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Title: Cloud Computing
Series Title: Journal of Hospital Librarianship
Physical Description: Journal Article
Creator: Bushhousen, Ellie
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Co.
Place of Publication: Phildelphia, PA
Publication Date: March 2011
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Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Mary Bushhousen.
Publication Status: Published. This is the pre-print version. This item was updated on 4/23/2013 with the pre-print version.
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This article was downloaded by: [University of Florida], [Ellie Bushhousen]On: 28 November 2011, At: 06:28Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Journal of Hospital LibrarianshipPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/whos20 Cloud ComputingEllie Bushhousen aa Health Science Center Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville,Florida, USAAvailable online: 07 Nov 2011 To cite this article: Ellie Bushhousen (2011): Cloud Computing, Journal of Hospital Librarianship,11:4, 388-392To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15323269.2011.611112 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representationthat the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of anyinstructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primarysources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly orindirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

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JournalofHospitalLibrarianship ,11:388–392,2011 Copyright Taylor&FrancisGroup,LLC ISSN:1532-3269print/1532-3277online DOI:10.1080/15323269.2011.611112TECHNOLOGYCloudComputingELLIEBUSHHOUSENHealthScienceCenterLibraries,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,Florida,USAInthevirtualserviceseratheterm“cloudcomputing”hasworkeditsway intothelexicon.Thechallengeforhospitallibrariansliesindeterminingif thisnewwayofcomputinghasimplicationsforhospitallibraryservices. Thisarticleprovidesanoverviewofsomecloudcomputingelementsthat mayaddressthatchallenge. What,exactly,iscloudcomputing?Theanswertothisquestionisas variedasthoseyouask.MellandGrancewiththeInformationTechnology LaboratoryoftheNationalInstituteforStandardsandTechnology(NIST) offerthefollowingdenition:“Cloudcomputingisamodelforenabling convenient,on-demandnetworkaccesstoasharedpoolofcongurable computingresources(e.g.,networks,servers,storage,applications,and services)thatcanberapidlyprovisionedandreleasedwithminimalmanagementeffortorserviceproviderinteraction”(1).TheOfceoftheVice PresidentforInformationTechnologyatIndianaUniversitydenescloud computingassomethingthatoccursoff-site,“ ... cloudcomputingservices arerunoutsidethewallsofthecustomerorganization,onavendor’sinfrastructurewithvendormaintenance”(2).Whenaninstitutionorcompany saystheyareoperating“inthecloud,”itmeanstheyhaveaportionof theircomputingserviceandstorageneedsbeinghandledbyatrustedthird party.Insteadofarm’sinformationtechnology(IT)departmentbuying newserverstoaddressincreasedsoftwareandstorageissues,theyturn toanothercompanythatspecializesinprovidingtheseservicesforafee. Thisway,thermisnotsaddledwiththeadditionalexpensesassociated withmorehardwareorsoftware(i.e.,electricity,cooling,spaceallocation, updatesandupgrades,etc.). CommentsandsuggestionsshouldbesenttotheColumnEditors:HopeLeman(E-mail: hleman@samhealth.org);NicoleMitchell(E-mail:nmitchell79@gmail.com);orJasonBengtson (E-mail:jbengtson@salud.unm.edu). 388

