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Water Forests and People: Towards Integrative Research on Dams, Natural Resources and Society in the Amazon
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Title: Water Forests and People: Towards Integrative Research on Dams, Natural Resources and Society in the Amazon
Physical Description: Conference Papers
Creator: Athayde, Simone
Oliver-Smith, Anthony
Bohlman, Stephanie
McKee, Kathleen
Conference: International Symposium "Water Water Forests and People: Towards Integrative Research on Dams, Natural Resources and Society in the Amazon"
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 2012
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Simone Athayde.
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International Symposium Water, Forests and People: Towards Integrative Research on Dams, Natural Resources and Society in the Amazon S ponsored by : Center for Latin American Studies Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) Program Amazon Conservation Leadership Initiative (ACLI) UF Water Institute Florida Climate Institute (FCI) January 23 25, 2012 J. Wayne Reitz Union, Room 361 363 Gainesville, FL, US PROGRAM AND ABSTRACTS

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1 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 2 SYMPOSIUM PROGRAM ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 3 ABSTRACTS OF PRESENTATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 6 KEYNOTE SPEAKER ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 6 Dams and Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon Philip Fearnside ................................ ................. 6 SOCIAL SCIENCE CLUSTER ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 6 The Social Impacts of Dam Construction and Operation Anthony Oli ver Smith ................................ 6 Dams and Social Movements Katrina Schwartz ................................ ................................ .................. 7 Linking Short Term and Long Term Models to Evaluate Success in Development Forced Resettlement Projects Gabriela Stocks ................................ ................................ ............................... 7 NATURAL SCIENCE CLUSTER ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 8 Long Term Mu ltidisciplinary Research on Dams: Lessons Learned From Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River, USA William (Bill) Pine and Theodore Melis ................................ ................................ .............. 8 Effects of Dams in River Geomorphology Joan Mossa ................................ ................................ ........ 8 Dams and Fisheries in the Amazon across Tocantins and Madeira Watersheds Elineide Marques and Carolina Doria ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 9 Forests, Land Use and Land Cover Change Processes Related to Dams Michael Binford and Stephanie Bohlman ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 9 POLICY CLUSTER ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 10 Energy, Society, the Economy, and Ecology Sanford Berg ................................ ................................ 10 Dam Licensing in the United States Christine Klein ................................ ................................ ........... 10 INTEGRATIVE RE SEARCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 11 Stages of Dam Implementation in Brazil: Actors and Decision making Simone Athayde, WalterlinaBrasil and Elineide Marques ................................ ................................ ................................ 11 The Challenge of Integrated Research on Dams Anthony Oliver Smith ................................ ........... 11 SYMPOSIUM PARTICIPANTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 12 SPONSORING ORGANIZATIONS AT UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA ................................ ................................ .. 21 Symposium Organizers : Dr. Anthony Oliver Smith Department of Anthropology UF Symposium Coordinator Dr. Simone Athayde Center for Latin American Studies, UF Dr. Stephanie Bohlman School of Forestry Resources and Conservation, UF MS Kathleen McKee Water Institute, UF Logistic Support: Carolyn Cox, Florida Climate Institute (FCI) Patrcia Sampaio, Tropical Conservation and Development Program (TCD) and Constanza Rios, TCD Student A ssistant Editor : Simone Athayde

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2 INTRODUCTION The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most important socio ecological systems in the world. Currently, the Brazilian government has a large dam construction program planned for the next 30 years in the region, to meet the energ y needs of its national development program. These dams will impact water resources, climate, forests, land cover and resident populations, many of whom are indigenous. A great deal of research has been done on dams in Brazil, but very little of it has attempted to integrate water, forests and people in the assessment of their effects. Considering that ecological, biological and cultural diversity are essential for human well being at local, regional, and global scales, development initiatives such as dam construction and operation require close scrutiny for their direct and indirect effects on local environments and peoples as well as their variable outcomes for the development of the region and nation. In addition to their stated goals and functions dams contribute to further frontier expansion by stimulating existing development trends such as road building, mining, logging, mechanized agriculture, large scale cattle ranching, increasing population dens ity and petroleum exploration. Moreover, although hydropower has recently been framed as a carbon neutral energy source, there is considerable evidence to the contrary. Therefore, sustainable development strategies must be based on understanding the mult iple and complex interactions between biological and cultural diversity and their associated services and functions. The importance of this task in the fragile environment of the Amazon requires an integrated research approach to capture the environmental, social and economic dynamics set in motion by the construction and operation of dams. This three day Symposium will include the participation of UF and Brazilian Scholars, as well as invited guests. There will be one day of presentations and roundtables one day of integrative research exercises and one day for group work on the proposal, with research team participants. This Symposium is part of the Amazon Dams Program an effort to build a bi national r esearch program on the multiple social and environm ental effects of dams involving four rivers and three Universities in the Brazilian Amazon, working collaboratively with UF and other US faculty, students and researchers. For this Symposium, we will explore three main themes: Dams and the Natu ral Environment including hydrology, geomorphology, fish fisheries, forests and land cover processes Dams and Social Systems the socio economic costs and benefits .of dam construction and operation and their effects on social groups. Dams and Policy Frameworks including national public utilities (energy, water) policies licensing and legal issues and development programs. The main outcomes to be achieved from this Symposium are sharing knowledge within and across disciplines, formation of a re search team and advance proposal development.

