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Title: Bellwether Parish
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Series Title: Bellwether Parish
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Abstract 2
        Abstract 3
        Abstract 4
        Abstract 5
        Abstract 6
        Abstract 7
        Abstract 8
        Abstract 9
        Abstract 10
        Abstract 11
        Abstract 12
        Abstract 13
        Abstract 14
        Abstract 15
        Abstract 16
        Abstract 17
        Abstract 18
        Abstract 19
        Abstract 20
        Abstract 21
        Abstract 22
        Abstract 23
        Abstract 24
        Abstract 25
        Abstract 26
        Abstract 27
        Abstract 28
        Abstract 29
        Abstract 30
        Abstract 31
        Abstract 32
        Abstract 33
        Abstract 34
        Abstract 35
        Abstract 36
        Abstract 37
        Abstract 38
        Abstract 39
        Abstract 40
        Abstract 41
        Abstract 42
        Abstract 43
        Abstract 44
        Abstract 45
        Abstract 46
        Abstract 47
        Abstract 48
        Abstract 49
        Abstract 50
        Abstract 51
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    Back Matter
        Page 101
Full Text







A Thesis submitted to the
Program in American and Florida Studies
in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts

Degree Awarded:
Summer Semester, 1998

The members of the Committee approve the thesis of Lee

L. Willis, III defended on July 6, 1998.

Leo Sandon
Professor directing thesis

William W. Rogers
Committee Member

Anne Rowe
Committee Member


Abstract ............................... ................... iv


1. A GOOD BEGINNING......................................... 1

2. PERSEVERANCE AND PROSPERITY............................16

3. SURVIVING SECESSION AND SCHISM...........................42

4. REUNION AND RECOVERY...................................54

5. TIMBER PROFITS TOWN AND TRINITY..........................79

BIBLIOGRAPHY... .......................................92

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................................100


A study of Trinity Episcopal Church from 1835-1915

reveals the ways in which the civic, business, social and

cultural leadership of one of Florida's oldest communities

is reflected in the history of its first religious

institution. The fluctuations in economic prosperity,

patterns of immigration, as well as the climatic conditions

of Apalachicola are closely tied to the well being of this

congregation. While some local denominations were able to

develop during the various depressions of the eighty year

period, Trinity was only able to grow in the midst of

stability. In addition, the theological issues confronting

the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States as well

as the Diocese of Florida will be examined for the impact

they had on this parish.



Trinity Episcopal Church of Apalachicola during the

period 1835-1915 reveals the ways in which the civic,

business, social and cultural leadership of one of Florida's

earliest communities is reflected in the history of its

oldest religious institution. The fluctuations in economic

prosperity, patterns of immigration, as well as the climatic

conditions of Apalachicola have been closely tied to the

well being of this congregation. While some local

denominations were able to develop during the various

economic depressions of the eighty year period, Trinity was

only able to grow amidst stability.

Trinity Church was founded during a period of fiscal

growth for the young port of Apalachicola. The men who

incorporated the church as well as help fund the

construction of an edifice, were enjoying the fruits of a

developing cotton market. Many of these individuals were

commission merchants and the owners of large warehouses

along the Apalachicola River. These coastal merchants sold

Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819. Shortly thereafter, new

settlements began to arise, particularly in the northern

portions of the cession. Enticing to settlers was the

fertile soil of the middle panhandle which would be suitable

for growing cotton. The settlement that would become the

town of Apalachicola was born out of the need to transport

cotton and other goods out of the developing hinterland of

Georgia and Alabama. The first bales of cotton were shipped

out in 1822 and a port collector was established for the

Apalachicola region a year later. The town was officially

incorporated in 1829 under the name, "Cottonton".

"Apalachicola" replaced the original title in 1831.3

Prior to the Adams-Onis Treaty, a British trading firm

known as John Forbes and Company claimed 1.2 million acres

of land in the panhandle of Florida. The firm had obtained

the tract from Native Americans who traded land to pay off

debts to the trading company. Spain, which governed Florida

from 1783-1819, honored the transaction. Part of the vast

tract included the land that would become Apalachicola.

Colin Mitchel of Savannah, representing the Georgia

firm of Carnochan and Mitchel, bought the land from the

William Warren Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf: Saint
George Island and Apalachicola from Early Exploration To
World War II. (Pensacola: University of West Florida Press)
1986, 3-5.

port of St. Joseph. St. Joseph was just outside the Forbes

Purchase and quickly became a rival community.

The year 1835 also proved to be significant in the

spiritual life of Apalachicola. The Reverend Fitch W.

Taylor, an Episcopal minister from the Diocese of Maryland,

held several Episcopal services in both St. Joseph and

Apalachicola in the fall and winter of that year. Prior to

Reverend Taylor's visit, there was no evidence of organized

religious activity in either community. Services were well

attended and congregations were established in both towns.

After Reverend Taylor returned to Maryland, however, there

was no one to lead the newly formed missions.5

The territory of Florida in 1835 had seven Episcopal

churches. In addition, Anglican churches, the Christian

family from which the Protestant Episcopal denomination

emerged, were well established in Florida during the British

occupation from 1763-1783. Nine Anglican clergymen served

in Florida during the twenty year span.6 After the

territory was ceded to Spain following the Revolutionary

War, however, all of the Anglican clergy departed. Soon

Diocese of Florida, Journal of the Proceedings of the
Annual Convention, 1838, 21-23. (Cited hereafter as
Diocesan Journal, with date.
Joseph Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. (Gainesville:
University of Florida Press) 1965, 1-3.


Apalachicola's residents left town in the off-season.

Absence, rather than irreverence explained the cessation of

regular worship during the summer months. As the population

began to swell in the winter of 1836, Episcopal services

were once again held in Apalachicola. In the absence of

clergy, bank cashier George Field organized services held at

the Mansion House hotel.8 The banker's leadership would

prove to be instrumental in the development of the church.

Field had come to Apalachicola to work in the newly

opened branch of the Southern Life Insurance and Trust

Company in December of 1836. Anticipating a lack of church

life, Field brought a supply of The Book of Common Prayer

with him to Apalachicola and offered to lead Episcopal

services. According to Field, the services were "favorably

received."9 In light of the interest in organized religious

activity, Field along with eight other individuals

petitioned the territorial legislature to incorporate the

church. Given the name "Trinity Church", the organization

was officially incorporated on February 11, 1837.10

Diocesan Journal. 1838. 21-23.
Ibid., 1838. 21-23.
Acts of The Florida Territorial Legislature. 1837. 58-

recognition came posthumously."

By the Spring of 1837, Field believed the congregation

needed the regular administration of a full-time clergyman.

This sentiment was shared by others as Field recalled: "a

unanimous request on the part of the whole congregation

convened on notice, that the vestry, which had been duly re-

elected, proceed to obtain a Clergyman of the Episcopal

Church."12 Within months, the Reverend Charles Jones of the

Diocese of New York was invited by Field to serve as


With a full time rector, the church continued to

expand. Reverend Jones was well regarded in the community

and his presence fulfilled the vestry's desire that Trinity

would grow rapidly. Field's optimism was evident in his

report the following year at the inaugural diocesan

convention: "the valuable exertions of the resident

missionary seems to animate the citizens...and justifies the

belief...that the cause of true religion be substantially

advanced. "13

Vivian Sherlock, The Fever Man: A Biography of Dr. John
Gorrie. (Tallahassee: Medallion Press) 1982. 20-27; 127-128.
Diocesan Journal. 1838. 21-23.
Ibid., 1838. 21-23.

else to do..."

Chrystie's animosity toward Field was most likely the

result of a sour business relationship. Amidst a depression

caused by the Panic of 1837, banks and cotton warehouses on

the Gulf coast maintained strained relations. Cotton prices

were low and local bank notes were devalued. On many

occasions, both banks and merchants blamed one another for

the economic mire.16 Clerking in a cotton warehouse,

Chrystie's ire toward Field, a banker, was not unexpected.

The Panic of 1837 and the ensuing depression that

lasted until 1842 did not leave Apalachicola unscathed.

Such economic instability during Trinity's early years

negatively affected the congregation. The depression hurt

everyone involved in cotton from the planters to factors.

Falling crop prices and devalued currency crippled the

businesses of nearly all of Trinity's founding vestry.

Fortunately for the church, the process of obtaining a lot

and raising subscriptions for constructing an edifice was

complete before the depression hit. The monetary

Niles Schuh, ed., "Apalachicola In 1838-1840: Letters
From A Young Cotton Warehouse Clerk," Florida Historical
Quarterly (January, 1990), 318.
Lynn Willoughby, Fair To Middlin': The Antebellum
Cotton Trade of the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee River Valley.
(Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press) 1993. 69-75.


corrupt and inevitably elitist method of raising money, was

not uncommon in the early nineteenth century. Even though

several pews remained unrented and thus left for general

use, such an arrangement in the only church of a small

frontier town could understandably lead to friction. The

floor plan of the interior church, however, did not match

the somewhat aristocratic pew sales. It was patterned after

a Baptist Meeting house with two side aisles rather than one

central processional aisle. While the floor plan suggested

a Protestant and egalitarian minded congregation, doors

attached to the pews conversely hinted toward aristocratic

sympathies. While pew doors were later removed, their

legacy, joked one life-long communicant, served as reminder

of Trinity's early efforts to "keep the Methodists out."18

The edifice itself was built of white pine in New York

state, carefully packed, and shipped to Apalachicola in 1839

by schooner. Using wooden pegs, the building was assembled

on the lot given to the vestry by the Apalachicola Land

Company. The Greek Revival structure featured large ionic

columns and a square, flat-roofed belfry."1 The

Reverend Tom Weller, Funeral Oration of Alice Hodges,
September 22, 1987.
George L. Chapel, "From Generation To Generation In The
Church", unpublished monograph, 1995.


Following the rite of consecration, Trinity Church was

an established parish, albeit a small one. The financial

backing of the cotton port's elite and the diligence of

George Field had enabled the church to become self-

sufficient six years after the Reverend Fitch Taylor first

held services in the bustling frontier town. With an

impressive edifice of its own, Trinity Church was ready to

proceed at a time when Apalachicola celebrated its status as

one of the South's busiest port cities.

the church on only three occasions. Besides confirming new

communicants, the presence of a bishop helped break the

monotony of the frontier parish. One Trinity rector

recalled the effects of such a visit: "Our beloved chief

pastor arrived in the spring...inspiring us with more

animation and reviving our zeal in every good work."2

The Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott from the Diocese of

Georgia served Florida in the years 1844-1847 and 1849-1850.

The Rt. Rev. Christopher Gadsden of South Carolina

officiated at the 1848 Convention, but did not visit

individual parishes.3 Bishop Elliott reported to the Ninth

Diocesan Convention that his visit to Trinity in March 1846,

was a great success. In addition to administering to "a

large body of communicants" Elliott believed "the promise is

fair for a rapid and permanent increase in the communion of

this church."4

Though Elliott's efforts were great on behalf of the

Diocese of Florida, his multiple responsibilities in his

home state as well as the difficulties associated with

The Reverend William Treble Saunders, The Pastor's
Wife; or Memoirs of E.M.S. (New York: Little, Rennie, and
Co.) 1867, 76.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 26.
Diocesan Journal. 1846, 12.


