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 Foreword
 Table of Contents
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 Selected references
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Title: Personalized Patterns: Fitting & Altering
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000338/00001
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Title: Personalized Patterns: Fitting & Altering
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Hackler, Nadine
Publisher: University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Cooperative Extension Services.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Foreword
        Foreword
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Selected references
        Page 51
    Back Cover
        Page 52
Full Text
EH E 483
PERSONALIZED
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Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension


FOREWORD
People invest much thought, energy and money in dressing the body. Correct fitting of
clothing for comfort and beauty is an important aspect of dressing that presents a challenge.
The ability to recognize a well-fitted garment and to know how to achieve a good fit is
necessary whether constructing or buying clothing. Though styles change, the standards of
good fit remain the same year after year, because they are based on the structural lines of the
body.

One of the most vexing problems for home seamstresses is the fitting of clothing.
Many seamstresses are extremely competent at constructing clothing but become dis-
couraged when the clothing looks homemade because of poor fit.

There is no easy solution to this problem. It takes time, thought and practice to
master the art of fitting clothing. Once accomplished, however, the reward of more
attractive clothing makes the task worthwhile. This publication is designed to take you
step-by-step through the fitting process and to help you understand the concepts of fit-
ting clothing and altering patterns.
Southern Region Publication Committee

Nadine Hackler, Chairman
Dorothy L. Barrier
Ursula Holahan
Margie Mclntyre

Revised 1980
This publication formerly was numbered EHE 178.
This publication is published cooperatively by 14 states in the Southern Region including:
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina,
Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.


PERSONALIZED PATTERNS FITTING AND ALTERING

Tabic of Contents

Foreword

What Is Good Fit............................................................ 1

Making a Dress for Fitting.................................................... 2
Selecting the Pattern..................................................... 2
Marking the Pattern..................................................... 4
Selecting the Fabric..................................................... 4
Preparing the Fabric..................................................... 4
Cutting Out the Dress .................................................... 5
Marking the Dress...................................................... 5
Assembling the Dress.................................... 5
Fitting the Dress.................................................... 5
Analyzing Fit.......................................................... 5
Making the Alterations ................................................ 5

Transferring the Alterations to the Patterns...................................... 6
Equipment for Altering Patterns............................................ 6
Methods for Altering Patterns.............................................. 6
Guidelines for Altering the Pattern.......................................... 7
Definitions............................................. g

Using Alterations on Fashion Patterns.......................................... g
Alterations..................................................... g
Bodice Front................................ 9
Small Bust................................................... g
Large Bust.......................................................... n
Low Bust ........................................................... 24
High Bust........................................................... 2^5
French Dart......................................................... Ig
Armhole Pouch....................................................... jg
Fat Pocket........................................................ I7
Hollow Chest.................................................. ^7
Prominent Chest Bone............................................ 18
Short Waisted in Center Front.......................................... I9
Midriff Bulge.................................................... ig
Armhole Too Small ................................................ 20
Armhole Too Large.................................................. 20
Gapping Neckline..................................................... 20
Neckline Too Low................................. 21
Neckline Too High............................................... 21
Bodice Back.................................................... 21
Broad Back...................................................... 21
Narrow Back ....................................................... 22


|i)


Erect Back................................................................... 24
Round Back.................................................................. 25
Dowager's Hump ............................................................. 25
Prominent Shoulder Blades and Broad Upper Back.................................. 26
Short Waisted in Center Back ................................................... 26
Shoulders....................................................................... 26
Broad....................................................................... 26
Narrow...................................................................... 28
Square...................................................................... 29
Sloping...................................................................... 30

Sleeves ......................................................................... 31
Heavy Arm...........................................,....................... 31
Thin Arm.................................................................... 31
Large Upper Arm Muscle....................................................... 31
Thick Elbow.................................................................. 32
Sleeve Cap Too Short .......................................................... 33
Sleeve Cap Too Long........................................................... 33
Hang of Sleeve................................................................ 33
Binding Armhole and Sleeve .................................................... 34
Skirt........................................................................... 35
Prominent Hips and Thighs..................................................... 35
Flat Buttocks ................................................................ 35
Full Buttocks................................................................. 36
Full Abdomen................................................................ 38
Sway Back................................................................... 39
Prominent Hip Bone........................................................... 40
One Large and High Hip........................................................ 40

Waistline ....................................................................... 41
Short Waisted................................................................ 41
Long Waisted ................................................................ 41
Large Waistline............................................................... 41
Small Waistline............................................................... 42
Uneven Waistline............................................................. 43
Fitting Pants.................................................................... 44
What Is a Good Fit?........................................................... 44
Buying the Pattern............................................................ 44
Measuring the Body........................................................... 44
Preparing the Pattern.......................................................... 45
Making Alterations on the Pattern ............................................... 45
Making Test Garment.......................................................... 47
Fitting the Test Garment....................................................... 48
Additional Alterations......................................................... 48
Stylizing a Basic Pattern ....................................................... 49

Selected References............................................................... 51


in)


WHAT IS GOOD FIT

The standards of good fit must be understood
before good fit can be achieved. Clothing should
fit the body smoothly with enough room to move
easily and be free from wrinkles.
There are certain guides that help one judge fit.
These are:
correct amount of ease
correct length, width, and dart direction
proper seamline placement
proper positioning of fabric grainline


Ease Allowance
There are two types of ease: style fullness and
ease for movement. Style fullness is influenced by
the design of the garment. Ease for movement
is influenced by personal preference, the size and
shape of the individual, the activity for which
the clothing is worn, the length of wearing time,
the fabric, and the type of garment (for example:
coats, suit, dress, or pants).
Personal preference must be considered when
fitting clothing. Some people feel more secure or
think they look better in clothing that fits the
body snugly. Others feel restricted in their move-
ment unless their clothing is very loose. One must
strive for an acceptable fit while considering per-
sonal preferences.
A correctly fitted garment in good design lines
helps reveal or camouflage the body shape and size.
Some large women wear clothing that is too snug.
Theu- reason for wearing snug clothing may result
from the mistaken idea that tight fitting garments
have a slimming effect, which unfortunately they do
not. The person who is large looks better in a trim,
not tight fit.
The activity for which the clothing is worn in-
fluences fit. Sport clothes are generally fitted with
more freedom for movement than street clothes.
Evening wear is often fitted quite snugly.
Garments which are worn frequently and for an
extended number of hours are usually fitted less
snugly than those worn for short durations.
Fabric influences the amount of ease a garment
can have and look attractive on the body. Some
fabrics are very stable while others have built-in
stretch. Some are designed to fit the body snugly
while others must be draped loosely.
Certain types of garments have more ease than
others. A coat, for example, needs more ease for
movement than a dress. The jacket of a suit must
allow space for a blouse or sweater.
There are general ease for movement guides that
apply to a dress. These are:
bust... 3 to 4 inches (7.510 cm), if garment
has sleeves; 2 to 3 inches (57.5 cm), if garment
is sleeveless
waist... 0 to 1 inch (02.5 cm); Tits body
smoothly
hips ... 2 to 3 inches (57.5 cm)
sleeve ... 2 to 3 inches (57.5 cm), at upper arm
muscle

Darts, Seamline and Grainline Placement
Fit of clothing is influenced by the structural
lines of the body. Darts, certain seamlines, and
grainline placement are important guides in judg-
ing fit.
A look at the different parts of a garment re-
veals these fitting str.ndards.
Neckline
A jewel neckline is positioned at the base of
the neck and encircles the body smoothly
without gapping or appearing too snug. Lower
necklines lay against the body and remain
near the body when movement takes place.

Shoulder Seams
The standard position for the shoulder s?jam is
directly on top of the shoulder in line with the
center of the e^r.
Sleeves
The armhole seam follows the natural curve
of the body, where the arm joins the body,
and lays on top of the end of the shoulder
socket bone. Misplacement of this seam is
one cause of discomfort, making the sleeve
feel too tight. Back bodice width, and/or
shoulder seam length may need to be increased
or decreased to put the seam in its correct
position.
Another cause of discomfort U incorrect depth
of the armhole seam. For a standard set-in
sleeve, the position is 1 to IVi inches (2.53.8
cm) below the armpit. Greater depth restricts
movement of the arm.
The sleeve hang is smooth with no wrinkles
or pulls when the arm is by the side. In order
for this to be accomplished, the crosswise
grain must be parallel to the floor.
On a sleeve with elbow darts or fullness, the
ease is directed toward the elbow when the
arm is bent in a 45 degree angle. A full-length
sleeve is most flattering when it barely covers
the prominent wristbone.
Sleeveless Armholes
Sleeveless armholes must neither bind nor gap,
exposing the inner garment. The underarm
seam position is Vz inch (1.2 cm) below the arm-
pit.


Darts
The bodice front darts point toward the bust.
They usually end V2 to 1 inch (1.22.5 cm)
from the bust point. Exceptions are (1) tightly
fitted clothing, especially evenmg wear where
the darts may end at the bust point; and (2)
style trends that make it fashionable to have
closely fitted bodices on daytime dresses.
Other fitting darts should be directed toward
and stop short of the fullest part of the body.
For low bust, midriff bulge, or prominent ab-
domen, either dart tucks or ease at the waist-
line are more figure flattering than fitted
darts.
The width of the base of a dart needs to be
considered since darts are designed to release
fabric to cover body curves. If a person has
a large bust, the base of the dart needs to be
wider'to release enough fabric for a smooth
fit. Conversely, the le.ss prominent the curved
area, the narrower the base of the dart should
be. A fhit buttocks requires small darts;
otherwise, ripples develop at the point of the
darts.

Waistline
The waistline falls at the natural waist and
fits the body .snugly enough to stay in place
but not liKbl eiiou^h to l)iiid or wrinkle.
Side ScimiK
Side scams hang perfectly straight from arm-
hole to waistline to hemline. The seams,
therefore, arc perpendicular to the floor,
swiiiKJug neither forward nor backward.
The skirt has a balanced hang. This means
that at the hemline, the skirt hangs the same
{listanre from both sides of the legs.

Hem
The hem is straight and even (parallel to the
floor).

Fabric grainline warrants additional attention.
For a garment to fit correctly, both the lengthwise
and crosswise grainlines of woven fabrics and the
wales and courses of knit fabrics should be in cor-
rect relationship to the structural lines of the
body. If this fabric-body relationship is not main-
tained, wrinkles may develop and clothing may
hang unevenly. This fabric-body relationship is:
the lengthwise t^rain of wovens and the wales of
knits run up and down the body and are perpen-
dicular to the floor at certain points on the body;
the ci-osswise grain of wovens and the courses of
knits run around the body and are parallel to the
floor at certain points on the body. (Figure 1).
Sometimes fabric is cut on the bias for decorative
reasons or for a special kind of fit. In this case,
the true bias of the fabric should run around the
body parallel to the floor. The location of the
grainlines is discussed further under the section
"Marking the Pattern."
There are fabrics that have grainlines perma-
nently set off-grain. Consumers must beware of
buying off-grain fabric. If the fabric is more than
one-half inch off-grain, the finished garment will
not look right to the eye even though fit may not
be affected. Stripes, plaids, motifs and other de-
signs on off-grain fabrics are difficult, if not im-
possible, to match.
MAKING A DRESS
FOR FITTING

Xearly eveiyone must change a pattern in
order to obtain a custom fit. One way of learning
what alteration.s are necessary is to fit a dress
that is basic in design.

