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304 308 28 30 In
347 309 138 37 support
499 308 35 30 of
543 308 63 30 this
622 308 96 38 point,
736 308 171 30 reference
923 315 62 23 can
1003 308 41 30 be
1061 308 99 30 made
1174 309 32 29 to
1223 315 19 23 a
1257 309 170 29 comment
1441 308 100 30 made
1557 308 41 38 by
1610 308 56 30 the
1683 308 128 30 Leader
1824 308 35 30 of
1868 308 55 30 the
1939 308 195 38 Opposition
2152 308 26 30 in
303 356 173 30 Barbados
499 356 114 38 (2005)
635 356 102 38 Clyde
760 356 146 30 Mascoll.
948 356 48 30 He
1016 356 109 30 stated
1148 356 24 30 7
1191 363 64 23 can
1275 356 157 30 condone
1451 356 268 38 homosexuality
1735 356 155 30 because
1910 356 38 30 of
1961 356 56 30 the
2036 356 94 30 need
2146 356 33 30 to
301 404 74 38 give
392 404 56 30 the
465 404 175 30 individual
654 404 126 37 choice,
801 404 59 30 but
874 404 10 30 I
901 404 125 30 cannot
1041 411 64 23 see
1122 404 206 38 legitimising
1343 404 26 30 it
1406 404 10 30 I
1430 404 140 38 respect
1583 404 56 30 the
1654 404 102 38 rights
1773 404 38 30 of
1822 404 56 30 the
1895 404 174 30 individual
2084 404 69 30 and
2169 404 10 30 I
300 452 139 38 respect
451 452 56 30 the
522 452 101 38 rights
639 452 38 30 of
688 452 200 38 consenting
903 452 109 30 adults
1027 452 32 30 to
1076 452 43 30 do
1137 452 87 30 what
1237 452 80 38 they
1332 452 87 30 want
1432 452 32 30 to
1481 452 43 30 do
1540 452 30 30 in
1586 452 56 30 the
1656 452 134 38 privacy
1804 452 38 30 of
1852 452 82 30 their
1946 452 131 37 homes,
2097 452 59 30 but
2169 452 10 30 I
302 500 87 30 can't
405 507 64 23 see
488 500 124 38 myself
625 500 194 38 supporting
837 500 274 38 decriminalising
1127 500 164 38 buggery"
1313 500 128 38 (Nation
1463 500 209 38 Newspaper
1689 500 147 38 January
1853 500 77 30 29th
1951 500 114 38 2005).
2103 500 76 30 This
301 549 182 29 statement
509 555 146 31 appears
681 549 33 29 to
741 548 215 30 differentiate
984 548 219 38 "condoning"
1231 555 41 23 an
1302 548 125 38 activity
1452 548 81 30 from
1561 548 232 38 "legitimising"
1822 548 17 30 it
1866 548 64 30 and
1960 548 125 38 implies
2111 548 69 30 that
301 596 306 30 decriminalisation
625 596 186 30 advocates
828 603 56 23 are
902 596 177 38 proposing
1095 596 188 38 something
1303 603 90 23 more
1408 596 78 30 than
1504 596 231 38 "respectpng]
1746 596 56 30 the
1817 596 101 38 rights
1933 596 38 30 of
1981 596 200 38 consenting
302 644 109 30 adults
437 644 32 30 to
497 644 43 30 do
568 644 88 30 what
678 644 80 38 they
783 644 88 30 want
894 644 30 30 in
950 644 56 30 the
1032 644 134 38 privacy
1190 644 38 30 of
1248 644 84 30 their
1354 644 147 30 homes".
1554 644 161 38 Although
1743 644 55 30 the
1827 644 203 30 clarification
2059 644 36 30 of
2117 644 62 30 this
303 692 322 38 misunderstanding
654 692 99 38 might
780 693 54 29 not
861 692 205 38 necessarily
1092 692 85 30 have
1204 692 228 38 substantially
1458 692 145 30 reduced
1629 692 56 30 the
1713 692 102 30 levels
1842 692 35 30 of
1900 692 196 38 opposition,
2123 692 56 30 the
303 740 225 30 identification
548 740 35 30 of
596 740 100 30 these
714 740 245 38 shortcomings
979 740 26 30 in
1023 740 56 30 the
1098 740 153 38 question
1270 741 159 29 structure
1449 740 95 38 helps
1561 741 32 29 to
1615 740 239 30 contextualise
1871 740 62 30 this
1954 740 72 38 high
2048 740 80 30 level
2148 740 35 30 of
302 788 196 38 opposition.
301 884 69 30 The
389 885 75 29 next
481 884 113 38 logical
611 884 154 38 question
782 884 69 30 that
868 884 107 30 arises
994 884 120 30 relates
1130 885 33 29 to
1179 884 56 30 the
1253 885 111 29 extent
1378 885 33 29 to
1427 884 103 30 which
1550 891 143 31 persons
1713 884 26 30 in
1759 884 174 30 Barbados
1951 891 55 23 are
2026 891 101 29 more,
2147 891 36 23 or
303 932 69 30 less
389 932 155 38 opposed
560 933 33 29 to
609 932 306 30 decriminalisation
931 932 78 30 than
1029 932 25 30 is
1069 932 55 30 the
1141 939 85 23 case
1244 932 26 30 in
1288 932 94 30 other
1396 932 165 30 countries
1576 932 111 30 where
1706 932 219 30 homosexual
1942 933 73 29 acts
2032 939 56 23 are
2105 932 72 30 also
303 980 111 38 illegal.
449 980 100 30 Since
565 980 93 30 there
677 980 26 30 is
722 987 41 23 no
780 980 78 30 data
877 980 160 30 available
1055 980 81 30 from
1154 980 94 30 other
1263 980 187 30 Caribbean
1466 980 227 38 jurisdictions,
1714 980 171 30 reference
1902 987 72 23 was
1993 980 99 30 made
2108 981 33 29 to
2159 987 19 23 a
301 1027 108 30 series
429 1027 35 30 of
481 1027 116 38 Gallup
615 1027 81 38 polls
716 1027 187 30 conducted
924 1027 26 30 in
968 1027 56 30 the
1045 1027 82 30 USA
1143 1027 103 30 which
1267 1027 229 38 conveniently
1513 1027 90 30 track
1619 1027 56 30 the
1692 1027 172 30 American
1885 1027 132 30 attitude
2035 1027 144 30 towards
300 1075 63 30 this
383 1082 99 23 same
504 1075 102 30 issue.
647 1075 28 30 In
695 1075 55 30 the
769 1075 173 30 American
964 1076 140 35 context,
1128 1075 219 30 homosexual
1368 1076 72 29 acts
1462 1075 153 30 between
1636 1075 197 38 consenting
1856 1075 106 30 males
1984 1075 85 30 have
2091 1075 86 30 been
301 1123 262 30 decriminalised
580 1124 32 29 at
625 1123 55 30 the
696 1124 87 29 state
800 1123 81 30 level
896 1123 104 30 either
1012 1123 131 38 directly
1157 1130 36 23 or
1207 1123 41 38 by
1260 1130 74 31 way
1348 1123 35 30 of
1396 1123 121 30 human
1535 1123 97 38 rights
1648 1123 195 38 challenges
1860 1123 26 30 in
1901 1123 59 30 the
1976 1124 109 29 courts
2102 1130 80 23 over
300 1171 56 30 the
377 1171 61 30 last
456 1171 43 30 45
519 1178 109 31 years,
650 1171 108 30 hence
776 1171 56 30 the
851 1171 154 38 question
1026 1171 107 30 asked
1154 1171 224 38 respondents
1400 1171 20 30 if
1434 1171 55 30 the
1510 1172 72 29 acts
1602 1171 148 30 "should'
1772 1171 41 30 be
1834 1171 83 38 legal