Hailing from a prosperous family in Charleston,

Rutledge had a heritage that was rooted in Low Country

aristocracy. His father, Hugh, served as chancellor in the

state of South Carolina for twenty years. John Rutledge, the

bishop's uncle, was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of

the United States. Another uncle, Edward Rutledge, signed

the Declaration of Independence. Francis Rutledge graduated

from Yale in 1821 and the General Theological Seminary in

1823 before returning to his home state to begin his

ministry.7 He moved to St. Augustine in 1839 to serve as

rector for Trinity Church before accepting the rectorship at

St. John's, Tallahassee.

Bishop Rutledge would be able td,provide the diocese

with attentive leadership for the first time since its

formation. One of the toughest obstacles blocking the

diocese's progress, poor travel conditions, would continue

to plague the new episcopate. From his office in

Tallahassee, Bishop Rutledge had a radius of travel from

Pensacola in the west to Jacksonville in the east.

Southward, the bishop's service was requested at St. Paul's

Church in Key West. Poorly maintained roads made over-land

travel a major challenge in the young state. Fortunately

George Chapel, "Bishop, Diocese, and the Parish in the
1850s", unpublished monograph. 1986.


census, only ninety-nine children under the age of 10 lived

in Apalachicola. By 1860, that number had nearly quadrupled

to 390. Another illuminating statistic regarding the

fertility of church life was the ratio of males to females

in Apalachicola. In 1840, 408 men between twenty and forty

lived in the town compared to 105 women in the same bracket.

By 1860, the numbers of the same category had nearly evened

to 252 males and 209 females. The New Year celebration of

1839 revealed the nature of Apalachicola society prior to

these demographic shifts:

New Years Eve in Apalachicola there was a ball
given by a woman of particularly easy virtue in
the lowest class of life a washerwoman and
formerly a chambermaid on one of the steamboats.
She managed to muster about 15 or 20 of the same
kind of women as herself- everybody was there- all
the young cocks...The principle [sic] merchants
here danced with their draymen's wives, and the
Mayor of the City played the fiddle for them.
Hurrah for Apalach!"1

While the environment for a growing church improved

throughout the antebellum period, there were still problems

that directly affected the congregation. A particular

Niles Schuh, ed. "Apalachicola in 1838-1840: Letters
From A Young Cotton Warehouse Clerk," Florida Historical
Quarterly (January 1990) 320.

christened child as the lone survivor.12 Graphic details

describing the aftermath of the tragedy would likely have

returned to Apalachicola with lay delegates George Field and

Hiram Manly. While no attacks occurred in or close to

Apalachicola, it would not have required an active

imagination by residents to envision Native Americans

invading from the swampy northern border of the town.

By 1843, most of the Indians in Florida had been

removed to reservations in Oklahoma, although skirmishes

continued elsewhere in the state. Though impossible to

quantify, the effects that news of Indian fighting had on

the settlement of families undoubtedly discouraged

immigration to some extent. Though the threat of an attack

on Apalachicola was practically nonexistent after the Second

Seminole War ended in 1842, news of the Third Seminole War

(1855-1858) likely stoked fears of possible raids in the

panhandle. Despite the Native American question throughout

the antebellum period, Apalachicola gradually became

inhabited by more families and became a community wanting

involvement in church life. As the records of baptisms and

confirmations indicate, an increasing number of families

became associated with Trinity throughout the 1840s and

Diocesan Journal. 1839. 14.


windows of our church have been shattered by gales, but so

promptly repaired as to hardly interrupt religious


The Rev. William T. Saunders, who was rector during the

gales of 1852, 1853, and 1857 recalled the "confusion and

consternation" that the hurricanes created.15 With respect

to the powerful forces of the storms, Saunders was also

impressed by his parish's ability to overcome the

destruction. After one of the gales he wrote that the

building: "...remained a little more than a wreck. The loss

was heavy. It is my happiness, however, to report that it

has been thoroughly repaired, and much improved in every


According to Reverend Saunders, the itinerant nature of

Apalachicola's population was the biggest obstacle for

Trinity's growth. While hurricanes damaged the edifice, one

could argue in hindsight that such natural disasters unified

the congregation amidst efforts to rebuild. Still, it was

difficult for the church to accomplish anything, physically

or spiritually, during the summer months. In his reports to

Diocesan Journal. 1844. 7-8.
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 52-53.
Diocesan Journal. 1852. 29-30.


St. Joseph was still struggling to recover from the

depression following the Panic of 1837. St. Joseph's

inability to divert river traffic away from Apalachicola, an

October hurricane, and the pestilence left the town deserted

the following season. Dr. John Gorrie, vestryman and one of

Trinity's founders, was treating patients during the

outbreak in Apalachicola. Another of the church's leaders,

George Middlebrooks, died from the virus.1 Trinity's

rector in 1841, A. Bloomer Hart, reported to the diocese

that it was in his prayers that the survivors would: "prove

indelible, and that the remembrance of mercy in the midst of

judgement may lead alarm to piety, and reflection to

devotion."2" Other epidemics occurred in the port during

the 1850s, but Trinity's congregation for the most part

escaped the disease.21

Reverend Saunders regretted that while Trinity was able

to rebound from the adversity that yellow fever and

hurricanes delivered, most of the church's efforts went into

rebuilding rather than expansion. Organized in 1841 by

Harriett Francis Raney, the wife of cotton merchant David G.

Sherlock, The Fever Man. 1982. 74-81.
Diocesan Journal. 1841. 9.
Ibid., 1853. 29.

was integral to the temperance movement as Trinity remained


Methodist services began in Apalachicola as early as

1839 with meetings held in the Mansion House hotel. After

Trinity's edifice was completed, Methodists were allowed use

of the Episcopal facility until a disagreement emerged in

1841. Following the building's consecration by Bishop Otey

in that year, the Rev. A. Bloomer Hart would not allow any

denomination other than his own to worship there. According

to Reverend Hart, the church's original article of

subscription filed with the territorial legislature in 1837

required that the church be used for worship "according to

the rites and usages of the Protestant Episcopal Church of

the United States...."26

The controversy came because a number of individuals

belonging to other denominations had purchased pews to help

fund the construction of Trinity church. Even so, these

benefactors in Reverend Hart's words, "...indulged the

erroneous supposition that the church might be used for

celebrating secular solemnities and for the ministration of

George Chapel, "Founding of Trinity Church",
unpublished monograph, 1986.
Diocesan Journal. 1845. 8-9.


for confirmation, withdrew from Trinity, according to

Zimmer.29 Following Zimmer's departure, Trinity was without

resident clergy until William T. Saunders arrived in 1851.

In his first parochial report, Saunders mentioned the

schism, but did not elaborate on why it occurred: "the

attendance, although reduced by the secession of the

Congregationalists, who have built a church of their own, is

still considerable....""3 A Baptist church was founded in

Apalachicola in 1848 and likely the congregation Saunders

was describing in this report.

In terms of seating capacity, Baptists and Methodists

were far and away the largest denominations in Florida by

mid-century. Catholics and Episcopalians represented the

smallest religious organizations. In terms of property

value, however, the Episcopalians were well endowed.

Outnumbered by Methodists eighty-seven churches to ten,

Episcopal property was worth $37,800 while Methodists had

only slightly more: $55,260.31 Next to St. John's,

Tallahassee, Trinity Church was the second most valuable

Diocesan Journal. 1849. 17.
Ibid., 1850. 24-25.
U.S. Congress, Seventh Census, 1850. (Washington, D.
C.: Robert Armstrong), 410-411.


targets of the anti-immigrant sentiment. By association,

the most visible institution of the Irish, the Catholic

church, was also distrusted.

By 1856, the American Party had a candidate for

president, Millard Fillmore, as well as gubernatorial and

congressional hopefuls in many states. The Nativists were

most prominent in the Northeast.34 Despite Apalachicola's

growing population of Irish settlers, Nativist sentiments

were not popular. In Florida, the American Party had a

candidate for governor and Congress on the ticket for 1856,

but both were soundly defeated statewide and in Franklin

county. In reality, the American Party in Florida was known

not for its stance on naturalization but rather as an

affiliation for the recently dissolved Whig Party.35 In

fact, the Florida branch of the party adopted a modified

version of the national platform in order to take a strong

stance against anti-Catholicism and religious

discrimination.36 Judge George W. Hawkins, a Trinity

Robert A. Divine, et.al. America: Past and Present.
(New York: Harper Collins Publishers) 1991. Third edition.
Herbert J. Doherty, "Florida In 1856," Florida
Historical Quarterly. (July 1956) 66-68.
Arthur W. Thompson, "Political Nativism in Florida,
1848-1860: A Phase of Anti-Secessionism," Journal of


time, the balcony also served as a symbol of deep-rooted

segregation and paternalism. Several of Trinity's rectors

indicated that they ministered separate services for slaves

and free blacks.39

At the eve of the Civil War, Eliza Morton Saunders,

wife of the rector, taught weekly lessons to twenty-five

slaves. Her lessons consisted of rote memorization of

scripture and hymns. The students learned from oral

instruction, and according to Reverend Saunders, they were

not greatly responsive to their lessons. Evangelical

gospel, which was also preferred by most whites in Florida,

was popular in the slave community of Apalachicola. While

most of her students were illiterate, Eliza Saunders taught

her own servants who worked in the parsonage how to read and

study the Bible.40 According to tax rolls from 1860, the

Reverend William T. Saunders owned five slaves.41

In comparison to the fertile plantation region of

Diocesan Journal. 1849. 23; Ibid., 1846. 15.
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 48-49.
U.S. Congress, Eighth Census, 1860. Slave Schedules,
Franklin County, Florida. (Washington, D. C.: Government
Printing Office), 126.

entered as one of the sponsors. Nourse was Cook's surname

before he had it legally changed. Three years later,

"parents Frank and Charlotte Cook" were listed as sponsors

when their eighth child was baptized by Reverend Saunders.43

The burning issue in the Episcopal church throughout

the United States from the antebellum period to 1900 was the

Oxford Movement. Also known as the Anglo-Catholic revival,

the movement began in the Anglican Church in the 1830s. In

the form of essays or "tracts", a group of Anglican

clergymen expressed their belief in the restoration of ideas

that had been de-emphasized after the Reformation and the

Wesleyan movement. In the coming decades, these English

theologians would deliver a lasting effect on Anglican and

Episcopal churches around the world.

Three concepts set the Oxford reformers apart: first,

the church was the Bride of Christ and a divine creation

supernaturally determined by the Holy Spirit; second, the

sacraments, namely the rite of Eucharist, were appointed by

Christ; third, the sacraments were passed down by an

apostolic ministry. By the 1850s, the theology behind the

Oxford Movement was expressed in Episcopal churches in New

Fred Sawyer, Sr. "Trinity Episcopal Church,
Apalachicola, Florida," 1950.; Trinity Episcopal Church
Records, Trinity Church, Apalachicola.


treatise on the rite of Eucharist. An individual opposing

Pusey's ideas published letters under the name, "Sinner."

Vesper also supported a local application of tractarian

thought: Trinity's strict adherence to the canons of the

Episcopal church and the Book of Common Prayer regarding the

disagreement with the Methodists.45 Several weeks after it

began, correspondence between Sinner and Vesper ended


In 1858, an editorial appeared in the Commercial

Advertizer criticizing the Oxford reformers, particularly

the writing of Dr. Pusey. Referring to Anglo-Catholicism

taking root in the Episcopal church in America, editor J. E.

Wyman wrote: "So well guilded is the pill and sign, that we

breathe the atmosphere, and even taste the noxious morsel

without ourselves being aware that we are thus unconsciously

subscribing and giving countenance to a doctrine that we

have from our earliest recollection been taught to view with

distrust and suspicion." Wyman did not, however,

specifically indict Trinity or its rector at the time,

Reverend William T. Saunders, as part of the growing


Apalachicola Commercial Advertiser, January 1, 1844.