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3 SYMPOSIUM PROGRAM JANUARY 23, 2012 FIRST DAY CONTEXT Time Theme Speaker AM 9:00 9:15 Welcome Welcome and Opening Dr. Philip J. Williams Director, Center for Latin American Studies UF Dr. Bette Loiselle Director, T ropical Conservation and Development Program UF Dr. Wendy Graham Director, Water Institute UF 9:15 9:2 0 Objectives and Agenda Symposium Coordinator Dr. Anthony Oliver Smith Department of Anthropology, UF 9: 2 0 10:15 Keynote Speaker Dams and Cli mate Change in the Brazilian Amazon Dr. Philip Fearnside Research Professor National Institute for Research in Amazonia (INPA), Brazil 10:15 10:30 Break Time Theme Speaker AM 10:30 12:00 SOCIAL SCIENCE CLUSTER Moderator: Dr. Marianne Schmink Center for Latin American Studies, UF 10:30 11:00 The Social Impacts of Dam Construction and Operation Dr. Anthony Oliver Smith Department of Anthropology, UF 11:00 11:30 Politic s of Water and Social Movements Dr. Katrin a Schwartz Department of Political Science, UF 11:30 12:00 Linking Short Term and Long Term Models to Evaluate Success in Dam Induced Resettlement Projects MS Gabriela Stocks Department of Anthropology, UF 12:00 1:30 PM Lunch

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4 JANUARY 23, 2012 FIRST DAY CONTEXT Time Theme Speaker PM 1:30 3:30 NATURAL SCIENCE CLUSTER Moderator: Dr. Bette Loiselle Tropical Conservation and Development Program, UF 1:30 2:00 Long Term Multidisciplinary Research on Dams: The Glen Canyon Dam Project USA Dr. William (Bill) Pine Wildli fe Ecology and Conservation, UF, and Dr. Theodore Melis USGS Glen Canyon Program 2:00 2:30 Effects of Dams on River Geomorphology: A Global and Local Perspective Dr. Joann Mossa Department of Geography, UF 2:30 3:00 Da ms and Fisheries in the Amazon Across Tocantins and Madeira Watersheds Dr. Elineide Marques Federal University of Tocantins (UFT), Brazil and Dr. Carolina Do ria Federal Univer sity of Rondnia (UNIR), Brazil 3:00 3:3 0 Forests, Land Use and Land Cover Change Processes Related to Dams Dr. Michael Binford Chair, Department of Geography, UF, and Dr. Stephanie Bohlman School of Fore st Resources and Conservation, UF 3:30 3:45 Break Time Theme Speaker PM 3:45 5:00 POLICY CLUSTER Moderator: Dr. Stephanie Bohlman UF School of Fore st Resources and Conservation 3:45 4:15 Energy, Society, the Economy, and Ecology: Academic Disciplines and Conflict Resolution Dr. Sanford Berg Director of Water Studies for the Public U tility Research Center (P URC), UF 4:15 4:45 Dam Licensing in the United States Dr. Christine A. Klein Chesterfield Smith Professor of Law and Director, LL.M. Program in Environmental & Land Use Law, UF Levin College of Law 4:45 5:15 Discussion and closure Participants and audience

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5 JANUARY 24, 2012 SECOND DAY WORKSHOP FORMAT Time Theme Format AM 8:30 9: 00 Self introductions of participants Circle 9:00 9:45 Interactive presentation Stages of Dam Implementation in Brazil : Actors and Decision making Dr. Simone Athayde Ce nter for Latin American Studies/ UF, Dr. Walterlina Brasil Federal University of Rondnia (UNIR) and Dr. Elineide Marques Federal University of Tocantins (UFT) 9:45 10:00 Sharing of Survey Results Kathleen McKee Research Coordinator, Water Institute, UF 10:00 10:15 Break 10:15 11:15 Disciplinary break out groups to develop framework and research questions Groups formed within social and natural sciences disciplines 11:15 12:15 Report and discussion of break out groups results Plenary 12:15 1:45 PM Lunch PM 1:45 2:45 Integrative research on dams The C hallenge of I ntegrative Research on Dams Dr. Anthony Oliver Smith Presentation and discussion 2:45 4:15 Interdisciplinary break out groups for developing integrative research questions, frameworks and methods Groups formed according to previously defined integrative themes 4:15 4:30 Break 4:30 5:30 Report and discussion of break out groups results Plenary January 25, 2012 THIRD DAY This day is closed for public participation, and reserved for group work on project development. Program participants, Brazilian collaborators and guests