1938 1171 189 38 regardless
2147 1171 35 30 of
300 1219 149 30 whether
462 1226 36 23 or
511 1220 55 29 not
578 1219 63 30 this
657 1219 111 30 is/was
782 1219 56 30 the
853 1226 94 23 case.
303 1314 113 38 Figure
435 1314 42 30 02
497 1315 155 37 presents
669 1314 62 30 this
753 1314 116 38 Gallup
885 1314 78 30 data
982 1314 65 30 and
1066 1314 250 30 demonstrates
1332 1314 69 30 that
1419 1314 26 30 in
1468 1314 86 30 1977
1571 1314 56 30 the
1644 1314 173 30 American
1838 1314 106 38 public
1959 1321 72 23 was
2048 1314 128 30 divided
302 1369 41 23 on
364 1362 56 30 the
443 1362 92 30 issue
555 1362 71 30 with
648 1362 79 30 43%
751 1362 96 38 being
869 1362 189 38 supportive
1080 1362 64 30 and
1167 1369 19 23 a
1207 1362 121 30 similar
1347 1362 140 30 number
1506 1362 165 38 opposed.
1713 1362 69 30 The
1802 1362 66 30 first
1891 1362 115 38 Gallup
2027 1362 60 38 poll
2107 1369 72 23 was
302 1410 187 30 conducted
505 1410 111 38 during
632 1410 55 30 the
704 1410 63 30 70s
781 1410 96 30 when
893 1417 100 23 some
1008 1411 108 29 states
1130 1410 57 30 still
1204 1410 198 30 maintained
1419 1410 172 38 "sodomy"
1608 1410 77 30 laws
1702 1410 64 30 and
1781 1410 56 30 the
1852 1410 150 30 data-set
2014 1410 165 30 therefore
300 1459 110 30 tracks
425 1459 56 30 the
499 1466 157 31 progress
673 1459 35 30 of
723 1459 106 38 public
844 1459 129 38 opinion
990 1459 81 30 from
1087 1459 68 30 that
1172 1459 87 38 point
1276 1466 42 31 up
1332 1460 33 29 to
1380 1459 56 30 the
1455 1460 135 37 present
1605 1459 151 30 situation
1773 1459 105 30 which
1898 1459 25 30 is
1940 1466 19 23 a
1976 1459 50 30 full
2043 1459 19 30 7
2080 1466 98 31 years
302 1506 83 30 after
402 1506 55 30 the
480 1506 62 30 last
561 1507 54 29 set
636 1506 35 30 of
689 1506 170 38 "sodomy"
882 1506 78 30 laws
980 1513 88 23 were
1089 1506 110 30 struck
1219 1506 95 30 down
1338 1506 26 30 in
1386 1506 111 30 Texas
1521 1506 125 38 (2003).
1690 1506 18 30 It
1729 1513 62 23 can
1815 1506 41 30 be
1877 1513 86 23 seen
1984 1506 69 30 that
2075 1506 106 38 public
302 1554 185 38 opposition
512 1555 33 29 to
572 1554 83 38 legal
680 1554 151 30 sanction
860 1554 62 30 has
947 1554 156 30 softened
1130 1561 80 23 over
1231 1554 56 30 the
1314 1561 98 31 years
1438 1554 64 30 and
1530 1555 271 29 commensurate
1829 1555 137 37 support
1992 1554 185 36 increased;
303 1602 155 30 however
475 1602 56 30 the
553 1602 53 30 US
629 1602 25 30 is
675 1602 119 38 clearly
814 1609 19 23 a
854 1609 77 31 very
950 1602 149 30 different
1119 1602 226 30 environment
1363 1603 33 29 to
1416 1602 56 30 the
1494 1602 187 30 Caribbean
1705 1602 107 30 based
1834 1609 41 23 on
1896 1602 100 30 these
2017 1602 88 30 data.
2148 1602 28 30 In
301 1650 100 36 2003,
422 1650 79 30 60%
523 1657 36 23 or
576 1650 20 30 6
617 1651 55 29 out
691 1650 35 30 of
742 1657 100 31 every
863 1650 41 30 10
923 1650 195 30 Americans
1139 1650 149 30 believed
1308 1650 69 30 that
1397 1650 220 30 homosexual
1638 1651 72 29 acts
1730 1650 118 30 should
1871 1650 41 30 be
1934 1650 83 38 legal
2036 1650 92 30 while
2150 1650 27 30 in
303 1698 173 30 Barbados
493 1698 26 30 in
534 1698 69 30 that
616 1705 99 23 same
730 1705 80 31 year
822 1698 56 30 6%
895 1705 36 23 or
943 1698 54 30 0.6
1014 1705 143 31 persons
1173 1699 55 29 out
1242 1698 35 30 of
1289 1705 99 31 every
1404 1698 40 30 10
1459 1698 181 38 supported
1656 1698 317 30 decriminalisation.
567 1832 162 41 Should
749 1832 293 41 Homosexual
1058 1835 102 38 Acts
1178 1835 208 38 Between
1404 1833 269 50 Consenting
1687 1832 154 41 Adults
1858 1832 55 41 be
2126 1826 4 67 {
890 1901 286 54 Legal/Illegal
1194 1903 115 51 (USA
1327 1903 265 51 1977-2010)
887 2015 25 25
923 2011 112 29 Should
1050 2011 38 29 be
1103 2013 101 27 LEGAL
1262 2015 25 25 H
1298 2011 112 29 Should
1425 2011 38 29 be
1478 2013 129 27 ILLEGAL
479 2118 27 16 sp
1041 2115 28 14 ON
479 2132 28 14 ON
760 2135 27 16 sp
1041 2131 27 19 O
479 2148 27 18 00
760 2150 28 13 ON
1041 2152 27 18 ID
734 2235 75 47
1014 2235 76 44
1321 2238 27 17 "^
1415 2246 28 28 ^
1602 2243 27 39 ^
1883 2246 28 28 ^
1976 2246 28 28 ^
392 2264 232 440 it
720 2184 456 520 yi
1288 2272 176 432 II
1568 2288 504 416 lUL
499 2761 81 27 2010
779 2761 81 27 2006
1060 2761 80 27 2003
1343 2761 78 27 1999
1623 2761 78 27 1989
1904 2761 78 27 1977
303 2864 93 32 Figure
407 2865 25 24 2:
444 2863 104 26 Should
562 2863 187 26 Homosexual
760 2865 66 24 Acts
837 2863 134 26 between
983 2864 172 32 Consenting
1165 2863 98 26 Adults
1275 2863 36 26 be
1324 2861 184 35 Legal/Illegal
1520 2863 75 33 (USA
1605 2863 110 33 Gallup)
301 2949 69 30 The
387 2949 170 38 foregoing
574 2949 79 30 data
671 2949 64 30 and
754 2949 233 38 comparisons
1005 2949 110 38 speak
1129 2950 33 29 to
1178 2949 55 30 the
1251 2949 138 38 specific
1406 2949 92 30 issue
1516 2949 35 30 of
1564 2949 317 36 decriminalisation;
1902 2949 155 30 however
2070 2949 63 30 this
2152 2949 25 30 is
302 2997 74 38 only
402 3004 66 23 one
496 2997 35 30 of
553 2997 131 30 several
712 2998 223 37 components
962 2997 102 30 which
1092 2997 110 38 speak
1227 2998 32 29 to
1285 2997 56 30 the
1369 2997 132 30 attitude
1529 2997 35 30 of
1589 2997 206 30 Barbadians
1825 2997 64 30 and
1919 2997 17 30 it
1964 2997 25 30 is
2015 2997 164 30 therefore
303 3046 170 38 important
485 3047 33 29 to
533 3046 157 30 consider
701 3046 55 30 the
773 3046 70 30 less
859 3046 72 38 rigid
949 3046 173 30 indicators
1138 3046 180 38 presented
1335 3046 26 30 in
1378 3046 94 30 other
1484 3046 150 30 sections
1649 3046 35 30 of
1694 3046 55 30 the
1766 3047 113 37 report.
300 3263 160 30 Attitudes
474 3263 122 30 toward
613 3263 248 30 Homosexuals
877 3263 27 30 in
921 3263 174 30 Barbados
1925 3263 92 38 Page
2034 3263 40 30 10
2090 3263 35 30 of
2136 3263 43 30 27