Selecting the Pattern
Patterns are cla.ssified according to figure type
and size, both of which arc important to achieving
good fit. The size of the bra or ready-to-wear dress
is not necessarily an indication of the best pattern
size or type.
2


high bust^^
bust ->
waist

back waist
Icnath
Cn.Scm)
C22.5cm)
un
First, take the body measurements. When tak-
ing body measurements:
wear inner garments.
tie a string around waist to locate the nat-
ural position.
use a plastic-coated tape measure for greater
accuracy.
hold the tape snug but not tight.
hold the tape parallel or perpendicular to
the floor.
The neces.sary measurements are: (Figure 2)
High Bust. Measure across the back, under
the arms, and above the bust.
Bust. Measure across the back, under the
arms, and acro.ss the bust point,
Waist, Measure around the body at position
of the string,
Hips, Measure seven inches to nine inches
down from waist at side of body, then
around hips.
Back Waist Length. Measure from promi-
nent bone at base of neck to natural
waistline,
Height. Take total hoigiit mca.Hurcment,
without Hhocs.

Second, decide on the figure lypi; clnHsificntion.
In order to accompHHh this, compare the bnck
waint Icngtli and h('ight mcaHuriMnenls with the
charts in the pattern book, and study the written
description of each figure type. Select the type
that most closely represents your figure.

Third, decide on the correct size pattern within
the figure type chosen. When selecting dress, coat,
suit and blouse patterns, buy by the bust measure-
ment. The high bust measurement is used when it is
four (10 cm) or more inches smaller than the bust
measurement. The high bust measurement gives a
better fit through the chest, neckline, and armholes.
These areas are usually more difficult to alter than
the bustline. Frequently people fall between two
sizes. When this happens, choose the smaller of the
two sizes for a thin, small-boned type; choose the
larger size for a large-boned person.

The hip measurement is used when buying pant
and skirt patterns. An exception is a very full
skirt, which is bought by the waist measurement.

Fourth, select a basic dress pattern. Both waist-
line and shift style patterns are acceptable.
(Figure 3). Choose the shift when a fitted waist-
line is never worn. It is preferable, however, to fit
the waistline style because it contains all the fit-
ting points (jewel neckline, waistline seam, slim
skirt, long fitted set-in sleeves, bodice darts, skirt
darts).
Pattern companies have different policies with
regard to ease even though the same basic body
measurements are used. This ease variation is one
reason for the differences in fit of patterns produced
by the various companies. Select the basic fitting
pattern from the company most frequently used.
i^i'^ 3
3


Marking the Pattern
The following lines are marked on the pattern.
It is at these positions that the grainline of the
fabric should fall parallel or perpendicular to the
floor when the garment is on the body.
Figure *f Figwre 5
Bodice Front (Figure 4)
4 inches (10 cm) down from neckline at center
front and perpendicular to lengthwise
grainline.
across point of bust and perpendicular to
lengthwise grainline.
down center front and parallel to lengthwise
grainline.
Bodice Back < Figure 5)
4 inches (10 cm) down from neckline at center
back and perpendicular to lengthwise
grainline.
base of armhole and perpendicular to
lengthwise grtiinline.
down center back and parallel to lengthwise
grainline.
Sleeve (Figure 6)
base of sleeve cap perpendicular to length-
wise grainline,
down center of sleeve parallel to lengthwise
grainline.
1"
T
Figwe 7
Ftt/rc 8
Skirt (Figure 7)
7 mches or 9 inches (17.5-22.5 cm) below
waist on skirt front and back, perpendicular
to lengthwise grainline.
down center back and center front and
parallel to lengthwise grainline.
Shift (Figure 8)
do all markings as previously stated plus
waistline of shift marked as indicated on
pattern.

Selecting the Fabric
-jji
Fiqwr* Preparing the Fabric
1. Straighten ends of fabric by pulling a thread
and cutting. (Figures 9 and 10).
2. Fold fabric lengthwise and check to see if
crosswise and lengthwise grainlines are per-
pendicular to each other,
3. Preshrink fabric by washing. Dry to damp
stage if straightening of grainline is needed.
Fabric is easier to straighten when damp.
4. Straighten fabric by pulling on the bias in
the direction opposite the higher of the grain
edges. (Figure 11), Some fabrics cannot be
straightened because of the finish.
Fi
gyre
FigLfir* 11
4


Cutting Out the Dress
shoulder seams
bodice side seams
skirt side seams
This addition gives 1 inch (2.5 cm) seam
allowances where some alterations may be made.
It is important that the grainline markings on
the pattern correspond with the grainline of the
fabric so that correct alterations can be made.
To insure accurate cutting, hold the fabric as
close to the table as possible. Use sharp shears.

Marking the Dress
The crosswise and lengthwise grainline markings
are transferred from the pattern to the right side
of the fabric. This may be done with:
tracing wheel and carbon paper
pen or pencil
machine basting in contrasting color of
thread
Mark accurately on the right side of the fabric
all seamlines and notches with tracing wheel and
carbon paper.
Note: Even when using gingham check, marking
the grain lines give you a line to "zero" in on.

Assembling the Dress
Staystitch neckline on 6/8 inch (1.5 cm) seamline.
Staystitch other curved areas, if desired. The dress
is then machine basted (longest stitch length)
together using a contrasting color of thread, leaving
zipper section open in center front or back. Some
people prefer to assemble the total garment before
beginning the fitting process; others prefer to leave
the dress unattached at the waistline.
Press ell seams and darts,

FITTING THE DRESS

Analyzing Fit
Analyzing fit in a continuous process. Thi.s an-
ulyzation help.s one think through the fitting
problems so that correct altcration.s can be made.
There are three stops in analyzing fit:
FirstStudy carefully the overall fit. Check to
determine if:
The eu.Hc in width and length is correct.
Bodice width and length and skirt width
alterations, if needed, arc made first ho that
the garment is not excessively large or small.
Only after these alterations are made can
other fitting problems be identified,
The darts are directed toward the fullest
part of the body curve, have a desirable
width at the base, and are the correct
length.
The grainlines are running parallel or per-
pendicular to the floor.
The seamline placement is correct.
The direction of wrinkles helps in analyzing the
fit. Crosswise pulls indicate that the garment is
too tight. Extra width is needed. Crosswise folds
of fabric indicate that the garment is too long.
Length needs to be reduced. Lengthwise folds of
fabric indicate that the garment is too wide. Width
needs to be reduced, niagonal wrinkles mean that
the grainline is being pulled from the correct posi-
tion. Wrinkles point to the problem. The grainline
must be restored to proper position. When a dart
base is too deep, extra fabric will be present at
the point.

SecondDetermine what figure irregularities
are causing the garment to fit incorrectly. Ex-
amples are:
sloping shoulders
full bust
small waist
square shoulders
rounded back
one high hip
By determining figure irregularities it is then
easier to make the necessary alterations.

ThirdAt each problem area, decide what alter-
ation is needed by lifting or pulling the fabric
into position until smoothness of fit results and
undesirable wrinkles are removed without creat-
ing new ones.


Making the Alterations
Pin in all alterations while the drca.s is on the
figure. The illustrations on pages 9 to 43 show
the figure problems and how to do the alterations
in fabric and on ])attei'ii. The folhwinij order of
imikiHit tilterations is rvvommonU'd: toujth und
width; bodice buck uiid front; slerrcs; skirt.
Alt(Ming, simply stated, is a process of adding
and subtracting fabri<- wliere needed. There are
two methods of alteringinternal and external.
When using the internal method, fabric is added
by slashing and spreading within the garment
t'dges; fabric is subtracted by slashing and lapping
within the garment edges, Vhv ext(Miial nielhod is
the adding of fuiiric to or subtracting of fabric
S


from the seamlines by taking up or letting out the
seams. The external method is desirable only when
small increases or decreases are made.
After pinning in the alterations, remove the
dress and sew in the changes. Try the dress on
again to check alterations and make refinements,
if necessary,

TRANSFERRING THE
ALTERATIONS TO
THE PATTERN

After fitting is completed, alterations are trans-
ferred to the basic pattern. This serves as a record
and guide for altering all other patterns.

Equipment for Altering Patterns
The following equipment is needed when alter-
ing patterns:
scissors
flexible ruler
yardstick
dull pencil and/or ball-point pen
tissue paper
tape (invisible or transparent)
pins

Methods for Altering Patterns
The two methods of altering used in this publi-
cation are the internal and external methods.
A. Internal Method
1. Slash and Spread (Figure 12)The pat-
tern size is increased by cutting within
the pattern. If fearful of making an error,
trace the original pattern on firm brown
or white paper before altering the paper
pattern, making sure all tracings are ac-
curate.
To do this:
draw line where fullness is needed and
slash.
cut strip of tissue paper the length of
the slash,
tape one cut edge of pattern to tissue
paper,
measure from the taped edge the
amount to be added and mark.
bring the free cut edge to this marking.
smooth pattern until it lies flat,
tape.
Helpful Hint; To realign pattern pieces that are
cut completely apart and spread equally, draw
short lines across the slash line before cutting.
2. Slash and Lap (Figure 13 The pattern
size is decreased by cutting within the
pattern edges.
To do this:
mark the line for slash.
measure from this line the amount of
lap and mark,
cut on slash line.
lap cut edge to marked point.
smooth the pattern until it lies flat.
tape.

B. External Method
This method is desirable when a small in-
crease or decrease is needed.
FiQurc
14
,gu
re.
a
Fiqure 13
1. Add On (Figure 14) The pattern size
is increased on the pattern edges and the
interior is left undisturbed.
To do this:
tape a strip of tissue paper down the
side of the pattern piece needing addi-
tional fullness.
measure from cutting Une the amount
needed and mark at approximately 1
inch (2.5 cm) intervals down the pattern
edge.
trim on marked Une.


2. Trim-Away (Figure 15) The pattern
size is decreased on the pattern edges
and the interior is left undisturbed.
To do this:
measure from cutting line the amount
to be removed.
connect marks to make a solid line.
trim on marked line.

Guidelines for Altering the Pattern
Many people consider altering the pattern diffi-
cult. This results from a lack of understanding
the basic guidelines which are applicable to any
individual figure problem and pattern design, and
to both methods of altering.
Mastery of these rules on simple patterns is
necessary before undertaking alterations on more
complicated designs.
Figure lb

A, Alterations on one pattern piece may make
alterations on adjoining pieces necessary. Do
alterations on the major piece first; then
make changes on adjoining pieces that are
affected. (Figure 16).

B, Slashing lines for internal alterations are
usually drawn parallel or perpendicular to
the lengthwise grainline. Slashing lines are
usually located between side seam and darts
to preserve grainline and fashion design,
(Figure 17a). Alteration lines may go
through darts when body bulges require a
larger or smaller dart, (Fig\nv 17b).
u 1 Jl 1 ^\ 1*
D I
"fc.
C. When making width alterations, consider the
total amount to be added on or taken away
from the pattern. Most patterns are made on
the half and will be cut twice. For example, to
increase the skirt back hipline Vi inch (1.2
cm), add Yt inch (6.0 mm) to the pattern.
Width alterations are never made down
center front and center back of pattern.

D. Lines that are changed or distorted must be
returned to their original character (trued).
When a straight line is distorted, redraw by
placing a ruler at points A and B. (Figure
18a). When curved lines are distorted, re-
draw by dividing the difference as illustrated
by the broken lines points C and D.
(Figure 18b).
When redrawing lines that involve a dart,
bring stitching lines together. Turn dart as
it will be pressed and cut along cutting line.
This establishes shape of dart base,
E. When adding or taking away from edges of
a pattern, the new lines must have the same
character as the original lines. (Figure 19).
Figure n
riaurt n


incorrect
Shao\Q0r
dot
Figure ZO

F. On shaped patterns pieces, alterations are
done internally to prevent changing the size
or shape of the pattern. (Figure 20), Shor-
tening and lengthening patterns is done on
the lower edges only when the edge is
.straight.

