Protected Health Information on Social Networking Sites: Ethical and Legal Considerations
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Title: Protected Health Information on Social Networking Sites: Ethical and Legal Considerations
Series Title: Thomson, LA, Black, EW, Duff, WP, Paradise Black, NM, Saliba, H, Dawson, K. Protected Health Information on Social Networking Sites: Ethical and Legal Considerations. J Med Internet Res 2011;13(1):e8
Physical Description: Journal Article
Creator: Thompson, Lindsay
Black, Erik
Duff, W. Patrick
Paradise Black, Nicole
Saliba, Heidi
Dawson, Kara
Publisher: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Place of Publication: Centre for Global eHealth Innovation, 190 Elizabeth Street, Toronto M5G 2C4, Canada
Publication Date: 1/19/2011
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Abstract: Background: Social networking site use is increasingly common among emerging medical professionals, with medical schools even reporting disciplinary student expulsion. Medical professionals who use social networking sites have unique responsibilities since their postings could violate patient privacy. However, it is unknown whether students and residents portray protected health information and under what circumstances or contexts. Objective: The objective of our study was to document and describe online portrayals of potential patient privacy violations in the Facebook profiles of medical students and residents. Methods: A multidisciplinary team performed two cross-sectional analyses at the University of Florida in 2007 and 2009 of all medical students and residents to see who had Facebook profiles. For each identified profile, we manually scanned the entire profile for any textual or photographic representations of protected health information, such as portrayals of people, names, dates, or descriptions of procedures. Results: Almost half of all eligible students and residents had Facebook profiles (49.8%, or n=1023 out of 2053). There were 12 instances of potential patient violations, in which students and residents posted photographs of care they provided to individuals. No resident or student posted any identifiable patient information or likeness in text form. Each instance occurred in developing countries on apparent medical mission trips. These portrayals increased over time (1 in the 2007 cohort; 11 in 2009; P = .03). Medical students were more likely to have these potential violations on their profiles than residents (11 vs 1, P = .04), and there was no difference by gender. Photographs included trainees interacting with identifiable patients, all children, or performing medical examinations or procedures such as vaccinations of children. Conclusions: While students and residents in this study are posting photographs that are potentially violations of patient privacy, they only seem to make this lapse in the setting of medical mission trips. Trainees need to learn to equate standards of patient privacy in all medical contexts using both legal and ethical arguments to maintain the highest professional principles. We propose three practical guidelines. First, there should be a legal resource for physicians traveling on medical mission trips such as an online list of local laws, or a telephone legal contact. Second, institutions that organize medical mission trips should plan an ethics seminar prior the departure on any trip since the legal and ethical implications may not be intuitive. Finally, at minimum, traveling physicians should apply the strictest legal precedent to any situation.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Erik Black.
Publication Status: Published
Funding: Publication of this article was funded in part by the University of Florida Open-Access publishing Fund.
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Or iginal P aper Protected Health Information on Social Networking Sites: Ethicaland Legal Considerations Lindsay A Thompson1*, MD MS; Erik Black1,2*, PhD; W Patrick Duff3*, MD; Nicole Paradise Black1*, MD; HeidiSaliba1*, BA; Kara Dawson2*, PhD1University of Florida, Department of Pediatrics, Gainesville, FL, United States2University of Florida, College of Education, Gainesville, FL, United States3University of Florida, Department of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, United States*all authors contributed equallyCorresponding Author:Lindsay A Thompson, MD MSUniversity of FloridaDepartment of Pediatrics1701 SW 16th AveGainesville, FL, 32608United StatesPhone: 1 352 334 1307Fax: 1 352 334 1348Email: lathompson@peds.ufl.edu AbstractBackground: Social networking site use is increasingly common among emerging medical professionals, with medical schoolseven reporting disciplinary student expulsion. Medical professionals who use social networking sites have unique responsibilitiessince their postings could violate patient privacy. However, it is unknown whether students and residents portray protected healthinformation and under what circumstances or contexts.Objective: The objective of our study was to document and describe online portrayals of potential patient