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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000287/00001
 Material Information
Title: Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Caribbean Development Researchers Inc
Publisher: Caribbean Development Researchers Inc
Place of Publication: Barbados
 Notes
Funding: Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.
 Record Information
Source Institution: Caribbean IRN
Holding Location: Caribbean IRN
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
System ID: IR00000287:00001


This item has the following downloads:

( PDF )


Full Text
IN
Report prepared by
CADRES

carbbeanIiI^lopment
RESEAIK^yERyiCeS INC.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
SYNOPSIS..............................................................................................................................................3
INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS.....................................................................5
SURVEY DEMOGRAPHICS...................................................................................................................7
Table 01: Parish of Residence............................................................................................................7
Table 02: Sex of Respondents............................................................................................................7
Table 03: Race of Respondents.........................................................................................................7
Table 04: Age of Respondents...........................................................................................................7
Table 05: Employment Status of Respondent....................................................................................7
Table 06: Income of Respondents......................................................................................................8
Table 07: Marital Status of Respondent..............................................................................................8
Table 08: Number of Children.............................................................................................................8
Table 09: Religion of Respondents.....................................................................................................8
Table 10: Highest Level of Education of Respondents.......................................................................8
VIEWS ON DECRIMINALISATION........................................................................................................9
PERCEPTIONS OF HOMOSEXUALS.................................................................................................11
ATTITUDINAL ISSUES........................................................................................................................13
Table 12: Ranking of Attitudes toward Homosexuals {Prefer Not...)................................................14
ATTITUDE TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALS IN A WORD.......................................................................18
COMPARATIVE BARBADIAN ATTITUDES.......................................................................................21
APPENDICES.......................................................................................................................................22
Appendix I.........................................................................................................................................22
Survey Excerpts................................................................................................................................22
Appendix II........................................................................................................................................25
2003 Survey Question.......................................................................................................................25
Appendix III.......................................................................................................................................26
Demographic Impact on Attitude Towards Homosexuals {Prefer Not...)..........................................26

Figure 1: Support for Decriminalisation of Homosexual Acts (Barbados 2003).....................................9
Figure 2: Should Homosexual Acts between Consenting Adults be Legal/Illegal (USA Gallup)..........10
Figure 3: What does the word Homosexual mean to you?...................................................................11
Figure 4: How would you feel about having a Homosexual as.............................................................13
Figure 5: Gender and Attitudes toward Homosexuals..........................................................................15
Figure 6: Age Group and Attitudes toward Homosexuals.....................................................................16
Figure 7: Marital Status and Attitudes toward Homosexuals................................................................17
Figure 8: Religion and Attitudes toward Homosexuals.........................................................................17
Figure 9: HATE Homosexuals..............................................................................................................18
Figure 10: TOLERATE Homosexuals...................................................................................................19
Figure 11: ACCEPT Homosexuals.......................................................................................................19
Figure 12: Comparative Barbadian Attitudes........................................................................................21
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 2 of 27


SYNOPSIS
This study examines the attitude towards homosexuals in the independent post-colonial island of
Barbados in an effort to establish a historical base-line that could inspire further research on this
issue. It draws primarily on nation-wide quantitative surveys that were executed in 2003 and 2004.
These included relevant questions but were not exclusively focused on issues of homosexuality.
Initially the study sought to determine the way in which most Barbadians perceived homosexuals and
discovered that persons largely saw it as a "male" preoccupation, which partially explains the
comparatively greater concerns of men that were interviewed.

The main survey (2004) used simple indicators to gauge attitudes and was informed by an earlier
survey (2003) which sought to determine the public's attitudes toward decriminalisation. The outcome
of the 2003 decriminalisation survey indicated clearly that there was little if any support for the
decriminalisation of homosexual acts; however the 2004 survey demonstrated that this single
question only told part of the story of Barbadian attitudes.

The 2004 investigation which is presented here demonstrates that "negative" attitudes toward
homosexuals are prevalent within a relatively small section of the Barbadian population, while the vast
majority of Barbadians are either tolerant or accepting of homosexuals. This essentially means that
Barbadians have disaggregated their strong views on the retention of a legal prohibition against
homosexual acts, from their attitude towards homosexuals generally, which is considerably more soft.

This mental separation of what should be two related issues appears illogical but speaks volumes
about the extent to which Barbadians have accepted religious and traditional doctrines without
question and given little rational thought to this issue. Therefore when confronted with individuals that
they have no logical reason to dislike. Barbadians retreat to their human values but nonetheless feel
the need to publicly assert their philosophical opposition to what they see as a "lifestyle". This
apparent contradiction is aptly reflected in a phrase that is often quoted in response to these issues
"Love the sinner but hate the sin".

Apart from highlighting this "gap" in the Barbadian logic, the study also helps to explain the rationale
behind our attitude towards homosexuals and this seems to be located in the twin issues of fear and
concern. There is obvious concern for the homosexual who the public "fears for" or is "concerned
about and there is also a fear "of the homosexual which could be located in that person's apparent
proclivity to be predatory, or to the extent that the homosexual could have the capacity to improperly
influence societal norms.

The study revealed a major preoccupation with even the most "liberal" persons that their children and
to a lesser extent their families should NOT be homosexual, while there was comparatively less
concern about the other categories (like "Friends" and "Employees"). This pattern was clearly
influenced first and foremost by concern for the homosexual {"Children" and "Family") and secondarily
fear of the homosexual (Teachers and politicians). The fact that there was generally little concern
about homosexual "Friends" supports the argument that Barbadians are not instinctively homophobic
but this fear is rooted in an emotional bond or power relationship.

The other major finding of this study is the identification of demographic variables that appear to
influence a person's attitude towards homosexuals. The survey demonstrates that women are
generally more comfortable with homosexuals than men and similarly young adults are more
comfortable than older persons. It is interesting that the age divide here is more 18-50 as distinct
from 51 and over since the separation between the views of the 18-30s and the 31-50s is not clearly
reflected in their different opinions. The impact of income and education is; however clear since
persons who were better educated and who earned more money in the survey appeared more
comfortable with homosexuals.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 3 of 27


The final section of the report attempts to compare Barbadian attitudes toward homosexuals with their
attitudes toward other controversial issues such as the decriminalisation of Marijuana (Ganja); the
Death Penalty and Corporal Punishment of Children. This comparison did NOT establish any
statistically verifiable relationship, but it does demonstrate that Barbadians are considerably more
opposed to the decriminalisation of homosexual acts than any of the other major issues engaged in
the survey. This section also supports the argument that there is some distance between the stated
Barbadian position on several of these moral issues and their practices.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 4 of 27


INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS
This report speaks mainly to data that was collected in 2004 as part of a national "omnibus" survey
conducted by students of the Qualitative Research Methods course of the UWI, Cave Hill. Students
in this course were supervised in survey design, data collection and tabulation by the Director of
CADRES who was at that time also the course Director. The project associated with these data
required that students identify research issues; design suitable questions; collect data from a
representative cross-section of Barbadians and thereafter prepare reports on select themes. The
report that follows draws on data collected by students but makes no reference to the related report
which was associated with a University examination and could not be referenced in a report of this
nature. The fact that the issue of attitudes toward homosexuals was included in this omnibus study
reflects the fact that students in that year were interested in examining the issue and it is noteworthy
that similar interest was reflected in the qualitative aspect of the course which was conducted in the
previous semester {September-December 2003).

