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Participatory research and management of “arumã” by the Kaiabi people in the Brazilian Amazon
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Title: Participatory research and management of “arumã” by the Kaiabi people in the Brazilian Amazon
Series Title: Journal of Ethnobiology 26 (1): 36-59. Cover article.
Physical Description: Journal Article
Creator: Athayde, Simone
G. M. Silva
J. Kaiabi
M. Kaiabi
H. R. Souza
K. Ono
E. M. Bruna
Publisher: Journal of Ethnobiology
Publication Date: 2006
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Abstract: Participatory research among the Kaiabi people at Xingu Indigenous Park in the southern Brazilian Amazon was conducted to support sound natural resource management. We studied aspects of the ethnoecology of an understory herbaceous plant, aruma˜ (Ischnosiphon gracilis, Marantaceae), used in basketry weaving by Kaiabi men. Results of a three-year survey comparing aruma˜ populations and of a transplanting experiment evaluating the growth of aruma˜ seedlings in four different habitat types are presented. These, combined with discussions with Kaiabi communities and with results of studies conducted in other parts of the Amazon Basin, support a five-year rotating management strategy that allows for regeneration of harvested aruma˜ populations.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Simone Athayde.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: Journal of Ethnobiology 26 (1): 36-59. Cover article.
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PARTICIPATORYRESEARCHANDMANAGEMENTOF ARUMA ( Ischnosiphongracilis [Rudge]Ko ¨ ern., MARANTACEAE)BYTHEKAIABIPEOPLEINTHE BRAZILIANAMAZON SIMONEFERREIRADEATHAYDE, a,b,e GERALDOMOSIMANNDASILVA, b,e,c JEWYTKAIABI, f MYAUIUPKAIABI, f HELDERROCHADESOUZA, e KA TIA ONO e andEMILIOM.BRUNA b,d a SchoolofNaturalResourcesandtheEnvironment(SNRE)simonea@ufl.edu b CenterforLatinAmericanStudies,TropicalConservationandDevelopmen tProgram (TCD) c DepartmentofGeography d DepartmentofWildlifeEcologyandConservation UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,FL32611-5531 e InstitutoSocioambiental(ISA),Av.Higieno polisn u .901,sl30,Sa oPaulo,SP, 01238-001,Brazil f XinguIndigenousPark,Brazil.Associac a oTerraInd genaXingu—ATIX. R.3Passos,93,78640-000,Canarana,MT,Brazil ABSTRACT.—ParticipatoryresearchamongtheKaiabipeopleatXinguIndigenousParkinthesouthernBrazilianAmazonwasconductedtosupport soundnaturalresourcemanagement.Westudiedaspectsoftheethnoecolog yof anunderstoryherbaceousplant, aruma ( Ischnosiphongracilis ,Marantaceae),used inbasketryweavingbyKaiabimen.Resultsofathree-yearsurveycomparin g aruma populationsandofatransplantingexperimentevaluatingthegrowthof aruma seedlingsinfourdifferenthabitattypesarepresented.These,combined withdiscussionswithKaiabicommunitiesandwithresultsofstudiescond ucted inotherpartsoftheAmazonBasin,supportafive-yearrotatingmanagemen t strategythatallowsforregenerationofharvested aruma populations. Keywords:non-timberforestproducts,participatoryforestrymanageme nt, Ischnosiphon spp.,Amazonianethnobotany,Kaiabi. RESUMO.—ForamconduzidaspesquisasparticipativasjuntoaopovoKaiabi no ParqueInd genadoXingu,suldaAmazo ˆ niabrasileira,comosubs dioaomanejo sustenta velderecursosnaturais.Foramestudadosaspectosdaetnoecologiade umaplantaherba ceadesub-bosque,oaruma ( Ischnosiphongracilis ,Marantaceae), usadapeloshomensparaconfeccionarpeneirascomdesenhosgra ficos.Sa o apresentadosresultadosdeuminventa riode3anoscomparandopopulac o esde aruma edeumexperimentodetransplantedemudasparaavaliarocrescimento doaruma emquatroambientesdiferentes.Combasenestesresultados,em discusso escomascomunidadesKaiabi,eemresultadosdeoutrostrabalhos sobreoaruma realizadosnaAmazo ˆ nia,sugerimosumaestrate giarotativade cincoanosparapossibilitararegenerac a odepopulac o esdearuma colhidas. JournalofEthnobiology26(1):36–59Spring/Summer2006

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RE SUME .—Afindesoutenirunegestionsainedesressourcesnaturelles,nous avonsre alise unerechercheparticipativeparmilesKaiabishabitantleparc indige ` neXingu,lui-me ˆ melocalise danslare gionsuddel’Amazoniebre silienne. Unedecesprincipalesressourcesconsisteenunefibretire ed’uneplante herbace eappele e aruma ( Ischnosiphongracilis ,Marantaceae),laquelleestutilise e parleshommeskaiabispourletressagedepaniers.Cetterechercheinclut e galementlesre sultatsdetroisanne esd’e tudespendantlesquellesdiffe rentes populationsd’ aruma s ,a ` lafoisindige ` nesettransplante esdansquatretypes d’habitats,onte te suiviesetcompare esafind’e valuerlacroissancedejeunes plantsd’ aruma .Lesre sultatsobtenuslorsdenotree tudecouple sa ` ceuxdes recherchesre alise esailleursdansleBassinamazonienainsiquelesdiscussions quenousavonseuesaveclescommunaute skaiabiesnousame ` nenta ` proposer unestrate giedegestionbase esurunerotationa ` touslescinqanspermettantainsi lare ge ne rationdepopulationsd’ aruma s ou ` desre coltesonte te effectue es. INTRODUCTION TheinteractionsbetweenAmazonianindigenoussocietiesandEuropeans thatbeganinthesixteenthcenturyhavegreatlytransformedindigenouss ystems ofnaturalresourcemanagement.Changesinlandtenuresystems,territor ial displacement,andtheestablishmentofphysicalandlegallimitsforindi genous reserveshaveproducedchangesatthesubsistencelevel,whichareintens ifiedby theparticipationofthecommunitiesinlocal,regionalornationalmarke t activities(ChattyandColchester2002;COICA1996). ManyAmazonianindigenousgroupshaveexperiencedpopulationgrowth, sedentarizationofvillages,territorialrelocation,andcommercialex ploitationof naturalresources.Thesecaninteractatdifferentscalestocauselocals carcityor depletionofwildandcultivatedplantspecies(Athayde2000;Millikenan d Albert2004;Silva2002).Thechangingpoliticalandeconomiclandscapei nwhich indigenousgroupsarejoininginmarketeconomieshasledtoincreased productionofnativecraftsandotherNTFPs(non-timberforestproducts) .This canincreasepressureonpopulationsofharvestedspecies(Athayde2000) Therefore,researchisneededonacase-by-casebasistodeterminewhethe