Title: Literature review on the effects of single-sex instruction on students' musical and academic achievements
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Title: Literature review on the effects of single-sex instruction on students' musical and academic achievements
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Language: English
Creator: Lamour, Linda
Publisher: College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
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Publication Date: 2009
Copyright Date: 2009
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Abstract: While research studies on the effects of single-sex instruction on the musical and academic achievement of students are few, many researchers who have studied the effects agree that learning in these classroom settings are showing positive results for both boys and girls. These positive results however, are mostly in favor of female students. The results of a comparative study on music achievement and the effects of single-sex instruction found that girls in a single-sex classroom achieved more success than girls in the coeducational schools. The results also showed boys and girls scoring higher on music achievement test than boys and girls in coeducational classroom settings. Research showed that single-sex learning environments can benefit girls by allowing them the opportunity to develop the critical thinking skills and effort as a way building up their confidence. Other studies showed a 65 percent increase in the grade point averages of students in single-sex classrooms. The aims of this paper are to review and discuss the related literature on the effects of single-sex instruction on musical creativity and academic achievement, the evidences of increased achievements in the all-boys' and the all-girls' single-sex classes, as well as possible evidence of the positive effects of musical creativity in the all-girls' single-sex classes versus the all-boys single-sex classes.
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A LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE-SEX INSTRUCTION ON
STUDENTS' MUSICAL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS















By

LINDA LAMOUR


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF MUSIC EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2009



























2009 Linda Lamour
































To my mom Ms. Denise "Grace" Lamour: You are the world's greatest mom. I dare not
ask for another. Thank you for all of your unconditional love. Mwen Rinmin-w! I Love
You! To my wonderful pastor and brother, Pastor Frantz Lamour, thank you for your
prayers and for being the voice of wisdom and encouragement for me during this
journey. Thank you to all my friends and family, and members of The Holy Church of
Grace. I will always be grateful for prayers, your encouraging words, and acts of love
towards me and my family during trying times.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank God for giving me the strength and wisdom necessary to complete this

chapter in my life. I would like to acknowledge my Masters Committee Chair person, Dr.

Timothy S. Brophy, as well as my second Committee member, Dr. Alexander Reed in

addition to all of my professors at The University of Florida: Dr. Charles Hoffer, Dr.

Russell Robinson, Dr. Paul Richards, Dr. Miriam Zach and Dr. Will Kesling. Thank you

for your expert advice, your challenging thoughts, and for inspiring me to be a better

musician and educator. I will always be grateful for the opportunity.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W LE D G M E N T S ........................................................................................ .... 4

A B S T R A C T ................................................................................................ 6

In tro d u c tio n ...................................................................... ................................. . . 8

A Personal Teaching Experience......................................................... ............... 8
S ingle-sex Instruction D efined ................................... ....................... .............. 9

The basis of single-sex instruction ...................................................... ............... 10

Nation-wide interest in the positive effects of single-sex instruction ................. 11

G e n d e r D iffe re n c es ..................................................................................................... 12

Advantages of Single-Sex Classes for Girls........................................ ............... 13

Advantages of Single-Sex Classes for Boys ...................................................... 15

Research on the effects of single-sex classes on academic achievement............ 16

Research on the effects of single-sex classrooms on musical creativity ........... 20

C o n c lu s io n ................................................................................................................... 2 2

LIST O F R EFER ENC ES ......................................................................................... 24

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................... ..................... 27











Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music Education

A LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE-SEX INSTRUCTION ON
STUDENTS' MUSICAL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS

By

Linda Lamour

December 2009

Chair: Timothy Brophy
Co-chair: Alexander Reed
Major: Master of Music Education

While research studies on the effects of single-sex instruction on the musical and

academic achievement of students are few, many researchers who have studied the

effects agree that learning in these classroom settings are showing positive results for

both boys and girls. These positive results however, are mostly in favor of female

students. The results of a comparative study on music achievement and the effects of

single-sex instruction found that girls in a single-sex classroom achieved more success

than girls in the coeducational schools. The results also showed boys and girls scoring

higher on music achievement test than boys and girls in coeducational classroom

settings. Research showed that single-sex learning environments can benefit girls by

allowing them the opportunity to develop the critical thinking skills and effort as a way

building up their confidence. Other studies showed a 65 percent increase in the grade

point averages of students in single-sex classrooms. The aims of this paper are to

review and discuss the related literature on the effects of single-sex instruction on

musical creativity and academic achievement, the evidences of increased achievements









in the all-boys' and the all-girls' single-sex classes, as well as possible evidence of the

positive effects of musical creativity in the all-girls' single-sex classes versus the all-

boys single-sex classes.









