Title: 4-H Clothing Selection: Level III
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000334/00001
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Title: 4-H Clothing Selection: Level III
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Hackler, Nadine
Publisher: University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Cooperative Extension Services.
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Bibliographic ID: IR00000334
Volume ID: VID00001
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4-H 393
QO ii.
H 1 H
W f
Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean

Dear 4-Her:
Welcome to the third and last level of the 4-H
Clothing Selection Project. Briefly review Levels I
and II. Revise your paper on "How I Want To Look,"
if needed.
This final level is designed for you to put the
"pieces" together from Levels I and II and to learn
more about the following:
The importance of evaluating your appear-
The design principles and how they relate to
how you look.
How to use the design elements and design
principles to create "your look."
The role of accessories in your "total look."
How your hair is the "frame" for your face.
How the pa rts of what you wea r ma ke u p you r
Before you begin this level be sure that you have
decided on how you want to look. You may want
more than one look, depending on the occasion.
Hopefully your eye has now been trained to see
line, color, and texture and you are aware of the il-
lusions they are creating.
How you want to look is your choice, but we hope
that as you conclude this series of projects you are
"aware" of how you look.
Have fun in working with the more specifics of
line, color, and texure.
Nadine Hackler
Extension Clothing Specialist

4-H aothing Selection: Level ill
Design Principles
Take a good look at yourself, not just from the
waist up, but full length use a full-length mirror.
How do you look from head to toe? How do you
look from the front, each side, and back?
The four design principles are proportion, bal-
ance, emphasis, and rhythm. They are used to create
a harmonious look. Let's find out what they are and
how they can be used to help you create "your

There are two aspects of proportion: space and
scale. Space is the dividing of the figure. It is usually
more pleasing to have an unequal division. Scale re-
lates to the size of a garment, fabric design, or ac-
cessory being a size similar to the wearer. Here are
some Illustrations to clarify what we are talking
If the space (you) is divided exactly in half by
your clothing selection, it is uninteresting.
Now answer (in writing) these questions:
What do I like about the way I look?
What would I like to change?
What is my best feature?
What is my worst feature?
As you work through this level, make a list of ways
to emphasize your best feature and a list of ways to
camouflage your worst feature. Think creatively as
you work through the project.

Unequal spacing is more pleasing.
In scale, also think about small for small.
Spacing can be created through line, color, or tex-
In scale, think about large for large.
A large person looks out of proportion with a
very small handbag, belt, or eyeglasses.

A small person is overpcwvered with large bold
designs or large handbags.
Do you see how good proportion is more
Is scale Qppropriaie ?
Keep accesories in scale with your size.
Take a close look at the following examples.
Which are good proportion? Which are poor

Balance refers to a sense of equilibrium or stabil-
ity. It may be formal or informal. Formal balance is
exactly alike on both sides of an imaginary center.
Informal balance is different on each side of the
imaginary center.
formal Bo^lance
informal Balance

Sometimes when we think about balance, we
look only at line and accessories. We need to think
about color and texture, too; for example:
A better balance is achieved when darker colors
are lower and lighter colors are higher on the
Most individuals think that in clothing, informal
balance is more interesting. Their rationale is that
there is more variety. Which do you prefer?
Light shoes with a dark garment is seldom

Emphasis is one major idea, form or silhouette,
color or fabric, in an ensemble. It is used to call at-
tention to a certain area. If you try to emphasize
everything, you emphasize nothing! Think about
the following:
The most common point of emphasis is the
Se^ldom Desirable
The figure looks balanced when heavy tex-
tures are lower and light textures are higher.

Bold contrasts are best for evening or sports-
Too many centers of interest are confusing.
Too Many Cenfe^rs of Interest

Remember to call attention to your most flatter-
ing area. What do you want to emphasize? Which
of these ensembles is more pleasingly emphasized?

Rhythm is a pleasing sense of motion which gives
unity to a design. It is how the eye looks at your en-
semble smoothly from one part to the other, not
jumping around. Rhythm is produced through the
Continuous flowing lines.
Gradual change of size.
Gradual change of color
f\re Both nle^sinq ?