G, When altering portions of the pattern that
involve curved areas (example: neckline, arm-
hole, waistline), trace pattern before cutting.
The traced pattern is then used to re-estab-
lish the line affected.

H, Pattern grainlines must be straight when
alterations are completed. If grainlines are
distorted, they must be returned to their
original position. The methods used in this
publication do not distort grainlines,

I. After completing' an alteration, check care-
fully to see if the width or length is added
or removed where needed.

J, The most difficult areas on any pattern to
alter and preserve as originally designed are
the chest, neckline and armhole. Unless ab-
solutely necessary, avoid making alterations
in these areas.

K, Pattern pieces should be perfectly flat when
alterations are completed.
Fi Figure 22
Shoulder Point is where the shoulder seamline
and armhole seamline meet.
Base of Dart is the wide end of dart at the
seamline.

Sleeve (Figure 22)
Sleeve Cap is the section above the capline that
is eased into the bodice armhole.
Shoulder Dot is the mark at the top of the
sleeve cap that matches the shoulder seam
when setting in the sleeve.

Lengthwise Grainline
Lengthwise Grainline on the pattern indicates
the direction that a pattern piece should be
placed on fabric. The lengthwise grainline
should run parallel to the selvage of the
fabric.
DEFINITIONS

Bodice (Figure 21)
Bust Point is where the two lines intersect that
extend through the center of the bust and
waist darts. The point of intersection indicates
the fullest part of the bust.
Bust Dart is the underarm dart and points to-
ward the bust.
Waist Dart starts at the front bodice waistline
and points toward the bust.
USING ALTERATIONS ON

FASHION PATTERNS
After completing the alterations on the basic
dress and transferring them to the pattern, the
question arises of how to use these alterations on
fashion patterns. Here are some points to keep in
mind.
Alterations made on the basic pattern can
be transferred to fashion patterns of the
same company.
If a different brand of pattern is selected,


slightly different alterations may be neces-
sary. This must be learned through ex-
perience.
Alterations cannot be transferred from one
size to another size pattern or from one
figure type to another figure type pattern.
Alterations made on the basic pattern may
need refinement. For example: it may be
necessary to add or take away an additional
one-eighth inch. After making three dresses,
the refinement adjustments should be ac-
curate.
When a person changes size either by gain-
ing, losing or redistributing weight, another
basic dress may need to be fitted.
When transferring alterations from the basic
pattern to fashion patterns, do the same
alterations as done on the basic pattern,
adding or taking away the same amount.
Caution: Do not measure a fashion pattern
by the basic pattern. Style fullness has been
added to the fashion pattern.
To preserve the basic pattern for later ref-
erence, fusible interfacing may be pressed
onto the back,
Alterations may be combined.

ALTERATIONS

Studying the sections on "Transferring Altera-
tions to Pattern" and "Definitions" will be helpful
before beginning alterations.
BODICE FRONT ALTERATIONS
Problem: Small Bust #1 (Figure 23)

Garment on Lengthwise folds of fabric develop
Body: due to excess width across bust-
line.

Correction on Pin out excess fabric at bust point.
Garment: tapering to nothing at waistline
and shoulder seams.

Correction on Draw line through center of waist
Pattern: dart to bust point and to, but not
through, shoulder seam.

Draw line through center of bust
dart to, but not through, bust
point.

Cut on marked lines.

On lengthwise slash lap needed
amount at bust point. Continue
same amount of lap to waistline.
This reduces the size of both darts.
Tape.

Redraw darts using original base
lines and point. (Figure 23a).
True lines
A-Line Draw line through center of angled
Pattern: dart to bust point and to, but not
through, shoulder seam.
Note: Fabric strips may be fusible
interfacing.
f^i^ure 23


Princess
Pattern:
Kimono
Pattern;
Draw line through center of bust
dart to, but not through, bust
point.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap needed amount at bust point.
This reduces the size of both darts.
Tape.

Redraw darts using original base
lines and point. (Figure 23b).

On side front redraw pattern edge
to remove needed amount.

Trim pattern. (Figure 23c).

Draw line parallel to lengthwise
grainline from waistline through
bust area to, but not through,
shoulder seam.

Draw line through center of bust
dart to, but not through, first line.

Cut on marked lines.

On lengthwise slash lap needed
amount at bust area. Continue
same amount of lap to waistline.
This reduces size of both darts.
Tape.

Redraw dart using original base
lines and point, (Figure 23d).
If additional or original width is
needed through the waist, add at
side seam.

Raglan On bodice front draw line from
Pattern: sleeve seam parallel to lengthwise
grainline through bust area to, but
not through, waistline.

On bodice front draw line through
center of bust dart to, but not
through, first Hne,

Cut on marked lines.

On lengthwise slash lap needed
amount at bust area. Continue
same amount of lap at pattern
edge, at a and b.

On sleeve front at same point as
vertical slash on bodice front, draw
line to, but not through, shoulder
dart.

Cut on marked line.

Lap c and d the same amount as a
and b. Tape.

Redraw dart using original base
lines and point.

True lines. (Figure 23e).
Problem: Small Bust #2 (Figure 24)

Garment on Lengthwise and crosswise folds of
Body: fabric develop due to excess width
and length.
Correction on
Garment:
Correction on
Pattern:
Pin out excess fabric at bust point
in length and width tapering to
nothing at seamlines.

Draw line through center of waist
dart to, but not through, shoulder
seam.
10


Draw line through center of bust
dart to bust point. Continue line
perpendicular to lengthwise grain-
line to pattern edge.

Number pattern sections as shown.
Cut on marked lines.

Lap sections 1 and 2 at bust point
amount of width to be removed.
Tape.

Lap sections 2 and 3 amount of
length to be removed. Keep length-
wise grainline straight. Tape.
Lap section 4 at point where 2 and 3
intersect needed amoimt at bust
point in both length and width. Keep
cut edges parallel to 1 and 3.
Overlap dart bases equal amount.
This reduces the size of both darts.
Tape.

Redraw darts using original base
lines and points.

True lines.
Problem: Large Bust #1 (Figure 25)

Garment on Garment is tight across bustline.
Body: Wrinkles develop between bust
points.
Correction on Slash through waistline darts to
Garment: shoulder seams. Spread needed
amount. Insert fabric strips. Pin.

Correction on Method ADraw line through cen-
Pattern: ter of waist dart to, but not
through, shoulder seam.

Draw line through center of bust
dart to, but not through, bust
point.

Cut on marked lines.

On lengthwise slash spread needed
amount at bust point. Continue
same amount of spread to waist-
line. This increases the size of
both darts.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Redraw darts using original base
lines and points.

True lines and base of darts. (Figure
25a).

Method BCut out section as il-
lustrated.

Spread needed amount at bust area.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 25b).
Figure 25.
11


Problem: Large Bust #2 (Figure 26)

Garment on Bust grainline rides up at center
Body: front. Diagonal and crosswise
wrinkles develop. Bodice front is
too .short and tight.
Correction on
Garment:
Correction on
Pattern:
Slash through waistline darts to
shoulder seams. Slash through bust
darts and across front of garment.
Spread needed amount. Insert fab-
ric strips. Pin.
Draw line through center of waist
dart to, but not through, shoulder
seam.

Draw line thiough center of bust
dart to bust point. Continue line
perpendicular to lengthwise grain-
line through pattern edge.

Number pattern sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread sections 1 and 2 at bust
point needed amount of width.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Drop section 3 needed amount and
line up with 2. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight.
Insert tissue pwper. Tape.
Spread section 4 needed amount at
bust point in both length and width.
Keep cut edges parallel to 1 and 3,
Spread base of darts equal amount.
Insert tissue paper. Tape,

Redraw darts using original base
lines and points.

True lines and darts. (Figure 26a).

A-Line Draw line through center of angled
Pattern: dart to bust point and to, but not
through, shoulder seam.

Draw line through center of bust
dart to bust point. Continue line
perpendicular to lengthwise grain-
line through pattern edge.

Cut on marked linos.

Number pattern sections as shown.

Spread sections 1 and 2 at bust
point needed amount of width.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.
Spread sections 2 and 3 needed
amount of length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Spread section 4 at bust point the
needed amount in both length and
width. Keep cut edges parallel to 1
and 3. This enlarges the size of
both darts.

Insert tissue paper. Tape,

Redraw darts using original base
lines and points.

True lines. (Figure 26b).
12


Princess Draw lines perpendicular to the
Pattern: lengthwise grainline through the
bust area of the side front and
center front pattern pieces.
Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount of length.
Keep lengthwise grainline straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

At side seam draw dart as shown,
or ease in extra length at side seam
when the garment is constructed.

Tape tissue to shaped seam on
side front from waistline to shoul-
der seam.

At bust point redraw pattern edge
to add needed amount of width.
Taper to nothing at shoulder seam
and waistline. Trim tissue.

True lines. (Figure 26c).

Raglan On bodice front draw line through
Pattern: center of bust dart to bust area.
Continue line pe^iendicular to
lengthwi.se grainline through pat-
tern edge.

On bodice front draw line from
sleeve seam parallel to lengthwise
grainline through bust area to, but
not through, waistline.
Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread sections 3 and 4 at bust
point needed amount of width.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Spread sections 2 and 3 at bust
area needed amount of length. Keep
lengthwise grainline straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape,

Spread section 1 at bust point the
needed amount in both length and
width. This enlarges the size of
both darts.

Insert tissue paper. Tape,

On sleeve front at same point as
vertical slash on bodice front, draw
line to, but not through, shoulder
dart.

Cut on marked line.
Spread c and d the same amount as
a and b.
Insert tissue {)aper. Tape.

Redraw dart using original base
.lines and point.

True lines, (Figure 26d),
Kimono Draw line through center of bust
TatteiTi: dait to bust ])oint. C'ontinue line
perpendicular to lengthwise grain-
line through iiattern edge.

Draw line parallel to lengthwise
grainline from waistline through
bust area to, but not through,
shoulder .scam.

Number pattern sections as .shown.
('ut on marked lines.

Si)read sections 1 and 2 at bust
poitit needed amount of width.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.
Spread seftions 'Z and 3 needeil
amount of length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.
13


Spread section 4 the needed
amount at bust point in both length
and width. Keep edges parallel to
1 and 3, This enlarges the size of
dart.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Redraw dart using original base
lines and point.

True lines. (Figure 26e).

If extra width is not needed
through waist trim off at side
seam or ease in fullness during the
construction of the garment.

Problem: Low Bust (Figure 27)

Garmenf on Bustline dart lies above the bust.
Body: Fabric fullness is released above
bust point.

Correction on Mark bust point with a pin. Place
Garment: pins in line with original dart to
indicate the amount dart needs to
be lowered.

Correction on Method ATrace bust dart on tis-
Pattern: sue paper including center line,
dots and base.

Cut out traced dart.

On pattern draw a line parallel to
dart center line indicating the
amount dart needs to be lowered.
Place center line of traced dart on
top of this line. Make sure that
dart length remains the same.
Tape,

Lower point of waist dart, if
needed, (Figure 27a).
Figwre 27
14
Method BDraw a box around the
dart.

Cut out box and move it down the
amount dart needs to be lowered.
Keep cut edges parallel. Tape.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Lower point of waist dart, if
needed. (Figure 27b),

Princess Trace armhole including a small
Pattern: amount of shoulder and underarm
cutting lines.