INTRODUCTION

A Personal Teaching Experience

In summer 2007 the administrative staff of West Riviera Elementary School,

(Riviera Beach, FL) made the decision to implement a new concept of effective teaching

by placing all the fifth-grade students of the 2007-2008 school year in a single-sex

learning environment. With the restructuring of the school and the reassignments of at

least four principals at surrounding schools in our area, this new move seemed one that

would promise some type of positive change. This school would surely be on its way to

"skyrocket to success" on all academic levels. There would be two fifth-grade

classrooms for boys under the instruction of two male teachers and two fifth-grade

classrooms for girls under the instruction of two female teachers. Looking back on this

past year alone, there has been an increased amount of positive change among the

faculty, staff, and the student body. Test scores as well as the overall behaviors of the

students have increased.

During the beginning years of teaching general music in the primary and

intermediate grades, perhaps one of the most observable things to see develop in

students over time, is how they are able to work and perform together when engaged in

creative music lessons and activities. As a teacher at this particular at-risk school,

during the "2007-2008" academic school year, I was able to see progress in the

musicianship of a group of fifth-grade boys and girls separately as individual groups in a

single-sexed setting. The successful musical performance and overall musical

development of these intermediate students were an indication that single-sex

instruction may have had some influence on the musical achievements of my students.

With the achievements found in standardized tests and classroom assessments given









to students throughout the year, it would be logical to inquire if achievement in music

has any effect at all in the learning process. In the music classroom, I observed that the

students who showed the most potential in the areas of vocal performance, movement,

and improvisational techniques with and without accompanied instruments, were the

fifth-grade boys. When performing in concerts, the fifth-grade boys showed increased

enthusiasm, willingness to learn, cooperative group participation, as well as an

eagerness to learn how to take what they have learned one step farther. Toward the

end of the school year it is revealed that male students as well as female students are

achieving success in their single-sex classroom environment.

Single-sex Instruction Defined

Many researchers have interchangeably used the phrases "single-sex" or "single-

gendered" classrooms to refer to the type of classroom setting that consists of the

separate instruction of an all-girls' group and an all-boys' group. For example, Wilson

(1996, pp.15) defines the phrase "single-sex classes" as an instructional setting

comprised of like-gender students. Young (2004, pp.4) refers to the term "single-

gender" and states that it will be used interchangeably with homogeneous and will be

considered to be only one gender. Ulkins (2007, pp.9) uses both "single-sex" and

"single-gender" to describe the classroom setting. Ulkins defines the phrase "single-

gender" as a classroom that contains students of one gender (e.g. all male or all

female). Newell (1981, pp.13) also defines single-sex education as "Any learning

environment attended by students on the basis of their sex. Single-sex education is the

practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate

classes in separate buildings or schools. Throughout this discussion and review of the

literature, the phrase "single-sex classrooms" instead of "single-gender" will be used









when referring to the musical and academic achievements of a classroom setting that

consists of all female students and all male students, as agreed by the definitions of

many other researchers.


THE BASIS OF SINGLE-SEX INSTRUCTION

Researchers have indicated the existence of differences in the way boys and

girls learn. According to Young (2004), teachers are searching for creative ways to keep

students' interested in learning while increasing classroom productivity. With the

demands of accountability placed on teachers by the NCLB Act of 2001 for properly

financing the education and learning achievement of students, some public schools

found implementing single-sex classrooms in public schools is a creative way to fill gaps

in learning achievement among disadvantaged students, or students considered at-risk

(U.S.D.E, 2004).


Critics such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the American

Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) have taken the position that single-sex education is a

violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. They have

compared separation of gender to separation by race and have used the United States

ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education as their legal reasoning; however, Whelan (1998,

pp. 1-2) claims that this was not the intention of the Supreme Court's ruling. According

to Title IV of the 1972 Education Amendment, "No person in the United States shall, on

the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be

subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal

financial assistance (D.O.L, 1972)." In 2006, the United States Department of Education

published new regulations governing single-sex education in public schools. These new









regulations were required by a provision in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The

intent of the provision was to legalize single-sex education in public schools (NASSPE,

2005(f)).


NATION-WIDE INTEREST IN THE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF SINGLE-SEX
INSTRUCTION

Due to the provisions made to legalize single-sex instruction in public schools,

the National Association of Single Sex Public Education has reported that a growing

number of schools (as of November 2009, there are at least 547 schools) throughout

the nation are expressing interest in single-sex instruction in the public school systems.