Rgure Sizes and Shapes
Now that you have studied line, color, and texture
in Levels I and II and have been exposed to the de-
sign principles, we need to put it all together Think
about the different shapes and sizes and look at
how they create different looks. To do this, start
looking closely at people and how they use line,
color, and texture then answer the following:
How do they look?
What are they emphasizing?
Are they making themselves look taller? heav-
ier? thinner? shorter?
How would you classify them?
Tall and slender
Tall and heavy.
Short and slender.
Short and heavy
Tall and thin.

The way in which line, color, and texture are used
can emphasize different looks. Think about the fol-

Tall and Slender. If you are tall and slender,
you can wear almost anything, however, to empha-
size height and slenderness, use:
Soft, curved, diagonal lines that are vertical.
Vertical lines and Y lines.
Unpressed vertical pleats or gathers.
One color
Designs in scale with you.
Plain textures.
Short and Heavy. If you are short and heavy
and want to look slimmer, use:
More closely spaced vertical lines to lead the
eye upward.
More vertical diagonal lines.
Slender silhouettes.
Long narrow lapels.
Narrow, V necklines.
Narrow, matching color belts.
Medium and darker colors.
Less intense colors.
One-color outfits with a bright emphasis at
Plain textures.
Soft fabrics with simple weaves or knit.
One-texture outfits.
Tall and Heavy. If you are tall and heavy and
want to look slimmer, select:
More vertical diagonal lines.
Vertical lines and Y lines.
Single-breasted closings.
Princess lines.
Slender silhouettes.
Medium and darker colors..
Less intense colors.
One color.
Matching belts.
Plain textures with close weaves, and knits.
Medium-weight fabrics that are soft.
Medium-sized designs.

Short and Slender. If you are short and slen-
der and want to accentuate your petiteness, use:
Y lines.
Vertical lines.
More vertical diagonal lines.
Closely spaced double-breasted closings.
Narrow and simple belts.
Unbroken seams.
Jackets that do not cut you in half
One color.
Small designs.
Light colors.
Softened bright colors.
One texture.
Soft or crisp texture.
Plain textures.
Tall and Thin. If you are tall and thin and want
to create an illusion of more width, use:
Horizontal and T lines.
More horizontal diagonal lines.
Well proportioned spaces.
Fuller silhouettes, but not too full.
Longer jackets.
Contrasting or wider belts.
More than one color
Bold prints and plaids.
Clear colors.
Fabrics with body.
Dull, napped, and nubby textures.
Larger Below the Waist. If you want to bal-
ance the look, use:
Interest above the waist neck and shoul-
der line.
Looser fitting blouses or shirts.
Flared skirts or pants with an easy fit.
Double-breasted dosures.
Gathers, tucks, yokes, or pockets above the
Horizontal or T lines above the waist.
Brighter colors above the waist, duller colors
Simple, plain textures below the waist.
Plain or muted designs below the waist.

Larger Above the Waist. If you want to bal-
ance the look, use:
Interest below the waist.
Vertical or Y lines above the waist.
Easy fit above waist.
Fuller skirts or pants.
Pants, or skirts with some emphasis such as
tabs, unusual pockets, contrasting stitching,
yokes, tucks, or gathers.
Semi-fitted jackets.
Horizontal lines below the waist.
Single-breasted dosures.
Solid color tops in subdued colors.
Light and bright colors below the waist.
Designed fabrics and heavier textures below
the waist.
Simple and plain textures above the waist.
Short Waisted. If you are short waisted and
want to create an illusion of a longer waist, use:
Overblouses or shirts and sweaters worn
outside skirts and pants.
Pants, skirts, and dresses without belts and
snug waistlines.
Same color in top and bottom.
Narrow self belts, worn slightly loose.
Narrow waistbands.
Vertical or Y lines above the waist.
Longer points on collars.
Vertical tucks above the waist.
Hip-length jackets that are loose or semi-
Smooth textures.
Long Waisted. If you are long-waisted and
want to create an illusion of a shorter waist, use:
Wide contrasting belts.
Wider bands on skirts and pants.
Fuller skirts and blouses.
Broad collars.
Horizontal lines above the waist, such as
yokes, pockets, or trim.
Short jackets.
Contrasting separates, either in color or de-
Contrasti ng textu re at the wa isti i ne.
Vertical lines below the waist.