Ibid., March 10, 1858.

however its share of the cotton market was shrinking.50 The

pews were subdivided in 1858 to create more seating and

plans for building side aisles were discussed. The

expansion project did not come to fruition, however, as the

economic and spiritual affluence of Apalachicola would prove

to be short lived. The Civil War and a growing network of

railroads in the hinterland would soon choke the town's


Willoughby, Fair To Middlin'. 1993. 130.

Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 59; 65.


Madilson strkie Perry govermor of viorida In 1960, led

oh t~~rrcilnrst movement. A natze iot

carl hin -b- Perry shared -he .ews on

staunchly PoPular 20 the "Painetto state.- iva resit

Lc~l*rcloe behard south Cnarllne nreruh i

p"en ot of the union. on january n 1. ard

toerd f :ies to the Unzted states and ]olned the rebll

movement. several monthr later, exqungln began In ?enr~l

as confederate forces under Oeneral Braxton Brage fired on

Uno aval vessels that arrived to reinforce Fore Plcer

afederlral isallation Next to the slege on fort santer Ir

estl~ron harbor, the assault on rart slckens was h I.

'ktemish In the deadly war.

The EpIscopal churcI Io Floria took; a stro stnd .n

(avor of secession die to alshoP Rutledgels gestures

b ,f he confederate ca23 e. 3ut21dge himsel3 was a

Ibld. 233-234

lpl-P.1 huchI thb -oth -1- -1drui. li-p.p

dl--rr fc-ld P-srar-t-i Ell--OP. Cb-hhinth

--gYngt th. bl-gy, .., P-1 ... t fig- b o ... d th.

--blnT Ihb di-hp b.-I.- T-ItI y --hhrch th

RI. I.-amc H-ruy 01, f I ..~r~. lbllv-d th.1th

-b- ~orh f 18-s th- lb -99-ce o ugrr th,

---- lan s t T-11ly -cent sob-dY I. I-- fO

di-llt-on' Th f-ctt .-Y ny f thb P-t'. -1-to

I-- .- - -'b .- .... dlusler~e pro-b- -"-,h~~n

-1-1 1. th chb-b. T-lnlry' ar-I Ie --- P-1-1de

-b-, --by.gr~rlrnp tre-iy -- etf bh. -di-d-ua.

, lh. hb-1 curc b.1- 1-1 .-~r~iovd t U- .1

-1-te d-i., th. I,- Ill -p-it thb .-- f o

----lcnt t. -h N-rth, th. -d-brsip of T-IlYyva

d-diddly -n the .1d. of -h C.-d-dera. D-insth g r

Ibid. 41-9

loer, ufnrs n he(ill I-.. l


11. F-11~o~n o t*~ ni plrly a

anliein~ d~f-rr r meUnla .. .... .... .llr o

in. plr( did nit ,.,.,, DISYPl.b ,nOilnOYf fhe ii ni

LIDOPI ipenT.,ar If rr11r effOrTI nnn~rlilnn r~e

alac*ndi m~ermi~rmlll. lnnll *nndr of canledeil(n

r~idlilr entered me taxn far rullriller rlurrh

sai~ioorarlanr aetxepn tne suei;ill~ a~b~lr ana the

alar*n*m~ rmlees orcurrla In 1882 end 1861. ~u( tnore

Im~ifod lunhrr nnb LelSDIY~1(1~I armlcnlra~rr true

ulcrm~l ieie the fMllhn af Cailedei~(e r~ldlerr rh~

1~Lr in Loxn. Civilian r~n~lnrl lenmeb to irrrire an The

~e. loads that oane fran upriuer at u~ll nr olrrerl Ird flin

iron mt try "

iplri~i'l r~ru~srl st I;lnlty ihu;ch nearly reared

bern~n 1862-1861 r~llaum~ tnr pxobul af Canfedei~Ti

forsel in narcn 1862. ieueiind ullllan T inubpil Lrnueled

*101 nlr -nnlli .nd .any of Ilmlf y I psrilhlaii;i ta

desnnn~lonlu~rluoi ;U~alrd rna IfP~n~Pr i~C*ilni the

reCTOr 1~.531?06 that nnny of tnp fleoing rplsc~~allanr.

ip.rlng dertrustlan at their nones ~I Rll~ubln~ redei~LI.

f~lled tne inria naids rim their furnlrure Thp ilundpn

i.~lly r~~nf noit al the unr yrlrl Lerieon anrlerra and

Calun~ul. re~rgln-

ifrr; ~lnbln~.rafi rrfu~r for nlr ir~lly. a~u~nnd

rbld 7171. 19-80

Tlnl~y CnjICh rPMin~d Lnn;(iri Illao;lirYL rhl 11I

I.Th -I. ei(ii.(iDn if 1T1 YIO ~I ~ IliYEL f~T Di iiYnn

Ch...nn Ch.pnn. r nlliur ol I~ii~shuretrr. xl~ldrranlrt

nnd ihylLil.n **~ MYII fO ipnln;;lcal~ In 11(7. Lff~Lla(id

*irh T;in;L~. th~ dcctor xrr oar ~;~nrl~ Inr;lrrd rm th~

;-ulm o(npi rh~r fr a LLU YCIII Unln he i~ni In Ihe shair.

Cutrpo*Pn In Tir rulpar( ~L 'ne Unlan. Ch~p~m irnrl-ed in

o(tlc~ll irmmr of ~nr:IFlnn Inn mnrmrrfs irnlrr i;
m- Wlr or Th- Imslllnn. irr I ii (l"(li

iuidir ~ar;o~~rcr;;nlati i;la~~.~L~nLe~i~i
n9rll; L~~lr r iirr~r. the clr.l rrr rr iln;ior, i
m-lrriu nlrroiu, la~;pn~axn Lenr r 11~1611 lil2ollinl

Jriiellih.lnrl. Ir;*nn mlnru nonOi' nlrraru
ITi..nlrab; ~~nirullie PYlll~lln~ C~IIPIOYI L981 2tllii.

Yln~ml n CnndlY nlili~OL i(II

irlrh r~r tie Lali of nearly hnlf of I

,rmuricllrr atler rrlacrr-a; durir~

,Inrunl jiauth i~ the decades lollax.

Illr~ on apal~sh;i~lnr n~lil(;- La rrI

Ill:l(y Thelci Ifl-liclnl

Inlir~ ~ *~) to oni~ ia~i biiil trrf(

In~C inmnnnn xnr rluri ~a rnp rexrl

I~nd nnb rrerf Bri~nln Ili~ LPI~IYP.I

Ll~urlih until aprllicmral Ir~nlned a


a~pa~rr an rrlrlrylr rdillsr Xpyp CORI

el ih~ *di dY ~O Th~ dannrloni ot ipup

ChYli LII1 Xhiil lnd Ol~i dannroi (a

r;ru~an, in ir~l~;rb ~r 16(. ~~rter

n~lr rr~u;n ~o ralirir. -~r thr abll.(

ore~n~lon fo nnul -n~ r-uiih iPpnlied -

af 1867 m~ cnmcel xl Ilio re~ooe

monetary danarlan fio~ onr so~un;i~nf

rhs ~l~c~s~ In Is(i and ~868. Lnr Ipypl

(1111. fiY 9eneiaui Indluldulll Xplp

rlni inpiarioenli IhYI rhr fnrr-lllf

le;(ion ot aucinll PT~~/ICli(Y II m~

Tir fns :i(Yii If th~ ChYTin Yn~ no~

irpo~:lan ot oaoo~l rilr and clnnd~iab

amro r~~lbiy r~~ir~ ~ne ioai -i

Inn.'/ Dr;nuli nnni f;rilrei rir:~rrra iilr; dcioni-nririr

Tnp i.r.rmd 5lurdeir nr~id In hll nma~rr ~n~; illi(oi~si~

*.i .dllf~sul~ ~niil~r In the Lnllruc(lon af blac*r hecnu~p

I.licojnl I~r~arr ir;uli~d irudinlr ra rend l~r iar* or

jaMn;n r;ricr ni olo rrs'e~rrd "r'lplr PFIYIIII Cnllnl-i

.nl loi-. Df exs~tminr hrul Inclinrd the~i (a Irrfer afnel

I-ifrui(;ani mni fh~r~ af fnr P~iiiopnl ihrrch

ir.;* Crs*. I:rr~U1- -I; *~i bn?:.iel r- Tnar) .i

8(1. bc~mP.lpnbir In;n~ ijilrapll iswounl[y af

~nlnihirol~ In Lhr dcmdrr falloxinl E~anilpllon Coa*

mb Ti. rift. Cn~ilar~. ui;e cri~lmod by BLlh~~ Pi~:ds~

m l.i lli( ilonT DL r~~lT Childili XP.P *.prl~d 1(

IllilTYI dnd me ruo oldeif. i~r~n nnb nrry, xpr~ alra

cinfl;rrl Lpll;apdl'"i Ln 1~18 irm* Coo* i~ru~d ~o tit

u.ri;y 131 Ill*e yer~r brrroel lij2-:BLii. I-iri C~i*l di~ll

In 1IBP hii lun.nl x.i irlo in ILln~Y md nlr bady *~~

Laid ~a rrir in rhr Cnsifnuf Sfr~~r Cenerery nrxl ~a n~ny

:ellar rplirrjnll~i~ ~

XII.. yr.ir o~ brrrrlarl~i-~ h~rlrh. Bimop su~.~d~i

blPd in LBOi nlr rucrrrrar, lonn irrenan loun~.

r.ll... I i.und.... r;s PIIIUI.*-lf. IN1. laT*
L1(L:r, ilennlr .n~ C~n~pn"i~ 1816, tBII

inry.rl ~Irini(y iplr;a~nl Chuleh. aprlrchisoln.

iYI~IY~(~d i(i re~rrlonm;~ xlt

rirr oi, rr a~r-;ani o( -n

rlr rli;srl *rd nar h~ur ionr,

cl~~rl~n. mns*~r~ iu~~~iird

fls~ 1J In PDI( Yll~i I Tn~C*~ni Idpl YII~ 6~I10XL~

Clit LI~~ Blihop 1DYnl *hF n~d Yn~lii~ll~illy IYIheb fOr

IYPPOI- it ~i. IP.LLII ln.l

Clll~le-C~ if r~e YLi-?diif

illirnn~~rl;m ro~eri .r

rrrarl In-~rrr bmoninn(ian

I nulrr;ul Lal.;nig iI rr~-e

urrr narr *I~;L *irhoLlrrr

thm Llrri reie ieatr m nl

r~ursnil I In ~ho d~c~de r~

nen~rri In mo rlsiida C~nlel

ill ra mt lerhidlrrr. *ira l~d

ilarl;r Le:aic mt Ci-i. u~i

CPn~Yry Ln~ b~MIII~II1FI OT IPltlltSnlC~L1

BlfX.en 181o ilnd LB~O LLrlS~n~UlsllS~n~ Ln the ccunry ial

(ran iB to II p~rcpnr a~ fnr nojie~~~e papularlan. Ih

~~...,,...,.. Inprelrlue cannldPnnl ~he iaunry na;~ Ln

~,lu~li UI11. r*. Irllnlm ii The iallmsin irrrrr
Il(~san ~~rcrr UmuPiii-i irerrl 19sl ai-ai

C;nllII Ze~ien~bira~ li:r mrlin~ran.
sc~rir iinrrranll. "L1


I-LIrbUi)L~I ~f 113119311 -O IIPILICIIICOII in fhe rUn~ls

ienrYli- UCYlb n.*e fi~rl rhi Llii *laad al the foun

Ine nlld nnd nanlrnul~yio~ naney ~ioduceb by bei;

fran Lne nesrar af Lnr (uprlo ouo nI Inu~L1-~ to oplan

Ine npge.linl P.OI.;LIP. 01 (Y*ilr -oniy n~~de it

Ln;auihaul iula~r ~ib pum airr;~.i~. ~larlei a~ra

.;llrsrei ma rala ~rrrnr -nl;l lor ii d~nan* f;r

r;iulriiiolmn ~ilil~r~ ulrr Br:rienlli~l~OD. ~raduc

af nmei m srm*Lin iaunli- Iniirnir0 Lian 2(0 ;o i2.P(O

~ounoi mi maun' at br~rmx irpor:ei I--~--~e* frm I:U

.oundi in LB10 Lo 210 lou~.dr Ir le~o.( maum nilt

elOlo-ent rl~h npllrlrl *I rrllonnl, the Inl;rrry ilfl

ru~~le~en(nl Incanr to I~ho~il

mF Iduen~ or cmnlng 1~1 (a ~rar(n ii The ieafaa0

Indurfry Whll~ ayr~rr nld ~r~n miWPd up iiuir ta

iea;gll md ii~birr ~r~~ir thr Civil Ilr, fho iiou rltr

i;P,(.r i--dr ihp canmn~ ~ir;iri. ihlcn ri~en~ed r*p.

