Title: Finding fish in the Gitche Gumee: information partitioning in limnology
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Title: Finding fish in the Gitche Gumee: information partitioning in limnology
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Language: English
Creator: International Association of Aquatic and Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers. Conference (17th : 1991: Galveston, TX)
Haas, Stephanie C.
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Publisher: International Association of Aquatic and Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers (IAMSLIC)
Place of Publication: Fort Pierce, Fla.
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Abstract: This study reassesses core journals in the field of limnology and investigates the possible existence of information partitioning in the subfield of physical limnology, chemical limnology, and biological limnology
Funding: Collected for University of Florida's Institional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Stephanie Haas.
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FINDING FISH IN THE GITCHE GUMEE:
INFORMATION PARTITIONING IN LIMNOLOGY

Stephanie C. Haas
Marston Science Library
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL


ABSTRACT

This study reassess core journals in the field of limnology
and investigates the possible existence of information partitioning in
the subfields of physical limnology, chemical limnology, and biological
limnology.


INTRODUCTION

Over time, the core journals in science disciplines become identified by
extensive researcher use. Usage patterns are most clearly discerned through citation
analysis. The purpose of the present study is to reassess core journals in the field of
limnology and to investigate the possible existence of information partitioning in the
subfields of physical limnology, chemical limnology, and biological limnology.

Two key studies relevant to these questions have been published: Gorham's
"Journal Coverage in the Field of Limnology" (1968), and Resh's 1985 study "Periodical
Citations in Aquatic Entomology and Freshwater Benthic Biology." The findings of
these two studies and two additional studies defined citation patterns of limnology
journals. The two additional analyses include citation counts of a 1987 textbook by
Schwoerbel entitled Handbook of Limnology, and citation counts of subject-categorized
articles in three volumes of the Proceedings of the International Association for
Theoretical and Applied Limnology. The Proceedings are one of the few publications
where authors' works are categorized as to a physical, chemical, or biological focus.
This analysis formed the basis for findings concerning information partitioning in
limnology subfields.

METHODOLOGY

In his Handbook of Limnology Schwoerbel has compiled a 26 page
bibliography of key limnology references. Citation data from this study are designated
as Schwoerbel/1987 (Table 1).

Gorham's study (1968) examines the journal citations in two volumes of the
Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology


197










(Verhandlungen. International Vereinigung fur Theoretische undAngewandt Limnologie):
the 15th Congress, Madison, Wisconsin (1962) and the 16th Congress, Warsaw, Poland
(1965). Gorham indicates that the coverage percentages he found may be high
"because a number of obscure citations could not be identified as to their source
journal." Because of this only the top 10 ranked journals, representing 25% of all
citations, are considered here. Data from Gorham's study are indicated Gorham/1968
(Table 1).

Resh's 1985 work compares a variety of citation studies. Of particular interest
to the current investigation is his citation analysis of the textbook Limnology by R. G.
Wetzel (1983). Sixteen journals contained 50% of all journal references (n= 2,166); 18
represent his core list of journals each of which accounts for more than 1% of the total
citations. Data from this study are indicated Wetzel/1983 (Table 1).

To investigate the possible information partitioning in the subfields of physical,
chemical, and biological limnology, papers of the 1983 (France), 1987 (New Zealand),
and 1989 (Munich) Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and
Applied Limnology were analyzed. Six categories were selected: Physical Limnology;
Chemical Limnology; the three subsections of Ecology of Aquatic Organisms:
Microbes, Algae and Other Plants, Animals; and Fish and Fisheries.

To obtain a reasonable sample size for physical and chemical limnology, all
three years were used to gather citation counts. Only the 1987 Proceedings were used
to obtain counts in the four biological categories. Compiled data from all sections in
designated in Table 1 as Haas/1991.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1 provides a comparison for the four studies considered. The
Schwoerbel/1987 and Wetzel/1983 analyses are based on citations from limnology
textbooks. Wetzel's book was published in the United States; Schwoerbel's was
translated from German in England.

The Gorham and Haas studies look at citations in the Proceedings of the
International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology. Gorham's ranked
journals account for 25% of the citations; in all other studies, rankings account for
50% of the citations.

Eight journals are ranked in three or more sources: Limnology and
Oceanography, Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Supplementban4
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Ecology, Hydrobioligia,
International Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie, and Proceedings of the International
Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology.