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6 ABSTRACTS OF PRESENTATIONS KEYNOTE PRESENTATION Dams and Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon Philip Fearnside National Institute for Research in Amazonia (INPA), Brazil it more than generating the same energy from fossil fuels for many years. Dams emit greenhouse gases in different forms. First, the trees killed by flooding of the forest frequently project above of the surface of the water and release carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as they decay. This emission constitutes a net contribution to the greenhouse effect, in contrast to CO 2 emitted from the water in the reservoir from decay of plants that they grow after the dam is built. The amount of CO 2 that these plants absorb from th e atmosphere while they grow is the same as what they release when they die and decompose. However, much of the plant matter that decomposes in the reservoir does not release its carbon in the form of CO 2 but rather as methane (CH 4 ). This occurs because t he water at the bottom of the reservoir has virtually no oxygen, and the oxygen necessary to form CO 2 is therefore not available. This vegetation includes aquatic plants that grow in the reservoir and the grasses and herbaceous weeds that grow in the drawd own zone around the edges of the reservoir (the area that is exposed when the water level is low and is flooded when the reservoir fills again). The methane released as the vegetation decays underwater has a much greater impact on global warming than would release of the carbon as CO 2 The impact of each ton of methane is equivalent the 25 tons of CO 2 over a 100 year period according to the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). However, more recent analyses that include indire ct effects indicate that the impact of methane is 34 times greater than CO 2 for the same period. The main pathway for emission of the methane is the water that passes through the turbines and the spillways. SOCIAL SCIENCE CLUSTER The Social Impacts of Dam Construction and Operation Anthony Oliver Smith Department of Anthropology University of Florida This presentation will summarize the major social impacts of dam construction and operation as documented over the past half century. The social impact s of dams are the result of the major changes enacted by dam construction and operation on the natural environment as well as the effects of displacement and, possibly, resettlement of the affected population. The

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7 distribution of impacts is often unbalanc ed with some positive effects created for selected groups in affected populations accruing from increased access to irrigation water, communication systems electrification, transportation and employment. Negative effects include diminished welfare due to changes in resource access, livelihoods, market access, social organization, social networks, political power and belief systems. There are also significant impacts on psychological and physical health. Theories and concepts useful for the analysis of dis placement and resettlement will also be briefly discussed. Dams and Social Movements Katrina Schwartz Department of Political Science, University of Florida Large dams have long been the target of oppositional mobilization, particularly since the 1980s. Why have dams provoked such powerful resistance? Where has it been most successful in halting or delaying dam construction, and why? This presentation will provide an historical overview of national and transnational anti dam movements, placing the case o f Brazil in comparative context. Linking Short Term and Long Term Models to Evaluate Success in Development Forced Resettlement Projects Gabriela Stocks Department of Anthropology, University of Florida This presentation addresses the long term outcomes of the resettlement of Nuevo Arenal, Costa Rica, which occurred as a consequence of the Arenal Hydroelectric Project in 1977. Because resettlement creates long term impacts, assessing the success of resettlement projects on the basis of information gathe red only a few years post resettlement is premature. Nevertheless, the project evaluation cycle normally requires an assessment of success at a term of three to five years. The study presented here takes a different approach by analyzing the evolution of N stage framework for successful involuntary resettlement, we can attempt to connect project planning to long term outcomes in resettled communities. Ultimately, the goal of this study is to identify whether this Arenal project can be considered a rare example of successful resettlement, and which elements of the resettlement project design contributed to or hind ered successful community rec onstruction post resettlement.