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Technology 389AnyonewhousesGoogleDocsoruploadsphotostositessuchas FlickrorpresentationslidestoSlidesharehasexperiencedcloudcomputing. Somemedicallibraryresourcesandservicescontaincloud-basedfunctionalityifsavingcitationsorsearchstrategiesontheresources’serverisan option.Today’ssocialnetworkingandsocialmediaapplicationsutilizecloud computingservicestodelivercontenttousers.ApersonwithanInternetcapablesmartphoneormobiletabletandaccesstoawirelesshotspotcan logintotheirGoogleMailaccountvirtuallyanywhere.InaSeptember 2008Pew / InternetDataMemo,AssociateDirectorJohnB.Horrigannoted that69%ofAmericanswhoareonlineusesoftwarethatislocatedonthe web(3).Thatpercentagewillonlyincreaseovertime. Tousethecloudforcomputingservicesmeansyouremaintheowner ofyourinformationbutsomeoneelseisresponsibleforstoringitandmaintainingitssecurity.Cloudcomputingcanalsomeanyouonlyusetheservice orservicesyouneedwhenyouneedthem.Manyprovidersofcloud-based servicesoffervaryingpricingmodelsfortheirclientswhowanttoutilize certain“asaservice”productsforaspecicprojectorlengthoftime. Understandably,thisraisesissuesofsecurity,access,integrityofthestoragefacilityandequipment,long-termreliabilityofthethird-partyvendor, etc.However,itisnotnecessarytoplaceallofaninstitution’sresources intothecloud.Onecanutilizeparticularservicestomeetspecicneeds. Threeoftheseservicesthatmaybeofinteresttohospitallibrariansare InfrastructureasaService(IaaS),SoftwareasaService(Saas),andPlatform asaService(PaaS).Therearealsodifferent“types”ofcloudmodels:private, public,community,andhybrid(1).Utilizingoneormoreofthesecloud typesmightdeterminethetypeofserviceaninstitutionuses.INFRASTRUCTUREASASERVICEUtilizingInfrastructureasaService(IaaS)meansathird-partyproviderruns thenetworkingorstorageprocessesforaninstitutionorcompanyontheir hardware.Theclientretainsownershipandrightstotheapplicationsand data,butnolongerhastoprovidethehardwarenecessaryfortheprocesses torun.Hospitalsemployelaboratecomputinginfrastructuretohandlecommunication,ofceproductivityproducts,billing,medicationinventories,and otherprocesses.Hospitallibraries,too,haverecords,resources,andcatalogs thatmustbereliablystoredandsafeguarded.Thecomputingequipment necessaryforthesetasksrequiresenergytooperateandkeepcool,wiring andcablingforconnectivity,etc.,alongwithinformationtechnology(IT) professionalstomanageitall.Anorganizationmightbeinterestedincontractingwithathird-partyproviderforIaaStolessentheburdenoninternal ITresourcesandpersonnel.

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390 E.BushhousenOftentimesthecompaniesthatexcelindeliveringlarge-scalecloud computingserviceshavetheirownextensivenetworkofservers.Jaeger etal.observethat“ ... technologycompanieshavebuiltincreasinglylarge datacenters,whichconsolidateagreatnumberofservers(hundreds,ifnot thousands)withassociatedinfrastructureforstorage,networking,andcooling ... ”(4).GoogleandAmazonareexamplesoftechnologyrmsthat haveenormousdatacenterstohandletheirvolumeofsearchesandretail transactions.Althoughathird-partyserviceprovidermightnotbeashuge asthesetwocompanies,itmaystillhaveaccesstodatacentersor“server farms”aroundthecountryorevenoverseas.SOFTWAREASASERVICEMostpeoplehaveexperiencedthecloud’sSoftwareasaService(SaaS).The mostcommonSaaSisthepersonale-mailaccount.Ifanindividualhasa Yahoo,Hotmail,orGmailaccount,theyareusingthecloud’sSaaSfunction.GoogleDocsandFlickrareotherexamplesofapplicationsbasedin thecloud.Itispossibletocreate,store,andaccessdocuments,images, calendars,andothermaterialsfromanycomputerwithreliableInternet connectivity.Onalargerscale,acompanymaybeinterestedina“payas-you-use”contract,usingapplicationsonlyasneededforpeakproduction timesorinstitution-wideprocesses.Ifaninstitutionislookingforwaysto reducetheirbudgetforbuyingsoftwareandlessentheburdenofmaintainingtheupdates,patches,andadd-ons,usinganSaaSmodelcouldbean attractivealternative.PLATFORMASASERVICEPlatformasaService(PaaS)isamoreabstractservicetoenvision.Youseff etal.providetheirdenitionofthisservicemodel,“Thecapabilityprovided totheconsumeristodeployontothecloudinfrastructureconsumer-created oracquiredapplicationscreatedusingprogramminglanguagesandtools supportedbytheprovider”(5).Basically,usingPaaSmeanstheclientinstitutionrunsapplicationstheyhavedevelopedin-houseonathird-party provider’scomputingplatform.The“platform”maybeaprogramminglanguagesuchasSQLorotherapplicationproviderinterface(API)thatthe providermaintains.PaaSdiffersfromSaaSinthattheapplicationsoriginatewiththeinstitution,notwiththeprovider.Thismeansaninstitution candeveloptheircustomapplicationsandhaveaPaaSprovidermaintaintheunderlyingcomputingprogrammingenvironmentnecessaryforthe applicationstorun.

