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The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership

^Mk The Role of the Caribbean in Black
_, Intellectual Movem^ts, 1940s-1970s
%t BOB MARLEY AND Tur UTAH ric ^^^^
7t^^ 1 '^^- ,^ 1
4
1 t APOLLO THEAILR NEW YORK CITY NOV. 22 1979 SfECli^L VISUAL Af^PEAItAMCC BY HAI^IJi^ CARVE Y, TKIETS Oil SJU.E AT UTOLLO BOX OFHCE
mT ^PP*^
Part 2: From Gar\/A
Carl
y to Marley: A Look-at^-i^^
JfSean Leadership


Plan of Presentation
Recap on the importance of travel to shaping
the development of intellectual movements
AND the nature of Caribbean leadership.
Caribbean leaders and global changes in the
post-WWII era. ^
Profiles of various Caribbean leaders and
their varied interpretations of intellectual ^
movements.
Feel Free to Ask Questions at Any Time


^ Travel and Caribbean Identity in
^P^
The movement of people from the Caribbean
back and forth from North America
heightened Caribbean identification with the
region. ^n^-
While many settled in North America, a great
many returned to their home countries. Some
got involved in national and international
movements. ^^
This produced a host of charismatic and
powerful leaders who would draw on these
encounters, and influence the direction of the
movementgjheyjj^ere associated with.


CARIBBEAN LEADERS
Marcus Garvey
*r
' ^y.-Ht' '
Erfc Willi
L,,
ilA-qier
f


Marcus Garvey & Garveyism
Marcus Garvey Born in St. Ann,
Jannaica in 1887.
Left Jannaica for the U.S. in 1915
with intention of nneeting Booker
T. Washington.
Was heavily influenced by
Booker T and the Tuskegee
Institute.
Started the UNIA, the largest
Black nnovennent of its tinne (the
1920s), with chapters in
countries across the Caribbean
and North Annerica.
Was deported fronn the US to
Jannaica. ^m^^
Left Jannaica for England where
ne died in 1940.


Well, it's like this: we
others negroes filthy
negroes we won't take
anymore that's
right we're through beinf
in Africa in America your
negroes your niggers your
filthy negroes we won't
take anymore that
surprises you to say:
yessuh while polishing
your boots oui mon pe to
the white missionaries or
master while harvestin;
your sugar
cane coffee cotton
peanuts in Africa in
America poor
negroes filthy
negroes that we
were that we won't be
anymore We're finished
you'll see our Yes Sir our
oui blanc our si Senor
And here we are arisen All the
wretched of the earth all the
upholders of justice marching to
attack your barracks your banks like
a forest of funeral torches to be
done once and for
all with this world of
negroes niggers filthy negoes

- Filthy Negroes |
*>


Party
It is easy to see that the question here is one of
econonnic oppression, which translates into social and
po itical ternns. Thus, the objective basis of the i
problenn is certainly the class struggle. The PCH
^Haitian Connnnunist Party] poses the problenn
scientifically, without in any way denying the valid
basis for the psychological reaction of the blacks ,
wounded in their dignity...But the duty of the PCH,
after all 98% black...where the color question is
systennatical y relieved of its epidernnic content...is to
put the proletariat, the poor petty bourgeoisie and the
black intellectual workers on guard against the black
bourgeois politicians, who would like to exploit to
their profit their justifiable anger. -Analyse 1
schennatique, 1934


? Eric Williams

f ^^^^^^
\!^I^^Bl
^ "^^^V^B ^' "' fw
r^^:^Tl ^^H ^v r ,_ If 1
111 '^^ T^ 1^ f /
Trinidadian Head of State,
1956-1981
Rhode Scholar;
Worked in the U.S. at
Howard
University.
Author of landmark study
Capitalism and Slavery.