r naturalresourcesusedinbothsubsistenceandmarketeconomiescanbe managedinasustainableway. Someauthorshavesuggestedthatcollaborationbetweenlocalcommunitie s andoutsideresearchersandpractitioners(e.g.,governmentalinstitut ions,NGOs) isapromisingmeansofdealingwithdepletionofnaturalresourceswithin the territoriesoftraditionalpeoples(CastellanetandJordan2002;Cunnin gham2001; Klooster2002).Thestrategyconsistsofblendingorintegratingindigen ous knowledgesystemsandpracticeswithconceptsandpracticesfromWestern forestry,ecology,andconservationsciences,withthegoalofidentifyi ngand implementingalternativeactionsforthemanagementorrecoveryofdeple ted resources.Participatoryapproacheshavebeennamedandapplieddiffere ntlyin variouscontexts(e.g.,co-management,jointmanagement,participator ymanagement,andadaptivemanagement)butrarelyspecifythelevelofpartici pation bylocalpeople(Aumeeruddy-Thomasetal.1999;CastellanetandJordan20 02; Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY37

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Chambers2004;IIED1994;Klooster2002;Prettyetal.1995;Richards1985 ;van Bodegom2000).Cunningham(1994,2001)makesanurgentcallforfield-bas ed trainingtopromotecross-culturalcommunicationandparticipatoryres earchskills beforetraditionalknowledgeofecosystemfunctionsandspeciesusesisl ost. Althoughtheydifferinnameandapplication,participatorymethodshave proventohaveatleastfivemainadvantagesandprinciplesincommon(Cham bers 2004;Prettyetal.1995).First,theypromoteatwo-way,cross-cultural, and cumulativelearningprocess.Second,theyallowmultipleperspectivest obe includedin-grouplearning.Third,theycanbeappliedandadaptedtospec ific contexts,sites,andactors.Fourth,theyhelppeopleidentifytheirneed sandhowto implementchanges.Finally,theyallowlocalinstitutionbuildingorstr engthening, becausethelocalcommunityworksasaparticipantintheprocess,notasan object. Inthispaper,wedescribetheresultsofparticipatoryresearchwithacas e studythatbeganin1999amongsttheKaiabiindigenouspeopleatXinguPark southernBrazilianAmazon,andalsosuggesthowsuchanapproachmightbe appliedelsewheretopromotetheconservationofkeynaturalresourcesby indigenouspeoples.InthecaseoftheKaiabi,theuseofparticipatorymet hods allowedustogenerateinformationonethnobotanicalandecologicalchar acteristicsofthenon-timberforestproduct aruma ( Ischnosiphongracilis ).Ithelpedraise awarenessamongKaiabicommunitiesandtriggeractionsdirectedtowards improvinglocalmanagementpracticesbyintegratingindigenousandnonindigenousknowledgeandsciences. TheDisplacementofKaiabiPeople:SocialandEnvironmentalChangeinXin guPark .— OurresearchwascarriedoutwiththeKaiabipeople,whoarespeakersofaTu piGuaranilanguageintheTupilinguisticstock.Theirancestrallandcompr ised avastterritoryofnearly3millionhalocatedinthenorthwesternportion ofthe Tapajo sRiverwatershed(Gru ¨ nberg2004).Aftermanyyearsofconflictwith rubbertappersandinvasionoftheirlandsbysouthernsettlers,theBrazi lian governmentrelocatedtheKaiabifromtheiroriginalterritorytotheenvi ronmentallyandculturallydistinctXinguParkregioninthe1950sand1960s (Gru ¨ nberg2004).Today,theKaiabinumbernearly1,200peopledispersedamong threeterritories(Figure1).ThelargestofthesepopulationsresideinX ingu IndigenousPark,totalingapproximately1,000peoplein2004(UNIFESP20 04). TheXinguIndigenousPark,locatedinatransitionzonebetweensavannas andthelowlandtropicalforest,wascreatedbytheBraziliangovernmenti n1961. Todayithasanareaof2,642,003ha,andin1999the14indigenousgroupsliv ing therehadatotalpopulationsizeof3,705(Ricardo2000).Theculturaland environmentalcharacteristicsofXinguParkdifferstronglyfromthoseo fKaiabi ancestrallandintheTapajo swatershed.TheweatherisdrierintheXinguPark region,withthenonfloodedforestscharacterizedbyanecologicaltrans itionor contactbetweenthesemideciduousforestsofthesouthandcentralBrazil andthe Amazonianforeststothenorth.AlongtheTapajo sRiver,theforestphysiognomy,structure,andcompositionaretypicallyAmazonian.Therelocationo fthe Kaiabiresultedinthelossofaccesstomanyimportantplantandanimal resources,whichdonotoccurwithinXinguPark(Athayde2000;Gru ¨ nberg2004; Radambrasil1981). 38ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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EthnoecologicalCharacteristicsofAruma .—Thegenus Ischnosiphon ,withsome35 species,occursthroughouttheAmericanhumidtropics,anditisgenerall y referredtoas guaruma or aruma bytraditionalandindigenouspeoplesofthe BrazilianAmazon.Mostofthespeciesarerosulateorcaulescentherbs,an d severalcanreachaheightof4–6m(Andersson1998).Thespeciesusedbythe FIGURE1.—LocationsofXinguIndigenousParkandtwootherKaiabireserve sinthe BrazilianAmazon.AdaptedfromGru ¨ nberg(2004). Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY39

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Kaiabi— Ischnosiphongracilis —occursprimarilyinAmazonianclosedforests, whereitgrowsonwell-drainedsoilsoftheupperslopesofsteephillsides (Andersson1977,1984).InXinguPark,largerpopulationscanbefoundatt he headwatersofsmallriversandinperiodicallyfloodedareasinthenorthw est regionofthepark,wheretheenvironmentalconditionsaremoresimilarto those oflowlandrainforests. Aruma individualshaveasubterraneousrhizomefromwhichgrowsagroup ofstemsreferredtoasaclump.Mostreproductionoccursthroughvegetati ve propagationviatherhizome,anditisdifficulttodeterminewhetherclum psare individualorganisms(i.e.,genets)clonesorgeneticallyidenticalind ividuals(i.e., ramets)(Hoffman2001).Foradepictionof aruma ,includingtheKaiabinamesfor thedifferentpartsoftheplant,seeFigure2. Thefiberfromvarious Ischnosiphon speciesisremovedfromtheexternal surfaceofthestemsandusedforbasketryweavingbymanySouthAmerican indigenousandtraditionalpeoples(Bale e1994;FOIRN/ISA2000;Guss1989; Millikenetal.1992;Nakazono2000;Ribeiro1985;vanVelthem2001).Them ain objectsproducedbothforsubsistenceandformarketsaleare:baskets,ma ts,war clubadornments,sieves,bracelets,andheaddresses.InBrazil,distinc tNGOsare workingwithindigenousandruralcommunitiestodevelopprojectsforthe commercializationof aruma basketry.Theseprojectsaimtoempowerlocal communitiesandvalorizetheircultures,generateincomeandpromoteact ivities thatcansubsidizethesustainablemanagementofnaturalresourcesbythe communitiesinvolved.Examplesofsuccessfulinitiativesincludethe ArteBaniwa ProjectintheRioNegroregionwithassistanceoftheNGOInstituto Socioambiental 1 (FOIRN/ISA2000,2001)andthe Fibrarte Project,whichworks withriverinecommunitiesaroundJauNationalParknorthwestofManauswi th supportoftheNGO Fundac a oVito riaAmazo ˆ nica 2 (Nakazono2000;Nakazonoetal. 