Game On: A playful approach to ethics education in STEM
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Title: Game On: A playful approach to ethics education in STEM
Physical Description: ppt
Language: English
Creator: Leonard, Michelle
Margeaux Johnson
Amy Buhler
Ben DeVane
 Notes
Abstract: There is a need to address plagiarism in the digital age. This panel will address why gaming is an effective form of ethics education, the process of developing a game, and the importance of conducting usability tests to create an intuitive product.
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Michelle Foss.
Publication Status: Unpublished
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Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: Attribution, Non derivative, Non commercial
System ID: IR00000414:00001

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Game On: A playful approach to ethics education in STEM
Presented by: Ben DeVane, Michelle Leonard, Amy Buhler, & Margeaux Johnson
1 �^ I UNIVERSITY of
UFI FLORIDA
The Foundation for The Gator Nation


GAP: Gaming Against Plagiarism
The game will be an online, self-directed, interactive game that will provide a role-adapting environment in which Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) graduate students will learn to recognize and avoid plagiarism.


...furthermore, the game will
Employ strategies intended to influence students' ethical behavior;

Explore the impact of peer behavior, institutional norms, and differing cultural practices on plagiarism;
Heighten awareness on the falsification & fabrication of data;
Meet the requirements of the America COMPETES Act, Section 7009.
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...and
Be collaboratively designed, tested, and evaluated through a multi-disciplinary iterative development process by recognized experts in graduate science education, gaming, academic integrity, and educational digital media production.
Have an open source approach that will allow each institution to integrate its own code of conduct, relevant policies, and branding while maintaining a common focus on what constitutes responsible conduct of research.
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Why plagiarism?
In 2005, a broader survey of 63,700 undergraduate students and 9,250 graduate students revealed that
62% of undergraduates 59% of graduate students
had engaged in "cut and paste" plagiarism from either print or electronic sources at least once in
the last three years. (McCabe 2005)


Case in point
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
UF

Ethics & Plagiarism Cases @ UF H plagiarism H other



I 82 1


88 1

2008
2009
2010


Is it really plagiarism?
"In some Asian cultures, students are taught to memorize and copy we 11-respected authors and leaders in their societies to show intelligence and good judgment in
(Thompson & Williams 1995).
"What is defined as plagiarism by American standards is not defined as such by many Asian or European standards, in which "...taking ideas and words from different books and writers to build an answer seems to
be an accepted academic practice" (Pennycook 1996).
"In India, for example, undergraduates are not expected to cite sources and it is only at the graduate level where
such activity is expected, but not necessary" (Handa and Power 2005).


Why gaming?
Gaming is universal among college-aged students.
Recent research on teenagers (future college students) shows that not only is game playing universal, but that game playing facilitates social discussions and "can incorporate many aspects of civic and political life" (Lenhart et al., 2008).
Similar real life scenarios were used by Lloyd and van de Poel (2008) to create a collaborative design game with engineering students "to give students 'practical' experience of ethical decision-making in the process of design.


____game on
Develop a culturally-sensitive tool reflective of the future ethical considerations faced by U.S. global researchers publishing in a multi-cultural research environment;
Incorporate game design strengths identified at the NSF co-sponsored National Summit on Educational Games: higher order skills, practical skills, practice for high performance situations, and developing expertise;
Assure scalability and robustness of design to permit future content enhancements to cover additional aspects of responsible research conduct, such as the falsification and fabrication of data.
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where to begin?
Graduate students in all STEM departments were sent a survey on the perceptions of plagiarism.
-4500 STEM graduates were sent the survey -855 grads reviewed the survey 650 grads answered each question 146 responses to each open ended question


articioants
# of STEM grad responses
� Agriculture
� Biology & Life Sciences


Survey: Perceptions in Plagiarism @ UF
Where & how much have you learned about the UF Honor
Code policies?
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
uLearned Little or Nothing y Learned Some y Learned A Lot


Survey: Perceptions in Plagiarism @ UF
In the past year, how often did your professors discuss policies
concerning:
UNever U Very Seldom J Seldom u Often y Very Often