:ili. c;errrd nui* nr~d~d ~r~n~nii ~pprl;ul-rer f;i

~Lch;canni. 81Ihr rum ~I (ii c~n:u~i, rxo yl;*ini

SOIMYn1LY II ~nny Of Lne n~rupn~err xele Im~linrr tron~

rreese up until Lhe Iltai. ~II or mp xond~i rpai~el Irre

(n*ir Lra~ the eni(ern n~dl~er;an~nn 5on when ipanjei

diicauered in the Carln~pan md Tulf of Xexisa, n~ny

~r(~r~rlrlnq rrpe*r mmlilnfed La file ndumtal~ or th~

~conamlc olPo'fYolfy 1 II Lne ~YllieBI X1I rlreTlnil md

narr rpano~n~ anpOrLuniLlel IFrP la;nLed elrernerp In mm

stare. Rnnv "lee*I brb noL Irly In ~~l~shlsal~. Itnou~n

reuelrl fnrller d~d L1*e raOL Tnp iree* fm~lllP, uha

Laired;leir cmld;pn II ~nlsnlcalnnl founb I IllnLull

hone In Tnmfy cnurcn TreO* lum-nP, 1IFelrpd In

Irlnlrylr reilrrrer rr e.rlj nn 1)0" In Lnr fxm~lrfn

Sen(uil the d~rc~ndmfr Of fnlrl muhornnfr raulb *era~e

rlrm~ils~nt p~rr of the Eplscopa~ camnunl~y of ~alachl;~ln

ii Lhe iarLune of The r~un beinn to reverie In the I~r~

ihmrrer or Lne senLury. Irinlty shuiih be~~n to iniienio In

I~nln Ihe irnbili(y Of e~iiih life irienglhonrd

nr induiLry I~lned n bertei foothold In rr~n*ho sounty

Wnlh IF~L006 end Li~er besn~e Lhe rsinon~li fainl pa~ni.

I~;canrlli Lrlbr bpuplOyeb to nsconnod~fe Lhe ieedl of

Paosm. nli(nnrrr On (n- 5111~ Isst 121121. Clrollna
iomian Coinena~. -n~rldair iP""I'"~ mduriry L Culturll
nnb Esononl; ii~ilary I

IrlniLy Epiisaprl Churcn s~c~rdr, rlmmfy IPIIFOTII
churcn. apmnmlca~n


mY*ii liOT..fT.I II. dPP.li*I. -thDi i-i -lii( hll

Le~r IliliYr ~enef.r ra rha~ *;rrhi p~a~.~

Irlrlrj iniir~ied In nuwerr ~u;lno ~nr .*1Cr ~in into

mt lisor. ~u( rh~ P""n xll P1.~Pd *ith _nsmii.(mi

le~arrm;~ alrh~;L In-erru~lr~ ~i Lhi Cirii u~i, uilli~n

irunlrrl.l-ii(~r~d me;anorr~r~lan fai txen(i~ lirii

Lrr*ern Isi.lsio. Dunno fnr rxo deirdei ~(Lir hlr

nlnli;ry. ~ni ihulcn rd~urred fo i.- dlllerenl clrrlir

only rhr ap, c a appl~, mo IrPnlbeb ~ran 188L :a Llii7.

ron~lned rim (ne shursh L~nli' fnnn Lnrre ymri

Unlar~unnfrly far snursh san(lnul(i. Plulrpnd ~plp diuidrd

nii ~ln~ aprnen ir~l~chlsala and *arlnnnl lorf of (ni

...rori niid u~clrl mo Iprued Irlni(y at tne md al int

nlnp(pmrh senrury xrrp ~lia In shniqe rlrr Lu*rlr Cnuic~

~, nlrl.nn. ~ uny Inmfy nrd dli~isul(i malnralnins Lh~

mt rrrror or nlrrlanrry dunno Lnli Lint Lr~~i La Ilal

Lna*r Pempi ijrlaihlcrlnlr IlOl~fPd _~i(iiiOn Uli

d.rrlrm~ ta n~air;l~rgim~"- Bo-n ~plo nnd iaundr;r nne

L..lll~r In a~~l~shl;~la rha noi li*Pli hrlp~d :nm ~djurt

llYll.:871. Bl~'aF1' U~rrir. (i

Thr roi ~'uicrr' mr ofrri ned bil :h' *10Cnr ii ~lnr


~pirClp~rr. TX.1V~ Ycdl~ -n:Er fhF ~Y o( ChYich~ dr*

tn~ -uVcr -f ii~r;o;n?-~rr -- :- rrr~~. Lrl in.ri -~

pp~,..tmr .I;~muili~nr~ ~a r;~ rurr~l: pipulnrlon. Tn~

i'oum al mp dio;Fre ua~ mi~ula~ln~ rl Thr ailno~ Irr

tLe !Inc* o;r*. the ep~~;~ya~o Co;ne ii;;rarin~.i dll!;rrlt

to i~nlle :n;ne liaor. dcl~s'r~r ri ~n~ i;rc~rar

civ~n:-onr 1PSan ~o dlrcirl xrsr ra rr;l~al.l;r mt

EBL.CDY~I diY.che~ af ilrrda

While The ~ncoulalilnl ~rourh of i~lnsapol iiluicher xnl

In larSr p~rl dup Lo Birhap larnol~ lead~rrlily, hr u~uld n~(

br tL~ dloc~ran Ta counlrl Ih~ Churcn (*louyn ~arrl(lon

i~~:~r a ~orr *i~i paun~,ia. Blrlio~ roolg bird ;n I;ouri~ol

It _lsi. Ilr i~u. Idrln Caidnpi Ye~d. ~ ii~Llur o? S~irinn~.

~~r un~nincuill nonlnrr~d Cy a Sprcrll Coiiicll ~~ rl~

sl~c~lr lli ~OIli. 1886 r~ b~cine th~ rh-rd ~lr!.lS oL

iY~lr 18-~. :; Itii-, LB~P. sar;;lla! s~po;~l

I;Yu~l last. it.

culmi. i r~*nlv xpr;;~~r. I:2-l:li I)IIPP

f Inmry nnb Lnrou~hou;;h~ Ylacrr~ of naii*

ROYPIIPO I-:nlrinlli bir-c~ I-rcrlurl Ir iri ~

~n* Irtei rr rhi ir;ond ill~h~l at slor.lr. Jar

rarwle litiijiirl cn~lllr Irruorau-

iunr~ ioul~~i ejl~iajp(i ~'iilohcnu-r-~ rlcra

mllib Ir~s'~r;~ni, iel(~l~d mrr~nen~l elmm

iniiihei ~hrugh a s~lirr Idn~rmie ra the Baa*


~n Incipni~n~ mlhlrlr ~n rhr -I~nrI nW1

Ind;snf~on fnn~ ~ p~iilh I~r;ar xnr clarrly Lal

Ilr;rol of fnr TILLr autil`ld ii rhr prlyrr raa

;anlrnc-lar. (Tr ~rri~n ~: rrr Inr~rlol;f

~b;Llcr or rliiii~i (a ~ Bl~rl~r Ir~rlng niure

rrrler nu~beb m~ Irrr rlll~r rraa ~1~ central

pi;reislara Ihlr Lind of riiph~iii r~r Il-srd

jilai tr the Clu.l or *rr nor *noxn, au' fne p

i(erlini sllu~r Corn~ynlm ~r( mi 1 n~r~le L~L

:Be altar *ere CiLdbaurst outlntd in gold-lear Paint.

complete rr fIfr con. r;aaruii n x

decoiraroir spholme of Pnslo-cathor m r a

Eia;r cniecl s and altar; hungi s Icen added to

L c* el~ when -he attar as replaced .n Ila

the Fptscopal church on both the nation ad taeI~e

was divided over Issuer developed b) the oxford novement

Extreme nigh chu-rch supporters of iaglo-cathollclsm angered

their evangellcal Low Church bret~rrn wasn the cellebratio

ca lsul that went beyone the IlfitrY of th ia o

omoan Prayer. conversely, Low church clergy drew nigh

tirh rf cism for their Improvised prayers not outlined

:n the prayer book and therr Intercomnunlon *r lir l

ordamned ly other denominatzonr le n tin cul

ras swpatrhetil to the c~ompilaants ouC~rM~,

Lplscopal co~mmaxt as a whole e~barnd the treesl

preclpxcared by the Oxford TracTs M a lreul rhn

Iti Arll 27, lee?, 6i5-

sevyer. -Trnnity Eplscopn l ciurcl Xalnriils

(~lllje inj~ IPLllOld iF.li~~.l CTYICII n I;llnh;rrrr

IB1` nr nr can;~uerr) Ll~x~cn li.ni md Ynlrlron u.r

~ullblno. UlnrV i Errdy, uh~ uauld later

Irlnllyli ~~nl~~ xnrdon fiso LBBY un~ll hl~ d~~Lii In 1111.