In a news article by Jennifer Medina (Medina, 2009), Paul Cannon, principal of a school

that adopted single-sex instruction said, "We will do whatever works, however we can

get there. We thought this would be another tool to try." Medina (2009) reported that Mr.

Cannon was inspired by reports of the all-girls' classes in North Carolina and was

inspired to try single-sex classes at his school. While Mr. Cannon's school is one of the

many public schools that have adopted the learning environment of single-sex

programs, there are mixed results. Some schools report academic and behavioral

success in their programs, while other schools report disappointing outcomes due to the

lack of professional development among instructional staff (Sax, 2005).

Many reports account for the positive effects of single-sex instruction on learning

achievement in the classroom. Some reports claim that being in single-sex classrooms

allows both boys and girls more freedom to explore their own interests and abilities than

in the coeducational classroom (NASSPE, 2005(c)). The separation of boys and girls

during classroom instruction appears to show some type of positive effect in many

different areas. Boys seem more engaged in learning, while girls seem more hesitant to









participate unless guided by an instructor. Research in the field of single-sex instruction

and achievement is significant in music education because it readily correlates with

what students are being taught in the classroom. Research studies are showing

significant findings that support the positive effects of single-sex classrooms.

GENDER DIFFERENCES

In today's classrooms research has shown the gender differences that exist in

the way boys and girls learn in the single-sex classroom. These gender differences in

learning appear to effect the achievement of male and female students in the

coeducational classroom settings. In some cases, coeducational instruction has

indicated mixed results in the percentages of achievement for boys and girls. Some

research studies show significant evidence of boys and girls learning differently. For

example, Labarthe (1997) gave 376 two-year-old toddlers an opportunity to build

bridges using building blocks. Of the 376 toddlers, twenty one percent (21%) of boys

were able to build bridges versus the eight percent (8%) of girls who were able to

complete the same task. Boys had three times more success than girls in learning to

complete a specific task or skill. Still, other research shows evidence that the opposite

result is also true for girls. Boyatzis, (1993), examined the ability of a mixed group of 34

preschoolers to decode and encode facial emotions and gestures, the examined

interrelationships between these skills, and the examined relationship between these

skills as well as the children's popularity. Results revealed that there were no age or

gender effects on performance. Children performed better on decoding and encoding

tasks. In this case study, research showed that girls could interpret facial expressions

just as well as or better than boys could (NASSPE, 2005(a)).









This literature review is aimed at discussing the effects of single-sex instruction

on musical creativity and academic achievement, evidence of increased achievements

in the all-boys' and the all-girls' classes, as well as possible evidence of the positive

effects of musical creativity in the all-girls' versus all-boys. According to Newell (1981),

curriculum offered in single-sex or coeducational private schools should provide the

same opportunity for student achievement in all academic programs, especially those in

music education. In agreement with Newell (1981), the review of literature will be used

to aid administrators and music educators in their efforts to structure musical curriculum

that will meet the needs of students in single-sex classes and schools in the best

possible way.

ADVANTAGES OF SINGLE-SEX CLASSES FOR GIRLS

According to Watson & Smitherman (1992), some researchers believe, "The

underlying rationale of the single-gender education is that a unique school program is

necessary to address the unique needs of urban males." These unique school programs

are single-sex classrooms. Agnew-White (2007) commented that young African

American males are the group most likely not to experience success in the classroom or

in society.


If this "unique school program" helps address the needs of students, both male

and female, then the advantages of placing at-risk or disadvantaged students in single-

sex education programs must show significant results. According to (Lee & Bryk, 1986;

NASSPE, 2005(e)), the advantages of single-sex education for girls are threefold. First,

it allows female students expanded educational opportunities. Female students in rare

single-sex classrooms are more willing to explore subjects such as computer science,









physics, and woodworking; and leadership roles such as aspiring to be the CEO of a

top-selling company. In coed classes, girls choose activities and subjects which will

grant them a guaranteed outcome of success. However, in an all-girls' class, when

students see female teachers and role models excelling in math, physics, computer

programming, or, sports, they are more likely to excel in those areas as well.


The second advantage for girls in a single-sex program is that learning and

instructional materials are custom-tailored to their needs. Teachers use different

instructional methods to be sure learning is taking place. For example, the pairing of

girls with each other instead of with boys shows improvements in academic

performance, the use of differentiated instruction, and role playing when involved in

whole-group instructional settings (NASSPE, 2005(e)).