The survey employed a stratified random sample of Barbados which identified as primary strata:

Age;
Gender; and
Parish of Residence

In addition, several other demographic categories were identified and collated, however the survey
was not designed to replicate these characteristics in a manner that was proportionate to the
population of Barbados. Data that are presented in these instances would therefore bear some
relation to the national scenario, but would not be a conclusive indicator of the extent to which that
variable is present in the population of Barbados.

Interviewers were each assigned areas based on a random selection of polling divisions in each
electoral constituency. Constituencies are roughly equal divisions of the national population and
polling divisions are equal divisions of constituencies. These are therefore the most practical
mechanism to match the national distribution of residents. In each instance interviewers selected 12
households in a random matter {one in three) and conducted one face to face interview at each of
twelve households.

The analysis that follows arises from these cases which were 1,457 in total and in this instance the
analysis relies upon three specific questions that are presented in Appendix I. These questions were
designed to elicit the respondents' understanding of the term "homosexual" and moreover their
attitude to homosexuals. The manner in which these variables are analysed is quite simple and
designed to determine the extent to which perceptions are present in the population and also the
demographic factors that impact on these perceptions. The latter issue is explored by reference to
the Chi square test for independence which establishes the extent to which there is a relationship
between two variables or if such variables are independent of each other.

In addition to the main survey, reference was also made to a second CADRES Survey conducted in
Barbados during January of 2003 along with Gallup poll data that speaks to relevant public opinion in
the United States of America at various points in time. Both of these surveys are representative of the
populations that they speak to and fall within the +/- 5% margin of error which facilitates comparison
with the main data-set which has a comparable confidence level.

Although this study is seminal it does have several limitations and the most obvious of these is the
"age" of the main data-set, which was collected in 2004. Clearly the survey does not speak to
contemporary attitudes, but speaks instead to the attitudes that prevailed in 2004. In this regard it is
useful to note that social attitudes of this variety are like the attitudes to capital punishment, corporal
punishment and smoking and hence are more likely to be modified in one direction overtime. This is
to some extent supported by reference to the US/Gallup data which reflects an "improvement in the
attitude of Americans towards legally sanctions homosexual relations between 1977 and 2010. We
can therefore assume that if this study were repeated in Barbados now, attitudes would have
"improved' which is to say that Barbadians are likely to be less "homophobic", making this study
reflective of a "worst case" scenario which is useful to chronicle.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 5 of 27


Another major limitation relates to the fact that the survey was "one-off in Barbados alone and as a
result there is no capacity to establish trends over time or make comparisons between Caribbean
islands. In this regard also the survey will serve as a starting point or "base-line" and would facilitate
comparisons if the study is replicated elsewhere.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 6 of 27


SURVEY DEMOGRAPHICS
Table 01: Parish of Residence
St. Lucy 1.6%
St. Andrew 0.8%
Christ Church 11.7%
St. Peter 3.3%
St. James 8.2%
St. Thomas 4.1%
St. George 5.8%
St. Michael 48.0%
St. Phillip 9.9%
St. John 2.5%
St. Joseph 4.1%
In this section data is presented largely for purposes of
information, however these demographic categories are used
later in the analysis to determine the extent to which
relationships exist between the different demographic variables.
Table 01 speaks to the percentage of the national sample that
was contributed by each Parish of the country. In this instance it
is important to note that different quantities of persons live in
individual parishes, hence the survey took equal quantities from
the political constituency boundaries which were more
consistently proportioned.

Table 02 speaks to the sex of the respondent and it can be seen
that there are slightly more women than men in Barbados and
this is consistent with the national scenario.
Table 02: Sex of Respondents

Male 49.4%

Female 50.6%
The race of respondents is presented in table 03 and this also appears to match the local profile. Afro
Barbadians are the single largest racial group in Barbados hence one would expect that their opinions
to be more profound in the survey.
Table 03: Race of Respondents

Afro 88.1%

Anglo 1.9%

Sino 0.3%

Indo 1.0%

Mixed 8.0%

Other 0.8%
Table 04: Age of Respondents

18-30 years 34.5%

31-50 34.6%

51 and over 30.8%
The age distribution in the survey {like gender) is deliberate and
matches the national profile, with the older group being
smallest and the younger groups being largest.
Table 05: Employment Status of Respondent
Yes, Employed (full- -time) 45.5%
Yes, Employed (part-tine) 8.4%
Housewife/HousehL isband 4.1%
Unemployed 9.1%
Student 8.0%
Retired 12.3%
Self Employed 11.7%
OtherAA/on't say 0.9%
Table 05 speaks to employment and presents
the quantity of respondents that were employed,
unemployed and otherwise engaged. Since the
survey was largely an adult survey, the largest
quantity was employed full or part time, however
the 10% student component could reflect the
youngest persons in the sample.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 7 of 27


The income of respondents presented in Table 06 should be interpreted with some caution since one-
quarter of respondents did not respond to this question. This is normal in surveys across the region
where people are hesitant to speak about their income level.
Table 06: Income of Respondents
Table 07: Marital Status of Respondent

Single 56.9%

Married 31.7%

Divorced 5.6%

Widowed 5.4%
Table 07 suggests that one-third of respondents are married
while the majority are single. The analysis that follows would
therefore best speak to a comparison of these two categories
of persons.

Table 08 is presented slightly differently and therefore reflects the cumulative number of children that
each person interviewed had at the time. We can therefore see that half of those interviewed had at
least one child, while one third had none. This section was re-coded elsewhere in the analysis to
reflect those who "had' children and "did not have" children.
$2,000 30.7%
$2,000-$3,000 18.5%
$3,000-$4,000 8.4%
$4,001-$5,000 3.0%
Over $5,000 3.0%
Won't say 25.5%
N/A 10.9%
Table 09: Religion of Respondents
Practicing Christian 56.5%
Non Practicing Christian 35.2%
Muslim 0.9%
Jewish 0.3%
Rastafarian 3.2%
Baha'i 0.1%
Atheist 0.8%
Agnostic 2.3%
Finally tables 09 and 10 present the education and religion of
respondents and highlight Christianity at the most popular religion
with a significant number of Christians claiming to be "non-
practising".
Table 10: Highest Level of Education of Respondents

Primary 12.8%

Secondary 41.0%

Post-Secondary 10.4%

TechnicalA/ocational 10.2%

Tertiary 25.5%
Table 08: Number of Children
Percentage Cumulative Percentage
0 30.5% 30.5%
1 20.9% 51.4%
2 20.3% 71.7%
3 13.4% 85.1%
4 7.2% 92.2%
5 3.3% 95.6%
6 1.7% 97.3%
7 1.2% 98.5%
8 0.5% 99.0%
9 0.3% 99.4%
10 0.3% 99.7%
11 0.1% 99.8%
13 0.1% 99.9%
16 0.1% 100.0%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 8 of 27


VIEWS ON DECRIMINALISATION
The extent to which people feel that homosexual acts should be legal is a good indicator of people's
attitude towards homosexuals especially in a country like Barbados where the legal infrastructure is
widely perceived to frown on such activity. In Barbados homosexual acts that can be classified as
"buggery" are deemed to be illegal and can attract up to 15 years imprisonment, however such
prosecutions and convictions are rare. In addition to the buggery/sodomy issue, there is also the
broader issue of the definition and perception of "indecency" under the laws of Barbados which can
facilitate a substantially more broad legal net that could easily embrace the sexual practices and
general lifestyles of homosexuals. The issues that emanate from this legal environment are
numerous, but are not the central focus of this paper which speaks to attitudinal issue.
Notwithstanding, this investigation initially speaks to a 2003 CADRES survey which asked Barbadians
if they would support the "decriminalisation of homosexual acts".

