Jea n From W i A photo g (UFDC) JeanMa focused m waterfo w b ecame t manuscr i b iograp h Professo r and was Zoologi c of the A m Society o As a yo u 1918 wh i Hasselt P d'or for h the Com e occupie d German y prisons a n -Ma r i kipedia, the g raph of Jea n rie Eugne D m uch of his w l in captivi t t he initial di r i pt collectio n h y of Dersch e r Derscheid awarded th e c al Society o m erican Or n o f Australi a [ 6 u ng man, du r i le attempti n P rison until t h is service.[1 e t line , w h d Europe an d y 's Geheime a nd concentr r ie De r free encycl o n -Marie De r D erscheid ( M professiona l t y,  auth o r ector of Af r n on Rwand a e i d has bee n was Europe a e medal of t h f London a n ithologists' U 6 ] and mem b r ing World W n g to join th e t he Armistic 0] During W h ich was or g d return to G Feldpolizei ation camps r schei o pedi a r scheid fro m M ay 19, 19 0 l interest on o red scienti f r ica's first n a a n history n translated i n a n Secretar y h e Socit d A n d of the U. S U nion an h o b er of the A v W ar I he joi n e fighting n e e . He was W orld War II g anized to h e reat Britain (GFP or Se c and ultima t d m the Univer s 0 1-March 13 Africa He w f ic articles o n a tional park[ 3 that is avail n to English. y for the Int e A cclimatati o S National A o norable lif e v icultural S o n ed the Bel g e ar Ypres an d awarded th e he served i n e lp Allied s o  He was ( c ret Field P o t ely execute d s ity of Flori d 1944) was w as a world n a wide ran 3 ] and gathe r able online. e rnational C o o n de Franc A udubon So c e member o f o ciety (U.K. ) g ian Army o d imprisone d e Croix civi q n the Belgia n o ldiers and a ( again) capt u o lice) in Oct o d as a spy o n d a Digital C o a Belgian z o expert on b r n ge of wildli f r ed an impo r An open ac c o mmittee fo r e . He was c iety a corr e f the Wildlif e ) . o nly to be a p d by the Ge r q ue de 1re c n Resistanc e a irmen esca p u red, this ti m o ber 1941, s n March 13, o llections o ologist wh o r eeding exo t f e species, r tant histori c c ess online r Bird Prote c a Fellow o f e sponding f e e Preservati o p prehended i r man Army a c lasse avec l e as a leader p e Germanm e by Nazi ent to a seri e 1944. o t ic c al c tion f the e llow o n i n a t l isr with e s of
Contents [ hide ] 1 From aviculture to zoology 2 Conservation efforts in Europe & internationally 3 Africa's first national park and the Akeley-Derscheid expedition 4 World War II and resistance activities 5 References 6 External links [ edit ] From aviculture to zoology From a young age on his family estate in Sterrebeek Derscheid developed an interest in ornithology and aviculture He built a research station for bird behavior called Armendy Farm that was active in the 1930s. In cooperation with colleagues in France England Germany the United States and Australia he succeeded in assemb ling one of the best captive breeding bird collections in Europe specializing in Anatidae and Loriinae (ducks, swans, geese; and the group of small parrots consisting of lories and lorikeets ). Derscheid also kept the omnivorous alpine parrots from New Zealand known as Keas . There, he researched dietary requirements and incubation, sending specimens to zoos throughout Europe, America, and Australia. He was particularly interested in Aspergillosis a bronchial disease caused by mold that decimated flocks of wild sea ducks as he tried to acclimatize them to the freshwater park environment, but which Derscheid succeeded in curing. Derscheid's techniques were widely adopted and applied, most notably at the nature reserve in Zwin (Belgium), known for its collections of salt-resistant plants and an aviary specializing in wading birds An obituary of Derscheid states: His collec tion at Sterrebeek was known throughout Europe, America and Australasia, and his success with the Anatidae particularly with the sea-duck, placed him in the forefront of waterfowl experts. Prior to the outbreak of Worl d War II, Derscheid transferred some of his collection of exotic birds to the late John J. Yealland who carried them in a cardboard box on one of the last boats to leave Belgium before the German invasion. Later the Curator of Birds at the London Zoo , Yealland