The third advantage of a single-sex program for girls is having the sense of

greater liberty to make decisions for themselves and by themselves. The National

Association of Single Sex Public Education reports that female students in single-sex

classes are less likely to have romantic relationships in middle and high school level

than coed students. In addition, (NASSPE, 2005(e)) reports that girls in single-sex

classes are less likely to experience unwanted pregnancy simply because they do not

experience the pressures from coed peers to do what everyone else is doing, since all

of their classmates are girls themselves. Girls in single-sex classes have the ability to

just say no: they have fewer distractions and worries, and less peer pressure. This is

significant because the US continues to have the highest amount of teen pregnancies

no matter how small the increase seems. Based on the reports from The Washington









Post, the increasing reverse rate (meaning that in the beginning there was a increase

and then a decrease in the rate of teens becoming pregnant) of teen pregnancy rose

from 2005 to 2006, after a 14-year decline. "The latest data, from an annual analysis of

birth certificates nationwide, found that while the birthrate among girls ages 10 to 14

remained unchanged, the overall rate for those ages 15 to 19 rose again, from 41.9

births per 1,000 to 42.5"(Stein & St. George, 2009).


ADVANTAGES OF SINGLE-SEX CLASSES FOR BOYS

The advantages in single-sex classrooms for boys are similar to the advantages

for girls but the benefits are only two-fold. Boys, in the same way as girls, have the

advantage of obtaining a more diverse and well-rounded educational experience. Male

students are able to view their male teachers in many diverse roles. One principal

observed differences among boy attending private schools and pubic coed schools in

his locality. The principal observed that boys attending school with other boys enjoyed

choral singing, desired to become fluent in French, and wanted to excel on their own in

drama. In the coed public schools, boys considered singing in choirs and learning

French to be unexciting activities. Another advantage for boys attending single-sex

classes is the provision of customized instructional materials by their teachers to

promote learning. Some suggest that teachers can keep boys motivated to learn by

keeping the classroom setting loud and lively, calling students by their last name, and

adjusting instructional topics to topics that appeal to boys (NASSPE, 2005 (d)).

With regard to the achievement of African American males in single-sex

programs, Agnew-White, (2007) cites three components of an effective single-sex

program: having African American males as role models, implementing Afro-centric









curriculum, and community involvement. The first component consists of providing

positive images of African American male teachers, role models, advocates, and

mentors for at-risk students (Ascher, 1991). The second component consists of

community involvement in the form of afterschool programs that help keep students out

of trouble. Many of these single-sex programs focus on students in elementary schools

because of the decline in African American male teachers seen during the third and

fourth grade. Mentors involved in these enrichment programs are able to motivate

students to learn and also help meet the individual needs of these students with early

interventions (Ascher, 1991). The third component is the implementation of an Afro-

centric curriculum that helps give students a sense of pride. In addition to a further

developed sense of their identity as individual African American males, implementing an

Afro-centric curriculum may help nurture their need for a father figure in their lives and

may promote positive relationships through male bonding (Ascher 1991; Jordan, 2003).

Eighty percent of boys always experienced positive relations while learning and

interacting with each other in single-sex classes (Agnew-White, 2007, pp.74). The new

learning environments allowed students more freedom to communicate their thoughts

and ideas as well as opportunities of frequent academic achievement in their

classrooms (Agnew-White, 2007). Abbott, (2007) found that removing males from the

classroom removed the fear of being intimidated by boys, and allowed females more

opportunity to experience success in the areas of critical thinking and effort.



RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE-SEX CLASSES ON ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT









To understand the effects of musical creativity on the academic achievements of

students in the single-sex classroom, research that supports the impact of single-sex

programs on the academic achievement of students must be reviewed. Experimental

studies show significant results on the positive effects of single-sex programs on

learning achievements in mathematics and science. For example, Young's (2004)

literature review on the effects of single-sex classroom grouping on students'

achievement and discipline revealed that public schools are becoming observant of the

positive effects of implementing single-sex classes as an alternative way to group

students. Young's study is one of many studies that confirm the positive effects that

single-sex classes has on test scores. One important aspect from Young's research,

was to determine how grouping students in same sex classrooms affected mathematic

achievement. Math test scores in of the mixed classes and the all-girls' class differed

significantly. One may deduct from Young's findings that perhaps the all-boys' classes

had problems with discipline in their classroom setting. The all-girls' class achieved

higher scores than the all- boys' class. Over the time-frame of one school year, the girls

increased their math achievement scores by 60.78 points, despite an increase in

discipline referrals. In contrast, the math achievements of the all-boys' group decreased

by 21.82 points; the rate of discipline referrals stayed the same (Young, 2004, pp.40).