privacy violations inthe Facebook profiles of medical students and residents.Methods: A multidisciplinary team performed two cross-sectional analyses at the University of Florida in 2007 and 2009 ofall medical students and residents to see who had Facebook profiles. For each identified profile, we manually scanned the entireprofile for any textual or photographic representations of protected health information, such as portrayals of people, names, dates,or descriptions of procedures.Results: A significant proportion (49.8%) of students and residents had profiles (n = 1023 had profiles out of 2053 eligiblestudents and residents). There were 12 instances of potential patient violations, in which students and residents posted photographsof care they provided to individuals. No resident or student posted any identifiable patient information or likeness in text form.Each instance occurred in developing countries on apparent medical mission trips. These portrayals increased over time (1 in the2007 cohort; 11 in 2009; P= .03). Medical students were more likely to have these potential violations on their profiles (11 vs1, P= .04), and there was no difference by gender. Photographs included trainees interacting with identifiable patients, all children,or performing medical examinations or procedures such as vaccinations on children.Conclusions: While students and residents in this study are posting photographic materials that are potentially violations ofpatient privacy, they only seem to make this lapse in the setting of medical mission trips. Trainees need to learn to equate standardsof patient privacy in all medical contexts using both legal and ethical arguments to maintain the highest professional principles.We propose three practical guidelines. First, there should be a legal resource for physicians traveling on medical mission tripssuch as an online list of local laws, or a telephone legal contact. Second, institutions that organize medical mission trips shouldplan an ethics seminar prior the departure on any trip since the legal and ethical implications may not be intuitive. Finally, atminimum, traveling physicians should apply the strictest legal precedent to any situation. (J Med Internet Res 2011;13(1):e8) \000doi:10.2196/jmir .1590 J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.1http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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KEYWORDSProtected health information, medical missions, Internet IntroductionOnline social networking applications (eg, Facebook, Flickr,Twitter, and YouTube) have become the fastest-growingmechanism to exchange personal and professional information.With 85%-95% of students on college campuses using thesecommunication mediums, and all age groups, even seniorcitizens, rapidly adopting their use [1,2], online socialnetworking applications have emerged as a significant meansof interaction for sharing everything from casual greetings todisplaying wedding photographs and lobbying for humanitarianfundraising.Medical professionals who use social networking sites haveunique responsibilities, since their postings could portraythemselves in unprofessional ways [3] or, most important,potentially violate patient privacy [3,4]. Publicized breaches ofprivacy might stem from careless oversights to malicious, illegal,and blatantly unprofessional behaviors. Most worrisome wouldbe those that involve medical students and residents, since theirunprofessional behaviors are known to be linked to lifelonglicensure problems with state medical boards [5]. Poignantly,Chretien et al recently demonstrated that a significant numberof academic medical institutions have experienced incidents ofunprofessional student online postings in which some weresevere enough to end in student dismissal, although the reasonsfor these dismissals were not disclosed [6]. Broadly stated,breaches of patient confidentiality involve the identification orpotential identification of a patient in any way. Many laws,including the Health Information Portability and AccountabilityAct (1996, HIPAA), are in place to defend this principle [7,8].In this context, this study aimed to document whether medicaltrainees ever share or discuss their patient interactions in theironline profiles. MethodsThe University of Florida's Institutional Review Board approvedas exempt a multidisciplinary team to perform twocross-sectional analyses of Facebook profiles of medical studentsand residents (2007, 2009). For the purposes of this study, weconsidered eligible all medical students (n = 501 in 2007, 528in 2009) enrolled at the University of Florida, Gainesville, andthe associated medical residents with available full names (n =312 in 2007, 712 in 2009) employed by the Shands Hospital.Descriptive findings from each cohort have been publishedelsewhere [3,9]. In brief, Facebook proceedings allow anyregistered user of Facebook access to every Facebook profileaccording to each individual owner's chosen preferences forprivacy. To be a Facebook user, an applicant only needs tosupply an email address and choose a password. Once a user,one can scan