also published on Derscheid's bird collections from notes prepared duri ng the latter's imprisonment. From 1919 to 1922 Derscheid was enrolled in the Science Faculty of the Universit libre de Bruxelles studying under Professor Auguste Lameere and earning a doctorate in Zoology based on his dissertation on the morphology of bird skulls ( Morphologie du squelette cphalique des oiseaux ). He was awarded the gold medal of the Concours Interuniversitaire (1922-1924) for his thesis on bird classification as well as another on the olfact ory organs of fish. His first professional job was as temporary section head at the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren Belgium (1924-1926). Most of Derscheid's scientific articles were published during this period, including those on the Longfin Herring ( Ilisha africana ), Hornbill , Okapi , and African wild dog . He continued to publish on a wide range of topics after this period, including articles on the Tropicbird , Dugong , exotic ducks and the Mountain
Gorilla . He also published on his experiences with the Akeley expedition,  including on ethnic groups in the region of the expedition and the new park. [ edit ] Conservation efforts in Europe & internationally Early twentieth century European efforts to lobby internat ionally for environmental conservation laws were delayed by World War I, but Be lgian biologist Jean Massart reintroduced Paul Sarasin 's proposals at the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) in the 1920s. Professor Michel Siedliecki promoted them in Po land and helped to get th e issue onto the agenda of the IUBS meetings of 1925, 1926, 1927 and 1928. In 1927 Siedliecki, Derscheid and P.-G. Van Tienhoven of The Netherlands created the International Office for the Protection of Nature ( Centre international de documentation et de correlation pour la protection de la nature ) to implement wildlife conservation plan s in Europe. Van Tienhoven was the first president, while Jean-Marie Derscheid was named secretary and managed the office until he resigned in 1933. Derscheid wrot e a book about their experiences introducing laws for bird conservation that same year. [ edit ] Africa's first national park and the Akeley-Derscheid expedition Through his understanding of the im portance of habitat conservati on for wildlife in Europe and his professional work on Congo at the museum in Tervuren, De rscheid became an instrumental figure in lobbying for the creati on of the first national park in Africa, formally proposed in 1925. He became known to Carl Akeley of the American Museum of Natural History through his cartographic work revisi ng the best available maps of the Mountain Gorilla habitat in the Virunga Mountains border region of Rwanda, Uganda and Congo. This map documented the loss of forest habitat. Derscheid became a critic of coloni al agricultural policy in Rwanda and Burundi , began raising funds and lobbying for the creation of a park to preserve gorilla habitat. He was appointed to accompany Akeley on the 1926-1927 expedition to Kivu, Belgian Congo that first mapped the area in detail and defined the borders of the Albert National Park (now Virunga National Park ). Tragically, Carl Akeley died on November 18, 1 926 only three days after the expedition arrived at Kabara, on the slope of the volcano Mount Mikeno . Derscheid undertook and completed many of the expedition's objectives after Akeley s death: completing a topographical survey, attempting the first census of the M ountain Gorilla population in the area, conducting a general scientific survey and making recommendations for research sites. In 1928, he coauthored with Mary Jobe Akeley the final report and plan fo r the parks administration to King Albert I of Belgium . She repeatedly refers to the expedition as the Akeley-Derscheid expedition in her book, although the financial backers of the expedition are named in the title. The Parc national Albert was ceremonially opened on October 19, 1930. It was placed under the authority of an Administrative Council with twenty-one members, with the Prince Albert de Ligne as president and Derscheid as secretary. A board was also created for which Jean-Marie Derscheid was named director.