Similarly, other researchers found that single-sex instruction in math and science

had positive impacts on performance and learning of girls. In one quasi-experimental

study, participants consisted of a group of fifth-grade students. All students were tested

using three different tools for measuring data: a criterion-referenced mathematics and

science examinations in which a pre/posttest was administered, standardized









mathematics and science achievement tests, and the grades from the year-end

mathematics and science report card. Results showed that neither girls nor boys were

disadvantaged in the single-sex design. Girls showed significantly more academic

growth between the pre-test and post-test administrations of criterion-referenced

examinations in science than the boys. Wilson, (1996, pp.69) showed the pre-test

means of 24.38 for the girls and post-test means of 29.22; a mean growth of 4.83.

When statistically controlling for previous mathematics and science achievement,

adjusted mean GPA scores raise for girls in both science and math and lowered for

boys in both subject areas (Wilson, 1996). There were also significant findings on the

effects of single-sex classes on the mathematics among the gifted population. While

researching the impacts of single-sex classes and academic success, researchers

found that boys and girls do learn differently and that differentiated teaching strategies

applied in the single-sex classroom may also be an important factor in determining

academic achievement among students. According to the findings of Steven Abbott's

research, a single-sex learning environment can benefit gifted females by lessening the

effects of stereotypes and giving students an avenue to develop greater critical thinking

and effort skills as a way of increasing success and confidence levels in mathematics

(Abbott, 2007). His case study of thirty-two girls among the gifted population, showed

significant results among two of the eight variables tested: critical thinking and effort.

The remaining variables were mathematics achievement, intrinsic motivation to study,

study interest, test anxiety, study elaboration, study organization, study self-regulation,

and managing time and study environments. Abbott's research found significant

differences in critical thinking and efforts among females. As a result of female students









being encouraged to give more effort and when they were informed that classmates of

the opposite gender would not bother or intimidate them, female students in the single-

sex classes were shown to be scoring higher than females in the traditional classrooms

(Abbott, 2007). Another case study on the effects of single-sex education on the

academic achievements of African-American males found that the GPA's of sixty-five

percent of the students improved, while twenty-six percent decreased with the

implementation of single-sex classrooms. In the academic reading and math scores, the

results showed that only fifty-five percent of the students improved, while twenty-one

percent became worse. These trends in the percentages of non-improvement rates may

be attributed to the fact that students were in transition from the traditional classroom

instruction to the implementation of single-sex instruction (Agnew-White, 2007).

In a quantitative study in which the achievement of girls in single-sex classrooms

was compared to the achievement of girls in traditional mixed-sex classrooms, a

significant difference was found in the area of external locus of control. In the group

statistics revealed in (Tables 51 and 52 of the research findings (Ulkins, 2007, pp.85),

females in single-sex classrooms scored higher in external locus of control (they had a

mean score of 4.52 and a standard deviations score of 1.35) than female students in the

traditional classroom setting (whose mean score was 2.88, and a standard deviation

score of .74). Ulkins (2007) defines "locus of control" as a personality construct

designed to assess an individual's perceived control over his/her own behavior. Ulkins

mentions two types: internal locus and external locus. "Internal locus of control" refers to

the belief of an individual that his or her failures or successes are controlled by that

individuals own effort or ability. "External locus of control" refers to an individual's belief









that his or her successes or failures are caused by factors outside of the individual's

control, such as fate or luck. It also refers to a belief that other people and events

control most of a person's life (Ulkins, 2007, pp.96 and Neill, (2005)). In retrospect,

results show girls in the single-sex classroom scoring significantly higher than the girls

in the mixed-sex classroom in the area of external locus of control. Differences in

external locus of control may be because girls were able to overcome negative

stereotypical ideas about science and scientists. Consequently, removing males from

the science classroom had some effect on girls in the single-sex classroom, allowing

them a greater chance of academic success in science (Ulkins, 2007).



RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE-SEX CLASSROOMS ON MUSICAL
CREATIVITY

Based on the increasing number of significant findings on the relationships

between gender and learning, it can be reported that learning is taking place in most

school settings that have adopted the single-sex programs (Abbott, 2007; Agnew-White,

2007;Wilson, 1996). Newell, (1981) concluded that there was evidence indicating that

students attending single-sex private schools scored higher on part 1 of Colwell's Music

achievement test (MAT 1) than female students attending coeducational schools. The

research shows that learning is taking place in single-sex classrooms. Male and female

students, who are gifted and non-gifted, were previously considered to be the at-risk

students. Studies that show students achieving academic success in mathematics and

science in a single-sex classroom, will continue to increase the validity of results as

more studies in the effects single-sex classrooms on academic learning and music

acievment.









Of the few research studies that have been conducted on the musical

achievements of students in a single-sexed learning environment, one study has shown

significant results which support the topic of gender and learning. In this comparative

study of pitch, meter, and interval discrimination among fourth, fifth, and sixth grade

students in selected single-sex and coeducational private schools, the results of

achievement as well as musical achievement, were found to be in favor of girls who

attended private single-sex schools.

Some researchers such as Ulkins (2007) expected female students in a single-sex

environment to earn higher grades compared to female students in a coeducational

environment because female students are predicted to show more positive attitudes

towards a subject area than female students in a traditional "coed" classroom (Ulkins,

2007, pp.7-8). As a result of this perception of female students in single-sex programs,

the conclusions made by Newell (1981) will be in favor of evidences that achievement in

a single-sex music class is a possible outcome.

Newell's (1981) comparative research study of pitch, meter, and interval

discrimination among fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students in selected single-sex and

coeducational private schools indicates that both male and female students who attend

single-sex private schools score higher on interval discrimination than students of the

coeducational private schools. Secondly, boys that attend single-sex private schools

score higher on interval discrimination than boys that attend the coeducational private

schools. The third conclusion showed evidence indicating girls in single-sex private

schools scored higher on pitch, interval, and meter discrimination than girls in the









coeducational private schools (Newell, 1981). Overall, the results of this study strongly

favored the achievement of girls.

Research studies on the effects of student participation in music education

programs and academic achievement show significant results of academic and musical

success. According to Jones, (2008) and Eisner (2002), students who participate in a

music education program frequently do better than their peers on many measures of

academic achievement such as grade point averages and standardized testing.



CONCLUSION

Researchers have shown significant findings that guarantee positive

relationships that exist between single-sex instruction and achievement. Critics will

continue to challenge the benefits and the effects of single-sex classes in public school

systems. However, single-sex education will continue to change the way boys and girls

learn, think, and make choices. It is the belief of the researcher that single-sex

instruction does not work for all settings. However, for those who have experienced

success after implementing single-sex instruction in their schools, it is encouraged that

more educators continue with the research on the findings of the positive effects of

single-sex instruction and achievement. Proficiency in all subject areas is important.

That is why single-sex instruction can help in the prevention of the problem, which in the

classroom situations of most educators, is proficiency. Educators want to know that

students are learning the material in the curriculum.

Research on the effects of musical creativity on the academic achievement of

students in single-sex classroom, were in favor of the all-girls' classes. The advantages

of being in a single-sex learning environment produced confidence, created









opportunities of success, and customized learning and instruction. The positive results

found in studies of the effects of single-sex instruction at public schools for boys and

girls indicated that more research is needed.

This review of the research indicates that the musical and academic achievement

of students in single-sex classes is improved for both boys and girls. I would like to


continue seeing an increase in the quality of muscianship in students at the fifth grade

level. While the fifth-grade boys in my class seemed to have shown much more

musicality and musical achievement, I believe that with time the fifth-grade girls will

begin to excel in their single-sex classrooms. It would also be interesting to see a

schoolwide implementation of single-sex instruction that would result in increase

musical and academic achievement in the kindergarten through fourth-grade levels. As

the administrators of West Riviera continue with the implementation of single-sex

instruction in the fifth-grade level, it is very hopeful that positive changes will continue to

develop among the student body.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Abbott, S. (2007). The effects of single-gender classrooms on mathematics
achievement within the gifted population.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

I am the youngest of five siblings living in the wonderful town of West Palm Beach,

FL. Upon graduating from Suncoast Community high school, I relocated to Gainesville,

FL to pursue an undergraduate degree in the College of Fine Arts. In the spring of 2005,

I successfully obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in Vocal Performance at the University

of Florida. Shortly after graduating from the University of Florida, I secured a general

music teaching job at West Riviera Elementary School, located in Riviera Beach, FL.

During the "2006-2007" school year, I worked with students from kindergarten through

fifth-grade. I am currently working on fulfilling the requirements of my Masters degree in

Music in order to graduate during December, 2009.




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