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8 NATURAL SCIENCE CLUSTER Long Term Multidisciplinary Research on Dams: Lessons Learned From Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River, USA William (Bill) Pine Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation University of Florida Theodore Melis USGS Glen Canyon Program The Colorado River ecosystem including the Grand Canyon reach of the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona is currently managed under and adaptive management framework that is designed to meet operational obligations of Glen Canyon Dam while protec ting natural resources of Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. This framework assumes that the ecosystem responses to dam operations and various management policies are complex and rarely predictable. To aid in protecting natural resources given this unc ertainty the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program uses long term monitoring data of key resources including native fish and sand resources coupled with predictive modeling exercises and large scale (ecosystem level) experiments to assess restoration options for key biological and abiotic resources. In this framework research continuously provides information to resource managers that updates and modifies previous conclusions about ecosystem responses to dam operations and experiments to aid in making future decisions by addressing key uncertainties. Effects of Dams in River Geomorphology Joann Mossa Department of Geography, UF Globally, more than 6000 km 3 of water is held in reservoirs behind large dams. This volume is so large that some suggest that reservoirs have reduced rate of sea level rise. The magnitude, duration, frequency and timing of high and low flows have been markedly changed by dams and r are processes that tend to decrease landscape diversity and biodiversity. Reservoirs are also holding back about 20% of the global sediment load. Amazon provides 8% of gl obal sediment flux, so the building more reservoirs there will have a global impact. Locally, reservoirs affect processes upstream (drowning of lands and tributaries, sediment trapping, increased slope instability) and downstream (degradation, decreased l ateral migration, decreased sand bar area). These affect people, biota, water distribution, landforms and more. Magnitude and types of effects depend on dam size, purpose, operation and environmental setting. Concerns not fully considered are that the res ervoir lifetime is finite, and that there could be unanticipated effects, such as a collapse from a variety of causes that results in a catastrophic flood. These also warrant review when evaluating large projects.

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9 Dams and Fisheries in the Amazon across Tocantins and Madeira Watersheds Elineide Marques Federal University of Tocantins (UFT) Carolina Doria Federal Univer sity of Rondnia (UNIR) Brazil It has been more than thirty years since the first Amazon dam was built Currently about thirteen dams are being constructed, and a dozen of them are planned for th e region. The Tocantins and the Madeira river watersheds are rapidly changing in response to impacts caused by dams. In this presentation, we present and discuss results of l ong term r esearch and monitoring activities done about t he fish fauna in the se two watersheds. The highly turbid waters and rapids of the uppe r Madeira River represent a single type of environment in the Brazilian Amazon. The implementation and operation of two hydroelectric dams in the upper river Madeira will lead to change in the composition of fish communities in the dammed area, wh ich therefore, will aff ect the fishing activity conducted in the river. One of the ex pected impacts is on the reo f ilic species, with the interruption of migration routes, especially of large migratory fish, which can change the fishing communities of the two reservoirs and upstr eam and downstream areas. Long term k nowledge about the diversity of patterns that structure communities, species biology and fishing is essential for understanding and mitigating the impact of these development projects. The challenge ahead is to unders tand how the fish fauna is changing in Amazonian rivers and what we can learn from other experiences in order to improve the conservation process of the fish fauna and associated communities Forests, Land Use a nd Land Cover Change Processes R elated to Da ms Michael Binford Department of Geography, U niversity of F lorida Stephanie Bohlman School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida biogeochemistry of the river. Dam construction alters land use and forest cover both directly (reservoirs flood forests, altered hydrology impacts riparian forest) and indir ectly (changed demography and livelihoods cause urban development, agricultural shifts and deforestation), which then create feedbacks on the river system and dam operation. The indirect effects can displacement of communities, altered livelihoods from depleted fish stocks, population migration to the dam construction site, etc. Thus, to predict and quantify impacts of dams on forest and land use, an integrated socio environ mental framework is necessary.

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10 POLICY CLUSTER Energy, Society, the Economy, and Ecology: Academic Disciplines and Conflict Resolution Sanford Berg Public Utility Research Center (PURC) Warrington College of Business Administration Department of Economics University of Florida Each academic discipline sheds light on the issues associated with constructing and operating dams. The relevant paradigms enable researchers to focus on key issues; we frame the issues being addressed. Integrative analyses are required for the evaluation of policy options, drawing upon engineering, hydrology, political science, economics, land use planning, law, anthropology, and ethics. Evidence ing is However, to limitations each discipline brings to the discussion of public policy, including energy sources. This presentation examines how four sources of conflict can be addressed through technical studies and adaptive work. Authority conflicts arise due to a lack of clarity of roles and responsibilities. Cognitive (factual) conflicts represent disagreements regarding current or historical facts and causal linkages. Value Conflict s occur due to conflicting priorities and different weights on outcomes. Electrification for regional economic development, environmental stewardship, and limiting impacts on indigenous peoples illustrate potential (conflicting) goals. Finally, interest c onflicts stem from stakeholders benefiting differentially from decisions. When the costs are imposed on one group and the benefits on another, clear interest conflicts emerge. The presentation concludes with a discussion of the major drivers of pu blic po licy in infrastructure. Dam Licensing in the United States Christine A. Klein LL.M. Program in Environmental & Land Use Law, U niversity of F lorida Levin College of Law This presentation will discuss the licensing and other legal requirements applicab le to both public and private dams. It will also consider the issues of license renewal, the imposition of environmentally protective conditions, and the legal issues surrounding the removal of dams.