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Tide Gotham WeO.cI Sdcawocrec H-u
/196W /19839 /198o 11991-

n=2,568 n=2,166 n-347 n-1,999
citation cittion citmti citatiom

Applied ad ao Enriromoatal Mic-robiology 10 (1.65%)
Aquatic Bony Bcgan, 1975 16 (1.4%) 13 (1.3%)
A.odiv fu. Hydroiologi. 2 (4.3%) 2 (4.9%) 1 (12.0%) 5 (4.1%)
Af.iv fur Hydrob.iologic. Supplban uthd Incl Arh.Hyd.obiol. 9 (1.7%) 2 (11.5%)
Arcdiv for Iydrobiolog.i. BeMi.ft Ergebhu, der Linnolog.t 12 (1.4%)
Canadian Joural of Fihnrih and Aquatic Sccoo-t 8 (1.36%) 4 (3.9%) 4 (5.1%)
Camdian Journal of Zoology 16 (1.15%)
Couniuations. l)i AMoc. of Th A otickl & Applied Limoology 6 (3 5%)
Ecolo-ica M..ogrphs 9 (1.7%) 7 (1.8%)
Ecology 5 (2 1%) 3 (4.1%) 9 (1.75)
F.shwalr Biology Began, 1971 5 (3.3%) 3 (5.7%)
Hydrobiologia 7 (1 4%) 7 (29%) 6 (3.5%) 14 (1.2%)
lntrmationtl RBvou dr G&eam-cn Hydr.biolog 3 (3 .5%) 9 (1.7%) 5 (5.2%)
JounaJ of Ecology 8 (2.5%)
Joumal of Planklon R-.acrch 16 (I 15%)
Linmology oI Oceano. gpq 4 (32%) 1 (13.9%) 4 (7.2%) 1 (10.9%)
Mcmooi dell'ntituo Italiano di irobiologia 6 (1. 44) 13 (1.5%)
Ocoloia 14 (1.2%)
Oiko. 13 (1.5%) 6 (2.0%)
PolisH Archuum Hyrobiologii 13 (1.5%)
Procding- Int'l Aaroo. of The.ortical & Appliod Limnology (5.5%) 12 (1.6%) 3 (8.4%) 2 (6.4%)
Ropt. Int. F-F hwa- t R6. Drotingholn 9 (1.32%)
Sc.hnizcrihe. Zcita .rif fur Hydroloj. 10 (1.1 %)
Science 6 (3.0) 7 (1.%)
Woer Re.och 10 (1.65%)


SR nl.d -6ournt .ccuso f.or 2S% of citaoi-o ,
ranked journals -aout for 50% of 6ctatios.

TABLE 1: Limnology Core Journal Comparison: Rank and Percentage of Total Coverage.










Deriving citation counts from percentages, it is possible to complete a cross
study comparison of the eight titles (Table 2) and to rank them in terms of total
citations. Thus, the core list of limnology titles derived is:

1. Limnology and Oceanography
2. Archiv fur Hydrobiolgie/Suppiementband (The Supplementband
citations have been incorporated to provide consistent treatment
across all studies.)
3. Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and
Applied Limnology
4. Hydrobiologia
5. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
6. Ecology
7. Intemationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie.



Title Gorham Wetzel Schwoerbel Haas Total
(% total
citations)
n=2,568 n=2,166 n= 347 n=1,999 n=7,080
Limnology & Oceanography 82 301 25 218 626 (8.8%)
Archiv fur Hydrobiologia/
Supplement. 110 143 82 94 429 (6.1%)
Proc. Int'l/ Assoc. Theort.
& Applied Limn. 141 35 29 128 333 (4.7%)
Hydrobiologia 36 63 12 114 225 (3.2%)
Canadian J. Fisheries &
Aquatic Sciences 35 84 3 101 223 (3.1%)
Ecology 54 89 5 36 184 (2.6%)
Int'l. Revue der Gesamten
Hydrobiologie 90 37 18 24 169 (2.4%)

This list represents a marked departure from the core list given by ISI in its
1989 SCI Journal Citation Reports which ranks nine journals in the limnology core:

1. Limnology and Oceanography
2. Water Resources Research
3. Water Resources
4. Archiv fur Hydrobiolgie
5. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation
6. Journal of Freshwater Ecology
7. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
8. Stygologia
9. Journal of the Institute of Water Environment and Man.