Led the anti-colonial
struggle in Trinidad.
4
Founder of PNM (People's
National Movement)
Norman Washington Manley, Jamaica
Enc Williams, Tnnidad


ERIC WILLIAMS
All of us here today, the genuine
representatives of the Caribbean,
with a common history based on the
Caribbean trinity colonialism,
mono-culture with its polytechnic
forced labour and racism are the
symbols of fragmentation, with its
concomitants of association with
rival metropolitan economies and
isolation of one territory from
another. There can be no new
dispensation which does not mean
the integration of the fragmented
economies of the people of the
Caribbean by the people of the
Caribbean, for the people of the
Caribbean. It is with this larger
aspiration, ladies and gentlemen,
that my colleagues and I sign this
Treaty this morning. All our strength
is in our union, all our danger is in
discord. ^^^ ^^ I
-Eric Williams, 1973 at signing of
"^Treaty of -


V]


Duvalier
influenced heavily by Noirisme in 1940s Haiti
Was one of the leading intellectuals of the
noiriste movement. ,
Studied at University of Michigan on short
fellowship. ^Hs.
Transformed noirisme's nationalist and
inclusive approach into Duvalierism; a far
more sinister and brutal variant. ^k>_. .r, ,.
Created a cult of personality all the while
maintaining that his was a noiriste
presidency.
Proclaimed himself President for Life in 1964
and became a ruthless dictator.


Duvalier's
> Created the Tonton L
Macoute. ^n^^
Created a dynasty
With his son,
Jean-Claude who succeeded
Him in 1971.
Forced mass migration
Dictatorship ended in

1986. "^
*. '^
I
?
/
^ I \
r
X
I
\^-
^^X.
c/'


Guyanese historian
Studied in Jamaica '
And England. ___
Militant advocate of
Black Power in JA.
Banned from Jamaica in 1968.
Ban causes widespread riots.
Advocate of Pan-Africanism
And radical ^
Marxist social change
In Guyana. ^ ---
Formed the Working |
People's Alliance in ^
Guyana in 1974.
V]
j^.
is^
'-" /:'


Son of Norman Manley
Elected Prime Minister
In 1972.
Highly charismatic
Leader. ^
r
I
Introduced democratic
Socialism in Jamaica
' In 1976. ^
*. '^
.^-
'J


p ^ p /w Q ss Roily* *""""'' "" """'""
New Coconut Board People control of RJR Rmopio ehor criticism of Gfeonar


Born in St. Ann,
Jamaica. cn^^
Lived in Delaware
temporarily. -
Heavily influenced
By US RnB and Black
Power in his youth.
Epitomized the linkages
of the movements of the era
found in Rastafari.
Devout Rastafarian up to his death
\ In Miami in 1981. ^^
Popularized Reggae Music.
W^


Conclusions
Caribbean leaders in politics and culture,
evolved at a time of incredible change in the
region. Their experiences living temporarily
overseas, shaped their lives personally and
ji influenced their careers."
At the same time, they served to influence
each other. Nationalist and anti-colonial
struggles in the region, especially the Castro
Revolution of 1959, motivated the direction
taken by Caribbean leaders in the French and
English speaking Caribbean.
There was, however, a great deal of"
controversy (as in the case of Man ey) and
abuse (as in the case of Duva ier).,


Further Readin

Colin (Jl'aht, Nd^rd With a Hat: The Rise and
Fall of Marcus Garvey ^^
Carolyn Fowler, A Knot in the Thread: The Life
- and Work of Jacques Roumain
Colin Palmer, Eric Williams and the Making of
the Modern Caribbean. ^-
Darrell Levi, Michael Manley: The Making of a
Leader ^ ^k.-
Stephen Davis, Bob Marley: Conquering Lion of
Reggae ^^
James Ferguson, Papa Doc, Baby Doc
Rupert Lewis, The Intellectual and Political
Thought of Walter Rodney


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000278/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership Presentation Slides and Video
Series Title: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010)
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Matthew J.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean Studies, dLOC Presentation

Notes

Abstract: Part of: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010). Professional development workshop for primary and secondary teachers positions the Caribbean as a site for the transference, interpretation and promotion of larger movements and provides an overview of various Caribbean leaders and their ties to black intellectual movements, while highlighting motivating factors for engagement and diversity among some of the more influential, and also infamous figures. Led by Matthew J. Smith, Ph.D., Department of History and Archaeology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Center at FIU, in partnership with Miami Dade County Public Schools. The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Negritude to Natty Dread: An Introduction From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership
Funding: Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.