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11 INTEGRATIVE RESEARCH Stages of Dam Implementation in Brazil: Actors and Decision making Simone Athayde Center for Latin American Studies University of Florida Walterlina Brasil Federal University of Rondnia (UNIR), Brazil Elineide Marques Federal University of Tocantins (UFT) Brazil In this presentation, we will present and discuss the stages of licensing and implementing hydroelectric power plants in Brazil. We divide the process in three phases, named planning, building and mitigating. For each stage, we identify the main actors in volved and the roles they play in decision making, including governmental institutions, private companies, banks, public ministry, environmental agencies, society and people directly and indirectly affected and benefited by a given dam. Each actor has a po sition, an interest and a role in the process. We present information on the requirements for obtaining each type of license by the enterprise building the dam, which are the provisory license (LP), the installation license (LI) and the operation license ( LO). We discuss the gaps and vulnerability of the different stages, and conclude with some models that help to understand the transformation of the system in longitudinal (temporal) and vertical (geopolitical and hierarchical) scales. The Challenge of Integrated Research on Dams Anthony Oliver Smith Department of Anthropology University of Florida There is a huge literature on dams, from almost every aspect in the natural, social, engineering and policy sciences. However the vast majority of this lite rature is confined to silos, each insulated from contact or reference with others. There have been relatively few systematic examinations of dams from inter disciplinary perspective, thereby missing important synergistic linkages between ecological, social and policy oriented variables. This presentation will discuss the emerging need for integrative research in general and its application for dams. Dams require an integrative approach for three main reasons. First, large dams are transformative intervention s and enact like few other phenomena the alteration of virtually every aspect of local environments and societies. Second, dams are frequently perceived as the clearest expression of the western, technologically driven form of development and thus acquire major political significance. Third, dams are expensive. They require enormous investments of capital that usually must be obtained by diverting resources from other forms of consumption and incurring indebtedness to multilateral, public and private source s. Thus, their modernist cultural centrality and their physical and economic dimensions and impacts have placed dams at the center of debates about development, society and environment.

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12 SYMPOSIUM PARTICIPANTS Listed by alphabetic order Athayde, Simone E mail: simonea@ufl.edu Simone is an environmental anthropologist and a Postdoctoral Research Associate for both the Amazon Conservation Leadership Initiative (ACLI) and the Tropical Conservation and Dev elopment Program (TCD), in the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida. She is also a Research Associate for Instituto Socioambiental ISA, a Brazilian NGO. She holds a Bachelor in Biology (Brazil) and master degrees in Botany (Brazil) an d Ethnobotany (UK). In the last several years, her work has been recognized with awards from the Center for Latin American Studies and TCD Programs and from the Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation (CEI) at the University of Florida; from the Ministr y of Culture in Brazil, and from the International Society of Ethnobiology. She has worked for roughly 20 years in the fields of environmental education, conservation and development of the Atlantic Forest and Amazonian regions in Brazil, with a focus on i ndigenous knowledge systems and collaborative management of socio ecological systems in the Amazon. Bartels, Wendy Lin E mail: wendylin@ufl.edu Wendy Lin has a PhD in interdisciplinary ecology with a concentration in communication, and Bachelor of Science in botany and molecular genetics. Prior to her current position, Wendy Lin conducte d research in Latin America and Africa. In Brazil, she studied partnership building within a multi stakeholder land use planning process. Specifically, this research revealed how small scale producers, social movement representatives, and government agenci es understood their role in the sustained provision of environmental services. In Eritrea, Wendy Lin conducted similar stakeholder related research for CARE International to determine the feasibility of alternative fuel sources for low income citizens.