On side front at a point above
notch in armhole, draw a line per-
pendicular to lengthwise grainline.
Extend this line across center front
pattern piece.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread evenly the amount dart
needs to be lowered. Make sure
lengthwise grainline is straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Remove added length at place in-
dicated on pattern.

Tape tracing of original armhole
in place. Line up at shoulder and
underarm cutting lines.

Cut armhole by traced pattern.
True lines. (Figure 27c).


_lJ\
fiaurt 2%.
Problem: High Bust (Figure 28)

Garment on Bustline dart lies below the bust.
Body: Fabric fullness is released below
bust point.

Correction on Mark bust point with a pin. Place
Garment: pins in line with original dart to
indicate the amount dart needs to
be raised.

Correction on Method ATrace bust dart on tis-
Pattern: sue paper including center line,
dots, and base.

Cut out traced dart.

On pattern draw a line parallel to
dart center line indicating the
am(mnt dart needs to be raised.

Place center line of traced dart on
top of this line. Make sure that
dart length remains the same.
Tape.

Rai.se point of waist dart, if needed.
(Figure 2Bii).

Method BDraw a l)ox around the
dart.

('Ut out Ik)x and move it up the
amount dart needs to be raised.
Keep cut edges parallel. Tape.

Insert ti.HSUO ))ai>er, Tai)e.
Princess
Pattern:
Raise point of waist dart, if needed.
(Figure 28b),

Trace armhole including a small
amount of shoulder and underarm
cutting lines.

On side front at a jwint alcove
notch in iirmhole, draw a line i)cr-
l>endicular to lengthwise grainline.
Extend this line across center front
l)atteni piece.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap evenly the amount dart needs
to be rai.sed. Make sure lengthwise
gruirdine is straight. Tape.

Add riee cated on pattern.

T|)C tracing of original armhole in
place. Line up at shoulder and un-
dernrm cutting lines.

('ut iirnihole by traced pattern.
True lines, (Figure 2Hc),
15


Problem: Designing A French Dart (Figure 29)

The French Dart is flattering for
individuals with a large bust but
may be worn by all figure types.

Garment on The French Dart is formed by corn-
Body: bining bust and waist darts into
one dart that angles from the side
seam.

Correction on Draw lines from center of bust and
Pattern: waist darts until they intersect at
bust point. (Figure 29a).

Draw line from side seam, about
one inch above waist, to bust point.

Cut on all three marked lines to,
but not through, the bust point,
leaving all pieces connected.

Remove waist and bust darts by
matching stitching lines at base of
darts. Tape. (Figure 29b).

Insert tissue paper. Tape,

Mark point of new dart about one
inch from bust point in center of
spread.

Draw new dart as shown. (Figure
29c).

Bring stitching lines of new dart
together. Turn dart as it will be
pressed. Trim off excess tissue
paper along cutting lines. This es-
tablishes the shape of the dart
bass. (Figure 29d).
Picture 50
Problem; Armhole Pouch (Figure 30)

Garment on A fold of fabric falls from armhole
Body: toward bustline. This is more com-
monly found on the full-busted
figure than others.
Correction on Pin out fold.
Garment:
Correction on Draw a line diagonally from arm-
Pattern: hole to bust point at same position
as fold on garment.
Draw another line through bust
dart.

Cut on marked line to, but not
through, intersecting point.

At armhole lap needed amount.
Tape.

Place tissue paper under spread.
Tape.
True lines.

If wider base dart is not needed
remove addition at waist.
If necessary make alteration in
sleeve cap.

Note: If a Uurge amount, you may
want to slash waistline darts, too.
16


Fiaure. 32
Problem: Fat Pocket (Figure 31)
Garment on Garment pulls at aiTnhole due to
Body: excess flesh near arm socket. This
problem may be found on both
bodice front and back.

Correction on Slash from bust point to armhole
Garment: seam and to end of bust dart.
Spread needed amount. Insert
fabric strip. Pin.

Correction on Draw a line through the center of
Pattern: th(! bust dart to bust point, (con-
tinue line to, but not through, anti-
hole seam at same position as
spread on garment.

Cut on marked lines.
Spread needed amount.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.
Redraw dart using original base
lines and point.
True lines.
Problem: Hollow Chest (Figure 32)

Garment on Folds of fabric drape across chest.
Body:

Correction on Acro.ss the chest pin a tuck remov-
Garment: ing excess fabric length. Taper to
nothing at armholes.

Correction on From shouhh'r draw line parallel
Pattern: lo lengthwise grainline, ending at
same ixisition as tuck on garment.
('ontinue line across pattern
through center front, perpendicidar
to lengthwise graitdine.

NumlKir sections as sfiown.

Cut on nuu'ked lines.

Remove excess length by lai)j)ing
section 1 over 2. Keep leiiglhwi.Hc
grainline straight.

True lines, (Figure 32a).

Princess Draw lijie i)erpeiuli('ular to length-
Patt section where alteration is needed.

('ut on marked liiu>.
17


Lap needed amount. Keep grainline
straight. Tape.
True lines.
Tape tissue paper to shoulder seam
of center front pattern piece.
Pin center front pattern piece to
side front.
True shoulder seam. (Figure 32b),

Raglan Draw line from sleeve seam to
Pattern: same place as tuck on garment.
Make line parallel to lengthwise
grainline. Continue line across pat-
tern through center front, perpen-
dicular to lengthwise grainline.
Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Remove excess length by lapping
section 1 over 2. Tape.

True lines.
This alteration reduces ease in
bodice sleeve seam. (Figure 32c).
Problem: Prominent Chest Bone (Pigeon Chest)
(Figure 33)

Garment on Chest bone protrudes causing
Body: wrinkles across chest. Armhole is
distorted.

18
Correction on Slash from armhole across to prom-
Garment: inent chest bone. Continue slash to
shoulder seajn. Spread needed
amount. Insert fabric strips. Pin.
Correction on Trace armhole and shoulder seam
Pattern: including a small portion of neck-
line and underarm cutting lines.

Draw line from armhole to area of
prominent chest bone. Continue
line to, but not through, shoulder
seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Tape tracing of original armhole
and shoulder seam in place. Line
up neckline and underarm cutting
lines.

Trim off excess tissue paper, (Fig-
ure 33a).
Raglan On bodice front draw line from
Pattern: sleeve seam to area of prominent
chest bone. Continue line across to
underarm seam, perpendicular to
grainline.
Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount of width.
Keep cut edges parallel.
Insert tissue paper. Tape,
True lines.

On sleeve front at same position
as vertical slash on bodice front,
draw line to, but not through,
shoulder dart.

Cut on marked line.

Spread c and d the same amount as
a and b.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.
True lines, (Figure 33b).


Fitjure 3H
Problem: Shortwaisted in Center Front
(Figure 34)

Garment on Crosswise folds develop above the
Body: waistline in center front.

Correction on Pin a tuck above waistline tapering
Garment: to nothing at side seams.

Correction on Between dart and side seam, draw
Pattern: line parallel to lengthwise grain-
line the same length as waist
dart. Continue line across pattern
through center front.

Number sections as shown.
Cut on marked lines.
Remove excess length by lapping
.section 1 over 2. Keep length wise
grainline straight Tape.
True lines.
Figure 55

Problem: Midriff Bulge (Figure 35)

Garment on (JaiTnent fits tight across rib cage.
Body: Wrinkles develop.

Correction on Slash from waistline to armhole
Garment; seam. Insert fabric strips. Pin.

Correction on If a small amount of width is
Pattern: needed, release darts and make
dart tucks or gathers.

If a greater amount of width is
needed, draw a line fi-om waistline
to, but not Ihi'ough, armhole seam.

(^ut on marked line.

Sproatl needed amount

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines and darts.

If extra width la not needed through
waist, ease In fullness between dart
and side seam during construction
of the garment.

Note: This alteration may also affoct
the skirt.


Problem: Armhole Too Small (Figure 36)

Garment 6n Armhole binds. Wrinkles radiate
Body: from underarm. Seam is too close
to armpit.

Correction on Cut out underann, from notch to
Garment: notch, the needed amount.

Correction on At side seam lower armhole the
Pattern: needed amount. Taper to nothing
at notches.

Trim excess pattern.

Make identical alteration on bodice
back and on sleeve front and back
as on bodice front.
F.jur* 37
Correction on To indicate amount armhole needs
Garment: to be raised, add fabric. Pin.

Correction on Tape tissue paper to armhole
Pattern: seam.

At side seam raise armhole the
needed amount. Taper to nothing
at notches.

Trim excess tissue paper.

Make identical alteration on bod-
ice back and on sleeve front and
back as on bodice front.

Problem: Gapping Neckline (Figure 38)

Garment on Fabric stands away from neck.
Body:

Correction on On front of garment at neckline,
Garment: pin out several minute tucks.

Correction on Method A (Use if no more than Vi
Pattern: inch (1.2 cm) needs to be removed
from bodice neckline.) Take
several very small tucks around
neck as on the dress. (Figure 38a).
Make identical alteration on neck-
line facing.
Problem: Armhole Too Large (Figure 37)

Garment on Armhole too low.
Body:
Method BDraw a line perpendi-
cular to lengthwise grainline from
neckline to, but not through, arm-
hole seam.

Cut on marked line.
Lap amount of both sides of tuck.
Tape.
True lines. (Figure 38b).

Make identical correction on neck-
line facing.

Note: The above alterations may
be used on any style neckline.

Collar and neckline facings will also
need to be altered.
20


Problem: Neckline Too Low (Figure 39)

Garment on Neckline falls below the base of
Body: the neck.

Correction on Add fabric to indicate the amount
Garment: neckline needs to be raised.

Correction on Tape tissue paper to pattern.
Pattern:

Redraw neckline raising it needed
amount.
Trim excess tissue paper.

Make identical correction on neck-
line facing.
Problem: Neckline Too High (Figure 40)
Garment on Neckline binds. Wrinkles radiate
Body: from shoulder seam.

Correction on Trim needed amount until seamline
Garment: falls at base of neck.

Correction on Trim needed amount from neckline.
Pattern:
Make Identical correction on neck-
line facing.
BODICE BACK ALTERATIONS

Problem: Broad Back (Figure 41)

Garment on Horizontal pulls are across upper
Body: back.

Correction on Slash from shoulder seam to waist-
Garment: line seam. Spread needed amount.
Insert fabric strips. Pin,

Correction on Method AFrom underarm seam
Pattern: draw line perpendicular to length-
wise grainline ending at same posi-
tion as slash on garment.

Draw a second line between the
shoulder dart and armhole to in-
tersect with first line. Draw this
line to, but not through, shoulder
seam.

Cut on marked lines.
Spread needed amount.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.
True lines.

Return side seam to original length
by removing at waist. (Figure
41a).

Method BOn underarm seam ap-
proximately one inch below arm-
hole, slash to shoulder point fol-
lowing curve of armhole.
Spread needed amount,

In.sert tissue paper. Tape.
True lines.

Return side seam to original
length by removing at winat, (Fig-
ure 41b).

Kimono From underarm seam draw line
Pattern: perpendicular to grainline ending
at same position as slash on gar-
ment. Continue line parallel to
grainline, through shoulder .seam.
Cut on miu*ked lines.
Spread needed amount of width.
Keep cut edges parallel.

Insert tissue pai)cr. Tape.
True lines, (Figure 41c).
21


Note: The extra width in shoulder
area may be incorporated in the
existing dart, used to make two
darts, or eased in during the con-
struction process.