Slim Physique. If you are slim and want to ap-
pear larger, use:
Horizontal, broken, or curved lines.
Loosely fitted garments.
Brighter and lighter colors.
Two or more color garments.
Wider belts.
Double-breasted closures.
Decorative details such as gathers, tucks,
piping, embroidery.
Lightweight fabrics and textures.
Short Physique. If you are short and want to
look taller, use:
Closely spaced vertical lines in center front.
Narrow lapels.
Simple styles.
Narrow, matching colored belts.
Subdued colors.
Matching color separates.
Lightweight fabrics.
Tall Physique. If you are tall and want to main-
tain your height, use:
Vertical lines more widely spaced.
Matching separates.
Soft colors.
Lightweight fabrics.
Smooth textures.
Slimmer silhouettes.
Heavy Physique. If you are heavy and want to
look slimmer, use:
Vertical lines.
Emphasis at the neckline.
Softer and more subdued colors.
Single-breasted closures.
Slim, not tight, silhouette.
Narrower lapels.
Matching separates.
Smooth lightweight textures.

Sliape Your Face
Your hair, neckline, and collar style influence the
shape of your face. The facial shapes are oval, round,
square, triangle, pear, diamond, and heart. The oval
shape is considered the ideal. Use optical illusion to
achieve this look.
For a slender face, have longer hair that is
worn in a fuller style. Straight and short hair
accentuates the slenderness.
For the oval face (considered the ideal and the
look other face shapes are trying to achieve
through illusion), wear hair full at the top and
closer to the sides for a vertical effect.

Your hairstyle provides three sides that frame your
face. It is frequently referred to as "your crown of
glory" What you do or do not do influences your
appearance. Think about the following in relation
to your face shape:
On a round face, create an angular illusion
with longer and fuller hair
For the square face, to lengthen and round off,
part your hair high and about halfway to the
crown. Add a soft wave or curl and wear hair
longer on the sides.

R)r the pear-shaped face, v\ar short hair that
is flat at the ears and has fullnes at the fore-
For the diamond-shaped face, use curis to co\r
dieeks with fullness at the temples and slightly
longer hair to cover ears.
For the heart-shaped face, wear side bangs
with fullness at the jawline and back of neck
that is medium to long.
Determine the best hairstyles for you.


Selecting a flattering neckline should be easy. Just
remember what you have learned about how to use
lines to create optical illusions. Again, look carefully
at your facial contours and select necklines to en-
hance your appearance. Your neckline is the fourth
side of the frame.
Necklines that shorten and widen will be round.
ThcKe that lengthen and narrow will be V- or U-
shaped; for example:
A surplice is attractive for everyone.
V necklines increase heighthow much is de-
pendent on their depth and angle at the
shoulder line. The more skin expo^d, the more
width added.
Lines which repeat facial contours emphasize
them, such as square to squarer and round to
Lines which are in sharp contrast to facial con-
tours also emphasize them, such as round to
square and square to round.

Necklines worn close to the neck shorten facial
Necklines with a dominant horizontal line add
Necklines with a dominant vertical line add
Cowl necklines can add length or width de-
pending upon their drape.
The difference between wearing a tie or
Your face is almost always the center of interest.
Your hair and garment neckline should form an at-
tractive frame. Determine the best neckline styles
for you.
The difference between a Peter Pan and con-
vertible collar for a round face.

Collars are added to a neckline. Because of their
outside edge, however, they create line illusions dif-
ferent from just a plain neckline. Think about the
The difference between a convertible collar
being buttoned or unbuttoned.

The difference between a collar high at the
neck and one (same style) lower.
only fit the physical structure of your feet, but also
should contribute to your total look.
The design elements color, line, texture re-
late to shcs, too. Leam how to use design to create
the desired look.

Plump Feet. If you have plump feet and would
like for them to appear slimmer, select:
Simple styles.
Low vamp.
Closed-in shoes.
Darker colors.
Plain, thin straps.
Look at the following collar styles. Which ones
would be becoming for the round face? The square
face? Ttie pear face? TTie oval face? The diamond
face? The heart face? The oblong face?
Thin Feet. If you have thin feet and would like
an illusion of added width, select:
Criss-cross straps.
Contrasting colors.
Contrasting leathers.
Decorative trim.
Detemnine the best collar styles for you.

Accesories, too, play an important part in how
you look. They should complement your garments
and add to the harmonious look.