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13 Berg, Sanford (Sandy) E mail: sanford.berg@warrington.ufl.edu Sandy has a B.A. from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. in Economics from Yale University. Serving as Director of the Public Utility Research Center from 1980 to 2004, his publications include two books and over ninety articles on infrastructure, including innovation, governance, benchmarking, and incentives. He has been honored with a number of awards, including University Teacher/Scholar of the Year. As Co Director of the PURC/World Bank International Training Program on Utility Regulation and S trategy, he has trained over 2,500 regulators and managers from 148 nations. Currently, he is adding material on energy efficiency and renewables to www.regulationbodyofknowledge.org Binford, Michael E mail: mbinford@ufl.edu Michael Binford is Professor and Chair of the Geography Department at UF. His research expertise and interests include l andscape dynam ics and land water interactions; i nfluence of human activities on landscape hydrological and biogeochemical processes, vegetation, sediment flux, and lake eutrophication; and r emote sensing of water quality. He has conducted research in Southern Africa, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain region

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14 Bohlman, Stephanie E mail: sbohlman@ufl.edu Conservation at UF. My overall research interests are to understand how species/functional group composition and forest structure will respond to climate change and the effects of these responses on ecosystem functioning. I am particularly interested in landscape level patterns, which has led m e to use remote sensing data extensively. Because I am interested in tying remote sensing interpretation to field observations, I have focused on high resolution remote sensing as a bridge between field data and coarse scale satellite data. My work has foc used primarily on tropical forests, which has critical gaps in knowledge about carbon uptake and response to climate change. Brasil, Walterlina E mail: walbrasil@hotmail.com Walterlina holds a bachelor's degree in Pedagogy from Federal University of Rondnia in Brazil, a master's degree in Graduate Education from the Nuevo Len Autonomous University in Mexico, and a doctoral degree in Socio environmental Sciences from the Ncleo de Altos Estudos da Amaznia Brazil Currently, she is a professor at Federal University of Rondnia (UNIR) in Brazil She has extensive experience in Education, with an emphasis in Graduate Education in the Brazilian Amazon. Her resea rch interests include graduate education, science and technology and conservation and development of the Amazonian region. Currently, she is a postdoctoral visiting faculty in the Amazon Conservation L eadership Initiative Program (ACLI), Ce nter for Latin American Studies, University of Florida.

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15 Buschbacher, Robert E mail: rbusch@ufl.edu Dr. Robert Buschbacher is Program Coordinator at the University of Florida, of the Amazon Conservation Leadership Initiative (ACLI), in the Tropical Conservation and Development Program (TCD) Dr. Buschbacher is formerly the Conservation Program Director of WWF Brazil and estab lished and directed the Tropical Forestry Program at World Wildlife Fund US. His main interest is in applied conservation biology and its interface with socio economic development. In addition to teaching, Buschbacher is an active consultant in the desig n and evaluation of conservation programs. Doria, Carolina E mail: carolinarcdoria@uol.com.br Carolina R. C. Doria is a Biologist with a doctoral degree in Interdisciplinary Socio environmental Science. Since 1998 she is a professor at Rondni a Federal University, coordinating the Laboratory of Ictiology and Fisheries She is also a member of the Ao Ecolgica Guapor (Brazilian NGO). She has worked for around 15 years in the fields of environmental conservation and development of the Amazonian region in Brazil. Her research interests include fish ecology and management, community based management of natural resources, fisheries and traditional knowledge systems, environmental impacts of dams and resilience of socio ecological systems in the Amazon. Fearnside, Philip E mail: philip.fearnside@gmail.com Philip M. Fearnside is a Research Professor at the National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA) in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil since 1978. He holds a PhD in Biological Sciences from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. Author of over 450 publications ( http://philip.inpa.gov.br ), honors include Brazil's National Ecology Prize, the UN Global 500 award, the Conrad Wessel, Chico Mendes and Benchimol prizes, the Scopus prize (from Elsevier & CAPES) and membership in the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. In 2006 he was identified by Thompson ISI cited scientist on the subject of global warmi ng.

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16 Graham, Wendy E mail: wgraham@ufl.edu Wendy Graham is the Carl S. Swisher Eminent Scholar in Water Resources in the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at the University of Florida and Director of the University of Florida Water degree in Environmental Engineering. Her PhD is in Civil Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She cond ucts research in the areas of coupled hydrologic water quality ecosystem modeling; water resources evaluation and remediation; evaluation of impacts of agricultural production on surface and groundwater quality; and evaluation of impacts of climate variabi lity and climate change on water resources. She has served as PI or co PI on over $13 million in grants and has served on more than 45 additional graduate student committees. She cu rrently serves on the National Academy of Sciences Committee that is reviewing EPA's Economic Analysis of Final Water Quality Standards for Nutrients for Lakes and Flowing Waters in Florida and the National Academy of Sciences Committee conducting an Independent Scientific Review of Everglades Restoration Progress. Klein, Christine E mail: kleinc@law.ufl.edu Christine A. Klein is a water law scholar with expertise in both the eastern and western doctrines. She began her career as a water rights litigator in the Colorado Office of the Attorney General. Klein joined the Florida faculty in 2003, where she teaches water law, natural resources law, and property. She is the author of a natural resources law casebook (with Cheever and Birdsong, Aspen Publishers), and her articles have appeared in numerous law journals. Klein is currently a member of the National Acade my of Sciences, National Research Council, Committee on Sustainable Water and Environmental Management in the California Bay Delta. She received an LL.M. degree from Columbia University; a J.D. degree from the University of Colorado; and a B.A. degree from Middlebury College (Vermont).