Ipalachiral~ hlr ~orlrl md Chy;yh 11II In rhP 511~11

Tildy XrOfr OL hl~ Inrenlon~ r~ visit BL~nop launi I~ urll

~r n~u ~ffLn h~ ~trmdrd it iohnlr ipirFaml ChYrFh

r:lmd ' Irrrr ~ncr ~n iund~yr.l rio~~ ir~dy. ~~ur nrir-it


ri~dr d:d not d~lrul~ ~h~ br~xln~ hlgn Cnol;n-Lax


Iljjjon Df fhs itlCln~l~- lr me In(r 1BBOr mp neu Rlrrs

~n;r* xrll i~ Clii~brle. xhlih h~b Lrrei than i~a clrlien

laclud~d a Irrsr P"SI""IP Df thC ~OXnl~ 1Y~ir mrrreltl

Ir ~he i..iliir o( Coanul rd ilrlln I~r can~regrnan .r

Clrrlb~lle *II under mt leclarate of riinlly In

~pa~achlcola, rhr neu r B c Bpnubiin or the f~iif

iron TrinlTI T~ lold Ilru~cer in Cnii~brllr II

res~'eis~iar roi ri-nirv nn* ~~llrhlia? Th~ torn ~lb

oldpr~ iili~i~YI la~rlrunoa rp~rinpd *ria~rrrir Lor

a~n0rir uell *rln~ Ilrer ~he dluei~irn ~L the c~~(an

rr~de, ieiauic~~ ~~ thr foun Imgulmeb. ~nd ~~ny of

TllnlfVII pr~lrhlonrii uel

Lhe finbii nnd ~~~raod

nnciner ~ir ct r~:r~lup pt

cerrriyl Trrilry rplrsall

o~ mF In~cclllu~

r*e le~dei~ in (Ir~rr ~nb

L~ISSd ~O ~~Y~ elrerher~ Whr

lunfrrer ~rousnr rhp ~axn Lo

:~rperlTI In The Ln;r mne;e~n~l

cnurcn rlra rrb~undrd. ~ ~ns

I~n ar;ihanir rLr~ p~rlmlaneri.

Ir~foob xrir nll~ ~rlai~~LPd xll

Ilc* af r ill~old m* n dlep

Al191. 1... 9 f --Y, MIND jII 011

9901, rm 910pe9SnYY 99E~fl0~lE VII 01oF I

I dololl 0001 p0.IpEE0I9E okod pa 19d IIr tooincd~nc
an n th ya. I-. -oy .1-9 --enogh 1. ..d.-

h-l-. fO1 .. 1, 25 1900. -.- bo -E

.- h-d orn~ne ih n bl.. da rsl, ie

y .... --ioud -nIsoym- pp-...rer mr

.- lle x~ bl. 1u d... I-r 1 I.- -hityi

---h, -p-hoslrbl. 1. --h 1- --p-oped T- nty

Epp-p.1a Ch-11h ---ec~d -h P-p-ty -i ly flly

--~hd --crd high. By 1903,oe ory;e e f-111le

Ap--.- J.- 5,jne auebe 24, 1900.


twentieth century. Apalachicola's transportation dilemma

was finally improved in 1907 when the Apalachicola Northern

Railroad, a separate venture from the 1880s project, was


The new century brought more members through Trinity's

doors and the church edifice also received many

improvements. Continuing with the parish's trend toward

Anglo-Catholicism, the chancel was once again remodeled in

1902. The renovation indicated that the parish still

emphasized an Anglo-Catholic interpretation of the

celebration of the sacraments. A new altar, lectern, and

prayer desk were given to the church. The original altar

was given to the Church of the Ascension in Carrabelle.5

Perhaps most notable of all the improvements was the

addition of electric lamps in 1903.6

The new altar was given to the church by Trinity's St.

Agnes chapter of the Daughters of the King. Organized in

1900-1901, this women's group was dedicated: "to increase

the love of the church among its members, and to bring those

Rogers, Outposts on the Gulf. 138.
Sawyer, "Trinity Episcopal Church, Apalachicola,
Florida," 1950. 21.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.


developed social relationships and enhanced community life

in the often harsh and lonely frontier town.

Another church group, the Woman's Auxiliary was formed

at Trinity in 1892. The Auxiliary's function was to raise

money for missions in the diocese. Other chapters of the

Woman's Auxiliary in Florida were formed as early as 1871.

The dynamic growth of missions during the latter half of the

nineteenth century was in large part due to money raised by

Auxiliaries. According to a calculation by Bishop Weed,

more than twenty percent of the annual diocesan mission fund

consisted of money given by these organizations.10

Initially, the funds raised by Trinity's Auxiliary were

modest, but in 1908, the group donated $126.80 to diocesan

missionary coffers." A missionary's salary in that year

was $1000.12 The Woman's Auxiliary at Trinity also fostered

youth involvement in the church with the addition of a

Junior Auxiliary in 1909.13 While women were responsible

for the growth of the church in Florida on the parish and

Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida. 1989. 48.

Diocesan Journal. "Report of the Treasurer of the
Florida Branch of the Women's Auxiliary," 1908.
Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida. 1989. 79.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.


and development of the parish, there is little evidence of

their involvement in larger community and social affairs.

The temperance movement, which had waxed and waned since

the 1840s in Apalachicola, was once again gaining momentum

in the new century. By 1910, the local chapter of the

Women's Christian Temperance Movement became increasingly

vocal in favor of banning alcohol sales in Franklin county.

Several parishioners were listed in the Apalachicola Times

as having attended meetings of the W. C. T. U., but neither

Trinity or any of its affiliated societies took a stand on

the issue. In May, 1915, Franklin county voted in favor of

going dry sixty-six to thirty-three percent."

At the turn of the century, the Diocese of Florida was

led by a popular bishop, the Rt. Rev. Edwin Gardner Weed.

Bishop Weed, a native of Savannah, assumed the episcopate in

1886 and led the diocese during its period of greatest

expansion.1 Weed was well received in Franklin county

where he maintained several close friendships with

parishioners of Trinity and the Church of the Ascension in

Carrabelle. George H. and Elizabeth Ruge, communicants at

Trinity, named their son after the popular bishop. Edwin

Ibid., February 6, 1915; Ibid., February 20, 1915;
Ibid., May 15, 1915.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 1965. 176-177.


seven candidates. St. George's Mission closed after

Porter's death in 1913.20

In terms of attendance, Purdue's ministry at Trinity

church was at its peak in 1907-1908 with 113 communicants.

Financially, the church had security as Trinity's income

from subscriptions and alms produced nearly a $300 surplus

at the end of 1907. The value of Trinity's property,

boosted from improvements and the addition of the rectory,

was at its highest since the antebellum period.21 The

timber and seafood industries, the two largest employers in

Apalachicola and Franklin county, benefitted from the

completion of the Apalachicola Northern railroad in 1907.22

Though attendance at Trinity remained promising after

1910, it was down from its peak in 1907-1908. In his

letters to the diocesan publication, the Church Herald,

Reverend Purdue noted that the business in town was dull.

The war in Europe initially hurt the timber industry as

"News of the Diocese," Church Herald, November, 1911;
Ibid, March, 1914.
Diocesan Journal. "Financial Exhibit," 1907; Ibid.
"Parochial Reports," 1908.
Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf. 1986. 139.


was in the 1850s, but the livelihood of the town still

revolved around one export. Just as antebellum businessmen

in Apalachicola were greatly affected by swings of the

cotton market, supply and demand for timber wielded similar

power over local transactions in the early twentieth

century. Trinity Episcopal Church, the spiritual home of

the town's leaders in timber, reflected the struggles during

the slow years of 1913-1915. Trinity's congregation, which

had been able to raise money for numerous improvements on

church property between 1900-1910, was no longer able to

contribute money sufficient to pay the rector's salary.

Throughout 1916, Trinity Episcopal Church did not have a

spiritual leader.2

From 1900-1915, Apalachicola experienced a wave of

prosperity due to the maturation of the timber industry and

to a lesser extent, a burgeoning market for canned seafood.

Tapping these natural resources, investors created

employment and related economic opportunities in the town.

During this financial upswing, Trinity church experienced

record numbers of communicants and increased involvement in

church affairs through new societies. Conversely, a

recession caused by difficulties in trans-Atlantic shipping

Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1836.


fiscal troubles to recruit the Rev. George E. Benedict as

rector. Reverend Benedict, a native of Georgia, immediately

made his presence known as he arrived in Apalachicola with

his wife and five children in an open Ford automobile on

December 11, 1916. Under Benedict's leadership, Trinity

became involved in community issues like no other time in

its history as the rector never shied from controversy in

town affairs. In addition, a revival of the timber

industry, a boom in local real estate markets, and further

development of seafood businesses led to a wealthier parish.

Dramatic improvements to the edifice including a recessed

chancel, three stained glass windows, and a new organ were

added to the building in 1921.29

Ibid., 22; Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity
Church, Apalachicola.

SYoung, John Freeman, Episcopal Address, 1868-1885,
bound with The Journal of the Proceedings of the
Protestant Episcopal Church in the State of Florida.

SChurch Herald, The. Jacksonville: Church
Publishing Company, 1911-1914.

SChurch and Home. Jacksonville: Church and Home
Office, 1884-1887.

SFlorida Churchman, The. Jacksonville: Ashmead
Brothers Printers, 1883.


Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity Episcopal Church,
Apalachicola, Florida.


Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the
War of the Rebellion. 30 vols. Washington, 1895-1927.

United States Congress, Sixth Census, 1840. Washington, D.
C.: Blair and Rives, 1841.

SSeventh Census, 1850. Washington, D. C.: Robert
Armstrong, 1853.

SEighth Census, 1860. Washington, D. C.: U. S.
Government Printing Office, 1864.

SEighth Census, 1860. Original Schedules.
Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1864.

SNinth Census, 1870. Washington, D. C.: Government
Printing Office, 1873.

STenth Census, 1880. Washington, D. C.: Government
Printing Office, 1884.

Eleventh Census, 1890. Washington, D. C.:
Government Printing Office, 1895.

Twelfth Census, 1900. Washington, D. C.:

Apalachicola Florida Journal, 1840; 1844.

Apalachicola Gazette, 1836-39.

Apalachicola Star of the West, 1844.

Apalachicola Times, 1900-1916; 1936.

Apalachicola Watchman of the Gulf, 1843.

Apalachicolan, 1840.

Niles' Weekly Register, 1834-35; 1840-41.

St. Joseph Times, 1838; 1840.

North and South, (Louisville, Kentucky), 1909. Records of
the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural
Engineering, Record Group 54, National Archives.


Kelly, Oliver Hudson. Origins and Progress of the Order of
the Patrons of Husbandry in the United States; a
History from 1866 to 1873. Philadelphia: J. A.
Wagenseller, 1875.

Mitchel, Cora. Reminiscences of the Civil War. Providence:
Snow and Farnham, 1916.

Moore, Frank, ed. The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American
Events, with Documents Narratives, Illustrative
Incidents. Poetry, etc.; with an Introductory Address
By Edward Everett. 11 vols. New York: G. P. Putnam's
Sons, 1861-68.

Richardson, Simon Peter. The Lights and Shadows of Itinerant
Life. Nashville: Publishing House of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, 1900.

Saunders, The Rev. William Treble. The Pastor's Wife; or
Memoirs of E. M. S. New York: Little, Rennie, and
Company, 1867.

Schmidt, Lewis G., ed. The Civil War in Florida: a Military
History. 6 vols. Allentown, PA.: Lewis G. Schmidt.

Davis, William Watson. The Civil War And Reconstruction In
Florida. New York: Columbia University, 1913.

Divine, Robert A. America: Past and Present. New York:
Harper Collins Publishers, 1991.

Dodd, Dorothy. "The Secession Movement in Florida." Florida
Historical Ouarterly 12 (July 1933): 1-26.

Doherty, Herbert J. "Florida in 1856." Florida Historical
Quarterly 35 (July 1956): 60-72.

Ezell, John Samual. The South Since 1865. Norman: University
of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Gannon, Michael, ed. The New History of Florida.
Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996.

The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church
in Florida, 1513-1870. Gainesville: University of
Florida Press, 1965.

Graham, Thomas S. "Florida Politics and the Tallahassee
Press." Florida Historical Quarterly 46 (April 1968):

Henneman, John Bell. (editor in chief), History of the
Literary and Intellectual Life of the South. Vol. VII.
The South in the Building of a Nation. Richmond:
Southern Historical Publication Society, 1909.