2002,2004). Participatoryresearchonaruma withtheKaiabi .—Kaiabimenuse Ischnosiphon gracilis ,whichtheyrefertoas uruypkuruk (‘‘rough’’ aruma ),toweavetwillplaitedpaintedbaskets,usingarepertoireofmorethanthirtygraphicde signs (Athayde2003).Thesebasketsarestrongsymbolsofstatusandidentity,a ndtheir graphicpatternsareladenwithsymbolicmeanings(Athayde2003;Ribeiro 1987). Kaiabiwomenusethesetwill-plaitedpaintedbasketsasacontainertospi n cotton.Becauseoftheiraestheticvalueandrarity,thebasketsarehighl yprized bycraftanddecorationshopsinSa oPauloandBras lia.Basketryissolddirectly, throughmiddlemen,orthroughthelocalorganizationAssociac a oTerraInd gena Xingu(ATIX).Therecentincreaseinbasketrycommercialisationhasaugm ented pressureontherawmaterialsusedinbasketconstruction,especially aruma Thescarcityof aruma inXinguParkhasmeantfewerKaiabiyouthsare learningtoweavebaskets.Furthermore,someeldersarelosingtheknowle dgeof thediversityofgraphicdesignsdepictedonthebaskets(Athayde2003). Concernedaboutthis,Kaiabirepresentativeshavebeendevelopingactiv itiesfor culturalrescueandmanagementofnaturalresourcesusedinbasketry productioninpartnershipwiththeBrazilianNGOInstitutoSocioambient al (ISA)andATIX.Since1999,thesegroupshavebeenconductingparticipato ryand 40ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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collaborativeresearchonuseandmanagementof aruma withKaiabicommunitiesinthenorthernregionofXinguPark.Thisworkincludesethnobotan ical researchonharvestingtechniques;thedocumentationofplantcharacter istics; researchontheecologyofnaturalandmanagedpopulations;andinvestiga tion ofmythicalaspectsrelatedtotheplantandbaskets.Theresearchproject shave FIGURE2.—Kaiabidesignationsfor aruma plantparts. Oop :leaf; enupy’a :knot; iypy : stem; apo :root; ejujyau :bud; etyma’kang :branch.DrawingbyMyauiupKaiabi. Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY41

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beendevelopedwithKaiabicommunitiesandyoungKaiabimenwhoare participatinginthecoordinationoftheactivities. Theobjectivesofourstudyaretwofold:first,tocollectinformationon aruma ethnobotanyinXinguPark;andsecond,toinvestigatetheecologyof aruma populationsinthepark.Wedidsobyaddressingthefollowingfivequestio ns: 1)WhichmanagementstrategieshavetraditionallybeenusedbytheKaiabi ,how havetheychanged,andhowcantheybemodifiedtomanage aruma in asustainablefashion?2)Whatarethemythicalandsymbolicaspectsof aruma ? 3)Are aruma substitutesbeingusedforbasketryweaving?4)Howdoes harvestinginfluencethegrowthrateof aruma individualsinnaturallyestablished populations?5)Doexperimentallyestablished aruma individualshavesimilar growthratesindifferenthabitattypes? METHODS Allworkwasconductedfrom1999to2003,andincludedtheparticipationof theKaiabileadershipandyoungmenwhohavebeentrainedas‘‘managers’’o f naturalresourcesineightvillagesandintheDiauarumIndigenousPost(S ilvaet al.2002).Dataontheavailabilityof aruma ineachvillage,theharvestingand processingactivities,mythicalandsymbolicmeaningsandtheuseof aruma substituteswerecollected.Thiswasdonethroughparticipantobservati on, photographicdocumentation,fieldwalks,andconductionofsemistructu red interviewswithallmalesover15yearsoldineightKaiabivillagesandint he DiauarumIndigenousPost.Theseactivitieswerecarriedoutaspartofthe researchontransmissionanddistributionofknowledgeassociatedwithK aiabi basketryweaving(Athayde2003). In1999,wepromotedaworkshopinKururuvillageonbasketryproduction and aruma ecology.Westudiedaspectsoftheecologyoftheplant,thehabitats whereitoccurs,thewayitgrowsandhowitisharvestedandprocessed.The eldersparticipatedandtoldstoriesandmythsrelatedto aruma andbasketry weaving,whichwererecorded,translated,andtranscribedtoPortuguese by Kaiabischoolteachers.Aspectsof aruma ethnobotanywerealsodiscussedduring trainingactivitiesinvolvinglocalteachersandmanagersofnaturalres ources heldfrom2000to2003. Thesurveyoftwonaturalpopulationsof aruma beganin2000inaregion neartheSobradinhovillage,locatedinthenorthwesternportionofthe park.ThecommunityofSobradinhovillagehelpedtochoosethesitestocon duct theresearch.ThefirstsurveywasconductedinJulyof2000,withthe participationoftwoKaiabiyouthsandoneyoungYudjateacher(theYudjaa re anotherethnicgroupfromXinguPark).Thesecondsurveywascarriedoutin July2001,withtheparticipationoftwoKaiabiyouths.Thethirdsurveywa s conductedinJuly2002,withtheparticipationoffouryoungnaturalresou rce managers. Because aruma populationsareveryscarceandwidelydispersedinthe region,weusedtheintensityof aruma harvestingasthecriteriontodemarcate twoareastocompare.Theseareaswerebothlocatedinperiodicallyfloode d ombrophilousforest,anddifferedslightlyintheirphysiognomy,geomor phol42ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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ogy,lightconditionsandspeciescomposition(Athayde2004).Eightplot sof10 3 10mwereestablishedinagridineachoftwosites(hereafterArea1and2), whichwerelocatednearly100mapart. Aruma hadbeenharvestedinArea1one yearbeforethesurvey(1999),buttheindigenousparticipantsfoundnosi gnsof recentharvestinArea2.Thesitesarenamed‘‘ uruytyp ’’bytheKaiabi,meaning ‘‘aplacewherethereisaconcentrationof aruma clumps.’’Therewerenoother aruma clumpsintheregion. Duringtheinitialsurvey,all aruma clumps 50cminheightthatwere presentintheplotsweremeasuredandtagged.Weconsideredeachclumpan ‘‘individual,’’becausemostareclonesthatresultfromvegetativerepr oduction. Ineachclump,wedefinedthetalleststemasthe‘‘mainstem.’’Thetagswer e alwaysattachedtothemainstemstoavoidanyerrorsinsubsequentmeasuri