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17 Loiselle, Bette E mail: BLoiselle@latam.ufl.edu Loiselle holds a joint appointment as Director of the Tropical Conservation and Development Program and Professor in research focuses on understanding the importance of biodiversity in tropical systems, e specially the ecological role of animals as seed dispersers, and the potential consequences of global change on distribution of plants and animals. She is also investigating the evolutionary ecology of lek mating systems in birds and how the spatial ecolog y of females influences mate choice decisions and male reproductive strategies. Loiselle received her MS at the University of Illinois Champaign and her Ph.D. at the University of Wisconsin Madison Marques, Elineide E mail: emarques@mail.uft.edu.br in Biological Sciences and a doctoral degree in Aquatic Ecology of Continental Systems from the State University of Marin g in Brazil She is currently a professor at Federal Uni versity of Tocantins in Brazil She has around thirteen years of experience on research and monitoring activities related to impacts of dams in the fish fauna of the Tocantin s River. McKee, Kathleen E mail: katmckee@ufl.edu Kathleen earned her M.S. degree in Soil and Water Science at the University of Florida in 2004 modeling wetland soil phosphorous in cattle pastures near Lake Okeechobee and gained knowledge in land use analysis, nutrient dynamics, geographic information sy stems, remote sensing and watershed management. She has major roles in the Suwannee Hydrologic Observatory testbed in the Santa Fe basin, the new EPA Center of Excellence for Watershed Management, and on the program initiation fund projects. She manages hydrologic databases for multiple projects and is a data manager for the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System development eff ort funded by the National Science Foundation.

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18 Mossa, Joann E mail: mossa@ufl.edu Joann Mossa is a fluvial geomorphologist Associate Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator in the Department of Geography at the University of Florida. She also holds affiliate appointments in Geological Sciences, Hydrologic Sciences and the School of Natural Resources and the Environment. Her research interests include disturbed rivers, large rivers, flooding, sediment issues, channel changes and river restoration. Oliver Smith, Anthony E mail: aros@ufl.edu Anthony Oliver Smith is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Florida. He held the Munich Re Foundation Chair on Social Vulnerability at the United Nations University Institute on Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany in2007. He has done anthropological research and consultation on issues relating to development forced displacement and resettlement as well as disasters and involuntary resettlement in Peru, Honduras, India, Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico, Japan, and the United States His work on involuntary resettlement has focused on the impacts of displacement, place attachment, resistance movements, and resettlement project analysis. He has authored, edited or co edited 8 books and over 70 journal articles and book chapters. Sampaio, Patrcia E mail: psampaio@latam.ufl.edu Patricia previously served as Assistant Director of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project in Manaus, Brazil and has worked as a Biological Scientist at the UF School of Forest Resources and Conservation. Her background includes field research in tropical forest ecology and conservation, as well as undergraduate and graduate education related to tropical conservation and development. She holds an MS in Ecology from Universidade de Sao Paulo and a BA in Biology from the Universidade Federal do R io de Janeiro. She is a native speaker of Brazilian Portuguese.

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19 Schmink, Marianne E mail: schmink@latam.ufl.edu Marianne Schmink is Professor of Latin American Studies and Anthropology, and Distinguished Teaching Scholar, at the University of Florida, where she served Director of the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) program from 1988 2010. She has co authored (with Char les H. Wood) Contested Frontiers in Amazonia (Columbia University Press, 1992), and (with Mncio Lima Cordeiro) Rio Branco: A Cidade da Florestania (2008, UFPa/UFAC), in addition to three edited books, and over fifty articles, book chapters, and reports. She has worked on issues related to gender, development and community based conservation in the Amazon region of Brazil for over thirty five years. Schwartz, Katrina E mail: kzss@ufl.edu Katrina Schwartz is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Florida. Her primary research interests are in environmental politics and political ecology. She is currently researching the politics of large scale ecosystem restoration in the Florida Everglades. Her book, Nature and National Identity after Communism: Globalizing the Ethnoscape published by the University of Pittsburgh Press (2006), explores the inter weaving of discourses of nature and nation through case studies of nature management and rural development policy conflicts in post Soviet Latvia. Her research has been supported by grants from the American Council of Learned Societies, Fulbright Hays, IRE X, and the University of Florida. Stocks, Gabriela E mail: gaby.stocks@gmail.com Gabriela Stocks is currently a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Florida. Stocks earned a B.A. in anthropology from the University of program in 2003, where she is pursuing a degree in anthropology with an interdisciplinary concentration in tropical conservation and ted in the Bolivian Amazon, investigated local systems of water resource use and governance in colonist and indigenous communities. Her doctoral research addresses the long term effects of forced d isplacement and resettlement on communities in Nuevo Arenal Costa Rica, wh o were relocated in 1977 as a consequence of the Arenal Hydroelectric Project.