Shoes are worn to protect your feet. They can
spoil the appearance of your outfit. They should not

Wide Feet. If you have wide feet and wou
like your feet to look slimmer, select:
Shoes with diagonal lines.
Shoes with side trim.
Closed-toed shoes.
Shoes that do not look bulky.
Thin soles.
Long Feet. If you have long feet and would like
an illusion of shorter length, select:
Open-toed shoes.
Open-heeled shoes.
Trim on the vamp.
Darker colors.
In addition, when you are selecting shoes to com-
plement and enhance your desired look remember
Light, bright, and shiny shoes call attention to
your feet and make them appear larger.
A tall person wearing flats may look awkward
and the feet will look larger.
A heavy person looks top heavy if wearing a
dainty shoe.
Heel heights should be in proportion to you.
For girls, they should also be in proportion to
the skirt length.
Dainty shoes should be worn with lighter
weight garments.
Heavy shoes should be worn with more bulky
Boots add bulk.
The socks you select to wear contribute to your
overall look. Here are a few guidelines:
White socks are for sportswear.
Coordinate the color of your socks to your
trousers and shoes.
Select the length of sock suited to the occa-
Shorter socks are for sportswear.
When seated and you cross your legs
"leg" should not be visible.


The handbag you select to carry should harmo-
nize with your clothing. For school and casual activ-
ities, select one that is durable, has simple lines, and
is in proportion to you.
In addition, remember to maintain the lines of the
handbag prevent bulging at the seams.
For parties and other social evenis select one that is
smaller and daintier.
Also, consider the type of line created by the way
you carry the handbag and by its style.
Which person has selected the most appropriate
handbag for sdiool?

Gloves come and go as an important fashion ac-
cessory. When you select them, remember that the
color and style of gloves worn depends on your out-
fit. Keep them simple in design and pleasing in color.
When selecting, think about
Straight-lined tailored gloves call less attention
to the size of the hand.
Contrasting color and very decorative gloves
make the hands look larger and may add width
at the hipline.

The dominant line and direction of the hat will add
height or width to your face.
Short gloves are usually more complimentary
to the short person.
The occasion, fashion, and sleeve length influ-
ence glove length and style.
Short gloves are usually worn for day wear
Long and above-the-elbow length gloves are
for formal wear.
When selecting gloves for winter, wear those
that are coordinated to your outer garment.


Fashion and the shape of your face should be con-
sidered when selecting a hat. Remember to select a
hat that does not overpower you with its color, size,
or trim. Select one that provides a pleasing frame for
your face and is in scale to your size; for example:
Avoid wearing a round hat if you have a round
Avoid selecting triangular crowns or angular
decoration if you have a sharp chin, nose, or
The right hat can complete your costume, flatter
you, and help you create a desired impression. When
selecting, consider the following:
A hat with extra width frames a larger than
average face.
Different brim widths and crown heights look
nice on the oval face.
Round contours and less sharply creased crowns
are more appealing on the slender face.
Turned-up brims are attractive on the short
Dark colors may appear heavy and make you
look older
Medium and light shades give a feeling of
being young.

Ties are the unifying point of your outfit. Select a
color that blends with your suit/sportcoat, pants,
and shirt. Be sure to select a color that enhances
your appearance. Here are some suggestions to

Select ties that are not narrow if you do not
want to call attention to your height. Ties that
are wider or have horizontal designs will be
more flattering.
Select small and neat designs if you are short.
Rememberthatbrightand shiny ties may over-
power you.
Select straight-line designs if you are heavy.
Patterned ties will help in balancing your size.
Remember to avoid ties with circular designs.
How can you know what length and width of tie
to select? The width of the tie is related to the width
of the jacket lapel and shirt collar V\fear narrow ties
with narrow lapel and collars and wear wider ties
with wider lapel and collars.
Ties should be long enough to almost reach the
beltline. How long a tie is may be related to the knot
you use. You should select the type of knot based on
your collar style and current fashion. A large knot
with a narrow collar and a small knot with a wide
collar is not pleasing.
Knotting is a matter of taste and fashion. Windsor
and Half-Windsor make a fuller knot. Four-in-hand
makes a smaller knot.
Some individuals prefer a bow tie, especially for
more fonnal occasions. They come in different widths,

Remember that a dash of color and pattern in
your tie can brighten an otherwise drab ensemble.
Pocket Handkerchiefs