ng. Ifthemainstemdiedbetweensurveys,thetallestsurvivingstemwasmeasu red andtaggedasthenewmainstem. Foreachclump,wetookthefollowingmeasurements:1)thebasalareaofthe clumpincm 2 ,2)diameterofthemainstem20cmabovethesoilsurface (measuredwithcalipers),3)thedistancefromthegrounduntilfirstknot or ‘‘knee’’,4)thelengthoftheinternodesbetweenthefirstandsecondknot ,5)the numberofbranchesorramificationsabovethefirstknot,6)theheightoft he mainstem,and7)thenumberofsprouts,maturestems,anddeadstemsinthe clump.Wealsoassignedallindividualstosizeclassesbasedontheheight ofthe principalstemin2000(0.5–1m,1–1.5m,1.5–2m,2–2.5m,2.5–3m,3–3.5m,a nd 3.5m).WeusedaG-testtocomparetheobservedfrequencyofplantsineach sizeclassineachofthetwopopulations. TheKaiabishowedinterestinexperimentalplantingof aruma nearthe villages.Inordertoevaluatetheoptimalconditionsfor aruma seedlinggrowth, experimentaltransplantationof aruma seedlingswascarriedoutinthe surroundingsofSobradinhovillageinNovemberof2001.Agroupofeight youngKaiabiandYudjanaturalresourcemanagersparticipatedinthisact ivity, plustwononindigenousresearchers.Theindigenousmanagerswroterepor ts andtextsonthedevelopmentoftheseedlingsandon aruma ecological characteristicsinschoolactivitiespromotedduringthemonitoringper iod spentatSobradinhovillage.Atotalof200 aruma seedlingswerebrought fromasiteneartheAnala ˆ ndiamunicipality,outsidetheparklimits.The communityofSobradinhovillage,alongwiththeresearchersandnatural resourcemanagers,chosefourdifferentsitestoplanttheseedlings,all ofthem nearasmallstream. Thesiteschosenfortransplants,describedinTable1,representtwoloca lly commonhabitats.Oneofthem,knownas yatara n ( y ata ra n : y -‘water’,ata ‘thatwalks’,ra n ‘partiallyorfalsely’,meaning‘aplaceeventuallyflooded’),is periodicallyfloodedandlessfertile.Theother, kofera n ( ko fet ra n literally, ko ‘farmingplot’,fet -‘usedinthepast’,ra n ‘false,similar’,meaning‘aplacewith fertilesoil’),isnon-floodedandhashighernutrientavailability.Ine achofthese habitatsweplantedseedlingsunderoneoftwolightconditions:1)enhanc ed light,createdbyselectivecuttingofshrubsandsmalltreesor2)natural light, withnomanipulationoftheoverstory.Thesetreatmentsreflectthenatur al gradientinlightconditionsfoundinthehabitattype,withtree-fallgap satone Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY43

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extremeandthenaturallyshadedforestunderstoryattheother(Clarkand Clark 1992;Nakazono2000). IneachsitetheresearchersandKaiabinaturalresourcemanagersplanted 50 seedlingsinfivetransectsof10seedlingseach.Weleft1mbetweenseedli ngs andtransects.Theseedlingswererandomlyassignedtoeachlocationandw ere measuredandtaggedbeforeplanting.Atthetimeoftransplanting(July20 02) andoneyearlater(July2003),werecordedplantsizeaswedidinthenatura lly establishedpopulations.Theinitialsizeofplantswasnotsignificantl ydifferent amongenvironments(MANOVA, F 9,465 0.914, P 0.51). Becausediameter,heighttothefirstknot,andheightwereallhighly correlated,weusedMultivariateAnalysisofVariance(MANOVA)tocompar e thesizeofstemsinthefourenvironments24monthsaftertransplanting.H abitat type,suchas Yatara n -NaturalLight(Y-NL), Yatara n -EnhancedLight(Y-EL), Kofera n -NaturalLight(K-NL), Kofera n -EnhancedLight(K-EL),wastheindependentvariable,andinitialstemdiameterwasincludedasacovariate .Data werelog-transformedtomeettheassumptionsofparametricstatistics; throughoutthemanuscriptwepresentback-transformedvaluesconverted to percentages.Asourobjectivewasnottoevaluateinterannualvariationi nplant growth,wedidnotusearepeated-measuresanalysis.Onlyplantsthatsurv ived untilthefinalmeasurementwereincludedintheanalysis. Tocomparethehealthofplantsineachofthefourhabitatstowhichthey weretransplanted,weassignedplantstoeachofthreehealthcategories( good, TABLE1.—Characteristicsofthesiteswherethe aruma seedlingswereplanted. Plots/HabitatsLightconditions Yatara n ‘‘naturallight’’(Y-NL) NeartheriverbutdrierthanY-EL; slightslope. Limitedlightpenetratingtotheherbaceous stratum.Areaminimallyclearedbefore plantingseedlings. Yatara n ‘‘enhancedlight’’(Y-EL) Typical aruma habitat;periodically flooded. Understoryandintermediateforestlayers manuallyopenedtosimulatetheopening ofaforestgap. Kofera n ‘‘naturallight’’(K-NL) Vegetationaccompanyingtheriver; greaterlightavailabilitythantheY-NL. Soilisatypeof‘‘blackearth’’(*),which hasmoreorganicmatteravailable. Higherlightpenetrationtotheunderstory duetotheproximityoftheriver;area minimallycleanedbeforeplanting seedlings. Kofera n ‘‘enhancedlight’’(K-EL) Vegetationaccompanyingtheriver. SoilissimilartothatinK-NL. Higherlightpenetrationtotheunderstory duetotheproximityoftheriver; understoryandintermediateforestlayers manuallyopenedtosimulatetheopening ofaforestgap. (*)Blackearthsoilsareanthropogenicsoils(‘‘anthrosols’’),whichha vebeenformedbythedeposition ofashesanddebrisofpasthumanoccupation.Theyhavehighfertilityfora griculture,andhavebeen usedinshiftingagriculturebycontemporaneousindigenouspeoplesforc enturies(Denevan2001; Petersenetal.2001). 44ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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fair,poor)duringthe2002and2003census.Althougharbitrary,thesehea lth classeswereusedtoaccesstheoverallhealthconditionofeachseedlinga ndthe samepersonwasresponsibleforassessingplanthealthineachsizeclasst o maintainconsistencyintheassignmentofplantstoeachcategory.Wethen used G-teststocomparethenumberofplantsineachhealthcategoryineachsite in 2002and2003. RESULTSANDDISCUSSION TraditionalandCurrentManagementPractices .