Facebook profiles anonymously, without revealingto the profile owners that their site has been viewed. Drawingon these parameters, the first profile search associated with thisstudy was done from June 7 to June 11, 2007, where threeresearchers used personally created Facebook accounts tomanually search for the study subjects'online profiles using auniversity-generated list of names of students and residents.The second cohort was searched from September 2 to October7, 2009, where only one study author (EB) used a personalaccount to manually search for the study subjects'online profilesusing the 2009 University lists. Given that the study began in2007, it did not use any face-recognition software, since it wasnot available at the time, and our study protocol did not includesearching friends'sites for the study subjects. We likewisecould not discern how often a profiler used Facebook, nor couldwe tell the duration that a profiler had the account. We couldnot discern the frequency with which a subject accessedFacebook. This study was part of a larger study on trends ofsocial networking site use among medical students and residents[3,9]. We first determined whether each student or resident hada Facebook account and whether that account was private orpublic, a designation that each user can activate to limit some,or all, of a site's content. Sites were deemed private if thefollowing message appeared on the site of interest: _____ onlyshares certain information with everyone. If you know ____,add him/her as a friend on Facebook. Three study authors (EB,LT, KD) compared their individual analyses of the content. Wefound a high degree of interrater reliability using intraclasscorrelation (type 1, df= 6) = 0.9, for the public profiles ofmedical students and residents in characterizing material withcomplete unanimity for the comparisons of potential patientprivacy violations [9]. We searched a total of 1023 profiles (n= 372 profiles in 2007 and 651 in 2009; see Figure 1forflowchart of subjects and profiles reviewed).For the purposes of this study, we reviewed sites for possibleprivacy violations to explicitly examine how students are usingsites according to legal and ethical professional norms. Once aprofile related to a study subject was found, any potentialviolation within a site was counted as one, even if a profile hadmultiple representations. For private sites, where optionalFacebook privacy settings can limit non-friends from viewingpart or most of the site, study authors reviewed only the profilephotograph(s) and available content on their front page, whereFacebook users can choose to list information such as name,address, and favorite hobbies. For publicly available profiles(n = 233, 62.6% in 2007; n = 95, 14.6% in 2009), we manuallyscanned all information, including all scrolled wall posts in textform and extensive albums for photographs, for patientinformation, such as names, dates, and procedures, photographsof patients or procedures, or any mention of patients. We alsorecorded available demographic information of the subjects(gender, year in training, relative age of subject). At the end ofthe study, in September 2010, we reviewed the sites that hadpotential privacy violations; all sites were now private and couldnot be reviewed. We performed our analyses using SPSS PASWStatistics, version 17 (Chicago, IL), and we accepted a level ofsignificance of P< .05 using a Student ttest for comparison[10].J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.2http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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Figure 1. Enrollment of medical students and residents'Facebook profiles ResultsA significant proportion (49.8%) of medical students andresidents had profiles (n = 1023 out of 2053 eligible studentsand residents). Students and residents increased their use ofFacebook, with 44.5% using Facebook in 2007 (n = 362 of 813),compared to 52.5% in 2009 (n = 651 of 1240, P< .0001). By2009, a majority (85.4%) of profiles were made private by theirowners compared to 37.6% in 2007 (P< .001). However, wefound significant and increasing evidence of potential privacyviolations (n = 12; 1 of 372 in 2007, 10 of 651 in 2009; P=.03). Medical students were more likely than residents to havethese violations (10 students, 1 resident; P= .04). In eachinstance, all of which were photographic patient information,the profile owners illustrated themselves providing health careto individuals (see deidentified examples, Figures 2-5; authorsadded the face block outs). We did not find any textual evidenceof patient information or likeness that could potentially violatepatient privacy.In each of these groups of photographs, the profile owner wasapparently on a medical mission trip, performing health care inanother county. These photographs were placed in photo albumsthat the profile owner explicitly labeled (eg, mission trip orDominican Republic), giving the viewer a context forunderstanding where they are from. Among private profiles(n = 701), two displayed themselves on their profile picturewith identifiable patients, which is the information