Raglan From underarm seam of bodice
Pattern: back draw line perpendicular to
grainline ending at same position
as slash on garment. Continue line
parallel to grainline through sleeve
seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount of width.
Keep cut edges parallel.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines.
On sleeve back, at same position as
vertical slash on bodice back, draw
Hne to, but not through, shoulder
dart.

Cut on marked line.
Spread c and d the same amount
as a and b.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines, (Figure 41d).

Problem: Narrow Back (Figure 42)

Garment on Lengthwise folds fall in bodice
Body: back.

Correction on Pin tucks to remove excess full-
Garment: ness.

Correction on Method AFrom center of arm-
Pattern: hole draw line perpendicular to
lengthwise grainline ending at
same position as tuck on garment.

From center of underarm seam
draw line perpendicular to length-
wise grainline ending at same posi-
tion as tuck on garment.

Connect these lines with a line
parallel to lengthwise grainline.
22


Cut on marked lines.

Lap to remove excess width. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 42a).

Method BOn underarm seam ap-
proximately one inch (2.5 cm) below
armhole, slash to shoulder point
following curve of armhole.
Lap needed amount. Tape.

True lines.

Return side seam to original
length by adding at waist. (Figure
42b).

Kimono From underarm seam draw line
Pattern: perpendicular to grainline ending
at same position as tuck on gar-
ment. Continue line to, but not
through, shoulder seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap needed amount. Tape.
True lines. (Figure 42c).
Raglan From underarm seam of bodice
Pattern: back draw line perpendicular to
grainline ending at same position
as tuck on garment. Continue line
parallel to grainline and through
sleeve seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap needed amount of width. Keep
cut edges parallel. Tape.

True lines.

On sleeve back at same position as
vertical slash on bodice back, draw
line to, but not through, shoulder
dart.

Cut on marked line.

Lap c and d the same amount as
a and b. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 42d).
23


Cut on marked lines.

Remove excess length by lapping
section 1 over 2. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 43a).

Method BAt center back in same
position as tuck on garment, draw
line to, but not through, shoulder
point.

Cut on marked line.

Lap needed amount. Tape,

True lines. (Figure 43b),

On bodice back draw line parallel
to lengthwise grainline from sleeve
seam to same position as tuck on
garment. Continue line perpen-
dicular to lengthwise grainline
through center back.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Remove excess length by lapping
section 1 over 2.

True lines.

This alteration red-jces the amount
of ease in bodice sleeve seam.
Problem: Erect Back (Figure 43)

Garment on Fabric drapes across shoulder
Body; blades.

Correction on I'in tuck across back to remove ex-
Garment: cess fabric.
Raglan
Pattern:
Correction on
Pattern:
Method AAt center back in same
position as tuck on garment, draw
line perpendicular to lengthwise
grainline. Continue line parallel
to lengthwise grainline through
shoulder seam between dart and
armhole.


Problem; Round Back (Figure 44)

Garment on At upper back diagonal pulls de-
Body: velop and grainline rises at center
back. Bodice is too short at center
back.

Correction on Slash across back from armhole to
Garment: armhole. Spread needed amount.
Insert fabric strip. Pin.

Correction on Draw line pei-pendicular to length-
Pattern: wise grainline at same position as
slash on garment. Continue line
i^arallel to lengthwise grainline
through waist between dart and
side seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount of length.
Keep lengthwise grainline straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 44a).

Raglan On bodice back draw line perpen-
Pattern: dicular to grainline at same posi-
tion as slash on garment.

Cut on marked line.

Spread needed amount of length.
Keep lengthwise grainline straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Tl'ue lines.

On sleeve back at same position as
horizontal slash on bodice back
draw line to, but not through,
shoulder dart.

Spread c and d same amount as a
and b.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines, (Figure 44b).
Problem: Dowager's Hump (Figure 45)

Garment on Wrinkles radiate from hump at
Body: base of neck.

Correction on Method AAt neckline make two
Garment: slashes parallel to center back end-
ing just below protrusion. Spread
needed amount. Insert fabric
strips. Pin (Figure 45a),
Correction on At neckline draw line parallel io
Pattern: lengthwise grainline ending at
same position as slash on garment.
Continue line perpendicular to
lengthwise grainline through cen-
ter back.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount of width.
Keep cut edges parallel.
Insert tissue paper. Tape,
Diaw in dart as shown.

True lines. (Figure 45b),

Make identical correction to neck-
line facing.
Correction on
Garment:
Correction on
Pattern:
Method B (For A More Prominent
Dowager's Hump) At neckline
make two slashes parallel to center
back ending just below protrusion.
Spread needed amount. Insert fab-
ric strips. Pin. Slash across back
from armhole to armhole. Spread
needed amount. Insert fabric strips.
Pin, (Figure 45c).

Between neckline edge and shoul-
der dart draw line parallel to
lengthwise grainline ending at
same position as horizontal slash
on garment. Continue line perpen-
dicular to grainline and through
center back pattern edge.

From neckline draw line in same
position as vertical slash on gar-
ment ending at horizontal line.
25


Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread section 2 to give needed
length. Tape.

Spread section 1 to give needed
width and length. Keep cut edges
parallel.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Draw dart as shown.

True lines, (Figure 45d).

Make identical correction to neck-
line facing.
Problem: Prominent Shoulder Blades and Broad
Upper Back (Figure 46)

Garment on Wrinkles radiate from protruding
Body: shoulder blades.

Correction on From prominent point of protru-
Garment: sion, slash to shoulder point and to
waistline. Spread needed amount.
Insert fabric strips. Pin.

Correction on From the most prominent point of
Pattern: protrusion draw lines to, but not
through, waistline, shoulder point,
and armhole seam.
Insert scissors at point where lines
intersect. Cut on marked lines.
Spread needed amount at point of
protrusion. Horizontal slash will
lap.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.
Figure f 7
Problem: Short Waisted in Center Back
(Figure 47)

Garment on Crosswise folds develop above
Body: waistline.
Correction on
Garment:

Correction on
Pattern:
Pin tuck above waistline. Taper to
nothing at side seams.

Between dart and side seam draw
a line parallel to lengthwise grain-
line at same position as tuck on
garment. Continue line perpen-
dicular to lengthwise grainline
through center back.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Remove excess length by lapping
section 1 over 2. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight. Tape.
True lines.
SHOULDER ALTERATIONS
Problem: Broad Shoulders (Figure 48)

Garment on Armhole seam falls short of end of
Body: shoulder bone causing sleeve cap to
ride up on top of shoulder. Pulls
develop in the sleeves.
26


Correction on On bodice front and back cut
Garment: through shoulder seam to notches
in armhole. Spread needed amount.
Insert fabric strips. Pin.

Correction on At same position as slash on gar-
Pattern: ment draw lines from shoulder to,
but not through, armhole notches.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount.

Insert tissue paper. Tape,

True lines, (Figure 48a),

Kimono On bodice front and back draw
Pattern: lines from shoulder seam to, but
not through, underarm curve.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 48b).
Raglan The shoulder seam of a raglan
Pattern: sleeve at points a and b needs
lengthening.

Draw lines from a to c and b to d.
Cut on marked lines.

Spread at a and b the needed
amount.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.
True lines.

On bodice back and front draw
line e parallel to grainline at same
position as c and d on sleeve.
Continue lines to, but not through,
sleeve seams.

Cut on marked lines.
Spread e the same amount as c
and d.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines, (Figure 48c).
27


Problem: Narrow Shoulders (Figure 49)

Garment on Shoulder seam is too long causing Raglan
Body: the sleeve cap to drop off shoulder. Pattern:
Wrinkles develop in the sleeves.

Correction on Pin tuck across shoulder seam until
Garment: armhole seam is in correct position.
Correction on
Pattern:
Kimono
Pattern:
On bodice front and back draw
lines from shoulder to, but not
through, armhole notches.
Cut on marked lines.
Lap needed amount, Tape.

True lines. (Figure 49a).

On bodice front and back draw
lines from shoulder to, but not
through, underarm curve.
Cut on marked lines.

Lap needed amount.
True lines. (Figure 49b).

The shoulder seam of a raglan
sleeve at points a and b needs
shortening.

Draw lines from a to c and b to d.
Cut on marked lines.

Lap at a and b needed amount.

Lap a lesser amount at c and d.
Tape.
True lines.

On bodice front and back draw line
e parallel to grainline and at same
position as c and d on sleeve.
Continue lines to, but not through,
sleeve seams.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap e the same amount as c and d.
Tape.

True lines. (Figure 49c).
28


Roure 50
Problem: Square Shoulders (Figure 50)
Garment on
Body:
Correction on
Garment:
Correction on
Pattern:
Bodice does not have enough length
causing strain across shoulders and
armholes. Grainline is pulled up at
shoulder points. Diagonal wrinkles
result.


Remove upper portion of sleeve.
Rip out shoulder seams to, but not
through, neckline seam. Spread
needed amount. Insert fabric strips
or use seam allowance. Pin.


On bodice front and back tape tis-
sue paper to shoulder and armhole
seams.
Add needed length at shoulder
point.
Redraw shoulder line from original
neck edge to new points.

Raise underarm seam the same
amount added at shoulder point.
Taper to nothing at notches. This
addition returns the armhole to its
original size.
Trim excess tissue paper. (Figure
50a).

Mark notches and dots at new loca-
tion.

Kimono Draw line from shoulder point
Pattern: through underarm curve on both
bodice front and back.

Cut on marked lines.

Raise sleeve portion of pattern
needed amount adding an equal
amount to both front and back.
Tape.

Tape tissue paper to shoulder
seam.

Redraw shoulders from original
neck edge to shoulder points.

Redraw underarm curves. (Figure
50b).

Raglan Insert tissue paper at shoulder
Pattern: dart. Tape.

To allow additional fabric to fall
over the shoulder reduce length
of shoulder dart.

Trim excess tissue paper. (Figure
50c).
29


Fiqare 51
Problem: Sloping Shoulders (Figure 51)

Garment on Grainline drops as it approaches
Body: armhole. Diagonal wrinkles result.

Correction on Pin a tuck on shoulder seams.
Garment: Taper to nothing at neckline.

Correction on On bodice back and front reduce
Pattern: excess length at shoulder points.

Redraw shoulder lines from origi-
nal neck edge to new points.

Lower underarm seams the same
amount as removed at shoulder
points. Taper to nothing at
notches.

Trim pattern. (Figure 51a).

Mark notches and dots at new loca-
tion.
Kimono Draw lines from shoulder point to
Pattern: underarm curve on both front and
back.

Cut on marked lines.

Lower sleeve portion of pattern
needed amount removing equal
amounts from both front and back.
Tape.

Redraw shoulders from original
neckline edge to shoulder points.

Redraw underarm curves. (Figure
51b).

Raglan To remove fabric increase length
Sleeves: of shoulder dart by redrawing.

Trim pattern. (Fabric 51c).
30


n








/
Pigiwe 52
SLEEVE ALTERATIONS
Note: On long sleeves be siu-e dart(s)
are pointing to elbow for better fit,
comfort and appearance.
Problem: Heavy Arm (Figure 52)
Garment on
Body:

Correction on
Garment:
Horizontal wrinkles pull around
sleeves, or there is not enough ease
to move arm easily.
Cut fabric from wrist to snoumer
seam. Spread needed amount. In-
sert fabric strip. Pin.
Correction on Above notches in sleeve cap draw
Pattern: line pei'pendicular to lengthwise
grainline.