Please mark how serious you think each type of behavior is.
Answer Options Not.
Plagiarism
Working on an assignmentwith others (in person) 30
Working on an assignmentwith others (via e- 34
In a course requiring computerwork, copying another 7
Incorporating another's course lab data as your own 6
Incorporating another's research data as your own 4
Paraphrasing or copying a few sentences from a 10
Paraphrasing or copying a few sentences from a 8
Turning in a paperwritten and previously submitted by 5
Quoting another author in your own work without citing 7
Copying material, almostwordforword,from any 4
Turning in work done by someone else 6
Turning in the same paperfor anotherclass 91
Copying and pasting directly from several different 11
Accidentally or purposely adding/deleting/changing 30
Trivial
102 122 12 16 2
26 38 1
20
1
3
129 25 89
Moderate Serious Response Count
280 223 635
269 209 634
82 532 633
126 485 633
35 592 633
190 408 634
179 408 633
9 620 635
147 460 634
25 604 634
25 600 634
218 195 633
112 484 632
261 251 631
answered question
637


Survey: Perceptions in Plagiarism @ UF
How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Answer Options
Plagiarism is a serious problem at UF.
Investigation of suspected incidents of plagiarism is fair and impartial at UF.
Disagree Strongly
8
Disagree Not Sure Agree
156
Agree Strongly
Response Count
43
349
Faculty members are vigilant in discovering and reporting suspected cases of academic dishonesty, specifically plagiarism.
Faculty members change assignments on a regular basis.
The amount of course work I'm expected to complete is reasonable for my year level and program.
12
18
23
105
407
242
24
154
243
The degree of difficulty in my assignments is appropriate for my year level and program.
The types of assessment used in my courses are effective at helping me learn course concepts.
39
19
40
49
53
64
146
229
178
416
422
409
81
44
39
34
122
131
114
637
632
633
633
632
631
631
answered question
637


Survey: Perceptions in Plagiarism @ UF
Has someone ever taken credit for or plagiarized your work? n=636
Have you ever reported another student for plagiarizing an assignment? n=634


Open ended comments: personal experiences
"In my country, college students plagiarise usually because tutors do not supply them with enough materials and tools to handle their assignments alone. No one want to steal someone else' property if he has a better choice, though I disagree strongly against it myself."
"In my PhD program, I took a stats class. A foreign student asked me to help her with an assignment that was due the next day. She asked me to look at my finished assignment. I thought that she would just look it over to get a general idea of what needed to be done or compare the answers that she got in order to improve her own assignment (I've done this before). Afterwards, when I saw her assignment, I saw that she had pretty much copied my assignment. I didn't complain because I didn't want to create a conflict with a colleague, but I disagreed with what she had done and I kept my distance from this student afterwards."
"Take home exams and projects often turn into group efforts in graduate school. It is appalling. Particularly at the graduate level when your work should truly be for your own development."
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Open ended comments: other comments
"It is not punished seriously enough at this level and students do not take it seriously. It seems as though instructors are burdened by it and can not protect themselves from it. Students do not seem to have problems using other students' work."
"In research, students should have a choice to raise their concern against supervisors officially on which investigation can be carried out. This happens a lot in research wherein the Professor uses data from investigation carried out by student to write proposals without giving full credit to the student. This is a clear example of Plagiarism."
"Most teachers discuss plagiarism, but I don't think that most of them check to make sure its not going on."
"The process for prosecuting plagiarism at UF is quite cumbersome and weighted in favor of the student. In fact, many faculty would rather ignore or deal with plagiarism at the course-level rather than refer the plagiarism to UF's student conduct court."
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5 phases of GAP
Phase 1: Content
B
Phase 2: Design
Phase 3: Usability
Phase 4: Implementation
Phase 5: Evaluation


Phase 1: Content Phase 2: Design Phase 3: User Testing
Sept 2010 - Feb.2011 December 2010-December 2011 Api il 2011 - December 2011
Content Development and Evaluation
Gaming Pedagog
Game Development
Game Play
Ait
jsoftwar
Design Team
Graphics Team
Pi ogram Team
Create Prototypes fltei ative)
(
Beta Game
Usei testing/ evaluation (iteiativel
]
Phase 4: Implementation December 2011-April 2012
NSFfunded I students (I cubed,| other programs)
UF College of Engineering
University of Central Florida
Purdue University
r Vii ginia Commonwealth ^Jiwemtv^
University of Houston
Loyola Marymouut
Oakland University
Rowan University
Phase 5: Evaluation April 2012 - August 2012