Hesseltine, William B. The South in American History. New
York: Prentice Hall Inc., 1936.

Hill, Samual S. Religion in the Southern States. Macon:
Mercer University Press, 1983.

Hume, H. Harold. "Botanical Explorers of the Southeast,"
Florida Historical Quarterly 21 (October 1932): 293-300

Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church, The. New York:
The Church Pension Fund, 1943.

Kimball, Winifred. "Reminiscences of Alvan Wentworth
Chapman," Journal of the New York Botanical Garden
253 (January 1921): 1-11.

Mitchell, Samual C., (editor in chief) History of the Social

Sweet, William Warren. The American Churches: An
Interpretation. New York: Abington Cokebury Press,

The Story of Religion in America. New York:
Harper and Brothers, 1930.

Tebeau, Charlton W. A History of Florida. Coral Gables:
University of Miami Press, 1971.

Thompson, Arthur W. "Political Nativism in Florida, 1848-
1860: A Phase of Anti-Secessionism." The Journal of
Southern History (February 1949): 39-65.

Willoughby, Lynn. Fair To Middlin': The Antebellum Cotton
Trade Of The Apalachicola/Chattahoochee River Valley.
Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1993.

Wilson, Charles Reagan and Ferris, William, eds. The
Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

cotton grown in plantations along the Chattahoochee and

Flint River valleys to buyers in the Northeast and abroad.

Working on commission, these merchants, also known as

factors, were an important economic link between the South's

cotton belt and the world's textile industry.1 The church

also benefitted from a close relationship to the

Apalachicola Land Company, the largest private land owner in

the territory. After the Territory of Florida recognized

the incorporated church in 1837, Trinity remained the only

organized religious institution in the port for nearly a

decade. Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, and other

denominations would later become prominent leaders in the

community as well. As Apalachicola developed from frontier

town to bustling international port, however, Trinity

Episcopal Church was the bellwether parish.2

The United States acquired Florida from Spain in the

For a thorough study of Apalachicola's role in the cotton
trade, see Lynn Willoughby, Fair to Middlin': The Antebellum
Cotton Trade of the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee River Valley.
(Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press) 1993.
Several unpublished histories of Trinity Church have been
written. Fred Sawyer's "Trinity Episcopal Church,
Apalachicola, Florida" (1950) is available at the Florida
Archives in Tallahassee. Both Jimmie J. Nichols'
"Sesquicentenial History of Trinity Episcopal Church" (1987)
and George L. Chapel's "From Generation To Generation in the
Church" (1995) are available at Trinity Church in

Forbes Company in 1819. When Spain ceded the land to the

United States later that year, Carnochan and Mitchel claimed

that they still retained the tract as private property

despite the fact that jurisdiction had changed. A

protracted legal struggle would last until 1835 as early

attempts by Mitchel to have the Purchase recognized in the

United States were unsuccessful. The case ultimately

reached the Supreme Court which after several years of

delay, finally ruled in favor of the claimants in "Mitchel

v. the United States." The firm, which had commenced

operations in the "Forbes Purchase" before the ruling,

changed its name to "Apalachicola Land Company" in November

of 1835.4

With clear title, the Apalachicola Land Company mapped

out a city plan for the town. Uppermost in the minds of

investors in the land company was preparing the port to

handle high volume shipments of cotton. Lots purchased

along the riverfront were required to be improved with the

construction of three-story cotton warehouses. Many

squatters who had lost their claim to land in Apalachicola

after the Mitchel decision moved westward to the emerging

Apalachicola Land Company, Articles Of Agreement And
Association. 1-4; Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf. 11.

after Florida was obtained by the United States in 1821,

Episcopal churches were founded in St. Augustine (1821),

Pensacola (1827), Tallahassee (1827), Key West (1832),

Jacksonville (1834), St. Joseph and Apalachicola.

Under the leadership of the Reverend J. Loring Woart of

St. John's in Tallahassee, the seven parishes formed the

Diocese of Florida in 1837. Woart chaired the primary

convention and addressed the pertinent issues of the

fledgling diocese. The major concern of the convention was

obtaining a bishop for the Church in Florida. As a short

term solution, the delegates agreed to invite the Rt.

Reverend James H. Otey of Tennessee to perform episcopal

duties until the diocese was able obtain its own bishop.

The convention also petitioned the Protestant Episcopal

Church of the United States to be received into the national

body at the General Convention.7 George Field represented

Trinity as one of twelve laymen in attendance. The Reverend

Charles Jones, Trinity's rector in 1837-1838, was not


Throughout the spring, summer, and fall of 1836, no

Episcopal services were held in Apalachicola. Because its

economy was based on the winter shipment of cotton, many of

Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 17-18.


The church's founding vestrymen and incorporators were

among Apalachicola's most prosperous residents. Colin

Mitchel, John Gorrie, Elizer Wood, George S. Middlebrook,

Hiram Nourse, William G. Porter, Cosam E. Bartlett, Ludlum

S. Chittenden, and George Field held a considerable amount

of wealth and influence in the community. Colin Mitchel,

whose firm Carnochan and Mitchel had formed the Apalachicola

Land Company, still served on the land company's board of

directors. Hiram Nourse, a cotton factor, also served on

the company's board in the 1830s and 1840s. Wood,

Middlebrook, Nourse, Chittenden, and Porter were all cotton

factors and dry goods merchants.

Bartlett was perhaps the most influential of all the

vestrymen. As the editor of The Apalachicola Gazette from

1835-1840, Bartlett had control over much of the information

that reached the isolated frontier town. John Gorrie, who

arrived in Apalachicola in 1833, was a surgeon but served

Apalachicola in multiple capacities. At various times,

Gorrie served as postmaster, city councilman, city

treasurer, and city intendant. His pioneering efforts in

artificial refrigeration would gain him international

recognition. Unfortunately for Gorrie, most all of his

The rectorship of Charles Jones at Trinity proved to be

short lived after he did not return to Apalachicola in the

fall of 1838. Accepting an offer from Calvary Church in New

York City, Jones left Trinity without clergy again. As

senior warden, George Field performed services and remained

upbeat about the future of the young parish. In January of

1839 he told the second Diocesan Convention that a

subscription had been filled to build a church edifice and a

suitable lot had already been obtained. The lot was a gift

of the Apalachicola Land Company. Field was confident the

building would be completed by March of 1840. The warden

also indicated that he would conduct services until the

structure was finished. He did not want to recruit another

rector until an adequate facility was in place.14

John Chrystie, a cotton warehouse clerk in the late

1830s recalled the services held by Field during the winter

of 1838-1839:

Sunday, there is a man here who reads the
Episcopal service at the hotel at which all the
old women in both petticoats and breeches attend.
He is the cashier of a bank here and I believe a
damned hypocritical son of a seacook. Have never
been to hear him yet having plenty of everything

Ibid., 1839. 15-16.

contributions of individuals from other denominations also

eased the blow of economic hardship on the new church.

Though Field was optimistic about the future of the

parish in his reports to the diocese in 1838 and 1839,

Trinity and the other parishes in the territory were

affected by the depression. Out of seven parishes in 1839,

the diocese had only 100 communicants of which Trinity

claimed ten. While the number of confirmed Episcopalians

was low at Trinity and elsewhere in the diocese, baptism

numbers were more promising. In 1837 and 1838, Reverend

Jones baptized ten infants.7

Field's confidence may also have been based on the fact

that 42 individuals purchased pews to fund construction

prior to the Panic. The help of so many donors who were not

confirmed Episcopalians was crucial to the early church. On

average, each pewholder paid more than $275 for a

subscription. The motivation behind non-Episcopalians'

generosity was most likely due to the belief that their

denomination would be able to use the facility. Pewholders

who were members of the Masonic Lodge also perhaps hoped to

use the temple for meetings.

Pew sales, frequently viewed in hindsight as an often

Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity Church,

architecture of the church matched a popular structural

style of the antebellum period. The practice of shipping a

"pre-fabricated" building to Apalachicola, while ambitious,

was not exclusive to Trinity Church. Thomas Orman and David

Raney, both commission merchants, had their homes produced

in the same manner. Raney was also a vestryman at


The vestry invited the Reverend A. Bloomer Hart to

serve the Parish in 1840. The following year, Bishop James

H. Otey of the Diocese of Tennessee arrived in Apalachicola

to perform the rite of consecration. Before "an orderly and

apparently devout congregation," Otey consecrated Trinity

Church on February 14, 1841.21 In his letter to the

Diocesan Convention of 1842, the bishop commented on his

impressions of the town and parish: "Seldom has my heart

been so affected by the beautiful and touching services of

the sanctuary....Everything gives promise of the increase

and firm establishment of the church and the young and

flourishing city of Apalachicola." Bishop Otey also

confirmed five people while in Apalachicola bringing the

total number of communicants to nineteen.

Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity Episcopal
Church, Apalachicola.
Diocesan Journal, 1842, 5-6.




Throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Apalachicola was a

thriving frontier town. It was the third largest port on

the Gulf coast. A demand for cotton by the textile industry

of New England and Great Britain led to steady traffic on

the Apalachicola River. As the community enjoyed increasing

financial security, Trinity Church was able to grow in the

antebellum period. The myriad obstacles which faced the

young parish were absorbed as the congregation expanded.

The problems facing Trinity after consecration in 1841

mirrored dilemmas other churches in Florida encountered.

The Episcopal Diocese of Florida's most obvious shortcoming

was leadership. As each of the individual parishes

struggled to become self sufficient, the necessary funds to

establish an episcopate were not yet available. The

temporary solution was to invite bishops from neighboring

dioceses to perform episcopal offices in Florida.' In the

decade following Trinity's consecration, a bishop visited

Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 1965, 18-20.


antebellum travel limited his contributions. Hoping to

remedy the situation, a ways and means committee was formed

to investigate methods of raising an episcopal fund at the

1848 convention. The following year, committee chairman

George R. Fairbanks of St. Augustine proposed an annual

assessment from each parish to pay the bishop's salary. If

an adequate collection was not obtained, Fairbanks suggested

allowing the bishop to serve as rector and thus earn a

salary in one of the parishes. The committee's suggestions

were well received and the election for the first Bishop of

Florida was set for the next annual meeting.5

The clergymen present at the Diocesan Convention of

1851 nominated the Rev. Francis Huger Rutledge, rector of

St. Johns, Tallahassee, to be Florida's first Protestant

Episcopal bishop. Rutledge, a native of South Carolina,

accepted the post after a brief deliberation. In addition,

St. John's, the wealthiest parish in the diocese, agreed to

retain Bishop Rutledge as rector and offered him his

previous salary. The episcopate fund established by the

ways and means committee would provide only a supplemental


Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 24-27.
Ibid., 1846. 27-28.

for Episcopalians in Apalachicola, the bishop's journey to

Trinity Church was one of his least complicated. After his

ordination in 1851, Rutledge visited Trinity parish every

year during the 1850s, except 1854 and 1855.8

With the episcopate established, Trinity was able to

increase its membership nearly every year with new classes

of confirmed Episcopalians. With three diocesan visits

during the 1840s, Trinity was only able to graduate three

confirmation classes. During that decade, the number of

communicants increased by eleven whereas between 1852 and

1860, Trinity grew in communicants from twenty-five to

seventy. Forty individuals were confirmed at Trinity during

that eight year span.9 Regular diocesan visits allowed for

greater stability in the parish as-well as enabling the

church to involve families since confirmation classes were

typically made up of adolescents.