Figure 01 speaks to these data and demonstrates that 87% of Barbadians opposed the
decriminalisation of homosexual acts between male consenting adults. There was virtually no support
for decriminalisation in this survey since only 6% supported it and 7% were not sure which amounts to
a complete rejection in statistical terms. In instances like this where there is unanimity, it is not normal
for there to be any strong correlations regarding any demographic factor that could impact on this
opinion and this is the case here as well. As it relates to both gender and age there is no statistically
sound correlation present in the data; however there is a statistically insignificant observation that
demonstrates that women and younger people are slightly more inclined to support decriminalisation.
Support for Decriminalisation of Homosexual Acts
(Barbados 2003)

Support Decriminalisation H Oppose Decriminalisation U Unsure/Won't say
J___L
]___L
Barbados
All
Male
Female 18-30 Years 31-50 Years 51 and Over
Gender
Age Group
Figure 1: Support for Decriminalisation of Homosexual Acts (Barbados 2003)
This high level of opposition to decriminalisation conveys the impression that Barbados is an
extremely intolerant society, which is highly debatable and in this regard issues of definition and
comparison emerge. Regarding definition, it should be noted that the 2003 CADRES survey asked
Barbadians "Do you think that homosexual acts between male consenting adults should be
decriminalized or made legal in Barbados?" which appears at first blush to be a relatively definitive
question. Subsequent discussions with interviewers, as well as public discourse on the issue,
however revealed the fact that Barbadians often confuse decriminalisation with personal support for
homosexuality and moreover believe that decriminalisation is akin to support for "Gay Marriage".
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 9 of 27


In support of this point, reference can be made to a comment made by the Leader of the Opposition in
Barbados (2005) Clyde Mascoll. He stated 7 can condone homosexuality because of the need to
give the individual choice, but I cannot see legitimising it I respect the rights of the individual and I
respect the rights of consenting adults to do what they want to do in the privacy of their homes, but I
can't see myself supporting decriminalising buggery" (Nation Newspaper January 29th 2005). This
statement appears to differentiate "condoning" an activity from "legitimising" it and implies that
decriminalisation advocates are proposing something more than "respectpng] the rights of consenting
adults to do what they want in the privacy of their homes". Although the clarification of this
misunderstanding might not necessarily have substantially reduced the levels of opposition, the
identification of these shortcomings in the question structure helps to contextualise this high level of
opposition.

The next logical question that arises relates to the extent to which persons in Barbados are more, or
less opposed to decriminalisation than is the case in other countries where homosexual acts are also
illegal. Since there is no data available from other Caribbean jurisdictions, reference was made to a
series of Gallup polls conducted in the USA which conveniently track the American attitude towards
this same issue. In the American context, homosexual acts between consenting males have been
decriminalised at the state level either directly or by way of human rights challenges in the courts over
the last 45 years, hence the question asked respondents if the acts "should' be legal regardless of
whether or not this is/was the case.

Figure 02 presents this Gallup data and demonstrates that in 1977 the American public was divided
on the issue with 43% being supportive and a similar number opposed. The first Gallup poll was
conducted during the 70s when some states still maintained "sodomy" laws and the data-set therefore
tracks the progress of public opinion from that point up to the present situation which is a full 7 years
after the last set of "sodomy" laws were struck down in Texas (2003). It can be seen that public
opposition to legal sanction has softened over the years and commensurate support increased;
however the US is clearly a very different environment to the Caribbean based on these data. In
2003, 60% or 6 out of every 10 Americans believed that homosexual acts should be legal while in
Barbados in that same year 6% or 0.6 persons out of every 10 supported decriminalisation.
Should Homosexual Acts Between Consenting Adults be {
Legal/Illegal (USA 1977-2010)
Should be LEGAL H Should be ILLEGAL
sp ON
ON sp O
00 ON ID
"^ ^ ^ ^ ^



it yi II lUL
2010 2006 2003 1999 1989 1977
Figure 2: Should Homosexual Acts between Consenting Adults be Legal/Illegal (USA Gallup)
The foregoing data and comparisons speak to the specific issue of decriminalisation; however this is
only one of several components which speak to the attitude of Barbadians and it is therefore
important to consider the less rigid indicators presented in other sections of the report.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 10 of 27


PERCEPTIONS OF HOMOSEXUALS
Initially the meaning of the word "homosexuaf was explored by way of a question that asked "What
does the word homosexual mean to you" and the overall results are presented in figure 03 below. In
this instance respondents were given three options and asked to select the one they think best
reflects their personal understanding. Interviewers were instructed to explain that there was no
correct or incorrect answer and respondents should simply state their opinion.

The vast majority of respondents (68%) selected the option that interprets the word homosexual to
mean "a person that likes the same sex" which is the conventional and proper definition of the word.
31% of Barbadians were more inclined to the more colloquial understanding that sees the word as
identifying a relationship between two men and only a faction (2%) expressed the view that the word
meant two women.

The meaning of the word homosexual is important to this analysis since it helps one appreciate the
roots of perceptions that are being explored in this paper. The fact that one-third of Barbadians see
this word as speaking to men only implies that men would also be associated with any associated
negativity. Presumably these persons either don't see women as having similar proclivities or
perhaps consider lesbianism to be more "normaf behaviour.
What does the word Homosexual mean to you
HTwo men
I Two women U A person who likes the same sex
00
ID
m
t-v
m
t-v
ID
ID
m
ID
fNl
I
Ln
fNl
I
00
ID
m
t-v
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I
00
m
m
00
fNl
o
TO
CD
TO
All
Sex
w o ^ o o Q Q Q
TO ^ 0) -H > o o o o o o
o o o o CJ
>- m T3 C TO fNl m ^ Ln Ln
o i/v i/v l/v i/v i/v
m o Q tH
00 ^H o o o
tH Ln o o m o O
Age Group Income
Figure 3: What does the word Homosexual mean to you?
The Chi square test results in this instance demonstrated positive relationships between the response
categories and sex, age and income. This essentially means that these variables affect a person's
proclivity to define the word homosexual differently. Specifically, men were more inclined to think that
the term homosexual applied to men only and similarly older persons were also more inclined to think
so, than younger persons were. The income relationship was somewhat surprising since it appears
as though persons in lower income brackets were more inclined to think that the term applied only to
men and this trend continued until the income category passed Bds. 5,000 per month and then the
understanding reverted to a lower income understanding.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 11 of 27


This peculiarity has partially been caused by the fact that the smallest number of persons in the
survey were in the $5,000 + income group and the chi square analysis is not sensitive to these
differences; hence the exaggerated opinion in this income group might have more to do with the size
of the sample than any difference of opinion. Moreover the "Won't say" and "N/A" categories appear
to be similar to the overall population and these two distinctions imply that income does positively
affect person's understanding of the meaning of the word "homosexuaf and wealthier persons are
more likely to define homosexual as relating to persons of the same sex, while persons in lower
income groups are more inclined to think that the term homosexual refers to two men.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 12 of 27


ATTITUDINAL ISSUES
To gauge attitudes toward homosexuals, respondents were asked a series of hypothetical questions
to which they had three response options. Barbadians were asked how they would feel about having
a homosexual as:

A Child;
A Family member;
A Teacher;
A Friend;
A Public Official;
An Employer; and
An Employee

Respondents were asked to respond to ALL scenarios and state if they "Wouldn't Mind"; would
"Prefer Not or were "Uncertain". The advantage of this approach is that it is a simple way of gauging
the complex circumstances under which persons might be more or less comfortable with
homosexuals and moreover it allows for a "ranking" of the most disconcerting scenarios for
Barbadians.

