Title: 4-H Fundamental Fashion Formula: Level I
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000335/00001
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Title: 4-H Fundamental Fashion Formula: Level I
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Hackler, Nadine
Publisher: University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Cooperative Extension Services.
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Bibliographic ID: IR00000335
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida Institutional Repository
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4-H 430
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4-H Fundamental Fashion
Formula ~ Level I
Dear 4-H'er
Do you ever get hot or cold when you are at
school or play? Have you ever thought about
the clothing you wear? Did you know clothing
is related to how comfortable you feel?
Much has been written about the energy
shortage. Energy is used to produce your
clothing. Energy is also used to care for your
clothing.
The 4-H Fundamental Fashion Formula
Level I project will help you learn how to:
select clothing to keep cool.
select clothing to keep warm.
care for clothing by selecting the
products to use.
Energy can be saved (turn thermostat set-
ting lower in the winter, higher in the summer)
by dressing appropriately for the season.
Energy can also be saved by properly caring
for your clothing.
Have fun while learning.
Sincerely


Nadine Hackler
Professor,
Extension Clothing Specialist
Dress to Keep Cool

Because of the energy shortage, thermo-
stats in many buildings and homes have been
set at 78F (25.6C) or higher in the summer.
Also because of the energy shortage, energy
costs continue to increase.
You can select clothing that will be more
comfortable at school or play when thermo-
stat settings are turned higher. For instance,
your body gets "hot":
when you play.

when you eat.
when absorbing heat from the envi-
ronment.
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Your garments should allow your body heat
to escape. Choose clothes that permit per-
spiration to be absorbed. Evaporation occurs
when perspiration becomes a vapor. This
evaporation process is affected by your
clothing. When evaporation occurs, you will
feel cooler.

Fiber and Fabric Construction
Some fibers are more absorbent than
others. They are cotton, linen, silk, wool and
rayon. When fibers absorb perspiration, it
evaporates and you will feel cooler.
that
2


other fibers such as nylon or polyester
may have a finish to make them more absorb-
ent. Check the label.
How a fabric is constructed is important.
Fabrics need to "breathe". A fabric can
breathe only if it has air spaces. Open weaves
and open knits allow for ventilation. Smooth
textures are cooler than rough ones. Shiny
fabrics are cooler than dull ones.

Color
Color is related to your comfort in hot
weather. If playing outside, choose white or
light colors. These colors reflect the sun's
rays. You will feel cooler.
Cool colors will make you feel cooler. They
remind you of water, trees and shadows.
These colors are the blues, greens and
purples.

Design and Fit
How a garment is designed is important.
For example:
air circulates better when garments
have large necks, armholes and legs.
Air c/tcu/t!(t/oif
skirts and dresses are cooler.
sleeveless garments are cooler.
S/eei/e/ess

shirts and blouses worn outside pants.
one layer of outer garments is cooler.
You need to think about how the garment
fits. Garments fitting too tightly will be hot.
Looser fitting ones will be cooler.

Inner Garments
Garments worn next to the skin are impor-
tant to your comfort. Select those that are
100% cotton or part cotton for greatest com-
fort. Socks that are part or all cotton are more
absorbent. Wear cotton sport socks with
sport shoes for greater comfort.
Accessories
The type of accessories you wear may con-
tribute to your comfort. To be cooler:
wear a hat when in the hot sun.


wear sandals.

eliminate belts or wear only narrow
ones.
Cleanliness
Would you believe that clean clothes are
cooler than dirty ones? Dirt and body oils fill
up air spaces, and the fabric cannot "breathe".

Selection of Sleepwear
Select sleepwear that will keep you cool,
such as:
loose-fitting sleepwear.
no collars or sleeves.
lowered necklines.
short pajama pants.
wearing pajama top outside pants.
lightweight, open-toed slippers.
cotton or part cotton undergarments.
nightgowns or nightshirts.
short nightgowns or nightshirts.

Dress to Keep Warm

During cooler weather, many thermostats
are set at 65 "F (18.3 "C) or lower to conserve
energy. When you are cold you are uncom-
fortable. Therefore, you need to select cloth-
ing that will keep you warm.
Layering
The secret of keeping warm is in layering
your clothfng. Layering keeps your body heat
in and cold air out.
There are three layers of clothing to think
about. The breathing layer is next to your
skin. These fabrics should be open weave, or
lightweight and absorbent.

