PUCMM/CIEDHUMANO Date: 2010 Subject: Educacion Republica Dominicana Ensayos conferencias Abstract : Este libro recoge una serie de artaculos sobre temas educativos publicados en los aos 2006 y 2007 en el periodico El Caribe. Identifier: RD 370.97293 M516a isbn 9789945415339 72 Library and Museum Metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Library Metadata 73 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Library Metadata MARC 74 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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What is your digital resource? 76 Physical archival containers Archival box? Archival folder? Item level? Scrapbooks Pages Photographs Newspapers Issues Article Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Why metadata standards? 78 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Standards so many to choose from Andrew Tannenbaum (1988 ) 79 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Types of Metadata Standards 80 Bibliographic Description Collection Descriptions Other Standards Authority Standards Proprietary Standards Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Types of Metadata Standards 81 Bibliographic Description Collection Descriptions Other Standards Authority Standards Proprietary Standards Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description Standards MARC Dublin Core MODS VRA Core 82 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description : MARC MARC Originally developed in 1960s by Library of Congress Most embraced metadata standard in libraries MARC 21 Combination of USMARC and CAN/MARC Metadata standard for 21 st century MarcXML Same MARC format, except encoded in XML 83 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description : MARC Positives : Can encode a very granular amount of data Very well adopted and works well with machine readers Negatives Not very human readable High learning curve Mixes data with display (as commonly implemented) 84 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description : DC D ublin C ore Originally developed between 1994 and 1995 in Dublin Ohio by OCLC Used widely on web pages to assist search engines Simplified Dublin Core Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights 85 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description : DC Qualified Dublin Core Added three elements ( Audience, Provenance, RightsHolder ) More importantly, added some basic refinements Positives Widely accepted and easy to read and encode Negatives Even with qualified dublin core difficult to encode complex data Lack of data refinement leads to loss of UI options 86 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description : MODS M etadata O bject D escription S cheme Developed in 2002 by Library of Congress Beginning to be the de facto standard for digital libraries (MODS/METS) Positives Can handle a (large) subset of MARC tags Handles complex objects and can easily be extended Negatives Hard to do round trip portability from MARC MODS MARC 87 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description : VRA Core V isual R esource A ssociation Developed in 1996 by Visual Resource Association Used for describing visual/cultural materials Includes all the standard tags Date, Title, Description, Rights, Subject, etc.. Also more unique tags Cultural Context Style Technique 88 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Bibliographic Description Standards MARC Dublin Core MODS VRA Core 89 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Types of Metadata Standards 90 Bibliographic Description Collection Descriptions Other Standards Authority Standards Proprietary Standards Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Metadata Transport Contents Files and Structural data Administrative data Choices METS OAI PMH No wrapper necessary 91 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Metadata M etadata E ncoding & T ransmission S tandard Standard by Library of Congress (2001) Contains Descriptions section(s) Administrative section(s) File section(s) Structure map(s) Accepts any XML schema 92 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Metadata PMH Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (2000 2001) Defines a protocol (over HTTP) Main Verbs Identify ListMetadataFormats usually dublin core (99%) ListSets ListRecords 93 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Types of Metadata Standards 94 Bibliographic Description Collection Descriptions Other Standards Authority Standards Proprietary Standards Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Collection Metadata Standards (METS ) EAD Encoded Archival Description Electronic Finding Guide/Aid Main Sections Descriptions Container List can link to digital objects 95 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Types of Metadata Standards 96 Bibliographic Description Collection Descriptions Other Standards Authority Standards Proprietary Standards Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Authority Metadata Standards NACO MADS EAC Other Standards KML DarwinCore Z39.50 / ZING 97 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Proprietary and Custom Formats Proprietary File Formats G reenstone Document File (doc.xml) Fedora Object File ( FOXml ) Custom Schemas SobekCM Schema ( UFDC and dLOC ) 98 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Back to the beginning? 99 MADS ? METS ? Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Evidence based Universities within Florida ( 10 schools ) Digital Objects MARC ( linked to catalog ) Dublin Core ( no wrapper, simple objects ) METS wrapper ( for complex items ) MODS EAD for Finding Aids / Guides OAI PMH Harvesting 100 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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102 METS Wrapper Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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103 METS Wrapper DC MODS Additional custom metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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104 METS Wrapper Dublin Core Additional custom metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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105 METS Wrapper MODS Additional custom metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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106 METS Wrapper MODS Additional custom metadata VRA Core Darwin Core Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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107 METS MODS SobekCM Archiva l Service Greenstone Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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108 METS MODS SobekCM Archiva l Service Fedora, ContentDM Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Link to external comparison http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/development/standards_comparison.pdf Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 109