first availableon any profile when a user peruses Facebook profiles. For thosewith publicly available Facebook profiles (n = 328 total, 233in 2007; 95 in 2009), 10 additional sites had potential privacyviolations within their profile's photo albums. Photographsincluded trainees interacting with identifiable patients orperforming medical examinations or procedures such asvaccinations. Of note, in each photograph, the recipient of thecare was a child.J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.3http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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Figure 2. Example of a potential violation of patient privacy Figure 3. Example of a potential violation of patient privacy J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.4http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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Figure 4. Example of a potential violation of patient privacy J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.5http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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Figure 5. Example of a potential violation of patient privacy DiscussionThis study reveals that students and residents place protectedhealth information on their publicly available social networkingsites. This exposes significant concerns with the ethical andlegal aspects of patient portrayals, a problem well debated withcyberspace issues [11,12], but one that has been magnified bythe recent phenomenon of online social networking [13]. As anunanticipated outcome, these violations seem only to be in thecontext of medical mission trips. Medical missions, defined asa group of people traveling from a developed country to adeveloping country for a short period of time [14] with thepurpose of providing needed health care, are viewed as highlyprofessional, benevolent acts [15]. Nonetheless, postingphotographs or information from such events challenges USand international laws of patient privacy, regardless of whethercontent is posted to a publicly available or to a private profile.Imagery of humanitarian trips is common, even supported inmedical settings [15], perhaps the reason why this onlineimagery is common and increasing. It is likely, given theincreasing frequency of these portrayals, that medical studentsand residents believe they are representing themselves in aprosocial manner on their online profile, forgetting or ignoringthat this can conflict with their professional responsibilities.Nonetheless, any single incident of an online depictionrepresents the tension between personal pride in compassionateacts and unethical and potentially illegal representations anddescriptions of individuals receiving medical care.Medical mission trips offer an opportunity to trainees anddoctors alike to learn to practice medicine outside of the highlytechnical US hospitals and to gain personal satisfaction intreating patients who may otherwise not have access to care.J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.6http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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However, these acts of compassion or benevolence should notbe available for public or private discussion or viewing outsidethe context of the doctor-patient relationship. Medical traineesand providers at all levels need to apply legal and ethicalpractices of patient privacy at all times of their working careers.We believe that photographs of patients from medical missiontrips are unethical and unprofessional, yet, due to variances inestablished international and emerging Internet law, they areonly a possible privacy violation.HIPAA (1996) [7,8] and other laws such as the HealthInformation Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Actdemonstrate that the legal aspects of protecting patient identitiesin the digital age are complex [16-18]. In this study, studentsand residents do not appear to violate patient privacy at theirown US institutions through online postings, but they seem tonot equate this standard to medical mission trips in othercountries. The Hippocratic Oath, HIPAA, and individual stateand international laws all articulate different regulatory standardsof patient privacy to which health care providers, as coveredentities, must adhere. While extensive and at times confusing,they are nonetheless the law. Medical mission trips within theUnited States, for example, would characterize written patienthealth information on the Internet as HIPAA violations [7,8],but potentially not a photograph if it is not a full-facephotographic image [19]. Other countries, such as Argentina,have stricter patient privacy laws that may include anyphotography [20]. Further, state laws in the United States maydictate higher standards than the federal HIPAA law for theirlicensed practitioners. In Florida, for example, all physiciansare required to always maintain patient confidentiality regardlessof where they are. To date, there is no legal precedent for theadjudication of these potential online violations, nor guidancefrom the medical