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20 Williams, Philip J. E mail: pjw@latam.ufl.edu Philip Williams is Director of the Center for Latin American Studies and Professor of Political Science at the University of Florida. He received his M.Phil in Latin American Studies and D.Phil in Politics from the University of Oxford in 1986. He is autho r of The Catholic Church and Politics in Nicaragua and Costa Rica (Macmillan 1989), Militarization and Demilitarization in El Salvador's Transition to Democracy (University of Immigration ( The New Press, 2011), and co editor of Christianity, Globalization, and Social Change in the Americas Rutgers University 2001) and A Place to Be: Brazilian, Guatemalan, and Mexican Immigrants in

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21 SPONSORING ORGANIZATIONS AT UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA UF Center for Latin American Studies and its peoples thro ughout the Hemisphere, and to enhance the scope and quality of research, teaching, and outreach in Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies at the University of Florida. Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) Program bridge theory and practice to advance biodiversity conservation, sustainable resource use, and human well being in the tropics To train graduate level professionals particularly those from developing countries, to bridge theory and practice and learn across disciplines; To promote cross national, integrative, comparative problem centered research ; To strengthen and expand learning and action networks. At the hea rt of TCD is an innovative learning and action platform (see diagram below), where students, faculty and collaborators interact to address multi scalar and multi disciplinary ates past and present student experiences, and embraces collaborative learning and action with partners involved in the day to day realities of conservation and development. TCD encourages research and training activities developed in close collaboration w ith host country partners. Amazon Conservation Leadership Initiative (ACLI) The University of Florida (UF) Amazon Conservation Leadership Initiative (ACLI) works to build capacity for science and conservatio n in the Andes Amazon region. The program has

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22 complementary goals of training individuals at UF, and building in country capacity. It is supported by a generous grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation The geo graphic scope of the program includes the nine Amazon Basin countries of French Guyana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. The program seeks to strengthen regional conservation by enhancing the leadership capacity and effectiveness of regional NGOs, government agencies, and university programs to engage critical conservation issues and improve conservation practice. UF Water Institute The UF Water Institute brings together talent from throughout the University and builds internal and external partnerships needed to address relevant and urgent research challenges, implement innovative interdisciplinary training programs for promising students, and provide state of th e art expert assistance and knowledge transfer programs for external stakeholders. Interdisciplinary UF Water Institute Teams, comprised of leading water researchers, educators and students, develop new scientific breakthroughs; creative engineering; polic y and legal solutions; and pioneering educational programs that are renowned for addressing state, national, and global water problems. Florida Climate Institute (FCI) The Florida Climate Institute (FCI), founded by the University of Florida and the Florida State University, brings together excellence in multi disciplinary research and technology to achieve a better understanding of climate variability and change. Integr ated research, teaching, and outreach programs and scientifically sound decision support systems are developed to improve management practices and reduce climate risks to communities, the economy and natural resources. The FCI provides a forum for a growin g network of scientists, representatives from international organizations, local governments, and industry all joined by the vision to develop a sustainable future.

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23 I NTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM Water, Forests and People: Towards Integrative Research o n Dams, Natural Resources and Society in the Amazon http://www.tcd.ufl.edu/conferences.shtml UF Sponsoring Organizations Center for Latin American Studies http://www.latam.ufl.edu/About/index.stm Tropical Conservation and Development Program (TCD) http://www.tcd.ufl.edu/about.shtml Amazon Conservation Leadership Initiative (ACLI) http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/ACLI/ UF Water Institute http://waterinstitute.ufl.edu/ Florida Climate Institute (FCI) http://www.floridaclimateinstitute.org/ Contact for further information: Anthony Oliver Smith ( aros@ufl.edu ), Simone Athayde ( simonea@ufl.edu ), Stephanie Bohlman ( sbohlman@ufl.edu ) and Kathleen McKee ( katmckee@ufl.edu ).

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24 Map of Amazon Rivers Map of big dams planned or in operation in the Brazilian Amazon