From January 1st to May 1st, 1930, the presiden t and director undertook a second mission to the park in Congo to prepare for inte rnational collaboration and to re search other areas of the colony in which new reserves coul d be established. In Novemb er and December 1930, Derscheid traveled to the United States, a ttending conferences at various institutions to promote the Albert National Park and its opportunities fo r scientific research as well as to generate financial support. He resigned in December 1933, after administrativ e conflicts arose over bookkeeping errors, and devoted himself to teaching biology at the Universit coloniale at Antwerp where he had been named Professor on January 14, 1930. Derscheid continued to pur sue historical research on Rwanda and Eastern Congo until 1939, corresponding with colonial administrators stationed there and creating a research manuscrip ts collection that was subsequently microfilmed digitized and which is available online He was working at the univers ity when war broke out again. [ edit ] World War II and resistance activities In 1939, Derscheid was mobilized, rejoining his ar my medical corps unit in the 7th Infantry Division. After taking part in operations at Albert Canal a defensive line, he was evacuated to France. There his unit was demobilized and in A ugust 1940 he returned to Sterrebeek, where he found his family estate occupied by German soldie rs, who treated the remain s of his exotic duck collection as game. Derscheid then contacted the resi stance and established ties with a secret army unit, U.C.-L.-55, associated with the university in Antw erp, the reconnaissance services SRA ( Service de Renseignements de lArme ) and with the London authorities by the autumn of 1941. He directed a radio communications serv ice with England using s ecret codes based on the Swahili and Lingala languages. He became a leader in the Escape Service known as the Comet Line, a network of clandestine cells that assisted Allied soldiers and downed airmen to escape from German occupied Belgium to unoccupied areas in France, Spain ( Gibraltar ) and Portugal He participated with several su ch cells such as ABC, LLL, Portemine and organized Benot . Several of the soldiers and airmen that he assi sted in this way are documented in the Belgian Centre for Historical Research and Docu mentation on War and Contemporary Society archives ( CEGES/SOMA ), including Bernard "Bobby" Conville, C lifford L. Hallet, Roger Jules Jacques Verhulst and Allan Gillespie Cowan. However, along with others at the university, he came under suspicion and the Nazi secr et police tried to force him to give himself up by imprisoning his wife, Jeanne Brasseur Dersch eid (twice) and his parents as hostages at Saint Gilles prison. On October 8, 1941 he taught his last class; on the night of the 17th the GFP secret police arrested him in Brussels. He was extradited to Germany in January 1942 for what became thirty months in various prisons and concentrati on camps. A Japanese colleague, ornithologist Hatchisuka Masauji (who had accompanied him on one of his trips to Congo), used his influence with Emperor Hirohito to persuade the Germans to spare Derscheid's life. When the Nazi government recognized that it was losing the war, Jean-Marie Derscheid was decapitated on March 13, 1944 in Brandenburg-Grden Prison under the orders of Heinrich Himmler . Posthumously, he was granted the Political Pris oner Cross 1940-1945 and named Lieutenant in the S.R.A. He was recogni zed in citations by the President of the United States and from King George VI for the exceptional merit of his service.
[ edit ] References 1. ^ Barclay-Smith, Phyllis. 1945. Obituary: Dr. J.M. Derscheid. Avicultural Magazine 10:157-158. 2. ^ Delacour, Jean. 1966. The living air: the memoirs of an ornithologist. London: Country Life. 3. ^ Akeley, Mary L. Jobe. 1929. Carl Akeley's Africa; the account of the Akeley-EastmanPomeroy African Hall Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., p. 119 4. ^ Lemarchand, Ren. 1970. Rwanda and Burundi London: Pall Mall Press. 5. ^ Barclay-Smith 1945:157-158. 6. ^ ibid .:158 7. ^ Barclay-Smith, Phyllis. 1946. Obituary (Dr. J.M. Derscheid). Nature 157(3977):70. 8. ^ Palmer, T.S. 1933. "Semi-Centennial Meeti ng of the American Ornithologists' Union (in Scientific Events)." Science n.s. 78(2033):549. 9. ^ Brien, Paul. 1971. "Jean-Marie Derscheid." Biographie nationale 37 (supplment tme 9, 1er fasc.):211-235. 10. ^ ibid. 11. ^ Comte Kinship Belgium. n.d. Liste des personnes ayant aid des aviateurs passs par Comte Available online. 12. ^ BBC News. October 24, 2000 "Airmen remember Comet Line to freedom." 13. ^ Christoffel, R. 1944. Letter signed by Le De legue-Adjoint du Comite International de la Croix-Rouge dated July 12. Available fr om the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Archives. Ref. B G 44/CP-226.34. See: ICRC. 2006. Inventaire B G 044, Otages et dtenus politiques 1939-1952 p. 37. Geneva, Switzerland: ICRC. 14. ^ Yealland, John. 1940. The Collection at Sterrebeek. Avicultural Magazine (5th series) V:251-254). 15. ^ Barclay-Smith 1945:157. 16. ^ Yelland, John. 1940. Some Parrot-Li ke Birds at Sterrebeek. Avicultural Magazine (5th series) V:288-293). 17. ^ Derscheid, J.M. 1947. "Strange parrots I. The Kea ( Nestor notahilis Gould)." Avicultural Magazine 53:44-50. 18. ^ Yealland, John. 1949. Mycosis in Birds. Avicultural Magazine 55:20-22. 19. ^ Barclay-Smith 1945:157. 20. ^ Harvey, Mary. 1983. John James Yealland 1904-1983 (Obituary). Avicultural Magazine 89(2):111. 21. ^ Sawyer, R.C.J. 2002. "Some famous aviculturists I have known." Avicultural Magazine 108(3):100-109. 22. ^ Brien 1971. 23. ^ Yealland, John. 1941. Some European Waders. Avicultural Magazine (5th series) VI:160-165). 24. ^ Yealland, John. 1942. Notes on the Bearde d Reedling (Panurus biarmicus). Avicultural Magazine (5th series) VII:47-49). 25. ^ Yealland, John. 1942. Hand-rearing Freshwater Ducklings. Avicultural Magazine (5th series) VII:98-101.