literature on how to maintain high standardsof patient privacy in the age of online social networking. To thecontrary, in fact, one publication (predating onlineuser-generated content) advocatedthe use of digitalphotography, ostensibly for its ease of transmission andreproduction [21]. It is yet unknown who, outside of theindividual patient, could claim a violation when viewing onlinecontent. Nonetheless, awaiting legal action is ill advised.Like the legal aspects, the ethics involved are multifaceted. Inspeaking to the responsibilities of health care providers whoplace patient information online, social networking siteschallenge the difference between public and private information.In fact, one might argue that, while these sites are public, usersare likely operating under the expectations of privacy [22](potentially even making the study authors the violators).However, users of social networking sites not only choose tohave profiles with photos, text, and other self-created content,they also have control over whether such content is availableto everyone (publicly available) or whether their profile and itscontent are private to some or all. Of note, since this study wasperformed, Facebook has changed its privacy features(December 2009), requiring users to actively select what itdescribes as simplified privacy settings. However, its defaultsettings allow for unrestricted public access, much to theconsternation of Internet privacy and security experts [23]. Itremains unknown how medical professionals will respond tothis privacy option. Additionally, current academic discussionsdescribe the exact nature of what is public versus private, oridentified versus deidentified on the Internet as not dichotomous[24], and that privacy is ultimately a function of social context,meaning that displays and disclosure of information may beappropriate in some contexts but not in others [13]. Profiles andpostings of any typepublic or privateare ultimately theresponsibility of the creators, who in this case are practicingmedical trainees and/or professionals who have completedHIPAA and confidentiality training. Unique to the fields ofhealth care, these roles and their attendant responsibilitiescontinue beyond the end of a shift and into all spheres of theirlives, including when traveling abroad.Additional ethical considerations may question what duty thatwe, as authors, have in collecting and analyzing data obtainedfrom public online social networking sites [12,13,16]. Foremost,as medical professionals, we are bound to report potential abusesof children [25]. We do not feel this has occurred. Additionally,it could be argued that research on social networking sites isvoyeuristic, hence inappropriate. Leading researchers, however,have likened social network research to research on newspaperpersonal ads [26], removing much of the mystery surroundingits potential. We believe that medical educators need to beparticularly sensitive to educating our students and residentsabout patient privacy with clear and salient guidance on thevarious aspects of professionalism as it pertains to onlinepostings. Given the overwhelming popularity of socialnetworking applications such as Facebook, and their convenientand compelling means by which to exchange personalinformation, educators must better inform students that postingpatient information may lead to serious, unintended, andirreversible consequences.Practical RecommendationsWe make the following recommendations. First, there shouldbe a legal resource for physicians traveling on medical missiontrips such as an online list of local laws, or a telephone legalcontact. To our knowledge, this does not exist. Second, webelieve institutions that organize medical mission trips shouldplan this type of ethics seminar prior to the departure of anytrip, since the legal and ethical implications may not be intuitive.Further, while an understanding of local privacy laws prior todeparture on a medical mission trip would be ideal, it isnonetheless, at minimum, advisable to be cautious and applythe strictest legal precedent to any situation. For example,physicians should never write any patient information in textform or use a full-face photograph of a patient receiving anytreatments. If photographs of individuals are desired, writtenconsent should be obtained (although the wording of suchdocuments may still not be legally defensible in that country).Additionally, subjects should only be shown in profile or inshadows, or physicians/medical professionals should use photoediting software to deidentify patients'faces (see Figures 2-5for the authors'examples of ways to deidentify patients andtrainees). While photographs can play a central role for bothphysicians (eg, in dermatology) and patients (eg, the birth of achild), they are one of the most difficult legal and ethicalconsiderations in online portrayals and as such demand carefulattention.J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.7http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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Study LimitationsThis study has several limitations. First, this study