On lower sleeve draw two lines
parallel to lengthwise grainline
dividing sleeve into three sections.
Number sections as shown.

Cut out sections 1 and 3.

Spread sections 1 and 3 equal
amounts to achieve needed width.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.
True lines. (Figure 52a).

Note: May be needed only on the
front or back.
Kimono On bodice front and back tape
Pattern: tissue pape^ to shoulder seams.
Redraw seams tapering gradually
from neckline edge. Add one-half
the needed amount to bodice back
and one-half to bodice front.

Trim excess tissue paper. (Figure
52b).
Fiqure 53
Problem: Thin Arm (Figure 53)

Garment on Sleeve wrinkles and sags.
Body:

Correction on Pin lengthwise tuck down cente
Garment: of sleeve. Taper to nothing a
shoulder point.

Correction on Above notches in sleeve cap dra\
Pattern: line perpendicular to grainline.

On lower sleeve draw two line
parallel to lengthwise grainline
dividing sleeve into three sections

Number sections as shown.

Cut out sections 1 and 3.

Lap sections 1 and 3 equa
amounts to reduce needed width
Tape.

True lines. (Figure 53a).
Note: May be needed only on th
back or front.

Kimono Redraw shoulder seam taperinj
Pattern: gradually from neckline edge. Re
move one-half the needed amoun
of width from bodice front an(
one-half from bodice back.
Trim pattern. (Figure 53b).
Problem: Large Upper Arm Muscle (Figure 54

Garment on Horizontal wrinkles pull aroun
Body: sleeve cap.
31


Correction on Slash garment starting just above
Garment: wrist to, but not through, shoulder
seam. Spread needed amount. In-
sert fabric strips. Pin.
Correction on Method A
Above notches in
Pattern: sleeve cap draw a line perpendicu-
lar to lengthwise grainline.

Halfway between base of sleeve
cap and elbow dart, draw a second
line parallel to first line.

Within these lines draw two lines
parallel to lengthwise grainline
dividing sleeve into three sections.

Number sections as shown.

Cut out sections 1 and 3.

Spread sections 1 and 3 equal
amounts to achieve needed width.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 54a).
Method B On sleeve front and
back approximately IVi inches (3.6
cm) below armhole seams, cut pat-
tern following the shape of sleeve
cap, Terminate at dot indicating
shoulder point.

Spread one-half needed width on
each side at points indicated by
arrows.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines, (Figure 54b).

Kimono At muscle area on bodice front and
Pattern: back draw line, approximately two
inches long, parallel to lengthwise
grainline. Continue line perpendi-
cular to lengthwise grainline to,
but not through, shoulder seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread, dividing needed amount of
width between bodice front and
back.

Insert tissue paper. Tape,

True lines. (Figure 54c).
ViQvr.t, 55
Problem: Thick Elbow (Figure 55)

Garment on Sleeve binds at elbow, Wrinkles
Body: radiate from Indgc,

Correction on From l)ulg(! slash uji to armhole
Garment: seam and across to underarm
seam. S])read needed amount. In-
sert fabric strips. Pin.

Correction nn From point of bulge draw lines
Pattern: through ellM)w dart and to, l)ut not
through, sleevt! cap seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount.

Insert tissue jiaper. Tai)C,

'h'uo linos. (Figure GBa),
32


Redraw existing dart, draw a new
dart, or ease in fullness during the
construction process.

Kimono Draw line on bodice back from
Pattern: underarm seam at point of bulge
to, but not through, shoulder.
Cut on marked line.
Spread needed amount.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.
True lines. (Figure 55b).
Fiqure 5fc.

Problem: Sleeve Cap Too Long (Figure 57)

Garment on .\i7nhole seam is in correct position
Body: on body. Crosswi.se grainline falls
at center producing diagonal
wrinkles.

Correction on Pin tuck across sleeve cap. Taper
Garment: to nothing at armhole .seams. Allow
grainline to fall into natural posi-
tion.

Correction on Redraw sleeve cap shortening it
Pattern: the needed amount at center. Taper
to nothing at notches.
Trim pattern.
Problem: Sleeve Cap Too Short (Figure 56)

Garment on Armhole seam is in correct position
Body: on body. Crosswise grainline is
pulled up at center causing diag-
onal wrinkles.
Problem; Hang of Sleeve (Figure 58)

Garment on Sleeve hangs away from arm in
Body: front. Diagonal wrinkles develop
in back of sleeve. Grainline drops
in back.
Correction on
Garment:
From notch to notch remove sleeve
from armhole. At center of sleeve
drop needed amount. Allow grain-
line to fall into natural position.
Insert fabric or use seam allow-
ance. Pin,
Correction on Tape tissue to sleeve cap.
Pattern: ^ i^i. ..
Redraw sleeve cap lengthenmg it
the needed amount at center. Taper
to nothing at notches.
Trim excess tissue paper
Correction on From notch to notch remove sleeve
Garment: from armhole. Rotate center of
sleeve forward until wrinkles dis-
appear and grainline is straight.
Pin.

Correction on Above notches in sleeve cap draw
Pattern: line pei-pendiculai" to grainline.
Cut on marked line.

Move sleeve cap toward front the
amount sleeve was rotated foi-ward
in garment. Tape.
33


'IVue lines, (Figure 58a).

Garment on Sleeve hangs away from arm in
Body: back. Diagonal wrinkles develop in
front of sleeve. Grainline (Iroj)S in
front.

Correction on From notch to noUh remove sleeve
Garment: from armhole. Rotate center of
sleeve backward until wrinkles dis-
appear and grainline is straight.
Pin.
('orrettion on Above notches in sleeve cap draw
Pattern: line perpendicular to grainline.

Cut on marked line.

i\!ov(! sleeve cap toward back tht;
amount sleeve was rotated back-
ward in garment. Tape.
True lines, (Figure 58b),

Problem: Binding Armhole and Sleeve
(Figure 59)

(iarnieni on Tulls radiate from underarm of
Body: sleeve an
Correction on Release side seams of bodice. Taper
Garment: to nothing at waist. Release under-
arm seam of sleeves. Taper to
nothing at hemline. Insert fabric
strips or use seam allowance. Pin,

Correction on Tape tissue i)ai)er Lo underarm
Pattern: seams of Ixniice front, back and
sleeve.
Add needed amount at underarm
seams. Taper to original scams at
hem.
Trim excess tissue i)aper.
34


f iQore 60
SKIRT ALTERATIONS

Problem: Prominent Hips and Thighs (Figure 60)
Garment on Skirt pulls and wrinkles across
Body: hips and thighs.
Correction on Between darts and side seams slash
Garment: through hem to waistline. Spread
needed amount. Insert fabric
strips. Pin.

Correction on Between darts and side seam draw
Pattern: line parallel to lengthwise gi-ainline
from hem to, but not through,
waist.

At position where hips or thighs
are largest draw line to, but not
through, side seam to intersect
with first line.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount at point
where slashes intersect.

Below intersecting point keep
spread even. This causes horizontal
slash to overlap thus keeping skirt
from having extreme flare.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.
True lines, (Figure 60a).

A-Line From hem to about 4 inches (10 cm)
Pattern: below waistline draw line parallel to
lengthwise grainline. Continue line
perpendicular to lengthwise grain-
line through side seam.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines, (Figure 60b).

Problem: Flat Buttocks (Figure 61)
Garment on
Body:
Fabric wrinkles
Grainline dips.
over buttocks.
Correction on Pin horizontal tucks and vertical
Garment: tucks, if needed, to remove excess
fabric.

Correction on Between dart and side seam draw
Pattern: line parallel to lengthwise grain-
line.

Draw a second line perpendicular
to first line from center back to
side seam at same position as hori-
zontal tuck on garment.
35


Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap section 1 over 4 to remove
needed length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight. Tape.

Lap section 3 over 4 to remove
needed width. Tape.

Place section 2 in original position
without any lap or spread.

True lines. (Figure 61a).
A-Line From center back to side seam at
Pattern: same position as horizontal tuck on
garment draw line peri)endicular
to lengthwise grainline.

From hem at same position as ver-
tical tuck on garment draw line
parallel to lengthwise grainline to
intersect with first line.
Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap section 2 over 1 to remove
needed length. Tape.

Lap section 3 over 2 to remove
needed width. Tape.

True lines. (Figure (Jib).
Princess On center back pattern draw a line
Pattern: perpendicular to lengthwise grain-
line from center back to side seam
at same position as horizontal tuck
on garment.

Extend this line halfway across
side back. Continue line to hem par-
allel to lengthwise grainline.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap section 2 over 1 and 4 over 3
to remove needed length. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 61c).

If width needs to be removed take
in seams.

Problem: Full Buttocks (Figure 62)
Garment on
Body:

Correction on
Garment:
Fabric wrinkles across buttocks.
Grainline rises.

Slash through hem to waistline.
Slash to side seams across fullest
part of body, if needed. Spread
needed amount. Insert fabric
strips, Pin.
Correction on Between dart and side seam draw
Pattern: line parallel to lengthwise grain-
line.
Figure (?!
36


Draw second line perpendicular to
first line from center back to side
seam at same position as hori-
zontal slash on garment.
Number sections as shown.
Cut on marked lines.
Spread sections 1 and 4 to add
needed length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.
Spread sections 3 and 4 to add
needed width.
Insert tissue paper. Tape,
Place section 2 in original position
without any lap or spread.
True lines. (Figure 62a),

A-Line Between dart and side seam draw
Pattern: line parallel to lengthwise grain-
line from hem to waist position.
Continue line through side seam.
Draw line from center back to
fir.st line at same position as hori-
zontal slash on garment.
Number sections as shown.
Cut on marked lines.
Spread sections 1 and 3 to add
needed length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Spread section 2 from 1 and 3 to
add needed width.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 62b).

Princess On side back draw line parallel to
Pattern: lengthwise grainline from hem to
waist. Continue line through side
seam.

On back and side back draw line
perpendicular to lengthwise grain-
line at same jiosition as horizontal
slash on garment to intersect with
first line on side back.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread sections 3 and 4 and 1 and
2 to add needed length. Keep
lengthwise grainline straight.

Insert tissue papei'. Tape.

Spread sections 5 from 3 and 4 to
add needed width.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 62c).
37


Figure 63.
Problem: Full Abdomen (Figure 63)
Garment on
Body:

Correction on
Garment:
Grainline rides up. Wrinkles radi-
ate from prominent abdomen.

Slash through hem to waistline
and horizontally to side seams
across fullest part of body. Spread
needed amount. Insert fabric
strips. Pin.
Correction on Between dart and side seam draw
Pattern: line parallel to lengthwise grainline
from hem through waistline.
Draw a second line perpendicular to
vertical line from center front
through side seam at same position
as horizontal slash on garment.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread sections 1 and 4 to add
needed length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight.

Insert tissue paper. Tape,
Spread sections 3
needed width.
and 4 to add
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

Place section 2 in original position
without any lap or spread in length
or width. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 63a).
A-Line Between center front and side
Pattern: seam draw line parallel to length-
wise grainline from hem to waist
position. Continue line through
side seam.

At same position as horizontal
slash on garment draw line from
center front to intersect with first
line.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread sections 1 and 2 to add
needed length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight.
38


Insert tissue paper. Tape.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.
Spread section 3 from 1 and 2 to
add needed width.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 63b).