26. ^ Yealland, John. 1943. The Spiny-tailed Ducks. Avicultural Magazine (5th series) VIII:73-75. 27. ^ Yealland, John. 1944. Full-winged Tree Ducks. Avicultural Magazine (5th series) IX:90-91. 28. ^ Brien 1971:211-235. 29. ^ Barclay-Smith 1946:70. 30. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1924. "Structure de l'or gane olfactif chez les poissons. Premire partie. Osteichthyes Teleostei Malacopterygii ." Annales de la Societe Royale Zoologique de Belgique 54:79-162. 31. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1924. "Note sur certains Clupeidae de la cte W. de LAfrique. Rev. Zool. Africaine Bruxelles 12 fasc. 2:278-282. 32. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1924. Note sur la dis position des tendons du propatagium chez le Calao, Bucorvus abyssinicus . Gm. Bul. Musum Paris l pp. 41-43. 33. ^ Derscheid, J. M. et H. Neuville. 19 24. Recherches anatomiques sur lOkapi, Okapia johnstoni Scl. I. Le caecum et la glande ileocaecale. Rev. Zool. Afr. Tervurren 12:498507. 34. ^ Derscheid, J. M. et H. Neuville. 19 25. Recherches anatomiques sur lOkapi, Okapia johnstoni Scl. III. La Rate. Rev. Zool. Africaine Tervueren 13:97-101. 35. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1925. Les Chiens sauvages dAfrique ( Lycaon pictus Temm .). Cercle Zool. Congolais in Rev. Zool. Africaine Tervueren 13:-. 36. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1925. Deux carnassiers intressant de lAf rique orientale. Cercle Zool. Cong. in Rev. Zool. Afr. Tervueren 13:75-86. 37. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1926. Notes sur les circonvolutions intestinales de Phaton . Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. Bruxelles 55:119-121. 38. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1926. Les Lamantins du Congo ( Trichechus senegalensis Desm.) avec notes sur le rpartition gogr aphique et lextermination des Sirniens . Bulletin du Cercle zoologique Congolais (Rev. Zool. Africaine) 3:23-31. 39. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1938. "Note on the systematic position of Amazonetta and Calonetta ." and "Description of a new species of Teal from South America." (In Correspondence) Bulletin of the Britis h Ornithologists' Club 58: 59-62, 62-63. 40. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1939. "An unknown species--the Tahitian Goose." Ibis 81:756-760. 14th ser. v. III, n.4 (October). 41. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1927. "Notes sur les gorilles des volcans du Kivu." Annales de la Societe Royale Zoologique de Belgique 58:149-159. 42. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1927. La protection scientifique de la nature. Bruxelles: Henri Kumps. 74 p. (Extract of J.-M. Derscheid s diary from his mission to Kivu, Congo in 1926-1927 with notes on the census and distribu tion of Mountain Gorillas he conducted). 43. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1928. Entre le lac douard et le KivuMissi on Akeley-Derscheid (1926-1927). Bulletin de la Socit royal de Gographie dAnvers t. XLVIII, p. 92-99. 44. ^ Derscheid, J. M. 1935. "The Bakama of Bunyoro" (corresponden ce to the editor). Uganda Journal 2(3):252-253. 45. ^ Oliver, Roland. 1955. "The Traditional Hi stories of Buganda, Bunyoro, and Nkole." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 85(1/2):111-117. Available online. 46. ^ Brien 1971.