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Technology 391CLOUDCOMPUTINGMODELSJustastherearedifferentservicesavailableincloudcomputing,theredifferentmodelsfordeliveringthoseservices.MellandGranceidentifythe followingfourcloud“deployment”models(1): PrivateCloud :“Thecloudinfrastructureisoperatedsolelyforanorganization.Itmaybemanagedbytheorganizationorathirdpartyand mayexistonpremiseoroffpremise.”Thisinternalcloudcouldbe likenedtoaninstitution’sintranet.Itisusedforinstitution-specictasks orcommunication. CommunityCloud :“Thecloudinfrastructureissharedbyseveralorganizationsandsupportsaspeciccommunitythathassharedconcerns.” Acommunitycloudmightbeanalogoustoamagnethospitalsystem.The entitiesinthehospitalsystemhavethesamehealthcaremissionandwork inconcerttoprovidemedicalservicesforageographiclocation. PublicCloud :“Thecloudinfrastructureismadeavailabletothegeneral publicoralargeindustrygroupandisownedbyanorganizationselling cloudservices.”Largetechnologycompaniesthathavehugedatacenters andnumerousserversattheirdisposalareinthepositiontoofferpublic cloudservices.Aninstitutionmaycontractwithathird-partyproviderto utilizeaportionofthecomputingpowertorunservicesorapplications thegeneralpublicmaywishtoaccess. HybridCloud :“Thecloudinfrastructureisacompositionoftwoormore clouds(private,community,orpublic)thatremainuniqueentitiesbutare boundtogetherbystandardizedorproprietarytechnologythatenables dataandapplicationportability ... ”Ahybridcloudmightbeemployedby aninstitutionwheresomeactivitiesrequirecompanionsitestosharedata andprocessestoachievegoals,whereasothercomputingneedsareinternalandspecictotheinstitutionalone.Thismodelmightbeemployed inthemagnethospitalscenario.Thecombinedentitiessharecomputingresourcestofullltheirmissiontoprovidehealthcareservices,yet eachsitealsohasaprivate,internalcloudsystemtomonitorinventoryor personneldata.THECLOUDANDHOSPITALLIBRARIANSAhospitallibrarianmaywonderhowknowingaboutcloudcomputingisof useintheirparticularsetting.Cloud-basedservicesareanotherwaylibrary patronsareinteractingwithinformation.Morehealthcareworkersusesome kindofsmartphoneormobiletablettoconducton-the-ysearches,save

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392 E.Bushhousenbriefnotes,orothertasks.Exposuretothebasicsofcloudcomputingprovidesthehospitallibrarianwithapointofreference.Thelibrariannow knowswhathospitalresidentsmeanswhentheycometothelibraryand askifaPDFcanbesavedtoaGoogledocument,orifcitationscanbe savedtoaWeb-basedreferencemanagerapplication.Familiaritywiththis wayofstoringandretrievinginformationenhancesthehospitallibrarian’s positionwithintheinstitutionbecauseheorsheisthe“goto”personwhen questionssuchasthesearise. Althoughthedecisionwhetherornotaninstitutionhasaninterestinor willadoptsomeorallcloudcomputingmodelsorservicesmaynotcrossa hospitallibrarian’sdesk,awarenessoftrendsanddevelopmentsintheway informationisstored,managed,anddeliveredispartofthelibrarymilieu. Asthedigitalandphysicalworldscontinuetomerge,peopleexpectand increasinglyrelyoninformationaccessaround-the-clock.Cloudcomputing isyetanotheroptionforinstitutionstoexplore.REFERENCESMellP,GranceT.(2009).TheNISTdenitionofcloudcomputing.NationalInstitute ofStandardsandTechnology,InformationTechnologyLaboratory,Version 15,October7,2009.http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/(31Jan 2011). IndianaUniversityPositionPaper,OfceoftheVicePresidentforInformation Technology.(August26,2009).Useofcloudcomputing.http:// informationpolicy.iu.edu/resources/articles/cloud_computing(12Jan2011). HorriganJB.Pew / InternetDataMemo,PewInternet&AmericanLifeProject. (2008).Useofcloudcomputingapplicationsandservices.http://www. pewInternet.org/Reports/2008/Use-of-Cloud-Computing-Applications-andServices.aspx(12Jan2011). JaegerPT,LinJ,GrimersJM,SimmonsSN.(2009).Whereisthecloud?Geography, economics,environment,andjurisdictionincloudcomputing.http:// rstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/2456/ 2171(23Dec2011). YouseffL,ButricoM,DaSilvaD.(2008).Towardauniedontologyofcloud computing.PresentedatGridComputingEnvironmentsWorkshop;Austin, TX;November12–16,2008.