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The insulating layer holds in body heat.
These fabrics should be thick, resilient and
absorbent.
The protecting layer retains body heat and
keeps out cold, moist air. Select fabrics that
are closely woven or knitted and that have
smooth finishes.
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Fibers and Fabrics
The warmest fibers are wool, cotton and
acrylic. The warmest fabrics are those that:
are quilted.
have a nap or pile.
are thick.
have a close weave or knit.
Garments that are too tight allow body
heat to escape. There is no place for warm
body heat to circulate. You need to allow for
air spaces.
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Cleanliness
Clean garments are warmer than soiled
ones. Soil and body oils close air spaces.
When air spaces are closed, insulating
powers are lost.
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Color
Warm colors are reds, oranges, and yel-
lows. They remind you of the sun and fire.
Dark colors are also warmer. They absorb the
sun's rays when you are outside.
Design and Fit
The design and fit of a garment contribute
to how warm you will feel. To feel warmer;
select close-fitting necklines, cuffs and
sleeves, bands at ankles and waistlines.
Suggestions for Keeping WarmGiris
Wear long-sleeved blouses or dresses.
Wear socks.
Wear closed shoes or boots.

5


Add a cardigan sweater, vest or dickey.
Wear a blouse over a turtleneck
sweater.
Wear a tunic, smock or apron.

Suggestions for Keeping WarmBoys
Tuck undershirt into undershorts.
Wear part wool or part cotton socks.
Wear tightly woven or knitted shirts.

Wear cotton or wool flannel shirts.
Wear corduroy pants and shirts.
Wear a turtleneck sweater under a
shirt.



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Selection of Sleepwear
Select sleepwear that will keep you warm.
Examples are the following:
Wear a nightcap 50 percent or more
body heat can be retained by wearing
a nightcap.

Pajamas are warmer than nightgowns
or nightshirts.
Tuck pajama top into pants.
are.
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Fleece or fur-lined slippers are
warmer.
Wear thermal underwear under sleep-
wear.
Select high necklines and long sleeves
that fit at wrists.
Wear long socks.
Caring for Clothes

The proper care of clothing prolongs its life.
Laundering of clothes uses energy. You can
help reduce this energy usage.
Clothes that are soiled need to be laundered.
Place in hamper or clothes basket.
Unsoiled clothing worn only a short time
should be:
hung in the closet.
folded and placed in a drawer or on a
shelf.
6


A "heap" of clean clothing requires a lot of
energy to remove the wrinkles. Relaundering
and ironing are necessary. This ages the
clothes needlessly.
Spots and stains need to be removed im-
mediately. Be sure to tell the person respon-
sible for the laundry:
that there is a stain.
where the stain is located.
what the stain is.
The use of laundry products can be confus-
ing. Let's learn something about them so you
will be able to care for your clothing.
Detergents
The most important laundry product is the
detergent. Detergents are made to:
remove,
emulsify,
dissolve, and
suspend
soil in a washing solution. Detergents contain
two important ingredientssurfactants and
builders.
The purposes of surfactants are to:
improve the wetting ability of water.
assist in loosening and removing soil.
emulsify soil.
suspend and hold soil.
The purposes of builders are to:
make the surfactant more efficient.
prevent water hardness from com-
bining with soils.
help disperse and suspend dirt.
maintain the desired alkalinity.
Detergents come in a variety of forms-
liquids, powders and tablets. They may be
low, medium or high sudsers. It is the deter-
gent that gets the clothes clean, not the
amount of suds.
Heavy-duty detergents are designed for
machine washing. Light-duty detergents are
for hand washing.
There are two types of detergentsphos-
phate and non-phosphate. On the label,
phosphate will be listed as phosphorus. Phos-
phate detergents are the most effective in
cleaning clothes.

Laundry Additives
There are several products that can be
used to assist in laundering. Each serves a
specific function.
The purposes of bleach are to:
help remove soil and stains.
help remove color from soil and stains.
help clean bleach-safe colors.
help whiten whites.
serve as a deodorizer.
serve as a disinfectant.
A bleach is designed to be used with a
detergent. It may be liquid or granular.
The purpose of an enzyme pre-soak is to
loosen fresh soil and stains. They are not
designed to be used in place of a detergent.
They may be granular or a spray.


The purposes of a fabric softener are to:
soften fabrics.
make fabrics fluffier and bulkier.
reduce static cling.
minimize wrinkling.
make pressing easier.
impart a fragrance.
reduce drying time.


Fabric softeners may be liquid or
disposable sheets. They may be:
part of the detergent.
added at the beginning of the washing
cycle.
added at the rinse cycle.
added in the dryer.
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Summary
When using any laundry product as an addi-
tive, it is important to carefully read and
follow label directions. In caring for your
clothing, always carefully read and follow
permanent care label directions. The best
brand, product and additive is the one that
performs for you.
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8


Project Requirements

To complete this project, do the following ac-
tivities. Place records of your work In a
notebook.