wasperformed at a single institution, where it is possible that thestudents and residents with patient portrayals did in fact receivepermission from the individuals that they photographed.However, no acknowledgement or supportive informationregarding this consideration was available on the individualprofiles. Second, while it appears that medical students are morelikely than residents to post content that may violate patientprivacy, this likely is a function of the structure of medicalschool in which students in their fourth year have the most timefor trips overseas and their younger age [27]. Finally, we cannotcomment on profiles that have been made private. It is likely,perhaps even more likely, that photographs or even text thatmay violate patient privacy exists on private sites, since profileowners may feel their audience is not public. However, giventhe large number of profile friends Facebook users have(sometimes thousands), the notion of privacy is again contextual[26]. Yet patient privacy is not contextual. It is concrete andunyielding to electronic and other innovations for socialnetworking.ConclusionsAs a profession, we have made considerable strides to protectpatient privacy. We have not, however, adequately impressedupon students and residents that online social networking sitesand blogs are, in essence, broad communities with a publicaudience. They are arenas, such as medical mission trips, inwhich patient information must be guarded just as it would bein any health care situation. Future studies should explore themotivations behind such postings, but we believe theobservations found in this study merit swift action, since thenature of social networking sites allows for immediateassumptions by the observer, whether or not these assumptionsare formed within the context that the profiler intended. Medicalmission trips require the same high professional standards ofpatient privacy that all medical situations require, whether in ahighly technical US tertiary care center or in a rural medicalclinic in another country. )TjET42.52 453.424 m552.756 453.424 l552.756 453.524 l42.52 453.524 lhfBT/F2 11 Tf1 0 0 1 42.52 499.561 Tm(AcknowledgmentsWe would like to thank the Office of Privacy at the University of Florida, specifically Susan Blair and B Dianne Farb, JD, fortheir careful review of this manuscript. Publication of this article was funded in part by the University of Florida Open-AccessPublishing Fund. Conflicts of InterestNone declared Authors ContributionsAll of the authors are responsible and qualified for the reported research. They have all participated in the concept and design,analysis and interpretation of data, and drafting and revision of the manuscript and approve the manuscript as submitted. All ofthe authors have had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracyof the data analysis. None of the authors, to our knowledge, have any undisclosed affiliations, conflicts of interests, or financialarrangements with any organizations mentioned in the manuscript.References1.Corbett P. iStrategyLabs. 2009. Facebook demographics and statistics report: 513% growth in the 55+ year old users.College and high school drop 20% URL: http://www .istrate gylabs.com/2009/07/ 2009-f acebook-demographics-and-statistics-report-513-gro wth-in-55-year -old-users-colle ge-high-school-drop-20/ [accessed2010-11-24] [W ebCite Cache ID 5uUHjd8Ys ]2.Lampe C, Ellison N, Steinfeld C. Changes in the use and perception of Facebook. 2008 Presented at: ACM Conference onComputer Supported Cooperative Work; 2008; San Diego, CA, USA.3.Thompson LA, Dawson K, Ferdig R, Black EW, Boyer J, Coutts J, et al. The intersection of online social networking withmedical professionalism. J Gen Intern Med 2008 Jul;23(7):954-957. [doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0538-8 ] [Medline: 18612723 ]4.Lagu T, Kaufman EJ, Asch DA, Armstrong K. Content of weblogs written by health professionals. J Gen Intern Med 2008Oct;23(10):1642-1646. [doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0726-6 ] [Medline: 18649110 ]5.Papadakis MA, Teherani A, Banach MA, Knettler TR, Rattner SL, Stern DT, et al. Disciplinary action by medical boardsand prior behavior in medical school. N Engl J Med 2005 Dec 22;353(25):2673-2682 [FREE Full te xt ] [doi:10.1056/NEJMsa052596 ] [Medline: 16371633 ]6.Chretien KC, Greysen SR, Chretien JP, Kind T. Online posting of unprofessional content by medical students. JAMA 2009Sep 23;302(12):1309-1315 [FREE Full te xt ] [doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1387 ] [Medline: 19773566 ]7.Office for Civil Rights. Standards for privacy of individually identifiable health information: final rule. Fed Regist 2002Aug 14;67(157):53182-53273 [FREE Full te xt ] [W ebCite Cache ]8.