—Toharvest aruma inXinguPark, theKaiabiusuallyhavetowalklongdistancesfromtheirvillages.Incont rast, theirancestrallandshadlarge aruma populationsthatwerenotrestrictedto specialtypesofhabitatsandwhich,astheyaffirm,‘‘canbefoundvirtual ly anywhere’’(TarumaniKaiabi,elderatKururuvillage).Intheancestrala reathere wasalsoanotherspeciesof aruma ( Ischnosiphon sp.,notidentifieduntilthe present),whichtheycall uruypete ( uru-ypete ‘plant-treeauthentic’).Theysay thisisthebest-quality aruma forthebaskets,with uruypkuruk ( kuruk ‘rough’) beingclassifiedasecond-classresource(Athayde2003). Toharvestthe aruma stems,themenhavetodecidewhichplantsarereadyto beharvested.Theycantellbythethickness,height,andcolorofthestems .Ifthe plantisnotmature,thestemsgetsoftandbreak.Mostofthetimetheycolle ctthe stemsabovethefirstknot,whichallowstheclumptoresprout.Theycutthe stemswithamachete,andthenremovetheleavessothatthestalkscanbe bundledandfastened.Accordingtothem,itisveryimportanttobeableto recognizeifthestemsaremature,andtocutonlyfewstemsineachclump: Thepersonwhoisgoingtoharvestthe aruma hastogatheronlyhalfof thestemsforthemtosproutagain.Iftheyharvestmanytimesthesame clump,withouttakingcare,theresourceturnsweakanddies.Wehaveto gatheronlythematurestems,lettingthegreenonestogrow.Inthisway, wewillalwayshavethisresource.Ifweburntheareawherethe aruma clumpsexist,theywillnotgrowanymore.[MaureKaiabiandAwatat Kaiabi,teachersofXinguParkindigenousschools(Athayde2004:10)] Afterarrivinghome,itisimportanttoseparatethestemsandpithassoona s possible.Withaknife,thebasketmakerpreparesthestrandsandputsthem to dryinthesun,leavingthemtodryforoneday.Itisthentimetomeasurethe strandsanddividethemusingaknife.Hedoesthiswithhishandsandmouth, tryingtokeepallthestrandsthesamewidth(Figure3).Hethenpreparesab unch ofstrandsandbeginstoweave.Theremainingstrandsofpoorquality,whic hare mainlythethickerones,areusedtomakeothertypesofbaskets(e.g., yrupemeauu yrupem-uu yrupem ‘basket’, ea ‘eye’, uu ‘big’,whichisusedto sievecassavaflour). Beforebeginningtoweave,oneneedstodecidewhichdesignisgoingtobe createdtoinitiatethecountingofthestrands.Thestartingpointoftheb asketis called i’ypyrungap or i’yp (literally, i ‘his’, yp ‘treeorstem’),whichmeansa‘‘way orapathtofollow.’’ I’yp isalsothenameforabasketdesignwoveninthesimple unpaintedbaskets(Athayde2003).Theweftiscomposedofagroupof aruma Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY45

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FIGURE3.—Stagesof aruma processing.A.)Korone teachesPirapyhowtorecognizeand cutmaturestems.B.)Popo ˆ carryingabundleofstems.C.)Kway’wuispithing aruma .D.) Aruma strandsdryinginthesun.E.)Eroitisweavingabasket.F.)Kaiabibasketp ainted andreadytouseorforsale.A–E:photographsbySimoneAthayde.F:photogr aphby GeorgGru ¨ nberg,1966. 46ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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strandswiththeroughsideupandanotherwiththesmoothsideup.Whenthe squareisdone,someoftheremainingpieceshavedifferentsizes.Theymea sure andcutoffthesetipsandbegintoweavetherim.Basketmakersseekgoodvin es fortherim;theyuseadoublerimandthetwopartsaretiedwith aruma .Onepart ofthebasketentersintotherimtomakethehollow.Thenthefourcornersof the basketaretiedwiththerestoftherim.Oncecompleted,theytietherimswi th cottonyarns.Areddye(extractedfromthebarkof Cariniana sp.,Lecythidaceae) ismanuallyappliedtothesurfaceofthebasket.Fourorfivelayersofdyea re appliedsothatitfullyadheres.Basketsarethenputouttodryinthesunfo ran entireday.Thedyedoesnotadhereontheoutersideofthe aruma strands—only tothesmoothinnerside.Finally,theyscrapethebasketwithabrushtorem ove thedyefromtheoutersideof aruma strands,thusrevealingthedesign. TheKaiabisaythataftertheymovedtotheXinguandbegantoproduce basketstosell,thetraditionalwayofselectingandcuttingthe aruma stems changed.Duetothedifficultyinfindingtheplantanditsscarcityinthep ark, harvestersstartedcuttingmostofthestemsofan aruma clumpwithout determiningiftheywerematureandwithoutleavingenoughstemstopermit resprouting.Thispracticeheightensthepressureupontheresource,thu s compromisingitssustainability.Inparticipatoryworkshops,Kaiabite achers, naturalresourcesmanagers,andeldershavediscussedtheissueof aruma overexploitationinanattempttoraiseawarenesswithinthecommunityan dto triggermechanismstocontrolitsharvest.Asaresult,aneducationalboo konthe managementof aruma isbeingproducedwiththeKaiabiyouthandschool teachers.ThisbookwillbedistributedtoallKaiabivillageschools(Ath ayde 2004). MythicalandSpiritualMeaningofAruma .—InKaiabi’screationmyth,theancestral heroandshamanTuiarareusedtospendhoursweavingbasketsinhishammock Behindhishammock,therewasapileofdiscarded aruma .Underthispilelived alarva,whichduringthenighttransformeditselfintoabeautifulwomanw ho becameTuiarare’swife.Someelderssaidthatthislarvaisthe‘‘owner’’o f aruma andthatithastakencareoftheplantuntilnow.Thereisalsoagraphicdesi gn called‘‘worm’’or‘‘larvae,’’whichisprobablyrelatedtothismyth. Aruma speciesalsohavemythicalmeaningsforotherAmazonianindigenous groups.AccordingtovanVelthem(2001),theplanthasthemostsymbolic associationsofanyoftherawmaterialsusedbytheWayana,Baniwa,Yekuan a, andAparaitoweaveplaitedbaskets.TheWayana(Caribspeakersfromnorth ern Amazon)believethatdifferentspeciesof aruma possessfeaturesofahuman-like coveringmaterial.Thismaterialhasthepropertyofbeingabletoreprodu ce ‘‘skins’’,eitherofprimordialhumansorthatofthebasicsupernaturalb eings, thuspermittingtheirexpressioninmaterialform.Interestingly,whent he Wayanaweaveabasketforsaletheydonotusethebest aruma varieties.The betterquality aruma fibersarereservedfortheproductionofartifactsfortheir ownuse(vanVelthem2001). Aruma Substitutes .—TheKaiabiarereluctanttouseotherspeciesas aruma substitutesasameansofmaintainingtheirknowledgeofweaving.Manymen Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY47