47. ^ van Heijnsbergen, P. 1997. International legal protec tion of wild fauna and flora Amsterdam: IOS Press, p. 21. 48. ^ International Office for th e Protection of Nature. 1931. The International Office for the Protection of Nature: its origi n, its programme, its organisation Brussels: The Office. 49. ^ Bernard, Ch. J. 1948. International Union for the Protec tion of Nature established at Fontainebleau 5 October, 1948. Brussels: IUCN, p. 3. [www.iucn.org/dbtwwpd/edocs/1948-001.pdf available online] 50. ^ Anon. 1928. "Scientific Notes and News." Science n.s. 68(1756):179. 51. ^ International Office for th e Protection of Nature. 1933. Synopsis des principales mesures lgislatives concernant la protecti on des oiseaux: Europe, statut en janvier 1932. Bruxelles: L'Office. 52. ^ Akeley 1929:119. 53. ^ Akeley, Mary L. Jobe. 1931. Belgian Congo sanctuaries. Scientific monthly 33(4):289. 54. ^ Kirk, Jay. 2010. Kingdom under glass: a tale of obs ession, adventure, and one man's quest to preserve the world's great animals. New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt. 55. ^ De Wildeman, . 1928. A propos des for ts Congolaises: Leur rgression ncessits de leur tude biologique et de la cration de rserves forestires. Bulletin de la Socit Royale de Botanique de Belgique p. 59 Available online 56. ^ Dorsey, Learthen. 1994. Historical dictionary of Rwanda Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, p. 221. 57. ^ DHertefelt, Marcel an d Danielle de Lame. 1987. Socit culture et histoire du Rwanda: Encyclopdie bibliographique 1863-1980/87. Tervuren, Belgium: Muse royal de lAfrique centrale, p. 430. 58. ^ Derscheid, Jean-Marie. 1932. Parc National Albert Kivu-Ruanda: carte gobotanique. Bruxelles: Ministre des Col onies Service Cartographique. 59. ^ Akeley 1931:293. 60. ^ Akeley 1929:192. 61. ^ Akeley 1929:211, 233. 62. ^ Anon. 1929. The Parc National Al bert in the Belgian Congo. Science New Series 70(1815):350. Available online 63. ^ Akeley 1929:247. 64. ^ Akeley 1929:xii, 222, 232, 250. 65. ^ Akeley 1929:297. 66. ^ Brien 1971. 67. ^ Liste des personnes ayant aid de s aviateurs passs par Comte. 68. ^ Brien 1971 69. ^ Liste des personnes ayant aid de s aviateurs passs par Comte. 70. ^ Neave, Airey. 1973. Little Cyclone. Morley: Elmfield Press. 71. ^ Liste des personnes ayant aid de s aviateurs passs par Comte. 72. ^ See Le Rseau Comte seen through the archives. 73. ^ Clinch, John. n.d. Escape line re search and remembrance. 74. ^ Barclay-Smith, Phyllis. 1953. "Obituary: Madame Jeanne Derscheid." Avicultural Magazine 59(1):17. 75. ^ Delacour, Jean. 1953. "Obituary: Ma sauji, 18th Marquess Hachisuka." Auk 70:521-522. 76. ^ Escapeline Comte
77. ^ Christoffel, R. 1944. Letter signed by Le De legue-Adjoint du Comite International de la Croix-Rouge dated July 12. From the ICRC Archives ref. B G 44/CP-226.34. 78. ^ Brien 1971. 79. ^ Barclay-Smith 1953:17. [ edit ] External links Avicultural Society. BBC News. October 24, 2000 "Airmen reme mber Comet Line to freedom." Brien, Paul. 1971. Entry for Jean-Marie Derscheid. Biographie nationale 37 (supplment tme 9, 1er fasc.):211-235. Publie par l'Acadmie royale de s sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique. Bruxelles, Thiry-Van Bu ggenhoudt, 1866-1944. Translation from French by Dan Reboussin. available online Centre for Historical Research and Docu mentation on War and Contemporary Society (Ceges-Soma). Comte Kinship Belgium Association. J. M. Derscheid Digital Collection at the University of Florida George A. Smathers Libaries. Escapeline Comte. Escape Line Research and Remembrance (John Clinch). International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). International Union for Cons ervation of Nature (IUCN). Le Rseau Comte seen through the archives. Lemarchand, Ren. 1970. Rwanda and Burundi. Praeger library of African affairs New York, New York: Praeger Publishers. Available online.