Record Information

Source Institution: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: IR00000278:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00000278/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership Presentation Slides and Video
Series Title: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010)
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Matthew J.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean Studies, dLOC Presentation

Notes

Abstract: Part of: Teacher Training Workshop: Caribbean Leaders' Contributions to Black Intellectual Movements (2010). Professional development workshop for primary and secondary teachers positions the Caribbean as a site for the transference, interpretation and promotion of larger movements and provides an overview of various Caribbean leaders and their ties to black intellectual movements, while highlighting motivating factors for engagement and diversity among some of the more influential, and also infamous figures. Led by Matthew J. Smith, Ph.D., Department of History and Archaeology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Sponsored by the Latin American and Caribbean Center at FIU, in partnership with Miami Dade County Public Schools. The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. From Negritude to Natty Dread: An Introduction From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership
Funding: Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.

Record Information

Source Institution: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: Florida International University ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: IR00000278:00001

Full Text
^Mk The Role of the Caribbean in Black
_, Intellectual Movem^ts, 1940s-1970s
%t BOB MARLEY AND Tur UTAH ric ^^^^
7t^^ 1 '^^- ,^ 1
4
1 t APOLLO THEAILR NEW YORK CITY NOV. 22 1979 SfECli^L VISUAL Af^PEAItAMCC BY HAI^IJi^ CARVE Y, TKIETS Oil SJU.E AT UTOLLO BOX OFHCE
mT ^PP*^
Part 2: From Gar\/A
Carl
y to Marley: A Look-at^-i^^
JfSean Leadership


Plan of Presentation
Recap on the importance of travel to shaping
the development of intellectual movements
AND the nature of Caribbean leadership.
Caribbean leaders and global changes in the
post-WWII era. ^
Profiles of various Caribbean leaders and
their varied interpretations of intellectual ^
movements.
Feel Free to Ask Questions at Any Time


^ Travel and Caribbean Identity in
^P^
The movement of people from the Caribbean
back and forth from North America
heightened Caribbean identification with the
region. ^n^-
While many settled in North America, a great
many returned to their home countries. Some
got involved in national and international
movements. ^^
This produced a host of charismatic and
powerful leaders who would draw on these
encounters, and influence the direction of the
movementgjheyjj^ere associated with.


CARIBBEAN LEADERS
Marcus Garvey
*r
' ^y.-Ht' '
Erfc Willi
L,,
ilA-qier
f


Marcus Garvey & Garveyism
Marcus Garvey Born in St. Ann,
Jannaica in 1887.
Left Jannaica for the U.S. in 1915
with intention of nneeting Booker
T. Washington.
Was heavily influenced by
Booker T and the Tuskegee
Institute.
Started the UNIA, the largest
Black nnovennent of its tinne (the
1920s), with chapters in
countries across the Caribbean
and North Annerica.
Was deported fronn the US to
Jannaica. ^m^^
Left Jannaica for England where
ne died in 1940.


Well, it's like this: we
others negroes filthy
negroes we won't take
anymore that's
right we're through beinf
in Africa in America your
negroes your niggers your
filthy negroes we won't
take anymore that
surprises you to say:
yessuh while polishing
your boots oui mon pe to
the white missionaries or
master while harvestin;
your sugar
cane coffee cotton
peanuts in Africa in
America poor
negroes filthy
negroes that we
were that we won't be
anymore We're finished
you'll see our Yes Sir our
oui blanc our si Senor
And here we are arisen All the
wretched of the earth all the
upholders of justice marching to
attack your barracks your banks like
a forest of funeral torches to be
done once and for
all with this world of
negroes niggers filthy negoes

- Filthy Negroes |
*>


Party
It is easy to see that the question here is one of
econonnic oppression, which translates into social and
po itical ternns. Thus, the objective basis of the i
problenn is certainly the class struggle. The PCH
^Haitian Connnnunist Party] poses the problenn
scientifically, without in any way denying the valid
basis for the psychological reaction of the blacks ,
wounded in their dignity...But the duty of the PCH,
after all 98% black...where the color question is
systennatical y relieved of its epidernnic content...is to
put the proletariat, the poor petty bourgeoisie and the
black intellectual workers on guard against the black
bourgeois politicians, who would like to exploit to
their profit their justifiable anger. -Analyse 1
schennatique, 1934


? Eric Williams

f ^^^^^^
\!^I^^Bl
^ "^^^V^B ^' "' fw
r^^:^Tl ^^H ^v r ,_ If 1
111 '^^ T^ 1^ f /
Trinidadian Head of State,
1956-1981
Rhode Scholar;
Worked in the U.S. at
Howard
University.
Author of landmark study
Capitalism and Slavery.