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interviewedsaidthatthemainreasontheyarelosingtheirknowledgeofba sketry isbecauseofalackof aruma .Someofthemsaythattheotherspeciesthatcanbe usedassubstitutesareofpoorquality,andtheyserveonlyasawayoflearn ing becausebasketsmadefromthesesubstitutespeciesdonotlastlong.Howev er, theKaiabicurrentlyuseatleastsixsubstitutesfor aruma tomakebaskets (Table2).Some,like wywa (arrowcane, Gyneriumsagittatum (Aubl.)Beauvois) areextremelyweakandthedyedoesnotadherewelltothebasketsurface. Kaiabimenmayalsobereluctanttousespeciesotherthan aruma giventhe cosmologicalimportanceofthisplantfortheirculture. ParticipatorySurveyoftwoNaturalPopulationsofAruma .—Theresultsofthe inventoryoftwo aruma populationsaresummarizedonTable3.Wefoundthe averagebasalareaofclumpswasdifferentforAreas1and2,withArea2havi ng biggerclumps.Twonon-mutuallyexclusivemechanismscouldexplainthis pattern.First,Area1washarvestedoneyearpriortotheinventory,which could lowertheaveragesizeofplantsinthepopulation.Second,theclumpsinAr ea2 appeartobegrowingonmoundsofsoilthathavehighernutrientlevelsand containmoreorganicmatter,whichcouldincreasetheirgrowthratesrela tiveto plantsinArea1.Whileplantsinthetwopopulationsweresimilarwithrega rdto mostothermorphologicalmeasurements(Table3),itisworthnotingthere was atrendtowardsmorebranchingfromthemainknotinArea1(x 6 SDinarea1 vs.x 6 SDinArea2).Thisdifference,albeitnotstatisticallysignificant,sug gests harvestingstimulatesbranching. Whileindividualplantsinthetwopopulationswereverysimilarinmost othermorphologicalcharacteristics,theydifferedsignificantlywhen comparing thedemographicstructureofthepopulations.Therewasahighlysignific ant differenceinthefrequencyofplantsineachsizeclassbetweenthetwoare as( G 2 54.02, P 0.0001).InArea1,59.26%ofthepopulationwasinthetwosmallest heightclasses(0.5–1mand1–1.5m),whileinArea2theseheightclasses accountedforonly19%ofthepopulation.Incontrast,thethreelargestsi ze classesaccountedfor44.17%ofthepopulationinArea2,butonly15.75%of the populationinArea1(Figure4).Thisisprobablyareflectionofselective harvestingoftallerindividualsinArea1,whicharepreferentiallycutb y collectors. ExperimentalPlantingofAruma Seedlings .—After24months,therewasno significantdifferenceinthesizeofstemstransplantedtothefourenvir onments (forthemaineffectofhabitattype,Wilk’s l 0.952, F 0.829,df 9,365, P 0.59).However,therewasasignificanteffectofinitialstemsize(forth eeffectof initialdiameter,Wilk’s l 0.642, F 0.279,df 3,150, P 0.0001),withplants thathadlargerdiameterstemsatthestartoftheexperimenthavinglarger stems attheendofthestudy.Thehabitattypexinitialdiameterinteractionwas not significant(fortheeffectofinitialdiameter,Wilk’s l 0.930, F 0.124,df 9,365, P 0.27).Alternativemeansofcomparingtherelativegrowthratesof stemsyieldedqualitativelysimilarresults. Fromtimeoftransplantinguntilmeasurementinthesecondyear,thesizeo f seedlingsactuallydecreased.Thisinitialdecreasewastheresultoftra nsplant 48ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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TABLE2.—Plantscurrentlyusedas aruma substitutesbytheKaiabipeople.AdaptedfromAthayde(2003).NI notidentified. KaiabinamePortuguesenameSpecies(Family)HabitatAvailabilityUses kwasingewi taquarinha NI(Poaceae)Non-floodedforests,in theheadingsofsmall rivercourses MediumtolowStemsusedforsmaller baskets myricipe’yp buritiMauritiaflexuosa (Arecaceae) Indensepopulations called‘‘ buritizais ’’ alongsmallriver courses High;thespeciesiswell representedwithinthe park’sboundary. Petioleusedforsome baskets,notusually painted panaku wa jacitaraDesmoncus sp. (Arecaceae) RiversideforestsMediumtolowStemsusedfor ‘‘ panaku ’’* pokop banana-bravaHeliconia sp. (Heliconiaceae) Swampyforests,nonfloodedforestsand riversideforests High;foundinpatchy, high-density distributions Leavesusedforthe bodyofthebaskets andthe‘‘ panaku ’’ takwasing taquara NI(Poaceae)Non-floodedforests andriversideforests MediumtolowStemsusedforbodyof baskets wywa cana-bravaGyneriumsagittatum (Poaceae) Plantedinagricultural plots HighStemsusedforbaskets, (qualitygenerally low) Panaku isatypeofbasketusedasabackpacktocarryhammocks.Atpresent,onlyone Kaiabimanstillknowshowtoweavethisbasket. Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY49

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TABLE3.—Resultsforthesurveyoftwo aruma populations,inaharvested(Area1)andinanunharvested(Area2)sites. AREA1AREA2 Year200020012002200020012002 Numberofclumps( n )178133116140110108 Deadclumps( n )0451703003 Buds( n )17136452630 Livestems( n )323304392358316345 Deadstems( n )9310012611074104 Clumparea(meancm 2 6 1SD)221.97 6 465.46160.78 6 265.21201.43 6 425.69378.13 6 670.98242.25 6 465.63345.56 6 21.38 Diameterofmainstem 20cmabovesurface (meancm 6 1SD)0.73 6 0.360.68 6 0.480.64 6 0.350.87 6 0.360.81 6 0.370.79 6 0.37 Heightofthefirstknot (meancm 6 1SD)37.35 6 13.8738.54 6 14.2836.91 6 17.1343.54 6 15.8245.75 6 16.9744.45 6 17.30 Lengthofthefirst branch(meancm 6 1 SD)36.56 6 17.5736.25 6 18.3336.26 6 16.8752.31 6 18.0352.47 6 18.5751.83 6 19.24 Branchesoverthemain knot(meannumber 6 1SD)2.24 6 1.702.55 6 1.793.02 6 2.391.57 6 0.952.23 6 2.652.57 6 1.89 Heightofmainstem (meanm 6 1SD)1.67 6 1.071.79 6 1.161.71 6 0.982.55 6 1.132.63 6 1.202.44 6 1.28 50ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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shock,becausebythethirdyeartheplantsbegantogrowagain(Figure5).T he maximumgrowthinthesecondyearwasof6cminthe kofera n (non-flooded) enhanced-lighttreatment(K-EL).Seedlingsinthe yatara n (periodicallyflooded) enhancedlighttreatmenthadbettergrowththanthoseinthe yatara n naturallight. TheseresultsareconsistentwiththoseofNakazonoetal.(2004),whofoun dthat aruma ( Ischnosiphonpolyphyllus )growthwaspositivelycorrelatedwithlightlevels. Therewasnosignificantdifferenceinseedlingmortalityamongthefour habitattypes(G-test:G 2 4.7, P 0.19).However,themortalityinthetwo kofera n environmentsshowedlowervaluesfrom2002to2003whencomparedto the yatara n environments.Therewasalsonosignificantdifferenceinthe frequencyofplantsineachhealthclassin2002and2003(Good:G 2 4.67, P 19.75;Medium:G 2 2.17, P 0.54;Poor:G 2 5.48, P 0.14).However,there wasatrendtowardsanincreasedfrequencyofpoorqualityplantsinallsit es exceptK-EL(Figure6).InK-EL,theproportionofpoorqualityplantswas similarlylowin2002–2003,whileintheotherhabitattypesitincreased2 .5to13 timesincomparisonwiththeinitialproportionsregisteredin2002. Theresultsofourexperimentaltransplantsmustbeinterpretedwithcaut ion, aswehadonlyasinglereplicateofeachhabitattypeandourexperimentwas conductedonarelativelyshorttimescalerelativetothelife-spanofthe plant. Nevertheless,ourresultssuggesttransplantingcouldbeeffectivelyca rriedout into kofera n habitats,asitappearstheyhaveecologicalconditions(e.g.,soils, light,water)thatfavor aruma growth.Weareplanningadditionalexperimentsto expandonthepromisingresultspresentedhere. Oneimportantecologicalcharacteristicof aruma isthatclumpsarein constantflux.Thevegetativepropagationofstemsfromtherhizomeoccur s continuously,whiletheadultstemsbreakordiewhentheyreachacertainh eight FIGURE4.—NumberofindividualsineachofsevensizeclassesinAreas1and 2.Thesize classesarebasedontheheightofthetalleststem. Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY51