Dress to Keep Cool
Do Activity 1.
Do Activity 2 or 3.
1. Select clothing from your closet or
drawer for the following activities.
a. playing ball
b. bicycle riding
c. watching TV
d. going to the beach or swimming
pool
e. going to school
For each outfit answer the following:
What is the fiber content?
What is the color?
What is the texture?
What is the design?
Based on these questions, rate the gar-
ment as to how cool it would feel. If not a
good choice, what would make it a good one?
2. Collect five fabric swatches. Mount. For
each, tell if it would feel cool or warm
based on:
a. fiber content
b. color
c. texture
3. Collect five colored pictures of gar-
ments you like. Mount. For each tell if
the garment would feel warm or cool
based on:
a. color
b. texture
c. design or fit

Dress To Keep Warm
Do Activity 1.
Do Activity 2 or 3.
1. Select clothing from your closet or
drawer for the following activities:
a. jumping rope
b. playing ball
c. walking to school
d. riding a bicycle
e. sleeping
For each outfit, answer the following:
What is the fiber content?
What is the color?
What is the texture?
What is the design?
Based on the above questions, rate the gar-
ment as to how warm you would feel. If not a
good choice, what would make it a good one?
2. Collect five fabric swatches. Mount. For
each fabric tell if it would feel cool or
warm based on:
a. fiber content
b. color
c. texture
d. what type fabric is it?
breathing
insulating
protecting
3. Collect five colored pictures of gar-
ments you like. Mount. For each, tell if
the garment would feel cool or warm
based on:
a. color
b. texture
c. design or fit


Dress To Keep Cool and Dress To
Keep Warm
Do Activity 1 or 2.
1. Observe one animal as to how it stays
cool or warm. Discover as much as
possible. How does it stay cool or
warm? What does it eat? Where does it
live? What "body covering" does it
have? Compare the similarities and dif-
ferences to how you keep cool or warm.

2. Describe and evaluate one person's
clothing for your project report. In a
group session, evaluate the clothing as
to how cool or warm it would feel.

Caring For Your Clothes
Do Activity 1.
Do Activity 2 or 3.
1. Select a job or activity that deals with
caring for your clothes which uses
energy such as washing, drying, or iron-
9


ing. Find out how these tasks were done
in your grandparent's day. Compare how
the job or activity is done today and
record in your project report.
Go to the store and look at five
detergents. Find and record the follow-
ing:
a. name
b. amount of phosphorous
c. liquid, powder, tablet
d. amount to use for each load
e. water temperature recommended
Interview three individuals and record
the following in your project report:
a. How many loads of laundry they do
per week?
b. Which detergent they use and why?
c. Ways they are trying to save energy
when doing the laundry.
Project Requirements
Dress to Keep Cool
Complete Activity 1
Do Activity 2 or 3

Dress to Keep Warm
Complete Activity 1
Do Activity 2 or 3

Dress to Keep Warm or Cool
Do Activity 1 or 2

Caring for Your Clothes
Complete Activity 1
Do Activity 2 or 3

Show and Tell at least two other persons.
Give at least one demonstration or talk.
10


4-H FUNDAMENTAL FASHION FORMULA LEVEL I

Project Report
Year_______

Name_________________________________________________
Route or Street Address_________________________________________________^^^
City and State_____________________________^_________Zip q^^^___________________
Parent's Signature____________________________________
Age---------Grade in School---------Year in 4-H_________Year in this Project______
**ATTACH ADDITIONAL PAGES, IF NEEDED**
What did you learn about:
Dressing to Keep Cool?_______________________________________________

Dressing to Keep Warm?____________________________________________

Caring for Your Clothes?_________________________
What did you learn about laundry additives? Give one example.
What did you enjoy most about this project?
What did you learn about saving energy?
What did you learn about using detergents? Give one example..
How did you help others?
What demonstrations (D), exhibits (E), and/or talks (T) did you give?
Title Where Date
11


4-H story. Write a story about this project. Include why you took the project, what you learned,
problems you had, and what was the most fun.
* Attach reports for activities**
Prepared by: Nadine Hackler and Wilma B. Gordon January 1983
Professor Home Economics Information
Extension Clothing Specialist Specialist Energy
This public document was promulgated at a cost of $474.34, or 24 cents per copy, to provide information on dressing
cooler, dressing warmer, and how clothing care is related to energy use. 1-1.9M-83
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress;and is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-1-1 and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from i__________
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.


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