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ISI defines Limnology, Fisheries, and Marine and Freshwater Biology as:

"Limnology: The scientific study of physical, chemical, meteorological
and biological conditions in fresh waters especially of ponds and lakes.
Biological conditions are studied in an ecological context. Journals that deal
with the biology of individual freshwater organisms are to be placed in the
Marine and Freshwater Biology category."

"Fisheries: The industry and technology involved in catching or
producing fish and other products from the sea, streams, lakes, and rivers."

"Marine and Freshwater Biology- The study of organisms which
originate in both fresh and salt water environments."

Even though the subject content of the articles in the Proceedings appear to
fall within the scope of ISI's definition of Limnology, only three ISI journals are found
in the core listings of any of the four studies reviewed (Table 1): Limnology and
Oceanography, Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, and Water Research.

Table 3 represents the results of looking at the subfields of limnology:
physical, chemical, and biological. In this analysis four titles are highly cited in each
of the subfields: Limnology and Oceanography, Archiv furHydrobiologie, Hydrobiologia,
and Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology.

Titles which may be subfield cores, accounting for 50% of the total citations,
are as follows:

PHYSICAL LIMNOLOGY

Limnology and Oceanography
Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied
Limnology
Archiv fur Hyrdobiologie
Hydrobiologia
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (ASCE)
International Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie
Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
Journal of Geophysical Research]
Journal of Physical Oceanography
Water Resources Research
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Journal of Glaciology


201









CHEMICAL LIMNOLOGY


Limnology and Oceanography
Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied
Limnology
Hydrobiologia
Archiv fur Hyrdobiologie
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Science
Water Research
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
ES&T (Environmental Science and Technology)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

BIOLOGICAL LIMNOLOGY

Limnology and Oceanography
Hydrobiologia
Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied
Limnology
Archiv fur Hyrdobiologie
Oikos
Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Beiheft. Ergebnisse der Limnologie
Aquatic Botany
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Canadian Journal of Zoology
Freshwater Biology
Oecologia
Journal of Plankton Research
Ecology
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Journal of Ecology
Environmental Biology of Fishes

The disparity and number of titles cited in each subfield indicates that some
type of information partitioning is indeed occurring.

It is interesting to note that Delfino's (1977) article on information sources in
water chemistry cited all but two titles relative to the chemical limnology core: Archiv
fur Hydrobiologie and Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and
Applied Limnology. Delfino also indicated the importance of ES&T to water chemists.

In order to more fully explore this partitioning phenomena, alternative
methods of categorizing articles and/or researchers as to subfield emphasis are needed.
A test study was done on the biological area by soliciting names of biological


202









limnologists from Dr. Polly Penhale, Secretary of the American Society of Limnology
and Oceanography. The analysis of 1987-88 articles from thirteen biological
limnologists resulted in 96 citations from a total of 27 serial titles. Forty-nine (49), or
half of the citations, came from five journals: Limnology and Oceanography (25%),
Hydrobiologia (73%), ES&T (6.3%), Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences (6.3%), and Science (6.3%). When compared to the biological core found
in the Haas/1991 study (Table 3, Column BIO087), three titles were found in common
to both studies: Limnology and Oceanography, Hydrobiologia, and Canadian Journal of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.


CONCLUSIONS

Published citation analyses of the field of limnology as well as the current
studies indicate that a relatively stable core of limnology journals exists consisting of
the following titles:

Limnology and Oceanography
Archiv fur Hydrobiologie/Supplementband
Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied
Limnology
Hydrobiologia
Ecology
International Revue der Gesarnten Hydrobiologie
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

This core is not the same as that proposed in the ISI journal citation reports.

Also, it is apparent that some type of information partitioning is occurring in
the subfields of physical, chemical, and biological limnology, although additional work
is needed to clarify this partitioning.

To assist researchers involved in limnology, some analysis of the index/abstract
coverage of the various proposed core and subfield core journals should be undertaken.