Tuck a pocket handkerchief in your breast pocket
for a polished look. There are four main ways of use:
Puff is informal.
Petal is less formal than triangle and looks best
with a plain suit.
Multiple-point is flattering to dressier suitings.
Triangle is more formal.
Mufflers can add a pleasing effect to your ensem-
ble, besides adding wamith. Select a becoming color
and one that is in harmony with your clothing.
In almost every season one or more iscarves are
"in fashion." They can be used in dozens of ways.
Each shape of scarf square, long bias, rectangle,
or shaped provides a variety of possibilities for mak-
ing an exdting change in your look.
Scarves come in a variety of fibers and fabrics. You
have, also, a variety of designs from which to select.
They can be worn on your head, at your neck, under
a collar, at the waist, at the hipline, or draped over
a shoulder Think about:
Using a small square scarf.
Using a large square scarf
Using a long scarf

These can achieve interting effects and provide
a dazzling ^^e-catcher. Have fun experimenting with
different ways to use scarves to highlight your

Girls and jev\^lry have always gone together. In
recent i^ars boys, too, have found jewelry to be an
exciting accessory. It can make a statement about
your personality and can charm your ensemble.
When selecting jewelry consider its size, color,
and your facial shape; for example:
Chokers make a neck seem shorter and wider.
Long necklaces add length and slimness.
The larger the jewelry, the more bulk it adds.
Large button earrings add width.
Dangle earrings add length.
Select rings scaled to the size of i)ur hand.
Rings may add width or length to your hand.
Pins create a center of irrterest and give line
Cuff links should be in keeping with the style
and size of the cuff.

Tie bars add width.
Tie tacks provide interest.
Bracelets call attention to your wrist and hand.

Select jewelry that will complement your appear-
Describe how the lines would be interpreted in
Explain why each is flattering or unflattering to
each person.

Activity 2. Color and Texture

Draw your silhouette. Cut it out. Place ten color com-
binations and five texture combinations behind the
silhouette. (If possible, use fabric.)
Describe the effect of each.
Explain which would be most flattering.

Activity 3. Hue

Try on at least 30 solid-colored fabric swatches. De-
termine the hues most flattering for you. Make a
swatch color palette to carry when shopping.
To successfully complete this project, do the follow-
Complete activities 1,2 and 3.
Complete at least four of the activities
from 4 to 10.
Complete activity 11.
Project Requirements
Activity 1. Line Placement

Dress in a solid-colored outfit. Select two friends
whose shapes are different from yours. Identify the
three shapes as A, B, and C. Draw rectangles to re-
flect each shape. On each, place yarn or ribbon in the
ways illustrated below.
Activity 4. Design

Find five pictures of garments with large designs
that you like and five with small designs that you
like. Cut them out and mount them on paper
What is the line direction and its affect on size?
What is the effect of the color?
What is the effect of the design?
Explain why this design is or is not good for

Activity 5. Color

Find five pictures of garments with bright colors that
you like, five with dull colors, five with light colors,
and five with dark colors. Cut out and mount them
on paper
Identify the color in each.
Explain why the color is or is not flattering to you.

Activity 6. Enhancing Your Best

Identify your best features. List specific ways to en-
hance each of these.
Activity 7. Camouflaging Your

Identify the features you would like to camouflage.
List specific ways to accomplish this.

Activity 8. Proportion, Balance,
Rhythm, Emphasis

Find ten pictures of outfits you like. Cut them out
and mount them on paper Answer the following:
Why do you like them?
How pleasing the proportion is.
The type of balance.
How rhythm is achieved.
The center of emphasis.
Activity 9. Neckline and Collar Styles

Try on at least ten different neckline and collar styles.
Identify each by name.
Explain why each is flattering or unflattering.
Activity 10. Hairstyles

style your hair in five different styles.
Take a picture or do a sketch of each.
Explain why each is flattering or unflattering.
Which is your favorite? Why?

Activity 11. Achieving the "Look" You

Reread your paper on "How I Want to Look." Now
write specific ways in which you can achieve this
Necklines and Collars.
This publication has been prepared by Nadine Hackler, Professor-Extension Clothing Specialist, Department of
Home Economics; and Glinder Simmons, former Provisional Home Economics Extension Agent, October 1982.

This public document was promulgated at a cost of $1381.30, or 9 cents per copy, to provide Informa-
tion to 4-H youth on selecting clothing. 10-1.5M-82
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director. In cooperation vtflth the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30,1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.

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