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Lessons / Standards Conclusions Try not to tie your metadata to your system Archival vs. Service needs, but continue to follow the standards most information you would want METS / MODS v. simple Dublin Core 110 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Metadata Tools Library of Congress site of METS utilities http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/mets tools.html SobekCM METS Editor (UF) http://ufdc.ufl.edu/metseditor MarcEdit Tool http://people.oregonstate.edu/~reeset/marcedit/html/index.php 112 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Review of Topics What is metadata ? What is your digital resource? Standards Standards Comparison Tools 113 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Exercise 2: Individual Handout includes descriptive info for an object that will be digitized Map from non standard source metadata to Dublin Core 115 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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DAMS ContentDM DigiTool Omeka Greenstone Fedora Dspace Custom ( SobekCM ) 117 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Archival Information System Archon Archivist Toolkit ArchiveSpace 118 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Digitization: One Puzzle Piece Digitization is one piece of a digital preservation plan, but only one piece Without the rest of the puzzle, digitization is ultimately useless for preserving and archiving our historical and cultural resources Include Digital Preservation and full lifecycle of the image and data in all digitization plans. Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 120

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Preservation and Long Term Access Through Networked Services Project Survey Surveyed over 200 organizations, mostly European archives and libraries Digital content volume to increase 25 fold over next decade 70% of respondents expect to hold over 100TB of content Only 47% of organizations had an allocated budget for digital preservation ( http://www.planets project.eu/publications ) Large Scale Digitization Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 121

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Digital preservation is: Active Constant process Exponentially multi tiered About ensuring continuing accessibility Relatively new and somewhat in its infancy Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 122

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Compact Disks 2002 2008 23,000 CD/DVD ( 48 TB ) Unmanageable Slowly deteriorating Two (or 3 or 4) copies Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 123

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Table of Contents What to preserve? How do I know it is preserved? Object level Preservation File level Preservation Organizational: Trustworthy Digital Repositories Recommendations Questions Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 124

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How do I know it is preserved? Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 125

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What to preserve? How do I know it is preserved? Text level preservation? Aujourd'hui premier janvier dix huit cent quatre, le Gnral en chef de l'Arme indigne, accompagn des gnraux, chefs de l'arme, convoqus l'effet de prendre les mesures qui doivent tendre au bonheur du pays: Aprs avoir fait connatre aux gnraux assembls ses vritables intentions d'assurer jamais aux indignes d'Hati un gouvernement stable, objet de sa plus vive sollicitude : ce qu'il a fait un discours qui tend faire connatre aux puissances trangres la rsolution de rendre le pays indpendant, et de jouir d'une libert consacre par le sang du peuple de cette le ; et, aprs avoir recueilli les avis, a demand que chacun des gnraux assembls pronont le serment de renoncer jamais la France, de mourir plutt que de vivre sous sa domination, et de combattre jusqu'au dernier soupir pour l'indpendance. Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 126

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What to preserve? How do I know it is preserved? Text level preservation? Today, January 1, 1804, the General in Chief of the Indigenous Army, accompanied by generals and army chiefs convoked in order to take measures tending to the happiness of the country: After having made known to the assembled generals his true intention of forever ensuring to the natives of Haiti a stable government the object of his greatest solicitude, which he did in a speech that made known to foreign powers the resolution to render the country independent, and to enjoy the liberty consecrated by the blood of the people of this island; and, after having gathered their opinions, asked each of the assembled generals to pronounce a vow to forever renounce France; to die rather than to live under its domination; and to fight for independence with their last breath. Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 127

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What to preserve? How do I know it is preserved? Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 128

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What to preserve? How do I know it is preserved? document, data set, or sound or video recording that should be preserved, not the Microsoft Word file, or the Excel spreadsheet, Information Standards Quarterly Spring 2010. Also the context and layout though. Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 129

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Object Level Preservation More than just the images and text (but also!) Descriptive Information Describes the intellectual entity ( title, author ) Same information used for discovery and display of object Structural Information Table of contents, page order File Information File size Checksums and digital signatures for fixity and authenticity checks Administrative Information Provenance and access conditions for the object Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 131

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Object Level Metadata METS M etadata E ncoding and T ransmission S tandard Descriptive Metadata Container MODS ( Metadata Object Description Standard ) Dublin Core VRACore ( Visual Resource Association ) MarcXML Structural Metadata Technical File Metadata Administrative Metadata Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 132

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PREMIS PREservation Metadata : Implementation Strategies Metadata needed to support preservation ( Dappert and Enders ) HUGE data dictionary must pick and choose Describes historical preservation actions/agents Provides information needed for any future preservation actions Can be encoded in METS file Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 133

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PREMIS Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 134

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Necessary Preservation File Information Example PREMIS Image Record Checksums and Size Preservation Level ( full, bitwise, etc.. ) Behaviors Format ( MIME, Format Registry, Validation Info ) Creating Applications Capture Information (MIX) Environments ( software, operating system, processor, hardware ) All migrations events Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 137

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File Format Migration / Emulation Any sound preservation strategy must deal with the ephemeral nature of file formats Migration v. Emulation Must either constantly migrate forward or at least have a migration strategy Migration strategy is also ephemeral and represents best current options Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 138

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Recommended File Formats Four basic criteria Specification must be freely available Must be no patents or licenses on the format Other digital repositories using or endorsed format Variety of tools for writing and rendering format Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 139

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Recommended File Formats Migration strategy is also ephemeral and represents best current options Archivematica ( UNESCO preservation system ) Presented with a .WMV ( Windows Media Video ) proprietary file Current strategy: Convert to MPEG 2 Future strategy: Convert to Motion JPEG2000 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 140