According to parish reports to the diocesan

conventions, Trinity rectors baptized 174 individuals from

1841 to 1860. Nearly all of the baptized were infants. The

growth of family involvement in the church reflected the

changing demographics of the town. According to the 1840

Diocesan Journal. 1852-1860. Parochial Reports.
Ibid., 1852-1860.

dilemma that prevented greater settlement of families was

the Native American situation. While the Apalachicola River

valley did not experience as much of bloodshed as the

central peninsula did, there remained a fear of Indian

attack throughout the 1840s and 1850s. While Native

Americans traded the land later known as the "Forbes

Purchase" to settle debts with a trading company at the

beginning of the nineteenth century, a small population of

Indians inhabited the Apalachicola River valley during the

Second Seminole War. The annual report of the Apalachicola

Land Company in 1841 illustrated the anxiety of investors

and residents of Apalachicola: "...roving bands that are

supposed to have their lurking places in the 'Purchase' have

kept up a constant alarm and committed frequent murders."11

At the Diocesan Convention of 1839, delegates

representing Trinity heard accounts of horrific skirmishes

from brethren living close to the fighting. The Reverend

Francis Lee of St. John's, Tallahassee read a letter to the

convention regarding the welfare of a young boy he had

recently baptized. The letter described a massacre of a

family living outside of Tallahassee, with the recently

Apalachicola Land Company, Sixth Annual Report of the
Directors of the Apalachicola Land Company. 1841. 4.



Residents of Apalachicola were familiar with the forces

of nature. Those individuals and families who remained in

town during the summer months endured oppressive and

inescapable heat. During the antebellum period, several

hurricanes slammed into the panhandle causing major

destruction to coastal communities. A series of hurricanes

in the late 1830s left St. Joseph nearly ruined. An

outbreak of yellow fever in 1840 and 1841 completed the

destruction of the once proud boom-town. Trinity's sister

parish, St. Joseph's Episcopal Church, died with the


While storms and pestilence also battered Apalachicola,

the town was able to rebound. Destructive "gales" landed in

1842, 1844, 1850, 1852, 1853, and 1857 without disastrous

effect to the Apalachicola economy. In fact, during the

same time span cotton receipts climbed to their highest

levels. This prosperity explains why Trinity, which was

badly damaged during several of these storms, was able to

rebuild quickly. In reference to the storms of 1842 and

1844, the Reverend A. Bloomer Hart, rector from 1840-1845,

wrote to the Diocesan Convention of 1844: "...the long

Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf. 1986, 15-18.


the diocese, Saunders frequently commented on his

frustration with the seasonal attendance fluctuations."

Throughout the antebellum period, Apalachicola did not

diversify economically. The shipment of cotton, the port's

primary source of revenue, only occurred from late fall to

early spring. Individuals and families who could afford to

leave during the summer sailed north. Because twenty-five

percent of Apalachicola's commission merchants were members

of Trinity church, the impact that summer migration had upon

the congregation was keenly felt."1

Ironically, it was Apalachicola's itinerant lifestyle

that prevented a devastating plague from destroying the

town. Like many communities in Florida during the

antebellum period, Apalachicola was hit with a yellow fever

epidemic. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the virus was most

common in the summer months when most of the port's

population was elsewhere. In 1841, yellow fever swept

through the panhandle killing nearly 100 Apalachicolans

between May and October. The same year an epidemic ravaged

nearby St. Joseph as the town was still crowded with people.

The morbid result was more than the boom-town could endure.

Ibid., 1852. 29-30; Ibid., 1854. 29-30; Ibid., 1856.
Willoughby, Fair To Middlin. 1993. 115.


Raney, the Auxiliary Guild of Trinity was the driving force

behind the church's seemingly continuous rebuilding process.

The guild proved to be a successful fund raiser for the

church. The money given the vestry by the women's society

paid for necessary repairs of the church as well as

appointments such as the communion set. Following the

hurricane of 1853 the church needed repair, and the

Auxiliary Guild raised $492 in one evening from what the

rector termed: "a beautiful entertainment."22 On several

occasions the auxiliary exceeded their monetary goals and

left the vestry with a surplus.23

While the women of the church were instrumental in the

parish's business affairs, there is no evidence to suggest

that they were outspoken in any social movements before the

Civil War. A temperance society was formed in Apalachicola

by the early 1840s but there is no known connection

between Trinity and the movement. The Episcopal church in

Florida was at best indifferent to the issue, and in some

parishes both clergy and laity were outspoken against

banning alcohol.24 In Apalachicola, the Methodist church

Ibid., 1856. 17-18.
Apalachicola Commercial Advertiser, April 13, 1844.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 24-25.


sectarian preachers."2 As Reverend Hart remained steadfast

to his strict interpretation of the canon, the Methodists

resigned themselves to holding services in various members'


In 1844, a Methodist church was built which brought an

end to the ordeal. Sore feelings lingered between the

congregations. Announcements in the Apalachicola Commercial

Advertiser by the Methodist church made indirect criticism

of the Episcopalians on several occasions throughout the

1840s. One example occurred in the paper on April 27, 1844:

"There is nothing exclusive about the Methodists in their

form of worship..." Later, in 1848 a letter to the editor

from an "Authorized Agent" of the Methodist Church read: "It

will be borne in mind that we, as a sect, for what we

consider good reasons, never build a pewed church."28

Reverend W. J. Zimmer, Trinity's rector in 1848, vaguely

described another conflict during his brief tenure at the

church. Although he did not indicate what the controversy

involved, Zimmer wrote that he had to resign, "...on account

of the discord and insubordination which prevailed."

Several families, including parents with children preparing

Ibid., 1845. 8.
Apalachicola Commercial Advertiser. April 6, 1848.


parish in the diocese prior to the Civil War.32

While Catholic priests had visited Apalachicola

throughout the 1840s, a congregation was not organized until

Father Patrick J. Coffey of Columbus, Georgia, formed a

parish in 1851. Apalachicola was teeming with Catholic

families as a high number of Irish Catholics immigrated to

the port in the 1840s. According to Trinity records, two

Irish families became members of the Episcopal church before

the Catholic parish was established. The Grady family,

natives of Cork, would raise their American born children to

be active at Trinity. The eldest Grady of this generation

would later become senior warden of Trinity parish for fifty


Anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant sentiments prior to

the Civil War gained national attention as a political

organization known as the American Party grew in strength

and numbers. The American Party, also known as "Nativists"

and "Know Nothings", established a platform based on the

lengthening of the naturalization process due to the fear of

increased job competition and diminishing wages. Since a

large number of the immigrants were Irish, they were the

Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 29-30.
Trinity Episcopal Church Records. Trinity Church,

parishioner, was the Democratic candidate for Congress in

1856. After a convincing victory, Hawkins became Florida's

lone voice in the House of Representatives.37

An issue that had to be addressed by all denominations

was the position of slaves and free blacks. The Episcopal

church in Florida and throughout the South was committed to

the catechising and confirmation of African-Americans. Yet,

the church in the South viewed slavery as a legal

institution and did not support emancipation until after the

Civil War. In their annual parochial reports, the parishes

of the Diocese of Florida often included the number of

blacks who were baptized and confirmed as well as the number

of slaves and free blacks who attended Sunday school.

According to the Rev. Owen P. Thackara, who served St.

Peter's in Fernandina prior to the Civil War, a rector's

success was in large part judged by "his faithful labor and

success among the colored people."38 An architectural

indication of Trinity's interest in the religious culture of

blacks was the second floor slave gallery. At the same

Southern History 15 (February 1949), 45-46.
Florida. Office of Secretary of State, Election returns
by county, 1856.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 39; Diocesan Journal, 1877,

Middle Florida, Apalachicola had little agriculture.42 As a

result, the need for slaves was not great in the port. In

addition, the large number of Irish immigrants living in

Apalachicola were available to perform much of the manual

labor along the wharf and in the warehouses. The loading

and unloading of bales of cotton was dangerous and involved

a high risk of injury. Due to this fact, it is

understandable why slave owners would not want to use their

slaves, a costly investment, for such labor. A large

percentage of the slaves who were in Apalachicola probably

worked in domestic capacities.

Although thirty-five slaves and free blacks were

baptized at Trinity prior to Civil War, none were confirmed

Episcopalians. The first people of African descent to be

confirmed were Francis and Charlotte Cook in 1866. The

Cooks, along with four of their children, were baptized at

Trinity in 1846. Francis, who had a different owner than

his wife and children, was believed to have purchased his

freedom within a decade after his baptism. When a slave was

baptized, the owner's name was listed as a sponsor in the

parish records. When three more of Francis and Charlotte's

children were christened in 1856, "Frank Nourse, col'd" was

U.S. Congress, Seventh Census, 1860. (Washington, D.
C.: Government Prining Office), 400.


lanl LFLflll fO Thp pnprr noneb ~~Yelp~ll rerP xnf~pn

rulpar~ af LD~ frrcfa. m plr~irullr Or. E. B Pulrylr

Cululm n cnn0lu Usrlfmr 91-P6.1.U Chursn Ilic
oxford -re~Fnr. liondan nncmllllan and co i 1Pli 16.


On the eve of the Civil War, Reverend Saunders wanted

to expand the church to accommodate the growing

congregation. Funds for an expansion were not available as

the treasury was still low from necessary repairs following

a hurricane in 1857.47 In his memoirs, Saunders described

himself as having a strict adherence to the rites of the

Book of Common Prayer.48 Given these tractarian leanings,

it is possible that Saunders would have pushed for

restructuring the sanctuary in a fashion of Catholic


The years 1859 and 1860 were among the most prosperous

for Trinity Episcopal church. The rector wrote glowing

reports to the diocese: "The minister has...been much

cheered by the greater devotion of the members, and by the

general seriousness of the demeanor in the attendants of

public worship. He trusts there is a spiritual harvest, in

God's own time, to be reaped here."49 In terms of cotton

receipts, 1859 and 1860 were two of the port's best seasons,

Diocesan Journal. 1860. 24.
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 65.
Diocesan Journal. 1860. 24.



savIvrac1 aEctssioN iW scHIsM

asue~rcr euffrids str -ts ;-:r rthe po ta of .;.p al a.

Ul~nblockade. Between 1B63-1B70, Trinlty s confirmed

smeaerlhip dropped from seventy to thlirty-seven while

Apalachlico la was Pard the physical destruCTI ~ ll T

committee~ in Florida and the confederacy faced. Ihe x

eprtheless~ Ioft the baserl II por onlirtur. :he port

:lire largst~ part ;r the iirt coast. :his 4.sexr1ctin made

:he town a strateIC sIte for both Borth .an southT at t

beginning of the war. Uni0n strateglists wnted to prevent

the shipment of goodl In and out of the Aipalachicole iiver

system as much as conlederates desired To keep that airtry

II1I1 :_ll:~j~n n~~ jll 1~_/ 1__11 1:11-1,

irrr~ilsn cmrrir;on. ~ni ~i~aay rtlsiod iina ~' h.i or

Ilonev ~o ~hr Itlrr in iri Llrlr y.~r rr no indrpmdent

'c~iv~lic rhou~h Lhr r~.icrjnl cliui;n m anr;f -h~

i-llr( d~n~n;nr(;;n In th iau~h. 1 nl~n piop;rr.;n

mt r~nna~rrre I~nar~rh;s rsir iplriornll~ni

n~l~~irr n rl 1~~1111(_1~ Crr r-1Lded i~. Jil~~

r~lllll~~C filitlirill. rl.i~~- -.rl.*.l:ili

~nllIl if ~n~ X~T ilnii~l idllYnO l(lI*i i~iTn X1~ Iii


T1IC iFIC~I~I ChYlih in th~ ioYrlilin IT~~r~ nnl P:

111~ In ~ICtl~n~l rnalon irlar ~~ rhi r~i *irn tne

'ornrrlon at ~hi Unlulrrlly ~I Ihr iluth In IsiB In~

iclia? r~~ md~r~d ~Y outh~ln dlor~r~r nn~ plmnrl r;

cnrtr 1 u~u~rsl(p ~n pr rllh Yxlaib mt fcud~;;

mt rrh~~l ma i~~~llrr* ~I r~ulnrin bi~no~r.;nclualn(

If(Ci Tn~ ~~Cldln~ I(((I h~d I~mrl mri~rlurr.i

me Cmlrdri~fe irlrr rI M~rirn. (nr :erdr; ;f ~nr

6hrc pdo0n 6006 660666
used as lankets for rebel toc~ L;l~h Li

SCordere canro. The r.ct.oaI.,

oxid~ ve slaves.