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(approximately3m).Largerstemsarealsosubjecttodamagefromtreefall s, vines,severerainfall,andstrongwinds.Becausethegrowthofplantsiss o dynamic,withconstantsprouting,webelievetheharvestingofhighestst ems underacontrolledmanagementpracticemaynotinterfereseverelyinthea bility toproducenewstemsorinclumpdevelopment,whenweconsider aruma populationsasawhole.SimilarconclusionswerereachedbyNakazonoetal (2004),whoworkedwithanotherspeciesof aruma ( Ischnosiphonpolyphyllus )used byriverinecommunitiesincentralAmazonia.Whiletheyfoundthegreates t productionhappenedinthenon-harvestedclumps,theyalsofoundthatthe productionofnewstemsincreased25%afteroneyearwhen30–50%ofthestem s wereharvested.Althoughlonger-termpatternsofgrowthwerelessconclu sive, Nakazonoandhercolleaguessuggestedthatthelimitforharvestingeach aruma FIGURE5.—Characteristicsof aruma seedlingsinfourenvironmentalconditionsin aperiodof36months. 52ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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clumpcouldbeashighas50%ofmaturestems. Nevertheless,weemphasizethattheseresultswillprobablynotapplytoa ll aruma species.Shepardetal.(2004)andSilva(2004)workedwithtwo aruma speciesusedbytheBaniwapeopleoftheRioNegroregioninnorthwest Amazonia( Ischnosiphonarouma and I.obliquus ).TheBaniwahavecommercialized aruma basketryforcenturies,butsince1997theyhavebeeninvolvedinaproject thatseekstoconsiderthesocial,ecologicalandeconomicsustainabilit yof basketryproduction. 1 Aruma populationsintheRioNegroregiondifferfrom thoseinXinguParkbecausetheyoccurprimarilyinregionsofhumanactivi ty, especiallyintheoldswiddens( capoeiras )abandonedaftercultivation(Silva2004). InthecaseoftheRioNegro, aruma occurrenceandclumpdevelopmentare stronglyrelatedtolightavailabilityandindigenousagriculturalprac tices;this enhancesthepossibilityforsustainableextractivism,eveninamarketoriented scale(Shepardetal.2004;Silva2004). Shepardetal.(2004)foundoutthattwoyearsaftercutting,theharvested clumpshadstillnotcompletelyrecoveredtotheirpre-harvestsize.Inte restingly, therateofproductionofnewstemswasdifferentforthetwo Ischnosiphon species: in I.arouma lessthanhalfofthecutstemswerereplacedwithmatureones,while slightlymorethanhalfofthecut I.obliquus stemswerereplaced.However, despiteestimatesofa2-to8-foldincreaseinharvestpressureon aruma populationsduetobasketryproduction,Shepardetal.(2004)arguethatt he harvestingof aruma byBaniwacommunitiesisnotleadingtodepletionor overexploitationoftheresourceatapopulationlevel.Theysuggestthat thisis becausenotallclumpsareharvestedineveryexpedition,andbecausenew clumpscontinuetobeproducedthroughvegetativegrowth. Silva(2004)foundthattheproportionofmaturestemsproducedby I.arouma and I.obliquus graduallydiminishedwiththeintensityofharvesting,butalso recognizedimportantmanagementpracticesfortheprotectionof aruma populationsthatarecurrentlybeingdevelopedbytheBaniwa.Insteadofc utting FIGURE6.—Comparisonofhealthconditionsfor aruma seedlingsinfourenvironmental conditionsinaperiodof24months. Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY53

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aruma clumpstokeeptheswiddengardenclean,aswasdonetraditionally,the Baniwawomennowprotectthem. Silva(2004)alsosuggestedthattheopeningoflightgapsintheoldfallow s mightpromotethegrowthof aruma clumps(seealsoNakazonoetal.2004).The Baniwa,supportedbyISA’stechnicians,havecarriedoutexperimentswit h planting aruma seedlingssince1999.In2001,thecommunityofItacoatiara-mirim, nearthemunicipalityofSa oGabrieldaCachoeira,carriedoutanexperimental plantingofseedlingsof Ischnosiphonarouma and I.obliquus ;thefirstsuccessful harvestdidnothappenuntilMarchof2005,andwashighlycelebratedbythe BaniwapeopleandtheteamfromtheInstitutoSocioambiental(Silva2005) Theseexperiencesofparticipatoryresearchandmanagementof aruma specieselsewhereinspireandmotivatetheKaiabipeople.Evenwhen consideringintersitevariationintheoccurrenceoftheseresources,th ereare clearlylessonstobelearnedfromexperimentsconductedindifferentloc ations andexperiencestobesharedbytheBaniwaandtheKaiabiconcerning possibilitiesforadaptiveextractivismandsoundmanagementof aruma CONCLUSION Participatoryresearchandmanagementofnon-timberforestproductsby indigenouspeoplesintheAmazonisanissuethathasreceivedgreatattent ionin recentdecades.Participatoryresearchcanhelptoraiseawarenessandto identify possibilitiesfortheestablishmentofadaptivemanagementpracticesac cordingto thenewsituationsfacedbyindigenouspeoplestoday.Italsobringsanew perspectivefortheintegrationofindigenousandnon-indigenousknowle dge systemsfornaturalresourcemanagementandconservationwithinindigen ous territories. TheKaiabipeoplefromXinguParkhavefacedchallengesintermsof limitationandscarcityofnaturalresourcesrelatedtoterritorialdisp lacement, villagesedentarization,andpopulationgrowth.Theyhavedemandedtech nical assistancetoadapttheirresourcemanagementstrategiestothenewsitua tion theyhavefacedafterthetransfertoXinguPark.Theparticipationofthe communitiesandyoungindigenousenvironmentalmanagerssincetheincep tion ofourresearchmakesiteasierforthemtounderstandandapplytheresults of thiswork,andalsoincreasesthechancesthattheywilladopttheresource managementplansdesignedwiththeirparticipation. Thesurveyoftwonatural aruma populationsshowthatrepeatedharvesting slowsgrowth.Comparedtoourcontrolplots,afterthreeyears,clumpsint he harvestedareahadmanymoreyoungstems,fewofwhichreachedthetallest