The national data is presented summarily in figure 04 which demonstrates that Barbadians are MOST
concerned about having a "Child' that is a homosexual and least concerned about having an
"Employee" that is a homosexual. It can also be seen that the extent to which people are most
concerned, least concerned and ambivalent are inversely related. Generally between 30% and 60%
of Barbadians would prefer not to have a homosexual in any of the categories identified, while the
level of uncertainty is between 12% and 18%. Particular attention should be paid to the "Child' and
"Family" categories since in both of these instances, there are as many or more persons who would
"Prefer Not than there are persons who "Wouldn't Mind'. This scenario implies what is perhaps the
area of greatest concern and also a similarity in the way that Barbadians perceive the two categories.


How would you feel about having a Homosexual
as...
J Wouldn't Mind Prefer Not U Uncertain
Child Family Teacher Public Official Friend Employer Employee
Figure 4: How would you feel about having a Homosexual as...
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 13 of 27


The complete analysis of the impact of demographic factors on attitudes is presented in Appendix III;
however the summary and appropriate ranking of preferences is simplified and presented in Table 12.
This relies exclusively on the "Prefer Not classification to generate a table of the homosexual
relationship types that make Barbadians most uncomfortable, along with the manner in which key
demographic variables impact on these dislikes. It can be seen that after "Child", comes "Family" and
then "Teacher". The top three categories are to some extent similar since these are all roles that are
exceedingly close, or considered to be very influential. This highlights a possible basis for the
Barbadian attitude towards homosexuals who are either persons they care deeply for or persons they
fear could influence persons they care deeply for.

In the former category (^'Family") attitudes could be either protective or reflective of moral indignation
and the research instrument was not designed to disaggregate one variant form the other which is
perhaps a deficiency that can be adjusted in future studies. The first aspect speaks to Barbadians
that might be genuinely concerned about the plight of homosexuals within their "Family" who could be
exposed to abuse or hostility because of the way society perceives them. This reaction is firmly
rooted in love and the desire to protect ones loved ones and is very different from moral indignation
which is an attitudinal rejection of behaviour that an individual considers wrong. The former variant
can be considered positive since it would naturally give way to reduced anxiety once the individual is
convinced that the society is sufficiently accepting of their "Family Member", while the latter variant will
be modified more slowly since it is rooted in the individual's core values.

Views on the homosexual as a "Teacher" also speak to potential concerns about "Family Members",
but could also relate to the society as a whole and demonstrate the belief that "Teachers" have
considerable influence and access to children as well as the wider society. "Teacher" concerns are
more likely to arise from the variant referred to as moral indignation combined with the belief that
homosexuals are predatory either in pursuit of their sexual expression or in an attempt to recruit those
subject to their influence. Parents and "Family Members" appear to fear such contact or conversion
and as such are concerned about the influential role of "Teachers". It is also possible that persons
worry about the plight of their loved-ones who having been "converted" into homosexuality by a
"Teacher", might be subject to abuse or condemnation.
Table 12: Ranking of Attitudes Toward Homosexuals (Prefer Not...)

Religion
c
TO
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.c c
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c CO
CD CI Q.
O) o c
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1 1 5
2 3 1
3 2 3
4 4 6
5 6 7
6 5 3
7 7 2
Gender Age Group Status
CO CD .^ -a
3 a>
o N ^ CD CD
~ ^ ^ CO lO o3
TO ^ CD o6 -A
Child 1111111
Family 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
[Teacher 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Public Official 4 5 4 4 4 7 4

Friend 5 4 6 6 5 4 5
Employer 6 6 5 5 6 6 6
Employee 7 7 7 7 7 5 7
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 14 of 27


These Barbadian attitudes are clearly influenced by the belief that homosexuality is learned behaviour
and there have been several national discussions that support this presumption. The society is highly
religious {although selectively so) and presumes the Biblical prescription to be consistent with what
"is" and not what "ought to be. The homosexual is therefore presumed to be a person who starts life
as a heterosexual and is later converted. If therefore, the society can prevent this conversion it can
save itself considerable problems related to both variants of this attitude being explored. The fact that
sexuality and homosexuality are genetically determined is a case that has already been made in
Barbados but it is clear here that the vast majority of persons are not convinced.

The placement of the "Public Officiaf before the "Friend' but after the "Teacher" implicitly supports the
earlier suggestion that Barbadian attitudes are influenced by their fear of influence since "Public
Officials" have considerably more influence than "Friends". The influence of a "Public Officiaf is less
direct than that of a "Teacher" but could potentially cast a wider net since that official could influence
policy which could impact on the entire society. Concerns about the "Public Officiaf could, like
concerns about the "Teacher" be influenced by both concern for the homosexual as well as moral
indignation. In this regard, however concern for the individual would be replaced by concern about
the "type" of society that might emerge if government policy were seen to be encouraging
homosexuality.

The placement/ranking of "Friend' is to some extent a positive placement since it suggests that
Barbadians are less concerned about their "Friend's" sexual orientation and this could indicate that
there is less moral indignation where such relations are concerned. One could be less than thrilled
about the sexual orientation of a "Friend' but the fact that slightly more than half of Barbadians would
have such a person as a "Friend' regardless, implies greater comfort and the assumption that
persons with dissimilar sexual orientations can co-exist and pursue a mutually beneficial relationship
{friendship) notwithstanding.

The final two ranks were reserved for "Employers" and "Employees" respectively and the fact that
there is more concern about the homosexual "Employer" speaks to the issues of control, influence
and perhaps a fear that a homosexual employer might influence an "Employee" in ways that s/he
might prefer not to be influenced. The placement of the "Employee" last on the list suggesting the
category that persons are most comfortable with, speaks volumes about the extent to which persons
perceive "Employees" to be powerless. The fact that close to 60% of Barbadians would not mind
employing a homosexual is perhaps a good thing in the context of this study that often appears to
present a bleak outlook.
Gender and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality

I Male Female
m
ID
s . ^ ^ ^
L
I
m
P 3! .o ^
^
^r rsi ON
"1 so ^ S S
I 'i 11 i li
Friend Family Employee Employer Teacher Public Official Child
Member
Figure 5: Gender and Attitudes Toward Homosexuals

In figure 05 the gender analysis isolates the "Prefer Not response and demonstrates that across the
board women are less concerned about homosexuals than men and this is especially so regarding
"Friends" where they are half as concerned as the men were. The relationship women are most
concerned about is that of their children, but even here there is an 8 percentage point difference. In
this regard the difference is statically significant which implies that gender does influence attitudes
toward homosexuals.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 15 of 27


Age Group and Attitudes Toward
Homosexuals

118-30 years 31-50 U 51 and over
L
00 t-v
m m
I
Friend
Family
Member
t-v
Ln
00
Ln
m
ID
ID
m m
I
Employee Employer Teacher Public Official
Child
Figure 6: Age Group and Attitudes toward Homosexuals

The age group of respondents is also a factor that significantly influences attitude and in figure 06 this
can be seen since the older persons in all instances are more concerned about homosexuals. It is
interesting that the extent to which persons are concerned in the 18-30 and 31-50 age groups is
similar; however persons over 51 are considerably more concerned. As with the gender based
analysis, the concern about having a "Child' as a homosexual is the issue that presents the smallest
difference in perspective between the age ranges.