Princess On side front draw line parallel to
Pattern: lengthwise grainline from hem to
waist. Continue line through side
seam.
On front and side front at same
position as horizontal slash on gar-
ment draw line perpendicular to
lengthwise grainline to intersect
with first line on side front.
Number sections as shown.
Cut on marked lines.
Spread sections 1 and 2 and 3 and
4 to add needed length. Keep
lengthwise grainhne straight.
^
1,, \\ 1 1
1 11 1 i| ( 1 if 1 1
Spread section 5 from 3 and 4 to
add needed width.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 63c).
Problem: Sway Back (Figure 64)

Garment on Horizontal wrinkles are
Body: upper part of skirt back.
across
fiqure ht
Correction on Pin tuck across back. Taper to
Garment: nothing at side seams.

Correction on From center back at same position
Pattern: as tuck on garment draw line per-
pendicular to lengthwise grainline
to, but not through, side seam.

Cut on marked line.

Lap to remove needed length. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 64a).

A-Line From hem draw line parallel to
Pattern: grainline to position of tuck on
garment. Continue line through
center back perpendicular to grain-
line.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap section 1 over 2 to remove
needed length. Keep lengthwise
grainline straight. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 64b).

Princess On center back at same position as
Pattern: tuck on garment draw line per-
pendicular to lengthwise grainline
from center back to side seam.
Extend this line halfway across
side back pattern. Continue line to
hem parallel to lengthwise grain-
line.

Number sections as shown.

Cut on marked lines.

Lap section 1 over 2 and 3 over 4
to remove needed length. Tape,
True lines. (Figure 64c).
39


\'/
^ "'h r.
\ Jl
M ^
Correction on
Garment:
Problem: Prominent Hip Bone (Figure 65)

Garment on Wrinkles radiate from hip bone.
Body:
Correction on
Garment:
Release fabric at waist. Rip out
darts. Redirect points of darts to-
ward bulge or make two smaller
darts. If wrinkles persist, release
fabric at side seams. Make darts
deeper by increasing size of dart
ba.se. Repin waist and side seams.
Correction on Draw dart(s) at same position as
Pattern: those pinned in garment.

If additional dart was added or
width added to dart base, tape tis-
sue paper to side seam.

Add to side seam the amount re-
moved to make new dart or to
make deeper darts.
Trim tissue paper.
Fiaure iU
Problem: One Large and High Hip (Figure 66)

Garment on Wrinkles radiate from i)romincnt
Body: hip, Grainline is distorted.
Correction on
Pattern:
Insert scissors in side seam at most
prominent part of hip. On both
front and back slash across to. ap-
proximately halfway between dart
and side seam and up to waist.
Spread needed amount. Add fabric
strips. Pin.

Method A On skirt front and
back at same position as horizontal
slash on garment draw line per-
pendicular to lengthwise grainline
to point halfway between dart and
side seam. Continue line to, but
not through, waistline.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount.

Insert tissue paper. Tape.

True lines. (Figure 66a).
b Figure ^(m
Melhwl It (To be used when added
width is needed al waist) On
skirt front and back at same posi-
tion as horizontal slash on gar-
ment draw lint! perpendicular to
40


A-Line
Pattern:
lengthwise grainhne to point half-
way between dart and side seam.
Continue line through waistline
seam.
Cut on marked lines.
Spread needed amount in length
and width.
Insert tissue paper. Tape,
True lines. (Figure 66b).
Note: When cutting out garment
only one-half of garment is en-
larged.

Tape tissue paper to side seam.

Add needed width from hip to
hemline. Taper to nothing toward
armhole seam.
Trim excess tissue paper, (Figure
66c),
Problem: Long W^aisted (Figure 68)

Garment on Waistline of dress falls alK)ve
Body: waistline of body.

Correction on Slash garment just above waist-
Garment; line. Spread needed amount. In-
sert fabric strips. Pin.

Correction on Just above waistline on bodice
Pattern: back and fi'ont draw line per-
pendicular to lengthwise giainline.

Cut on marked lines.

Spread needed amount of length.
Keep grainlines straight.

Insert tissue paper, Ta])e,

True lines.
Problem: Large Waist (Figure 69)
Garment on
Body:
Fabric pulls around waist.
WAISTLINE ALTERATIONS

Problem: Short Waisted (Figure 67)

Garment on Bodice of garment too long causing
Body: folds of fabric around waistline.

Correction on Pin horizontal tuck around body to
Garment: remove excess length.

Correction on Just above waistline on bodice
Pattern: back and front draw line perpen-
dicular to lengthwise grainline.
Cut on marked lines.
Lap to remove needed length. Tape.
True lines.
Correction on Method ATo add a small amount
Garment: let out side seams from bust dart
to hipline.

Insert fabric strips or use seam
allowance. Pin. (Figure 69a),

Method B (This method is recom-
mended when adding 1 inch (2.5 cm)
or more.) Between darts and side
seams on bodice front and back
slash from waist to armhole seam.
At same location on skirt slash from
waist to side seam at hipline.

Spread needed amount.

Insert fabric strips. Pin. (Figure
69b).
41


Correction on Method A At side seams on
Pattern: front and back of both skirt and
bodice tape tissue paper to seams.

Add needed amount at waistline.
Taper to nothing at underarm
seam and hipline.

Trim excess tissue paper, (Figure
69c).

Method B On front and back of
both skirt and bodice at same posi-
tion as slashes on garment draw
lines from waist to, but not
through, underarm seam and from
waist to, but not through, side
seam at hipline.

Slash on marked lines.

Spread needed amount.

Insert tissue paper. Tape,

True lines. (Figure 69d).
Problem: Small Waist (Figure 70)

Garment on Excess fabric is around waistline.
Body:

Correction on Method A To remove a small
Garment: amount take up side seams from
bust dart to hipline. Pin. (Figure
70a).


Method B To remove 1 inch (2.5
cm) or more pin a tuck at waist be
tween darts and side seams. Taper
to nothing at underarm seam and
side seam at hiphne. (Figure 70b).

Correction on Method A At side seam on front
Pattern: and back of both skirt and bodice
remove needed amount at waist-
line. Taper to nothing at under-
arm seam and at hipline.

Trim pattern. (Figure 70c).
42


d ll
Method B On front and back of
both bodice and skirt at same posi-
tion as tuck on garment draw
lines from waist to, but not
through, underarm seam and from
waist to, but not through, side
seam at hipline.

Slash on marked lines.
Lap to remove needed width. Tape.

True lines. Figure 70d).
Problem: Uneven Waistline (Figure 71)

Garment on Front and back waist length varies.
Body:

Correction on Pin tuck to shorten front or back
Garment: the needed amount. Slash and
spread front or back the needed
amount. Insert fabric strip. Pin.

Correction on Just above waistline on bodice
Pattern: front and back draw a line per-
pendicular to lengthwise grainline.

Cut on marked lines.

On bodice front or back lap to re-
move needed length. Tape,

On bodice front or back spread
to add needed length.
Insert tissue paper. Tape.

To get side seams the same length
draw lines adding half of the total
variation to the shorter piece and
trimming half of the variation
from the longer piece.
43


FITTING PANTS Goodo-^ig^
Pants are important in many wardrobes. Be-
cause they afford so little opportunity for camou-
flage, pants must be tailored to specific figures
with care. They are not hard to sew, but offer
some challenging fitting problems that must be
solved before cutting the fashion fabric.


What Is A Good Fit
Pants may fit the body snugly or loosely depend-
ing on dictates of fashion, figure and occasion.
Pants should not, however, fit so tight that
fabric looks stretched, excess wrinkles develop
with each movement, and body bulges are readily
seen, A smooth, comfortable, figure flattering
fit is the ultimate aim.
WaistPants hang from the waist. The waist-
band fits the body comfortably and stays in
place when bending or sitting.
HipsFabric around the hipline does not ap-
pear stretched.
Crotch LengthCrotch length is long enough
to allow for movement but not so long that
pants look baggy.
Crotch WidthNo pulls or excess fabric is
present across the front or back of the pants
at crotch level.
Back RiseBack rise refers to the fabric from
waist to bottom of seat. If too long, fabric
droops below the seat and diagonal wrinkles
result.
Seat AreaThe amount of fullness below the
seat varies according to the style of pants.
Pants should not, however, have a baggy
look due to excess fabric just below the seat.
LegsThe tightness with which legs fit is a
matter of taste and fashion. Pant legs at all
times should fit smoothly without looking
pulled. The side seams and inseams should
hang straight from waist to ankle with the
crease line falling directly over the knee in
front and back.
LengthLength varies according to fashion.


Buying The Pattern
Pant patterns are bought by hip measurement.
The hip measurement is taken 7 or 9 inches
(17.622.6 cm) below the waist, whichever is larger,
and over inner garments usually worn with pants.
Buy a pattern basic in design. Such a i)attern
can be used over and over again and changed
to create a variety of pant styles.
Figure 72. Roure 73
Select a well-designed pattern. A good pattern
has (1) a fairly straight center; seam in both
front and back, and (2) a curved hipline, (Figure
72). In a poorly designed pattern the center seams
are cut on the bias, and the side seams are quite
straight. (Figure 73).
When the center back seam is cut slightly too
much on the bias, lack of sitting room results
causing pants to pull down. (Figure 74). This
can sometimes be corrected after the garment is
cut by straightening the back seam. Since this
reduces the size of the hipline, add fabric to side
seam. If the center front and back seams are
very bias, bagginess develops, (Figure 75), This
cannot be corrected after the fabric is cut.

Measuring The Body
Good fitting i)imts start with measuring the
body correctly. These measurements are used to
adjust the pattern before cutting i)ants in fa,shion
fabric.
When taking measurements, use for greater
accuracy a plastic or a plastic coated tape measure
and wear inner garments usually worn with pants.
44


Masurments Necdtd

crotch
lengtlt
Record each measurement on the Measurement
Chart. (Figure 7G).
Add the ease allowant'e.-^ to the body measure-
ments as indicated on the Mea.surement Chart.
Record the total inches needed.
MEASUREMENT CHART
MeasuremBnts Nwded ^l ll. Il 1
^ 5 li i
s < ^
Waist
Tie a string around
waistline to locate
correct position. I" (2.5 cm!
M(^asure holding tape
as snugly as desired
for waistband.
Hips
Measure 7 inches or 1" 12.5 cm) for
9 inches below tight fit;
waistline, whichever 2" (5 cm) for
is fullest. roomier
fit.
Thighs
Measure at fullest 1" (2.5 cm) for
part of upper leg. tight fit; 2" (5 cm) for roomier
fit.
Side l,en(fth
At side of body,
measure from waist- 0
line of desired
length of pant.
Crotch Depth 'V (1.2 cm)
Sit on flat, hard if less
surface. At side of than 3fi" 187.5 cm)
body, ineasure from hips;
waistline to flat '." 11.8 cm) for
surface. 3S"-38" (87.5-98 cm) hips: 1" (2.5 cm) for hip.; over 38" (7.5-98 cm).*
Crotch Circumference
Measure from back
waist through legs l"-3" (2.5-7.5 cm)
to front waist.
Figure
Preparing The Pattern
Certain line.s aie ilrawn to make measuring and
altering the pattern easier and more accurate.
(Figure 77). These are:
HiplineOn both front and back measure 7 or 9
inches (17.522.5 cm) down from waist at side
seam. Draw a line perpendicular to lengthwise
grainline.
Crotch LineOn front draw a line from the
point of crotch perpendicular to lengthwi.se
grainline.
Knee LineHalf way between crotch line and
hemline draw a line i)eri>endicu]ar to length-
wise grainline.
Crotch Length
Rgi/re 78
too short
Making Alterations On The Pattern
The Measurement Chart i used to make cer-
tain length and width alterations on the j)attern
before cutting the test pants in fabric.
Crotch Length (Figure 78) Determine the
crotch length of the pattern by measuring
pattern front from A to H. (Figure 78a).
Using the ^leasurement Chart, dctei'mine the
amount pattern needs to be increased or de-
creased. If pattern crotch length is too long,
sla.sh on hipline marking and lap to remove
Reduce by half for hnits and other stretch fabrics.
45


excess length. (Figure 78b). If the pattern
crotch length is too short, slash on hipline
marking and spread needed amount. Insert
tissue paper and tape in place, (Figure 78c).
True lines. Do the same alteration on both
front and back pattern pieces.