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Alexandria Library Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 142

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Alexandria Library Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 143

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Digital Preservation Community Process Models Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Preserving Digital Information published by Task Force on Archiving Digital Information in 1996. Draft OAIS reference model published in 1999 Primary benchmark and chief process model for the preservation of digital assets InterPARES International Researchon Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems. Focuses on records maintenance Digital Curation Centre: Curation Lifecycle Model Defines three levels of preservation and best practices for each Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 144

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OAIS Reference Model Provides framework for understanding of archival concepts needed for long term digital information preservation and access Provides concepts needed by non archival organizations to be effective participants in the preservation process Provides framework for describing and comparing different strategies and techniques Provides basis for comparing data models of digital information preserved and how they change over time Guides the identification and production of OAIS related standards Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 145

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An OAIS must: Negotiate for and accept appropriate information from producers Obtain enough rights to ensure long term preservation Determine the designated community Ensure preserved objects are independently understandable to designated community Follow documented policies and procedures which ensure the information is preserved against all reasonable contingencies Ensure object can be disseminated as authenticated copies of the original or the original Make preservation information available to designated community Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 146

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Toward Certified Digital Repositories Where are we? Granular standards (PREMIS) Process Models (OAIS, InterPARES ) In 2000, RLG and OCLC published Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilities This inches us closer, by defining a Trusted Digital Repository and expands the discussion to include the policies, standards, as well as technology infrastructure as a trusted system. Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 147

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Developing Metrics for Certification Nestor Catalogue of Criteria for Trusted Digital Repositories Network of Expertise in Long term Storage of Digital Resources Provides: Information and criteria for self assessment for digital repositories Training Tools Iterative process Documentation, Transparency, Adequacy, and Measurability Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 148

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Developing Metrics for Certification DRAMBORA Digital Repository Audit Model Based on Risk Assessment Digital Curation Center (DCC) and Digital Preservation Europe (DPE) Focuses on risk identification, risk prioritization, and risk mitigation of risks through six step process of self assessment. Developed from a TRAC based self assessment originally Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 149

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Developing Metrics for Certification TRAC Trusted Repositories Audit & Certification Criteria & Checklist Research Libraries Group (RLG) and U.S. National Archives and Record Administration (NARA) 2005 Grant from Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to develop procedures and activities to audit and certify digital archives. 2007 Final publication includes 84 criteria Organizational infrastructure Digital object management Technologies (IT and security) Two repositories ( Portico and HathiTrust ) initially audited Portico certified as a trustworthy digital repository for CRL community Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 150

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Toward Standards Conformity Assessment Requirements for Bodies Providing Audi and Certification of Management Systems ( ISO/IEC 17021 ) is current international standard applied Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Respositories ( CCSDS 652.0 R1, ISO/DIS 16363 ) still under development as an ISO standard Requirements for Bodies Providing Audit and Certification of Candidate Trustworthy Digital Respositories also under development as an ISO standard Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 151

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Recommendations Be aware of the ongoing cost of preservation and plan according Be a part of something larger Subject based trusted repositories LLMC ( Law Library Microform Consortium ) Regional and International trusted repositories HathiTrust Florida Dark Archive / State Universities Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan 153

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Review of Topics What to preserve? How do I know it is preserved? Object level Preservation File level Preservation Organizational : Trustworthy Digital Repositories Recommendations 154 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Project Wrap Up Evaluation of success/failure Promoting both products and the project itself Final report for funding agencies Future testing to improve products/services (e.g., usability, focus groups, surveys) 157 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Project Wrap Up: Questions What was final per item cost? What would you change if you had it do over again? Were the products worth the expense/effort? What did we learn from failures/mistakes? 158 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Assessing/Measuring Success Determine criteria for measuring success at start of project Choose method most appropriate for project (or required by funding agency): Summative Evaluation Outcomes Based Evaluation Best evaluation is both during and after Difficult to assess if user needs met 159 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Summative Evaluation Did we meet/not meet goals of the digital project? Did we meet goals on time? Were resources (staffing, budget) enough to get job done? Includes evaluation of workflow and activities Usually includes both quantitative and qualitative measures 160 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Outcomes Based Evaluation Shows if goals of the digital project were met/not met User centric (how have patrons benefitted) Focus is on impacts/benefits of project rather than on activities Includes evaluation of staffing workflow, budget (were they enough to get job done) Includes quantitative and qualitative measures Encouraged by many grants 161 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Components of Outcomes Based Evaluation Inputs/Resources Activities Outputs/Products Quantifiable outcomes (e.g., # of users able to access holdings will increase) Evaluation indicators Methods/Sources for Evaluation 162 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Promotion/Publicity Fairly standard for most projects Traditional methods: newsletters, releases, listservs presentations, journal articles, etc. Newer methods: facebook blogs, youtube flickr other social networking 163 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan

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Exercise 3: Entire Group Use list of project goals/activities created in Exercise 1 Create evaluation plan (summative or outcome based) 165 Society for Florida Archivists (5/2012) Nemmers and Sullivan


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