Neither marital status nor religion correlates significantly with attitude suggesting that persons are no
more likely to be supportive or opposed to homosexuals as a result of their being married or single, or
on account of their religious persuasion. Notwithstanding, these analyses are presented out of
general interest for purposes of information. It appears as though single people are generally less
concerned and widowed persons most concerned, however this outcome would have influenced by
the small number of widows in the survey and the fact that widows tend to be older. The comparison
that comes closest to being statistically significant is that which compares single persons to married
persons and reflects a small difference between the two in favour of the single persons who seem
more progressive.

Regarding religion it is important to appreciate that several of these categories are quite small and
this impacts negatively on the efficacy of the chi square test, hence the only possible comparison
would be that of Practising to Non- Practising Christians and even these need to be approached with
some amount of caution.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
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Marital Status and Attitudes Toward
Homosexuals
Single Married U Divorced Widowed
Friend
Family
Member
Employee Employer Teacher Public Official
Child
Figure 7: Marital Status and Attitudes toward Homosexuals
r
Religion and Attitudes Toward Homosexuals
I Practicing Christian
Jewish
ki Atheist
Non Practicing Christian U Muslim
y Rastafarian u Bahia
Friend
Family
Member
Employee Employer
Teacher Public Official
Child
Figure 8: Religion and Attitudes Toward Homosexuals
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 17 of 27


ATTITUDE TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALS IN A WORD
In this survey a second technique was used to gauge attitudes which is presented in this section and
exploits the respondent's willingness to assess their attitude towards homosexuals in a single word.
Here respondents were asked to select one of three words which best reflects their attitude towards
homosexuals and the responses are presented in figures 09; 10 and 11.

Figure 09 presents the analysis that is associated with the persons who selected the "hate" response
and allows for an analysis of gender, age, income and education correlations. The national response
is presented at the extreme left and indicates that 16% of Barbadians hated homosexuals in 2004.
This extreme variant of homophobia correlates with all of the demographic variables used and we can
see therefore that men are more than twice as likely to manifest these views, and the same can be
said for persons in lower income earning groups since 19% of persons in the lowest income earning
group "hated' homosexuals and this was higher than the national average.

Age and education were somewhat less straightforward to analyse in this category since the youngest
and oldest were equally likely to "hate" homosexuals while the lowest "hate" level was located among
the middle-aged folk that responded. From the perspective of education, the least well educated
persons were most inclined to hate homosexuals, while those educated to the Tertiary levels were
least likely to hate. The peculiar statistic relates; however to persons educated to the Post-Secondary
level that had views which were consistent with those of "Tertiary Levef educated persons. This
suggests that respondents might not have properly understood the educational classification and
some persons who went to Tertiary institutions identified themselves as "Post-Secondary".
"HATE" Homosexuals
ID 1 m fNl 1 1 en 1 ^^H 14% ^^H 13% ^ 7% Np dN ID 1 t-v 1 1 t-v 1 fNl fNl 1 en 1 cn 1 ID 1 1
-z. CD f-t-o' Barbados -n ro 3 ro Sex b o o w w w rvj u) j^ b b b o o o 9 9^ VV VV VV u) j^ yi b b b o o o o o o Income ro b 00 o < ro \ [/I > o \ge Group O) Q-O < ro 3' CD Hi ghe ro n O Q-5t -D H H o fD ro [/I n ^ 0^ ?" ^' ro n < n Qj ^ 1 t o evel of Education
Figure 9: HATE Homosexuals

The level of "tolerance" is measured and analysed in figure 10 which demonstrates that 46% of
Barbadians tolerated homosexuals in 2004 which is slightly less than half of all respondents. In this
instance correlations also emerge since females appear more tolerant than males and persons who
earn more are more likely to be tolerant than those who earn less. The age-related influence is
strange here also since the most "tolerant are those in the middle-age group which is directly
opposite to the "hate" response category. This tends to buttress the earlier correlation and implies
that perhaps younger people are more inclined to be negative towards homosexuals because they
are subject to influence by older persons; however they later grow to appreciate the need for
tolerance and acceptance which happens between 31 and 50. In this instance the educational
attainment analysis appears straightforward and consistent with the previous section's findings that
locates higher levels of tolerance among better educated people.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
Page 18 of 27


"TOLERATE" Homosexuals
ID 1 1 Np dN 00 1 fNl 1 fNl Ln 1 Np dN 00 Ln 00 ID Ln 1 Ln 1 cn 1 1 ID m 1 00 m 1 Np dN cn Ln Np Ln 1 t-v Ln 1
z o' CD Barbados CD ro Sex -n ro 3 ro b b o 9 b o o b o 9 w .^ o o o Income b o y b o o O < ro \ uy y b o o 00 o < ro CD ;;; Age o Group CD Q-O < ro 3' Hi C/i -D H H (T) o fT> fT> n i/i n :2. O rt- ^ IT. g- S £ < o ghest level of Education
Figure 10: TOLERATE Homosexuals

The most positive attitudinal expression provided in this survey was that of "acceptance" which is
presented in figure 11. 17% of Barbadians accept homosexuals and this is strikingly close to the
quantity of Barbadians that "hate" homosexuals. Here also, women are more accepting than men, but
income influences are peculiar since persons who earn more money are more "accepting" but one of
the higher income earning groups ($4,001 $5,000) dips below the national level of acceptance while
the highest income category reflects the highest level of acceptance. This peculiarity could be
explained by the fact that fewer people are in that category and as such unusual variations often
occur.
"ACCEPT" Homosexuals
o
CD
ro
Barbados
Sex
Ln- w w w o l- U) Ul
hj hj U) J^ < 00 H' H'
Q o Q o ro U) Ul O)
1^ o f1 o ~^ o o 3
CJ) o o H' y -< Q.
w w w ro o
U) J^ Ul o O) <

o C!) o f) -^
o o o
o o o
Income
Age Group
CO
ro
n
O
-D
O
CO
ro
n
O

Q.
CD
2
n'
CD
<
o
o
CD
Highest level of Education
Figure 11: ACCEPT Homosexuals
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
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The age based analysis continues to appear peculiar as in this instance there is really no statistically
significant variation between acceptance levels that are all separated by one percentage point. It
would appear as though the arguments previously advanced about younger people "learning
tolerance" do not apply to the concept of acceptance which seems to follow a slightly different pattern.
The influence of education is; however consistent with the foregoing sections with the lowest level of
acceptance being among persons who have only had a primary education.
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
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COMPARATIVE BARBADIAN ATTITUDES
In this section an attempt was made to establish relationships between the views of Barbadians on
homosexuals and their views on other controversial issues which were also tested in the survey and
these data are presented in figure 12. It should be noted that there were no statistically verifiable
relationships emerging here which indicates that a person's attitude towards homosexuals is not likely
to influence their views on other issues. Figure 12 is therefore only for purposes of information, but
demonstrates that extreme attitudinal indicators towards homosexuals (such as hate) are relatively
low and not matched by any similar opinion on any other issue examined. It is also interesting to note
that the level of opposition to the decriminalisation of homosexual acts was higher than the opposition
to the decriminalisation of Ganja use, which was interestingly enough almost the same as the level of
support for the death penalty. The only statistic that approaches the level of opposition to
decriminalisation is the level of support for Corporal punishment in the home (2004). It is interesting
that support for corporal punishment and issues related to homosexuals are matters which the Bible is
alleged to speak to unequivocally and which has no doubt informed the attitudes of Barbadians on
these issues. It is at the same time equally clear that there is some distance between the proclaimed
support for a Biblical principle (such as opposition to homosexuals and flogging) and the actual
operation of these values by either flogging ones children or hating homosexuals, just as there is a
gap between the quantity of practising and non-practising Christians in Barbados.
r
Comparative Barbadian Attitudes
t-v
00
O
T3
O
T3 S' ro
O -s
fo o ??
S' 3 I
Dj ST
CO CO -n CO O T3
c T3 c T3 O c T3
T3 T3 TO T3 O
O O ro O
7^ 7^ Q- i ro
n ro n < r n
O O o 7T m
i i c n> n
-o -o ro ^
o n f-t- o n hj 3
o O -3
o o ^ O DJ
c 3 [/I c 3 -D ro U) 7?i (1)
3 3 3 ^
CD
CD
3
Figure 12: Comparative Barbadian Attitudes
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
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APPENDICES

