MARC AND ARC: GEOSPATIALLY ENABLING BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORDS
Stephanie C. Haas
University of Florida
University of Hawaii
Geography is an intrinsic factor in many fields of research. In restoration ecology, the
first rule is "Think geographically, whenever possible." A sense of place gives meaning
to our everyday lives. Imagine how difficult it would be to get to Mazatlan using a map
Traditionally, libraries have used the 651 field in MARC records to record geographic
information. As invaluable as MARC records have proven in joint cataloging projects
and bibliographic information exchange around the world, the advent of geographic
information systems (GIS) has exposed the limitations of MARC to function in a
Three projects offer different approaches to creating geospatial interfaces to bibliographic
records: the first developed at the University of Florida as a result of an IMLS grant used
Z39.50 to tie together museum specimen records and bibliographic graphics; the second
was developed at the University of Hawaii to create a spatially referenced bibliography to
the island of Oahu; and the third is a collaborative partnership between MBL/WHOI and
the U.SG.S. to create a Marine Realms Information Bank.
Creating Databases within ArcView:
Linking Florida's Natural Heritage/ Spatially Referencing Oahu
Funded in 1997, the goal of the "Linking Florida's Natural Heritage" was to use a Z39.50
interface to tie specimen records to bibliographic records. The geographic information
contained in specimen records often contains hierarchical information concerning the
capture location of a specimen, e.g., country, state, county, named place, drainage basin,
etc. In order to provide a similar level of granularity, bibliographic records were
enhanced with several additional fields based on data available through the Geographic
Names Information System [http://www-nmd.usgs.gov/www/gnis/index.html] of the U.S.
Geological Survey. Latitude and longitude coordinates associated with names were
included in the 034 field. Additional standardized geographic authorities used included
the hydrological unit codes (HUC)
[http://wwwrvares.er.usgs.gov/wqn96cd/wqn/wq/huc_name.txt] of the U.S.G.S. and the
FIPS codes from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. These consist of
coded numbers for states and counties. Summarily, the following MARC fields were
034: : |d Western latitude in decimal degrees
|f Northern longitude in decimal degrees
752: : |a Country |b State |c County |d Named Place
651: 4: la County Iz HUC# Ix HUC
651: 4: la County Iz FIPS# |x FIPS
The MARC fields used in a geographically-enhanced record are shown below:
034:1 : d -82.5725 |f 27.68833
100:1 : |aMotta, P. J.
245:10: |a Feeding relationships among nine species of seagrass fishes in Tampa Bay,
651: 4: la Tampa Bay Iz 3100206 Ix HUC
650: 4: |a Fishes
650: 4: |a Feeding behavior
650: 4: la Seagrasses
651: 4: la Hillsborough |z 12057 |x FIPS
752: : |a United States |b Florida |c Hillsborough |d Tampa Bay
773:0 : |t Bulletin of marine science |g (1995) |g 56(1): |g 185-200.
Although all the information needed for display in a GIS system are extant, the ArcView
system works off of internal databases so some method of importing data into ArcView
Initially, Joe Aufmuth and Stephanie Haas used a convoluted process of retrieving
MARC records using the Z39.50 functionality of ProCite to export a minimal number of
data fields in a tab-delimited format into ArcView. From there additional manipulation
was done to create a dBase database and properly structure the data for display. While
some of the richness of MARC records was lost (the taxonomic field being the most
critical), the fields retained included:
034 |d latitude |f Longitude (in degrees decimal)
773/260: Source: either Place/Publisher/Date or Journal citation
651 HUC codes
752 GNIS Place Name Hierarchy
David Coleman used the same approach of creating a database within ArcView in his
geospatially-referenced bibliography to the island of Oahu. David created an Access
database by cutting and pasting fields from the regular online catalog into an input
template and then importing the database into ArcView.
Green dots on this Oahu map represent areas where bibliographic references exist.