Sidft Length
Side Length (Figure 79) Measure the side
length of the pattern (excluding hem) from A to
C. (Figure 79a). Determine the amount of in-
crease or decrease needed. To shorten or
lengthen, cut pattern just below the knee line.
Spread or lap pattern the needed amount. True
lines. (Figure 79b). Do the same alterations on
both front and back pattern pieces.

Chck Hip Maaturcment
incraai*
dacraase
Hips (Figure 60) To determine if the pattern
needs altering for the hips, pin front and back
pattern pieces together at the 7 or 9 inch
(17.5-22.6 cm) hipline. Measure pattern, ex-
cluding seam aUowances, from A to B. (Figure
80a). This represents only half of the pattern so
double the measurement. Determine the
amount of pattern increase or decrease needed.
If the body is a fairly standard shape In both
front and back, alter the pattern by drawing a
Une parallel to lengthwise grainline between
side seam and dart from hem to, but not
through, waist. At position where hips or-
thighs are largest draw a line to, but not
through the Une. Cut on marked Unes. Spread
or lap pattern needed amount. True lines. Tape
(Figure 80b).
Caution: Remember that the pattern is cut
twice in fabric. Add or reduce from both front
and back pattern pieces only one-fourth the
total amount needed. If, for example, 2 inches
(5 cm) total increase is needed at hipline, add Vi
inch (1.2 cm) to pattern front and V2 inch (1.2
cm) to pattern back.
F,jv^ II
aWornen
This hip measurement may include hips
as well as seat and abdomen which may be
protruding or flat. The body shape may re-
quiie that the pattern he changed in front
or back only. Study the body carefully before
making the hipline alteration, (Figure 81),
If the 1,'ody protrusion is the abdomen with
a fairly standai'd shaped seat, incrca.=!e pat-
tein in front only. If the protrusion is the
seat with a fairly standai'd or flat abdomen,
increase pattern in back only.
Increase for Havy thlght
Tigurc 11

Thighs (Figure H2) IVoplc with heavy thighs
need loo.ser fitting pant legs for comfort and
46


attractiveness. Measure the pattern. Deter-
mine the amount of increase needed. Add a
strip of tissue paper to both front and back
pattern pieces on side seams and inseams.
At thigh level, mark on tissue paper the
amount of increase needed, dividing the in-
crease equally between the side seam and in-
.seam of each leg. Redraw the legs tapering
to nothing at crotch and hipline,

Studi^ Thickness of Body
(crotch width)
protruding seat
flat seal
protruding dbdonwri
81
Pant Hang and Crotch Width (Figures 83, 84)
Once again, study the figure. Imagine a
line starting at the waist in center back and
extending to the floor. (Figure 83), It is easy
to see that the distance from waist to floor
varies depending upon the degree of seat
protrusion and the tilt of the hips. A similar
situation may develop in reverse depending
upon the fullness in the abdomen area.
The thickness of the body needs also to be
studied. Compare the thickness between A
and B, (Figure 83), When the body is thicker,
the crotch width needs to be increased.
When the body is very flat, the crotch width
needs to be decreased.
Because figures are different, the combi-
nations of alterations needed for pant hang
and crotch width will vary. It is important
that the bodv be analvzed carefull\-.
To alter the pattern for a protruding seat add
V4 to V2 inch (6.0 mm1.2 cm) at the center
back waistline tapering to nothing at side
seam. Add a smaU amount to inseam of both
front and back. (Figure 84a).
To alter the pattern for a flat seat, remove Vi
to Vi inch (6.0 mm1.2 cm) at center back
waistUne, tapering to nothing at side seam.
\
\"'r-\
1 1 \ !
1 1_____ 1 1 1 1 1
Fijwre Bt
Remove Va to ¥2 inch (6.0 mm1.2 cm) at in-
seam in back only. (Figure 84b).

For the protruding abdomen, add Vi to Yt
inch (6.0 mm1.2 cm) at center front waistline,
tapering to nothing at side seam. (Figure 84c).
No alteration is needed on pattern front when
abdomen is flat. These alterations may need
refinement after the first fitting.
Waist On the pattern, pin out darts and
measure waistline from seamline to seamline
on both front and back. Double this amount
to get the waist measurement. This deter-
mines the amount the pattern needs to be
increased or decreased.
The one inch (2.5 cm) ease aUowance is ex-
tremely important. This is eased into the
waistUne when attaching pants to waistband,
thus preventing unsightly wrinkles from
developing just below the waist. This ease is
distributed around the waistline, as needed, ex-
cept across center back between the darts.
The depth and length of darts varies accord-
ing to the body curve. The greater the curved
area, the deeper the dart base; the smaUer the
curved area, the narrower the dart base. Darts
usuaUy stop 1 to 3 inches (2.57.5 cm) short of
the fuUest part of the body curve. This releases
fabric over the curved area of the body. If darts
are too long, fabric puUs across darts and puffs
out below. Darts are usually longer in the back
than in the front because the fuUest part of the
abdomen is higher than the fuUest part of the
seat. When fitting the waistUne, first adjust
the darts for the abdomen and buttocks. If fur-
ther adjustment is needed, then increase or
decrease at side seams.

Making Test Garment
Cut out altered pattern in test fabric. Cut faloric
accurately. Transfer all markings carefully.
Construct the garment using basting stitch and
contrasting thread. Be sure to accurately follow the
5/8 inch (1.6 cm) stitching Une. When stitching the
center back seam, stretch the seam through the
47


Ppgure 85
lower curved section. (Figure 85). This improves
the fit. Apply waistband and turn up hem. Trim
crotch seam. (Figure 86). Press.
Figure 94,

Fitting the Test Garment

When fitting, wear the inner garments usually
worn with pants. Check the following points;
1. Waistline Adjust at side seams or darts
depending upon figure shape.
2. Hipline Let side seams in or out slightly.
3. Crotch Length If too low, pin an even
tuck around hipline. If too short, determine
the amount needed by dropping at waistline.
4, Crotch Width If fabric pulls at crotch
level, let out inseam at crotch point tapering
to nothing at knee line; if too much fabric
is present, take up inseam at crotch point
tapering to nothing at knee line.
5. Leg Width Take in or let out side seams
and inseams equally until desired leg width
is achieved.
6. Leg Length -^ Turn up or let out hem until
desired length is obtained.
7, Additional Wrinkles or Excess Fabric If
wrinkles or excess fabric is present after
making the above adjustments, consult the
following section.
Additional Alterations
Garment on Body: (Figure 87) Wrinkles flair up-
ward from the crotch area.
Causes: (1) Insufficient crotch width or
(2) Too tight through hips or thighs.
Alterations: (1) Let out inseam at crotch tap-
ering to nothing at knee line,
or
(2). Release side seams.
Front
Garment on Body: (Figure 88a) Fabric faUs
straight from seat to knee
creating a full look just
below the seat. A more
cupped look is desired.
(Figure 88b).
Causes: (1) Center back seam is too slanted.
(2) Flat buttocks.
(3) Desire for cupped-in look.
Alteration: Reduce the crotch point in back
only; straighten the center back
seam. The reduction of crotch point
is equal to amount the line is
straightened at crotch curve, (See
arrow on illustration). This altera-
tion works on back only. (Figure
88c).
Garment on Body; (Figure 89) Pants are baggy
in back with diagonal wrin-
kles developing below seat.
Cause: Center back seam is too long.
Alteration: On garment tuck to remove excess
fabric at center back tapering to
nothing at side seams.
On pattern between dart and side
seam draw a line paraUel to length-
wise grainline. At same position on
pattern as tuck on garment draw
a line perpendicular to lengthwise
48


grainline. Cut out block of pattern.
Lap pattern evenly taking out the
needed amount as indicated by the
tuck at center back. True waistline
and center back seams, (Figure
89a).
Some people need additional
length in back to make pants more
comfortable for sitting and active
sports. To lengthen center back
seam, cut out block of pattern as
indicated previously. Spread pat-
tern evenly allowing the needed
amount. True waistline and center
back seams, (Figure 89b).

Stylizing a Basic Pattern
When a basic pattern fits correctly, style changes
in waistline, pockets, length and width can easily
be made. Stylizing a pattern adds variety and
keeps one fashionable looking without compromis-
ing on fit.
1. Waistline Variations
A. Hiphuggers (Figure 0) Measure down
from waistline the desired amount. This wiU
vary depending on whether the waistUne
seam is faced or a waistband is used. For a
faced waistUne, measure down about 2 to 2V'2
inches (56.2 cm) all the way around. Draw a
Une foUowing the original waistUne shape.
B. Casmgs for Elastic (Figure 91) Casings for
elastic may be desired for knit and stretch
fabrics. Remove the 5/8 inch (1.6 cm) seam
allowance around the waistline. Extend top of
pants twice the width of the elastic plus 1/2
inch (1.2 cm) for seam aUowance. Straighten
side seams of pattern. The waistUne of the
pattern plus the stretch of the fabric must
equal the size of the hips in order to puU the
finished garment off and on. If additional
fabric is stiU needed, reduce sUghtly the size
of the darts.
C. Faced WaistUne (Figure 92) A firm gros-
grain ribbon, V2 to V4 inches (1.21.8 cm)
wide, may be used to create an inner waist-
band. Cut ribbon the length of the waist plus
two inches for turning under at the ends.
Finish ends. Shape using steam. (Figure 92a).
Attach to garment. (Figure 92b). Turn to in-
side. Tack in place. Caution: remember to ease
in the 1 inch (2.5 cm) ease around the waist-
line of the pants.


2. Pant Leg Width (Figure 93) Pant legs can be
made any width. Be sure, however, to add to or
take away the same amount on all four seams.
When creating very tapered pants, leave enough
room at hemline for the foot to enter. (Figure
93a).
BeU bottoms are created by reducing sUghtly
the pants at knee line and adding about 3 inches
(7.5 cm) to aU four seams at hemUne. (Figure
93b).
Pant Leg Length (Figure 94) The basic pat-
tern can be adjusted for any length of pants.
With the knee and crotch Unes indicated on the
pattern, any length can easily be determined.
For pants length stopping above the knee, add
about Vi inch (1.2 cm) of width to inseams and
drop the hemline about Va inch (1.2 cm). A small
amount of extra width is also added to the outer
seams.


Selected References
Bane, Allyne. Creative Clothing Construction. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973.
Better Homes and Gardens. Pattern Adjustments. New York: Meredith Press, 1966.
Minott, Jan. Coordinated Pattern Fit. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company, 1969.
Perry, Patricia (Editor). Vogice Sewing Book of Fitting, Adjustments, and Alterations. New
York: Butterick Fashion Marketing Company, 1972.
Tyroler, Else'. Sewing Pants for Women. New York: Hearthside Press, 1963.


This publication was promulgated at a cost of $2,312.10, or 74.5 cents per copy, to inform the public
on personalizing patterns. 1-3.1 M-85
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matlon to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide eslarcheduci
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