203



















Title PL83-89 CL83-89 Micro-7 Alga.o7 Anim187 Fi.h87B Bio%7

a-236 n-709 n-144 n-238 n-417 n255 n-1,054
Physical Chmical Bioloical Biologil Biologica Blo l iological Blogical

Applied & Environmnal Microbiology 9 (1.8%) 1 (13.9%) 13 (1.9%)
Aquaic Boaony 2 (8.8%) 12 (1.9%)
Arch. H ydrobiol Boih. Eorglb Limol. 4 (6.2%) 7 (3.1%) H1 (2.1%)
Alhiv fI HydWbiolgic 3 (6.8%) 5 (4.4%) 3 (8.3%) 4 (4.6%) 10 (2.4%) 5 (3.3%)
Amtnalian J. Mariln & Fac.hwate- Rca. 8 (2.1%)
Caaldian Jounal of Boanoy II (2.1%)
Canadian J. of Fiheria & Aqu ic Si. 3(7.5%) 8 (2.5%) 7(3.1%) 1 (9.4%) 4(4.4%)
Caadim J. of Zoology 4 (4.6%) 9 (2.2%)
Ecology 8(2.5%) 11 (2.2%) 4(5.1%) 6(2.7%)
Enviratnaurl Biology of Fisha 2 (7.5%) 15 (1.8%)
Enviroaanal Scivn-c & Tedhology (ES&T) 8 (2.1%)
F~achwao~ Biology 6 (2.9%) 11 (2.2%) 9 (2.4%) 8 (2.3%)
G(eodlhmac et Comanc.imica Arts 9 (1.8%)
Hydmbiologia 6(2.5%) 4(5.5%) 3 (7.6%) 2(8.4%) 5 (4.3) 2(6.5%)
Inl'. RBvu de&r GSoamcn Hy1drobiologic 6 (2.5%)
Jo-unal of Fluid Mchaonim 8(2.1%)
Jixunal of Ecology 6 (2.9%)
JoI.nl of GCapyi.ical Reooich 4 (4.2%)
Jourml of Glaciology 8(2.1%)
Jouaml of Hyd.rauli Egneoro- g (ASCE) 5 (3.4%)
JourIol of Plai.ol Ooa4oraplhy 8 (2.1%)
Jaouml of PlantOa R.e...ch 9 (2.9%) 16 (1.5
Limology & Occoangaphy 1(13.5%) 1 (13.9%) 2(11.1%) 1 (9.2%) 1 (9.4%) 7 3.9%) 1 (8.3%)
Marn Biology 6 (4.2%)
Mar.nn Eoology Progeo. Scric. 4 (6,2%)
New Phytoogiot 11(2.1%)
Now Zolalt 1. of Maimn & Fnhwaer Res. 8(3.1%)
Ocologia 6(3.4%) 10 (1.9%)
Oile 8 (2.5%) 5 (4.1%) 9(2.2%)
Proc. bt'1 A-ooc. 1eorem. Apple. Limnology 2 (10.2%) 2 (7.9%) 5 (4.2%) 3 (5.8%) 5 (4.3%) 6 (2.7%)
R-pon. Int. Fe.hw. tor Ree. DIottiniholm 9 (2.4%) 3 (4.6%)
Se).is 7 (2.9%)
Tron.. American Fieheri. Soc. 3 (7.1%%) 13 (1.9%)
Water Reea.ch 6 0.5%)
Water Reoo R-to 92.rch 8 (2.1 %)


TABLE 3. Limnology Subfield Cores: Rand and Percentage of Total Coverage.
(Ranked journals account for 50% of citations. BIO087=Micro87+Algae87+Anim877+Fish87)










REFERENCES

Delfino, Joseph J. 1977. Water chemistry: seeking information. ES&T 11(7):699-72.

Gorham, E. 1968. Journal coverage in the field of limnology. Limnology and
Oceanography 13:366-69.

Institute for Scientific Information. 1991. Category descriptions for Fisheries,
Limnology, and Marine and Freshwater Biology categories. (FAX from Maureen
Handel, Publication Section, April 26).

Penhale, Polly. 1991. Personal Communication. April 24.

Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology.
1984. France, 1983. v. 22.

Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology.
1988. New Zealand, 1987. v. 23.

Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology.
1990. Munich, 1989. v. 24.

Resh, Vincent E. 1985. Periodical citations in aquatic entomology nd freshwater
benthic biology. Freshwater Biology 15:757-66.

Schwoerbel, J. 1987. Handbook of Limnology. Chichester, England: Elliot Horwood,
Ltd.

Wetzel, R.G. 1983. Limnology. Philadelphia : W.B. Saunders.


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