Content Sources
Published literature
Collective past experience
Baseline survey of graduate students regarding perceptions of plagiarism


Phase 1: Content
6 Major Learning Objectives
1. Identify major types of contemporary plagiarism
2. List the basic rules to avoid plagiarism
3. Demonstrate ability to apply the rules in increasingly complex scenarios.
4. Explain copyright, fair use and author's rights (i.e. intellectual property rights).
5. Explain the potential consequences of plagiarism academically and professionally.
6. Recognize and acknowledge differences in cultural approaches to plagiarism.


Phase 1: Content
6 Major Learning Objectives
1. Identify major types of contemporary plagiarism
2. List the basic rules to avoid plagiarism
5. Explain the potential consequences of plagiarism academically and professionally.
6. Recognize and acknowledge differences in cultural approaches to plagiarism.


Phase 1: Content
6 Major Learning Objectives
1. Identify major types of contemporary plagiarism
2. List the basic rules to avoid plagiarism
3. Demonstrate ability to apply the rules in increasingly complex
scenarios.
4. Explain falsification & fabrication of data.
5. Explain the potential consequences of plagiarism academically and professionally.
6. Recognize and acknowledge differences in cultural approaches to plagiarism.


Phase 1: Content
P" o
Identify major types of plagiarism
List basic rules to avoid plagiarism
Identify data falsification and fabrication
>
Level Two
>
Explain the potential consequences of plagiarism both academically & professionally
Level Three
Apply the rules to increasingly complex scenarios
Recognize and acknowledge differences in cultural
approaches to plagiarism


Phase 1: Content
Master content document that includes definitions and real-life examples
Dr. Roger's research group is studying the effect of adding colloidal silica to epoxy materials to create new nanocomposite materials. She sees a paper that has already been published detailing the addition of fumed silica to epoxy. Most of the background of the experiment and methods are identical to her work, so she incorporates those sections from the previous paper into her own publication without attribution. She uses data from her own experiments.
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Phase 1: Content
Short sorting scenarios:
I combined the findings of these 8 sources into one paragraph. I don't have to cite them, because I created the compilation, (patchwriting)
I submitted the same paper to more than one class. It's OK that I copied my own work without citing it because it's still my idea, (self plagiarism)
I quoted something but changed one word to strengthen its support of my argument, (misquoting)


Phase 2: Design
Why Games?




Design
Video games are powerful tools for learning.


Design
1. Active, Critical Learning 14. Principle
2. Design Principle 15.
3. Semiotic Principle 16.
4. Semiotic Domains Principle 17.
5. Metalevel Thinking about 18. Semiotic Domains Principle 19
6. Psychosocial Moratorium 20. Principle 21
7. Committed Learning Principle 22
8. Identity Principle 23
9. Self-Knowledge Principle 24 19. Amplification of Input Principle25
11. Achievement Principle
12. Practice Principle 26.
13. Ongoing Principle
"Regime of Competence" principle
Probing Principle
Multiple Routes principle
Situated Meaning Principle
Text Principle
Intertextual Principle
Multimodal Principle
Material Intelligence Principle
Intuitive Knowledge Principle
Subset Principle
Incremental Principle
Concentrated Sample Principle
Bottom-up Basic Skills Principle
27. Explicit Information On-Demand and Just In-Time Principle
28. Discovery Principle
29. Transfer Principle
30. Cultural Models about the World Principle
31. Cultural Models about Learning Principle
32. Cultural Models about Semiotic Domains Principle
33. Distributed Principle
34. Dispersed Principle
35. Affinity Group Principle
36. Insider Principle
(Gee, 2003)