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1 Cloud Computing Ellie Bushhousen, Health Science Center Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida In the virtual services era t The challenge for hospital librarians lies in determining if this new way of co mputing has implications for hospital library services This article pro vides an overview of some cloud computing elements that may address that challenge What exactly is cloud computing ? The answer to this question is as varied as those you ask. Mell and Grance with the Information Technology Laboratory of the National Institute for Standards and Techn ology (NIST) offer the following definition : Cloud computing is a model for enabling c onvenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interact ion. (1) The O ffice of the Vice president for Information Technology at Indiana University defines cloud computing as something that occurs off ructure (2) means they have a portion of their computing service and storage needs being handled by a trusted third party. Instead of a firm buying new servers to address increased software and storage issues, they turn to another company that specializes in providing these services for a fee. This way, the firm is not sadd led with the additional expenses associated with more hardware or software (i.e., electricity, cool ing, space allocation, updates and upgrades etc.). Anyone who uses Google Docs or uploads photos to sites like F lickr or presenta tion slides to Slideshare has experienced cloud comput ing. S ome medical library resources and services contain cloud social networking and social media applications utilize cloud computing services to deliver content to

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2 u sers. A person w ith an Internet capable smart phone or mobile tablet and access to a wireless hotspot can log in to their Google Mail account virtually anywhere. In a September 2008 Pew/Internet Data Memo, Associate Director John B. Horrigan noted that 69% of Americans wh o are online use software that is located on the web (3) That percentage will only increase over time. To use the cloud for computing services means you remain the owner of your information but someone else is responsible for storing it and maintaining it s security. Cloud computing can also mean you only use the service or services you need when you need them. Many providers of cloud based services for a specific project or length of time. Understandably, this raises issues of security, access, integrity of the storage facility and equipment, long term reliability of the third party vendor, etc. However, it is not resources into the cloud. One can utilize particular services to meet specific needs. Three of these services that may be of interest to hospital librarians are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (Saa s ), and Platform as a Service (P aaS ). There models: private, public, community and hybrid (1) Utilizing one or more of these cloud types might determine the type of service an institution uses. Infrastructure as a Service Utilizing Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) means a third party provider runs the networking or storage processes for an institution or company on their hardware. The client retains ownership and rights to the applications and data, but no longer has to provide the hardware necessa ry for the processes to run Hospitals employ elaborate computing infrastructure to handle communication, office productivity products billing, medication inv entories, and other processes Hospital libraries too, have records resources, and catalogs tha t must be reliably stored and safeguarded The comput ing equipment necessary for these task s require s energy to operate and keep cool, wiring and cabling for