Appendix I

Survey Excerpts


THE UNIVECSIIT CE THE WEST INEIES

EACUETT CE SCCIAE SCIENCES

DEPARTMENT CE CCVECNMENT, SCCICECCT AND SCCIAE WCDE

Sy22E SUDVEy 2CC4

Good Morning/afternoon/evening I am part of a group of students from the UWI conducting an island
wide survey in which 1000 people are being interviewed on a range of social issues. You have been
randomly selected to be part of this survey and I ask that you consent to being interviewed.

This survey is being conducted by the Department of Government at the UWI and you are given the
assurance that all answers given will be treated in the strictest of confidence.



1. Interviewer's Name 2. PD
Location of Interview {District and Place):
3. Constituency ____________________ 4. Parish
PLEASE CIRCLE NUMBER NEXT TO ANSWER GIVEN

4. Sex Male 1 Female 2

5. Race: Afro 1 Anglo 2 Sino 3 Indo 4
Mixed 5 Other 6

6. Age Group (If unsure call out age groups and ask person to state which one he/she belongs to).

18-30 Years 1 31-50 Years 2 51 and over 3

7. Occupational Status: What is your employment status at present?

Yes, Employed (full-time) 1 Yes Employed (part-time) 2

Housewife/Househusband 3 Unemployed 4

Student 5 Retired 6

Self Employed 7 Other/Won't say 8
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8. Income: In which of these broad categories would your monthly income fall?
Below $2,000 1 $2001-$3,000 2 $3,001-$4000 3
$4001-$5,000 4 Over $5,000 5 Won't say 6 N/A 6
9. Marital Status: What is your marital status?
Single 1 Married 2 Divorced 3 Widowed
10. Children: How many children (if any) do you have? ___________

11. Religion: What (if any) is your religion?
Practising Christian 1 Non Practising Christian 2
Jewish 4 Rastafarian 5 Bhai 6 Atheist
Muslim 3
7 Agnostic 8
12. Education: What is the highest level of education you have completed?
Primary 1 Secondary
Technical/Vocational 4
2 Post-Secondary
Tertiary 5
13. Homo2: What does the word homosexual mean to you?
Two men 1 Two women 2 A person who likes the same sex 3
14. Homosexual: The topic of homosexuality is currently a topic of discussion, if a person was known
to you as a homosexual, how would you feel about having them as:
A friend: Wouldn't mind
A family member: Wouldn't mind
An employee: Wouldn't mind
An employer: Wouldn't mind
A teacher: Wouldn't mind
A public official: Wouldn't mind
A child: Wouldn't mind
1 Prefer not to 2 Uncertain 3
1 Prefer not to 2 Uncertain 3
1 Prefer not to 2 Uncertain 3
1 Prefer not to 2 Uncertain 3
1 Prefer not to 2 Uncertain 3
1 Prefer not to 2 Uncertain 3
1 Prefer not to 2 Uncertain 3
15. Homo3: What word best describes your attitude towards homosexuals?
Hate 1 Tolerate 2 Accept 3 Don't know 4

16. Corporal: Do you support corporal punishment {flogging) in the home?
Yes
No
Unsure
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17. Corporal2: Do you support corporal punishment {flogging) in the education system?

Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3
18. Corporal3: Have you ever flogged your child?

Yes 1 No 2 I don't have a child 3
19. Death: Do you support the Death Penalty?

Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3 Won't say 4

THANr rcL roc roLc coopccation and assistance
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
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Appendix II
2003 Survey Question

HOMOSEXUALITY: Do you think that homosexual acts between male consenting adults should
be decriminalized or made legal in Barbados?
Yes 1 No 2 Not Sure 3 Won't Say 4
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Appendix III
Demographic Impact on Attitude Towards Homosexuals (Prefer Not...)
c 0) n E 0) > E re o Q. E LU > o Q. E LU o re re o o "E Q. 2 'E o
Male 47% 50% 40% 42% 47% 45% 63%
Female 21% 34% 20% 24% 32% 29% 55%
Afro 32% 40% 30% 32% 38% 36% 58%
Anglo 32% 43% 32% 36% 46% 46% 50%
Sino 25% 50% 25% 25% 25% 25% 50%
Indo 71% 86% 71% 79% 71% 71% 86%
Mixed 44% 50% 33% 36% 47% 38% 72%
Other 36% 55% 36% 36% 64% 73% 82%
18-30 years 31% 38% 28% 33% 37% 35% 57%
31-50 30% 37% 25% 28% 37% 35% 58%
51 and over 40% 51% 38% 38% 46% 41% 63%
$2,000 34% 41% 32% 34% 40% 37% 59%
$2,000-$3,000 34% 42% 26% 30% 38% 40% 56%
$3,000-$4,000 36% 48% 30% 30% 40% 34% 70%
$4,001-$5,000 43% 57% 43% 52% 52% 41% 77%
Over $5,000 26% 40% 23% 26% 49% 33% 63%
Won't say 33% 38% 31% 33% 38% 37% 53%
Single 30% 36% 27% 30% 35% 33% 56%
Married 38% 48% 33% 36% 45% 41% 64%
Divorced 33% 43% 31% 29% 40% 40% 63%
Widowed 47% 63% 47% 50% 55% 47% 67%
Don't Have Children 33% 37% 28% 32% 37% 37% 57%
Have Children 34% 44% 31% 33% 41% 36% 60%
Practicing Christian 32% 39% 30% 32% 40% 35% 58%
Non Practicing Christian 33% 85% 69% 62% 62% 54% 60%
Muslim 69% 75% 75% 75% 75% 100% 92%
Jewish 75% 62% 51% 47% 49% 55% 75%
Rastafarian 60% 50% 50% 100% 79%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados Page 26 of 27
Sex


Race








Age Group




Income








Marital Status





Children


Religion


Appendix III
Demographic Impact on Attitude Towards Homosexuals (Prefer Not...)
E
c c .92 LJ. > E i2
Bhai 50% 50%
Atheist 58% 49%
Agnostic 36% 20%
Primary 40% 47%
Secondary 34% 40%
Post-Secondary 26% 40%
Technical/Vocational 37% 41%
Tertiary 32% 42%
> o Q. E LU > o Q. E LU o re re o o 3 Q. 2 O
58% 67% 75% 75%
42% 42% 36% 36% 75%
20% 20% 20% 20% 58%
37% 39% 41% 38% 61%
33% 33% 40% 37% 58%
24% 28% 38% 33% 57%
32% 40% 41% 39% 57%
25% 28% 39% 37% 62%
Attitudes toward Homosexuals in Barbados
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