SERIOUS GAMES
CLARK C. ABT
The art and science ol gam�a tfitt timui$\9 /*/��m industry, government,
SERIOUS GAMES
Clark C. Abl explores trie ways in wnich games can bo used, not Just tor themselves or for pleasure, but to instruct, inform, and educate us all through the experimental and emotional freedom ot active play united with the precision of abstract thought
. anyone interested in a new approach lo national problems should give Serious Games serious consideration."
�Library Journal
Clark :". Abt is the founder and chairman of Abt Associates. Inc . a firm that has pioneered in the development of games and simulation techniques for solving problems in a wide variety of social, economic and industrial contexts He was graduated Irom M.I.T. in engineering, received an M.A. from Johns Hopkins, worked as a systems engineer for ten years, and returned to M.l.T. tor a Ph.D. in political science before founding Abt Associates, Inc. M 196S.
Cowtr d*Mgn by P'allv Bern*
0-8191 -AH*-'


Design
Major paradigms in Serious Game Design
Gamification
Holistic - Systemic Learning


Design


Design
solving complex problems


Content meets Design
?00�o
Level One
o o
Identify major types of plagiarism
List basic rules to avoid plagiarism
Identify data falsification and fabrication
>
Level Two
>
Explain the potential consequences of plagiarism both academically & professionally
Level Three
Apply the rules to increasingly complex scenarios
Recognize and acknowledge differences in cultural
approaches to plagiarism


Content Meets Design
Level 3 - Apply & Recognize
Level 2 - Explain consequences Level 1 - Identify & List
(Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001)


Content learning objectives are one major component of our overall design task.


Design
Another major component of the overall design task is to make games that our audience wants to play.


Design
Focus Groups for Design Research


Design
Focus Groups partnered with the I3 graduate student groups


Design
Focus Group Method
1. diverse attitudes toward video games
2. very diverse preferences for game genres
3. Preference for a "meta-game" environment


Design
Major Design Task Components
1. Meet content learning objectives
2. Make learning games that reach a wide audience


Design
Overall Design Structure
A series of short, modular mini-games linked together with an interactive fiction
narrative.
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Design
Overall Design Metaphor


Meta-Game Story
HINDUSTAN TIMES. MUMBAI THURSDAY, DECEMBER 02, 2010
hindusta
'Cramped classes lead in
to rampant copying
Senior professor blames improper seating arrangement
Cham Sudan Kastiiri
� charu.kfisiuii^Mribiiiiantiiiieo.cMn
NEW DELHI: Crowded classes at the oldest Indian Institute of TW-hiiok*gy. Kharagpur, may have pawned an unexpected prtMem � increased copying among student in crucial tests dial determine tijeir overall performance at the premier engineering school.
Senior IIT-Kharugpur computer science professor Rajeev Kumar has written to top Institute authorities pointing out "rampant copying" among students, especially in subject examinations held by specific departments.
This cheating is a result of improper seating arrangements, Kumar has written to Director I>am But senior IIT-Kharagpur officials are blaming the space crunch caused by the massive 54 per cent increase in total student intake following the implementation of tlie OIK: quota law, to explain their inability to space student test-takers better.
The hike in total student intake � across categories � meaas that the IIT is currently faced with a space shortage in classes, hostels and in examination lialls. This space shortage forces the IIT to seat students appearing for the same subject next to each other, facilitating cheating, the officials argued.
But while curbing any copying is a priority ensuring slu-
Inflfljiwi "
tthhtti
� I IT-K is currently faced with a space shortage in classes. hosteJs and in examination halls.
dents appearing for the same subject test do not sit next to each ut her will not be easy, tl>ey said. "Wenow have 1,4(X) first year students who appear fir the same subjects. We are struggling for space. Fancy seating arrangements are something we cannot afford at the moment," a senior administrator said. Scores in the IIT examina-
ikins all contribute to the cumulative grade point average (OGPA) of students at the end of their course.
TheCGPA plays a key rolein determining eligibility of students in the eyes of companies that come for on campus plaee-ments, and higlier educational institutions.
Kumar has suggested mapping the student seating to the
subject they appear for, arid then ensuring that no two subjects are ckise to each other. He has argued Uiat this system of seating was followed earlier based on his proposal and had proved successful.
"Professor Kumar's argument appears justified, and his suggestion should be Mowed. But if space is indeed a barrier i n i BP ment ing Kumar's solu-
FILE PHOTO
tion. the Institute's position must also be understood," another Motor IIT Kharagpur professor said.
Kumar is arguing that his seating suggestion can be followed despite the space constraints but IIT authorities argue they Mad an upcoming new academic block to be ready1 for seat ing problems to be sorted out.
� "Rampant copying" among students, especially in subject exami nations held by specific department.
9 This cheating is a result of improper seating arrangements
� Need an upcoming new academic block to be ready for seating problems to be sorted out
m Kumar has suggested mapping the student seating to the subject they appear for, and then ensuring that no two subjects are close to each other
ADMINISTRATION'S DEFENCE
� Blame the space crunch caused by the massive 54 per cent met ease in total student intake following the implementation of the OBC quota law
� This space shortage forces the IIT to seat students appearing for the same subject next to each other, facilitating cheating
� Have 1,400 first year students who appeal for the same subjects. Faix;y seating arrangements are something we cannot afford at the moment