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S47 results returned. a
Ba McDonald, C 1985. Oceanographic climate and Hawaiian spiny lobster larval
L recruitment In: HOE, The Hawaiian Ocean Experiment. Proceedings Aha
MeHulikoa Hawaiian Winter Workshop, University Of Hawaii, January 21-24,
1985. L. Magaard, R. Pujalet & V.Gaynor (Eds.) Hawaii Inst. Geophysics
%KSpec. Publ. 127-135 MANOA GC206.A32
lt Mcdermid, K.J 1991. Survey of benthic marine algae on the fringing reef
ir adjacent to the planned Malulani Sports Complex, Heeia, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu
n: Submitted August 5, 1991 To Marine Research Consultants
Hunt, J.W., R.Y. Ito, A. Zirker, E.A. Birch, D.L. Norton, S.E. Gernler,
A.A. Fegley, S.K. Warlop, And E. Ernce 1979. Cooperative Gracilaria
Project: Environmental factors affecting the growth rate of Gracilaria
-bursapstoris and Gracilaria coronopifolia (Limu) university Of Hawaii sea
-Grant College Program, Working Paper No.49 MANOA GC1 .H37a no.49
Moberly, R., 3r., 3. Campbell 1969. Hawaiian shallow marine sand
' Inventory. Part I. Introduction Part II. Ahu 0 Laka sand deposit, Kaneohe
f ay, Oahu Hawaii Institute Of Geophysics Report Hig-69-10 MANOA GC1.H38
U I:I .I- mI il1 IEI I lillii"
A/e Pernnial Stseams
t' Maeor Roads
Natural Community Types
r r (C) 'OISC InciplentWeeds
"r (3) Aquatic Species Distribution (HSA)
r C' (E) Perenn.al Streams
rI C (D Major Roads
rI C (D Coast
r C Level of Protection
Cr r Natural Community Types
r (1Landsat7 TM Mosalc
r- (D usGS 1 24000 Quads
Refresh Map |
ArcViewo's "Hotlink" TOOL
Currently at UF, we are exploring Aic\ ic%\, 's "Hotlink" tool that permits linking to
external data. This graphical tool uses programmed scripts to initiate external data
displays. Individual point features in a map theme, e.g., named places such as Lake
Wauberg, Florida, are associated with relational fields that contain a link (in this instance
a search URL) to specific external files. Basically, a graphical interface can be created
from just three Geographic Names Information System fields (named place, latitude, and
longitude) and a fourth relational field: a search URL into the Florida Environments
Online database. Utilizing ArcViewC a point for each of the place names is created from
the associated latitude and longitude fields. The Hotlink tool activates a user-defined
script associated with a given URL attribute field of the point, launches a web browser,
and initiates a search of that place name in the database.
Cfl Cl Cl
>-I -> ->
m0 0me 0m0
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The Hotlink tool is used to activate the search URL associated with each point.
e MARC Records .
_J Major Rivers
j Major Water Bodies
i D trlit
SUWANNEE RIVER i
ST JOHNS RIVER W
SOUTH FLORIDA W,
I NORTHWEST FLORI
Clicking on the Tampa Bay dot on the map above will return appropriate bibliographic
records. Although this particular URL searches only the Florida Environments Online
database, URLs can be created to search OPACs and other specialized databases. The
possibilities are literally endless.
- .. Florida Envirolunents Online
Restart Search: Basic | Advanced CoInuad History Change Databases
Search: k752= tampa adj bay
Hit Count: 22
Records: 1 to 22
r lEffects of live-bait slurinp trawling on seagrass beds and fish bvcatch in Tampa Bay, Florida.
(Fishery bulletin (1999) 97(1): 193-199.)
Meyer, D. L.;
F 2Benthic infauna of Tamnpa Bay: Sumnuner, 1993.
Culter. J K.; 1995
Full text http //www mote. orp/techreps/ Acrobat reader required
r 3Feeding relationships among nine species of seagrass fishes in Tampa Bay, Florida.
(Bulletin of marine science (1995) 56(1): 185-200.)
Motta, P ;
r 4Bycatch and catch-release mortality of small sharks in the Gulf coast nursery grounds of
Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor.
Hueter, R.E.; 1994
Full text http://www.mote. org/techreps/ Acrobat reader required
Further information on the spatially enhanced bibliography of Oahu can be found in
"Better Document Management through Georeferencing," by David E. Coleman, Paul
Jokiel, Eric Hill, and Naomi Bentivoglio. ArcUser Online, April-June 2002. [Online cite:
An extensive discussion of the enhancements for MARC records for the Linking
Florida's Natural Heritage project was submitted to Library Collections, Acquisitions and
Technical Services. The forthcoming article is entitled "DARWIN and MARC: a voyage
of metadata discovery."
MARINE REALMS INFORMATION BANK
Eleanor Uhlinger, MBL/WHOI, is consulting with the USGS, Woods Hole on the
creation of a Marine Realms Information Bank. [Online URL: http://mrib.usgs.gov]
This project is not a GIS application, but uses WHOI designed 4DGeoBrowser software.
It is designed to facilitate access to multi-discipline, multi-media data sets and currently
retrieves USGS documents, FGDC metadata, and project web sites.
Maps displayed are images with hotlinked shape files. Dots are linked to web sites, full
text documents, etc. Moving the cursor over a dot will display the title.
YOU MAY FURTHER REFINE YOUR SELECTION BY CHOOSING:
VIEW TABLE Location Geoloic Time Features Biota Discipline Method Hot Topics
Project Name Aeenco Name Author Class Format Audience Start a New Search
MRIB FOUND THE FOLLOWING ENTRIES:
Click on a symbol to go to website
Total of 428 matches, 428 mapped
95'W 90W 85'W
S[Gulf of Mexico Tidal Wetlands Time:1977 Lat:29.35
Lon:-83.4 URL:Gulf of Mexico Tidal Wetlands
S 19' 301N
95'W 90'W 85'W sO'W
As with all the projects discussed, Marine Realms is under development. Uses of the
4DGeoBrowser software are described in 4DGeoBrowser: A web-based data browser
and server for accessing and analyzing multi-disciplinary data, by Steven Lerner and
Andrew Maffei. October 2001. 67pgs. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical
National Technical Information Service # ADA398546 OCLC #49210149 Please contact
Eleanor Uhlinger at firstname.lastname@example.org for copies of this report.
The PowerPoint presentation that was given at the 28th Annual meeting in Mazatlan,
Mexico may be found at http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/temporary/MARC&ARC.ppt.