Led the anti-colonial
struggle in Trinidad.
4
Founder of PNM (People's
National Movement)
Norman Washington Manley, Jamaica
Enc Williams, Tnnidad


ERIC WILLIAMS
All of us here today, the genuine
representatives of the Caribbean,
with a common history based on the
Caribbean trinity colonialism,
mono-culture with its polytechnic
forced labour and racism are the
symbols of fragmentation, with its
concomitants of association with
rival metropolitan economies and
isolation of one territory from
another. There can be no new
dispensation which does not mean
the integration of the fragmented
economies of the people of the
Caribbean by the people of the
Caribbean, for the people of the
Caribbean. It is with this larger
aspiration, ladies and gentlemen,
that my colleagues and I sign this
Treaty this morning. All our strength
is in our union, all our danger is in
discord. ^^^ ^^ I
-Eric Williams, 1973 at signing of
"^Treaty of -


V]


Duvalier
influenced heavily by Noirisme in 1940s Haiti
Was one of the leading intellectuals of the
noiriste movement. ,
Studied at University of Michigan on short
fellowship. ^Hs.
Transformed noirisme's nationalist and
inclusive approach into Duvalierism; a far
more sinister and brutal variant. ^k>_. .r, ,.
Created a cult of personality all the while
maintaining that his was a noiriste
presidency.
Proclaimed himself President for Life in 1964
and became a ruthless dictator.


Duvalier's
> Created the Tonton L
Macoute. ^n^^
Created a dynasty
With his son,
Jean-Claude who succeeded
Him in 1971.
Forced mass migration
Dictatorship ended in

1986. "^
*. '^
I
?
/
^ I \
r
X
I
\^-
^^X.
c/'


Guyanese historian
Studied in Jamaica '
And England. ___
Militant advocate of
Black Power in JA.
Banned from Jamaica in 1968.
Ban causes widespread riots.
Advocate of Pan-Africanism
And radical ^
Marxist social change
In Guyana. ^ ---
Formed the Working |
People's Alliance in ^
Guyana in 1974.
V]
j^.
is^
'-" /:'


Son of Norman Manley
Elected Prime Minister
In 1972.
Highly charismatic
Leader. ^
r
I
Introduced democratic
Socialism in Jamaica
' In 1976. ^
*. '^
.^-
'J


p ^ p /w Q ss Roily* *""""'' "" """'""
New Coconut Board People control of RJR Rmopio ehor criticism of Gfeonar


Born in St. Ann,
Jamaica. cn^^
Lived in Delaware
temporarily. -
Heavily influenced
By US RnB and Black
Power in his youth.
Epitomized the linkages
of the movements of the era
found in Rastafari.
Devout Rastafarian up to his death
\ In Miami in 1981. ^^
Popularized Reggae Music.
W^


Conclusions
Caribbean leaders in politics and culture,
evolved at a time of incredible change in the
region. Their experiences living temporarily
overseas, shaped their lives personally and
ji influenced their careers."
At the same time, they served to influence
each other. Nationalist and anti-colonial
struggles in the region, especially the Castro
Revolution of 1959, motivated the direction
taken by Caribbean leaders in the French and
English speaking Caribbean.
There was, however, a great deal of"
controversy (as in the case of Man ey) and
abuse (as in the case of Duva ier).,


Further Readin

Colin (Jl'aht, Nd^rd With a Hat: The Rise and
Fall of Marcus Garvey ^^
Carolyn Fowler, A Knot in the Thread: The Life
- and Work of Jacques Roumain
Colin Palmer, Eric Williams and the Making of
the Modern Caribbean. ^-
Darrell Levi, Michael Manley: The Making of a
Leader ^ ^k.-
Stephen Davis, Bob Marley: Conquering Lion of
Reggae ^^
James Ferguson, Papa Doc, Baby Doc
Rupert Lewis, The Intellectual and Political
Thought of Walter Rodney


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