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3 connectivity, etc., along with information technology (IT) professionals to manage it all An organization might be interested in contract ing with a third party provider for IaaS to lessen the burden on internal IT resources and personnel. Oftentimes the companies that excel in delivering large scale cloud computing services have their own extensi increasingly large data centers, which consolidate a great number of servers (hundreds, if not thousands) with associated infrastructure for storage, networking, and coo (4) Google and Amazon are examples of technology firms that have enormous data centers to handle their volume of searches and retail transactions. While a third party service provider might not be as huge as these two companies, it may still have ac overseas. Software as a Service Software as a Service (SaaS). The most common SaaS is the personal email account. If an individual has a Yahoo, Hot mail or Gmail account, they are using the Google Docs and Flickr are other examples of applications based in the cloud It is possible to create, store and access documents, images, calendars and other materials from any computer wit h reliable internet connectivity. On a larger scale, a company may be interested as you wide processes. If an institution is looking for ways to reduce th ei r budget for buying software and lessen the burden of maintaining the updates, patches and add ons, using an SaaS model could be an attractive alternative. Platform as a Service

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4 Platform as a Service ( PaaS ) is a more abstract service to envision. Youseff, Butrico and Da Silva provide their definition of this service model, the cloud infrastructure consumer created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by t (5) Basically, using PaaS means the client institution run s applications they have developed in house on a third party provider computing platform. The interface (API) that the provider maintains PaaS differs from SaaS in that the applications originate with the institution, not with the provider. This means an institution can develop their custom applications and have a PaaS provider maintain the underl ying computing programming environment necessary for the application s to run. Cloud Computing Models Just as there are different services avail able in cloud computing, there different models for del ivering those services Mell and Grance (1) identify the following four cloud : Private Cloud The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may e xist on premise or off premise. This specific tasks or communication. Community C loud The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific com munity that has shared concerns. a magnet hospital system The entities in the hospital system have the same healthcare mission and work in concert to provide medical services f or a geographic location.

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5 Public Cloud cture is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. L arge technology companies that have huge data centers and numerous servers at their disposal are in the position to offer publ ic cloud services. An institution may contract with a third party provider to utilize a portion of the computing power to run services or applications the general public may wish to access Hybrid Cloud more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or A hybrid cloud might be employed by an institution where some activiti es require companion sites to share data and processes to achieve goals, while other computing needs are internal and specific to the institution alone. This model might be employed in the magnet hospital scenario. The combined entities share computing res ources to fulfill their mission to provide healthcare services, yet each site also has a private, internal clo ud system to monitor inventory or personnel data. The Cloud and H ospital L ibrarians A hospital librarian may wonder how knowing about cloud compu ting is of use in their particular setting. Cloud based services are another way library patrons are interacting with information. More healthcare workers use some kind of smart phone or mobile tablet to conduct on the fly searches, sa ve brief notes, or ot her tasks. Exposure to the basics of cloud computing provide s t he hospital librarian with a point of reference. The librarian now knows what hospital resident s means when they come to the library and ask if a PDF can be saved to a

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6 Google document or if citations can be saved to a web based reference manager application. Familiarity with this way of storing and retrieving information enhance s the position within the institution such as these arise While the decision whether or not an institution has an interest i n or will adopt some or all cloud computing models or services may not cross a hospital aware ness of trends and developments in the way information i s stored, managed and delivered is part of the library milieu As the digital and p hysical worlds continue to merge, people expect and increasingly rely on information access around the clock Cloud computing is yet another option for institutions to explo re. References 1 Mell, P., Grance, T. (2009). The NIST definition of cloud c omputing National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, Version 15, 10 7 09 Retrieved January 31, 2011 from http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud computing/ 2 Indiana University Position Paper, Office of the Vice President for Information Technology ( August 26, 2009 ) Use of c loud c omputing Retrieved Jan uary 12, 2011 from http://informationpolicy.iu.edu/resources/articles/cloud_computing 3 Horrigan, J.B. Pew/Internet Data Memo, Pew Internet & American Life Project. (2008) Use of cloud computing applications and services. Retrieved January 12, 2011 from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2008/Use of Cloud Computing Applications and Services.aspx

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7 4 Jaeger, P.T., Lin, J., Grimers, J.M., Simmons, S.N. (2009) Where is the cloud? Geography, economics, environment, and jurisdiction in cloud computing. First Monday, Vol. 14, No. 5. Retrieved Dec ember 23, 2010 from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle /2456/2 171 5 Youseff, L., Butrico, M., Da Sliva, D. (2008, November). Toward a u nified o ntology of cloud c omputing Grid Computing Environments Workshop, Austin, TX.