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)Privacy Rule URL: http://www .hhs.go v/ocr/pri v ac y/ [accessed 2010-11-24] [W ebCite Cache ID 5uUDEnV1r ]J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.8http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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9.Black EW, Thompson LA, Duff WP, Dawson K, Saliba H, Black NM. Revisiting social network utilization byphysicians-in-training. J Grad Med Educ 2010;2(2):289-293. [doi: 10.4300/JGME-D-10-00011.1 ]10.Cohen J. Statistical power analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science 1992;1(13):98-101. [doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10768783 ]11.Rodrigues R. Ethical and legal issues in interactive health communications: a call for international cooperation. J MedInternet Res 2000;2(1):E8 [FREE Full te xt ] [doi: 10.2196/jmir .2.1.e8 ] [Medline: 11720927 ]12.Eysenbach G, Till JE. Ethical issues in qualitative research on internet communities. BMJ 2001 Nov 10;323(7321):1103-1105[FREE Full te xt ] [Medline: 11701577 ]13.Eysenbach G. Medicine 2.0: social networking, collaboration, participation, apomediation, and openness. J Med InternetRes 2008;10(3):e22 [FREE Full te xt ] [doi: 10.2196/jmir .1030 ] [Medline: 18725354 ]14.Bradke AJ. The Ethics of Medical Brigades in Honduras: Who Are We Helping? [masters thesis]. Pittsburgh, PA: Universityof Pittsburgh; 2007.15.Hanson L, Harms S, Plamondon K. Undergraduate international medical electives: some ethical and pedagogicalconsiderations. J Studies Int Educ 2010. [doi: 10.1177/1028315310365542 ]16.Hrynaszkiewicz I, Norton ML, Vickers AJ, Altman DG. Preparing raw clinical data for publication: guidance for journaleditors, authors, and peer reviewers. BMJ 2010;340:c181. [Medline: 20110312 ]17.Parsell M. Pernicious virtual communities: identity, polarisation and the Web 2.0. Ethics Inf Technol 2008;10:41-56. [doi:10.1007/s10676-008-9153-y ]18.Weitzman ER, Kaci L, Mandl KD. Sharing medical data for health research: the early personal health record experience.J Med Internet Res 2010;12(2):e14 [FREE Full te xt ] [doi: 10.2196/jmir .1356 ] [Medline: 20501431 ]19.American Health Information Management Association. Practice brief. Patient photography, videotaping, and other imaging(updated). J AHIMA 2001 Jun;72(6):64M-64Q. [Medline: 12793246 ]20.Gakh M. Argentinas protection of personal data: initiation and response. ISJLP 2006;2:781.21.Davolt DA. The use of digital photography to support a medical mission to Honduras. J Biocommun 2000;27(2):22-24.[Medline: 11050711 ]22.Kleinberg J. Challenges in mining social network data: processes, privacy, and paradoxes. 2007 Presented at: 3rd ACMSIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining; August 12-15, 2007; San Jose, CA, USA.23.Prince B. 3Week.com. 2009 Dec 20. Facebook privacy: Just how much do users want? URL: http://www .e week.com/inde x2. php?option=content&task=vie w&id=58084&pop=1&hide_ads=1&page=0&hide_js=1 [accessed 2009-12-23] [W ebCite Cache ID 5uMZKDSnt ]24.Bos N, Karahalios K, Musgrove-Chavez M, Poole E, Thomas JC, Yardi S. Research ethics in the Facebook era: privacy,anonymity, and oversight. In: 27th International Conferences Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing. 2009Presented at: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2009; New York, NY, USA.25.Office on Child Abuse and Neglect. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2003 Jun 25. The Child AbusePrevention and Treatment Act URL: http://www .acf.hhs.go v/programs/cb/la ws_policies/cbla ws/capta03/capta_manual.pdf [accessed 2010-11-24] [W ebCite Cache ID 5uUQRqJGS ]26.Nissenbaum H. Privacy as contextual integrity. Washington Law Rev 2004;79:1.27.Chou WY, Hunt YM, Beckjord EB, Moser RP, Hesse BW. Social media use in the United States: implications for healthcommunication. J Med Internet Res 2009;11(4):e48 [FREE Full te xt ] [doi: 10.2196/jmir .1249 ] [Medline: 19945947 ] AbbreviationsHIPAA:Health Information Portability and Accountability Act Edited by G Eysenbach; submitted 27.06.10; peer-reviewed by T Lagu, F Grajales III; comments to author 05.08.10; revised versionreceived 22.09.10; accepted 21.10.10; published 20.01.11Please cite as: Thompson LA, Black E, Duff WP, Paradise Black N, Saliba H, Dawson KProtected Health Information on Social Networking Sites: Ethical and Legal ConsiderationsJ Med Internet Res 2011;13(1):e8URL: http://www .jmir .or g/2011/1/e8/ )Tj/F4 8.5 Tf1 0 0 1 72.52 136.204 Tm(doi:10.2196/jmir .1590 PMID:Lindsay A Thompson, Erik Black, W Patrick Duff, Nicole Paradise Black, Heidi Saliba, Kara Dawson. Originally publishedin the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 20.01.2011. This is an open-access article distributed underJ Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.9http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX

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the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/), which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical InternetResearch, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.jmir.org/,as well as this copyright and license information must be included.J Med Internet Res 2011 | vol. 13 | iss. 1 | e8 | p.10http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e8/(page number not for citation purposes) Thompson et alJOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCHXSLFORenderX


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