Meta-Game Story




Meta-Game Story


Meta-Game Story
Who stands between the university and
utter chaos?


Meta-Ga


Meta-Game Story






Design

Game 1 - Plagiarism Problems Board game race against NPC opponent
Plagiarism "quiz" scenarios hidden throughout the board
Player is allowed to plagiarize, falsify or fabricate their positions on the game board.
The amount a player engages in research misconduct increases their chance of getting caught.


Design
Game 1 - Post-game Narrative
If the player cheats during the game, they will be "expelled" from school after the game in a narrative cutscene set in a mock tribunal room.
At the last minute however, the University Library's Anti-Plagiarism Corps intervenes and asks the tribunal to stay the player's expulsion if they help in the fight against plagiarism.
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Design
Game 2 Design Metaphor




Design


Development
Test and
FIGURE 1.2 Waterfall game development




FIGURE 2.7 Iterations toward a goal


IrKpec-t and Adapt
FIGURE 2.8 Agile development flow


Pre-Produc-tion
Production
<� TO 2 TO 1 TO to g TO TO &

FIGURE 2.9 Agile project flow


A? an online plainer, I c~an Cee a list of game? that I <>an Join in a lotttj
A? a placer, I tan join an online ^awe
and plat) against other placer? ako plaijinq online
A< a p'aj)*r, I plaij online aaainCt multiple online opponent?
A? a p/a�jer( I c-an plait in an online, team death-match game
A? a placer, I �-an plaij in an online free-for-all death-match yaffle
FIGURE 5.1
Breaking down an epic into smaller stories


Phase 3&5: Evaluation
Formative Evaluation: -Usability Testing -Learner assessments of modules Design assessments
Summative Evaluation:
- Overall project evaluation -Assessment of learning in game
- Evaluation of objectives


Usability Testing
15 Day Cycle DESIGN TEAM DEVELOPS PROTOTYPE
WEEK 1
WEEK 2
WEEK 3
USABILITY TEAM RECEIVES PROTOTYPE
SCHEDULE PARTICIPANTS DEWLOP PROTOCOLS DEVELOP LEARNING ASSESSMENTS
V V V CONDUCT USER TESTING
WRITE USABILITY REPORT


Usability: Week 1
Schedule Participants
Develop Testing Protocols
Review prototype design
Develop learning assessments, if applicable


Usability: Week 2
Conduct user tests with 3-5 STEM students





Usability: Week 3
Prepare usability report
Communicate successes/ shortfalls to GAP team
Usability report informs further development
Design team documents changes in future iterations of the game


Phase 4: Implementation
Six NSF-funded universities and one large state university have agreed to participate in beta testing of the GAP game
The game and learning assessments will be delivered to these institutions for testing during Spring 2012.
Purdue University
Virginia Commonwealth University
University of Central Florida
University of Houston Loyola Marymount
Oakland University
Rowan University


Phase 5: Evaluation
Formative Evaluation -Usability Testing -Learner assessments of modules Design assessments
Summative Evaluation:
- Overall project evaluation -Assessment of learning in game
- Evaluation of objectives


This presentation is based on the recently award National Science Foundation IIS EESE Grant 1033002
is


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