heightclasses.Growthwasslow,andrepeatedharvestinginthesamesitem ay reducetheviabilityofthepopulation.Likefallowfarmingplots,harves ted aruma areasalsoneedtimetorecover,althoughwestilldonotknowhowmanyyears arenecessaryforaharvestedpopulationtorecover. Thegrowthrateofthe aruma seedlingstransplantedtothefourenvironmentalconditionshasbeenlow,rangingfrom2to6cmperyear.Theassessme nt oftheseedlings’healthshowedthatthe‘‘ kofera n enhanced-light’’(K-EL)plot wastheonlysitewhereclumpsratedhealthyoutnumberedthoseratedas 54ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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mediumorpoorinhealthandwherethemaximumgrowthrateof6cm/year wasreached.Itseemsseedlingsrespondedtothegoodnutrientavailabili tyinthe soil,betterlightmadebymanualopeningoftheunderstorylayer,andover all bettergrowingconditions. Aruma populationconcentrationsatXinguParkaregenerallyscarce.As aresult,theworkoftheyoungenvironmentalmanageralongwiththeir communitiesbecomesevenmoreimportant.AsPirapyandTamakari,twoyout hs workingasmanagersofnaturalresources,wroteabout aruma management: Thenaturalresourcesmanagerswishtoexplainthemeaningofforestry managementtothecommunity.WewouldexplainhowtheKaiabi peoplemightusethe aruma ,howitcanbemanagedandhowitcanbe harvestedwithoutoverexploitation.Thecommunityneedstocollaborate andplanforthefuturecultivationofthisresource.Thecommunityalso needstotalktous,sowecanworktogether.Withouttheparticipationof thecommunity,wewillnotbeabletocontinuethework. WeneedtoconductresearchatXinguParktoknowthedensityand thestockof aruma .Weneedtofindoutthecharacteristicsofthisplantin ordertomanageit.Weneedtotrytoplantit,verifyifitgrowswell,and thepeopleneedtostopusingituntilthepopulationincreases.When theyaregoingtocollectit,theyneedtochoosewhichoneisgoodto harvest.Theyshouldnotcutallthestemsfromthesameclump,toavoid weakeningtheplant(Athayde2004:1). TheKaiabicommunitieshavetoplanhowtheremaining aruma populations aregoingtobeexploitedandwhatarethealternativestocopewith aruma depletionintheregion.Throughthisworkwehaveidentifiedsomedirecti onsfor sustainableuseasothershavedoneforother Ischnosiphon species(Hoffman2001; Nakazono2000;Nakazonoetal.2004;Shepardetal.2004). First,itisimportanttorespectthetraditionalmethodsofmanagementev en asitisadaptedtonewconditions.Wesuggestthatexperiencedadults, accompaniedbyaspecializedresearcherand/orpractitioner,takeyouth sto thefieldtoteachhowtorecognizematurestems,howtocutthem,andhow manystemstheyshouldleaveintheclumpsforittorecoverfromtheharvest Thecommunitiesshouldestablishalimitforcuttingthe aruma stemsineach clump,cuttingonlysomeofthematurestemsandleavingatleast50%(as suggestedbyNakazonoetal.2004).Combinedwiththisstrategy,the communitiesshouldtrytopromotearotatingsystemofexploitation,with an intervalofatleastfiveyearspriortore-harvestingthesameregion. Second,seedlingsandyoungclumpsshouldbebroughttoappropriatesites nearthevillages.Theideaistosearchfor aruma populationswheretheyare likelytooccur(forexample,intheheadwatersofsmallrivers),collectt he seedlingsandbringthemtoplacesnearertothevillages,underappropria te ecologicalconditionswhere aruma growsbetter,monitoringtheirgrowthand favoringseedlingdevelopmentinthearea.Thisstrategycanpromoteagra dual concentrationof aruma intheregionsnearthevillagesandcanbecombinedwith otheragroforestryactivitiesthatarebeingdevelopedinsomevillagesb ythe indigenousmanagersofnaturalresources. Spring/Summer2006JOURNALOFETHNOBIOLOGY55

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Third,itisimportanttouseandstudysubstituteplants.Currently,theK aiabi arealreadysubstitutingotherplantresourcesfor aruma .Collectionofinformationontheavailability,characteristics,andmanagementofthese plants shouldbeencouraged,alongwiththepromotionofresearchactivitiesand exchangeoftechniquesonhowtocollectandusetheseresourcesbetweenth em. Theuseofsubstitutesisaveryimportantissuelinkedto aruma managementat XinguPark.AsAturiKaiabioncesaid,‘‘wehavetousethesubstitutesatle astto learnhowtoweavebaskets,sowewon’tloseourknowledgeduetolackof aruma .’’ Fourth,expeditionstocollect aruma intheancestralareashouldbepromoted. SomeKaiabimeninXinguarealreadyadoptingthisstrategy.Becausetheys till maintainstrongkinshiplinkageswiththeKaiabiwhoremainedintheances tral territories,someofthemusuallytraveltotheseplacestovisitrelative sandcollect naturalresourcestobringtoXinguPark.Thus,theKaiabicanwritepropos als andgetfundinginordertopromotespecificexpeditionstocollect aruma tobe usedinbasketryweavingworkshops. Finally,theKaiabishouldorganizethemselvestocontrolthesaleof aruma baskets.Theyshouldraisetheirpriceandsellmorebasketsmadewith aruma substitutes,ensuringthatthequalityofthebasketanditsbeautyare maintained. NOTES 1 ISAInstitutoSocioambiental.n.d. ArteBaniwadeAruma .[http://www.socioambiental. org/inst/baniwa/index_html](verifiedOctober11,2004) 2 FVAFundac a oVito riaAmazo ˆ nica. ProjetoFibrarte .[http://www.fva.org.br](verified September4,2004) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS WewouldliketothanktheKaiabicommunities,elders,managersofnatural resources,teachersandotherrepresentativeswhohavegreatlycontribu tedand participatedinthiswork,especiallyto:KupeapKaiabi,KawintaiiKaiab i,Tarumani Kaiabi,SiraweKaiabi,AturiKaiabi,MawutKaiabi,YuaminKaiabi,Tarupi Kaiabi, TuiarajupKaiabi,KamaniTrumai,PirapyKaiabi,TamakariKaiabi,KarinY udja,Yasariku YudjaandWetkereSuya .TheresearchwascarriedoutthroughtheXinguProgramofthe InstitutoSocioambiental,withfinancialsupportfromTheNorwegianRai nforest Foundation.ATIXprovidedlogisticalassistanceandhelpinthefield.Fi nancialsupport duringthepreparationofthemanuscriptwasprovidedbytheUniversityof Florida’s CenterofLatinAmericanStudies(TropicalConservationandDevelopment program),and byadoctoralfellowshiptoSFAfromCNPq(ConselhoNacionaldeDesenvolvi mento Cient ficoeTecnolo gico/Brazil). REFERENCESCITED Andersson,L.1977.Thegenus Ischnosiphon OperaBotanica 43:1–113. ———.1984.Noteson Ischnosiphon (Marantaceae).Enrichedtitle:Noteson 56ATHAYDEetal.Vol.26,No.1

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