T1e congregation at Tranat, was also facing an or of;

00666an b 0sides the con00 ct. Even though lss and 1060

erel good business years for tne Part, a developing note~r

asrlloo lli Ceorge had begun al~~- a~o rifr

rand 196 produced swerlc crops ;n the *interland, and the

1:.1 aneer of cotton receipes at the pa~lacrl

commission houles stall reppreseted a lo* percentage of the

overal: necke.- Between I*50 and 1860. Apalachlcao~l r ha;

o! the ipolechctacol~rraichataboce Rivr valley agricull u

-egion dropped Lrro 79 torpre tl F*c, atmorut biverse

ryii L. Gra~di PIA I Papr PrEpd and Roa~d byi M. lienri

J: 006 -3 060

0066 6006000 6606t. M02166621
LY,. 6-1 -6o 0 0 0 60 6
0600 000~ 00600y 1960

th, b- e r II. rl Y.1 I ~ tfr I ilhl. Aolr

-.1~lo, --d by, iiay d fin~ ta~r, i n un

reoodx~~ale f n mm~e. sicrdb-adre h

rl/rjnl alelandr. ~ MLafh. calo~anding a~f~cli ot

mrrriar of uesr ilond~ ~rd narlann~ In 11I1 ieirr

196( ril~ i.~piil~n *nl n iuec~;i :oi mt Un.rlb ~f

Ib;m ~nd hi~ n~n tnr~~.lrue;p,,,~mce Crilnr

rhalr b.rflo, r~rrrlrlno Conlodoi~(r h~n~riluaidm~ri

st Lu*ii shurch nl I*niilin*o iian uhlm ~h~y It

jn-ri-.-(rii U~Fm. *na Iri roundrd ~Y n ~rll

wnllr L1-;*;dln~ ridrr~l f

Chnpo~n xli iuln~ir~lr ra

hlr drus rla;e ~ai iuppilr

UIXI* ii~l TTrililiiYi rhi Iii

)IFCI I.rP in the b~y -11 ~Ylf_

:OnfOdil~T1 IIY~TTII11~ UnO Inldl

ChlP~nn *n~ Xlill~d LY -iilnl

illliiri 11151 mil ni~ Tin~P ~D

TIIOYII Th. canl~drrlrer hrd nai~le baaililo u

LY~.I II I'd( ~nd NliYr~l Bild~s iI IBbl il~

)(IPi ietell.n~ Irrrrl. *nr nr~r dele~~ ihal

~al iabei) E i~r lurrmdrrrd ~~ a~lann((~x on

inl J;ioli E i~hnia-. *no x~r rh~ iawnn)ln~

iel`nquiihrd ~a*~r to C~nrir. ri.lion~

*ri xri auer, but Xp~l~cmcal~ besn~e ~ ~lh(i

Lhi forner co~fan urrihzurr mb

;~rr LB6i. ~;I rl ~h~ Ynl~n lor;il Irfr

ihLn LnF i;eu lilllan 1, laundrri rptuind rr

I;i..,lr n~Lli (nr unr. hr Ir:lird Tnii[y p~

ico..n mr.rorprilr) ;( enl"~'d bunn~ in rhi

~Yi/ ~ EYenl~(n h~depdl-Yr~I

dereriarnri~n ulmmn rilr ~arr

r ~nd np.dpd mly;aM~riill ~c~

i;n(l;n sri~n~lirlzn irnr L-r

yh me Lrlf~ir ~I c~r(an ~n* arr

LB66 md lill Unlor~un~(ply

mnraunb xnr rhaitl:rrd ~I nal

:~rr;rrocn~~ nid r.inr

Collf~d~llCV Bllh.P ilnCli liYl~i nYtlid~O ini

Lnl ICIIIR *irxe~n mt niarali al ilarlda and ~

cnircn wlr;ln nonrnl nllrr ipinnrrrox, iplrl~

rrrcio*iur mt f~Llm CoIII*liriili ;h~-lrd nFlr

npnnmlca~r~ rllur rliDill'lDn xnr mrl.

~a orhel p~rrr ot ~nr iiloia- allll mraucour tn

;hi i~L~ ~f ti~o~ian In rhr shurrli nld ra ~r id

ot llriinnin~riic~nr xlr inyoirml ra IIl-r-1 p

d.,p~er I~iirr;l i*. elr;*r *r;r ouoi ranrl;

IndlYldYdl. Xin I.~Ylnlli preienr r~r ~h~ lundry rprulce

In lsbl. Thr cnurcnI popul~ilr)- ~~~n *an~d and icull

becan. frulfm~pd. re.llrlng fnrf fne hfuroy of Ine Baa*

Camoan Pnyei x.i ~aa denrr for 1 iPm-li~er~(P

ion~r~larlan. Inoulh Ishulllr ichaal ~sbe i~sf~er yro~rel

Lhe inr(lrurlan II n-dr~y x~i ~har~llu~d. ilnnnclnlly

.tr.pped In 1869, fnF dloseir ionau~d monernly ruWor~ fr

icullii churcn and Icnool

Ihe ~lrcapnl snurcn Ir naildli r~nalned Infererfpb

Lnr ninfu-L uelfrlr af LLnc~n-*n~eiisnnli alrhaugh

ias~pn rum~m. n Fonnlu niilnre 6167; ~Y-Ce~L~~
~YYLII; L861. l~i (i"l; m~e. Isas, ia, m~e, lasr.


1I1CnlColn~ Lne nl(nOdlJr jlF* BIPTUT CIYTC1I~~ LI~U rh.

1C*~ PI~LLIIII lini~fii~ LI~~ ~ne~r ain cannyrl(;r BY

ii. *a~n a~ ~nrir ~ininl-~llcrr hlb ieplrlre Lfl;cm

murFnpr it. ?lu.~ ilrlr~n Nernob~r~ iF;rc;~rl

*r, i.;r Bnp(ir( il.lri~li rhirP Snpr.r( Irb

mollrr m;i~~ri~ ;anductrd Irrilrri L;i r;p *l~r*

.gregrrlanl In*o(n i~rr~. *1~;* Il-ln~prl.rrp Iruol

an the i~ejlnnlni md rir~ ~*lp Lo rfu~y Lne mnlrfry

DnFrll~ me~i xmL1 Lir(nr~n I) Tne f~rrr iplrrollrl

urch faonded *Y Lfiicm-Pn~llTiinTi it. PpTerir In Xey

.r, ri oa~ ~rqanlied un~il LBli

Ire eu.nlelli.l n~tulr af ~hp nothadii( nnd Blp:li(

ursnei x.i.r.PP~dl'"~`o ~Llsii ni Lr mi (a Ihi:ei

r Yethadl~r Cnjlch Ln iloildn h~d ipllr r~~l Ilr nrrla~

by auer ilnrri, In 1816 Ind nlijird Ifirlt rih 'he

Cuiiurm. ~ FnrOlu*rilrl~( $1Bi. Dlorrlm Inllmil
~llsop~l iddrrii 11868, ii

~nl~shiFal~ i0~.11.111 nnui;~i/rr. mish L~I 1B~B;
gerr. nllmni~- nn ~ni 61111. 21.

Cuin~~n. r innnlu Y-rlrrn- I"~


IOYL~b i- Ilei~ll P~PYL

mPI;Pllr iPF~lrY-Llen

md rhlll fZllle~

LIIC*I rerrelmreb rho nl

rhr rrrrli only nou

i~~e ~a -inilliiiaunil rrau~h

it n~eraur r.g;lrlon. they *eir

i-rlelr. Di me;urr af rh~

LIlli. i~mmY. Tiern, ril rh~

iiYl.i lined the Xn.il 1T IPnllCni~ll. BCrXeCn rli~ 1Yi

Br.thrir Cmning Calpnny.nd the Bly Clli Pnc*inl Cra~anil

m~ ruo nou~or onoiry~d note the 60Y *oi*rir an (*~ wafer

a;d in me Lacra;y di;ii-il Ica~ar.

Thr nru ~me.ailan of aurln~ra I~ad.rr In ~rl.chicola

n.d rrrrns Il.r Tr Irlni~l ipl~co~al church jlrorr

Clo~rl p"l'd."T SL Ihe CoaMI C~~P'1II ~~Tendrd IrlmiS

xIOI ms La.lly. I. S. Ilohr, uho apprlrd me CYP"II

Liunb.r Co.p.ay. ar* irrh N Xlnb~ll, uhr u*r n eaii

P.rrn.l.L L00rJ1SI *.ie ~O~h P*rilhl~n~rl ceorne H ~u~e

and jahr i- iiugel lounder. of the iiuqe Brorherr Cillinlng

CDlpaly. .Ira.or~~lscd at Lne ip.riajal ;hu-co *iiry EI

the nmrnalr and 4LLT. to m~ CIIYICI Yeic slYLn bY the

t..ille~ O( TLSe pnrirpl~,rrir.

The rpange Inbu~riy EL Fl~llda ual prlna;lly c~ir~r~d

nr.und Ced.l Xey.nd Tarpon 5*ling.. bur ~r~a mo 187os to

a;.uad ls:o ai rrny nr f*e:va ~P'"~e ~oafr l;pmrre our of

~p'Lcmc~~a lilolglnS lioug~r diu~lrl~y ra the aprlrchlrol~

larrlacnicoln- city of nanilert n~rrii~.- Ll~nnd
~uLh Ijunr. IPD91 I.

TI:iiry Lp-.C~I~'I Cnsr;n ieioid.. Tiinlfy Church.

rr~d iaxyei. Ir. ~lnmfy ipiiapal cnulcn.
i.lchlcola. F;lnda.~ L(IY 22.

mip cilmdlprlrr u~i~ rxn~olrr al Lulmirrer rllr opel

Lhe lart drcldrl a~ rh~ nin(ronrh spn~ury ii

it mt md of fnr irr *lil~~ I iiundrir~i ren~

-:r- Iii-L`i Iho p~;iih n1 rl;ll~~r Innil.r~ Ini Loi

mlr~iy iii 1819. i~uiicri rrpolrrd LhlT rru*nly rmf:

E~lrcaprli*ni Yor.hlped ~I Illllfy I Wnll~ lie n~b

LO _nl frOnrjsi IIISIIVLI

Iiii(i mi ~i-lln~ Ln ~he L.lfii )~Cldel Of -nP

irnll ra iupprrr 'ni ~~iiin smiii~m;LY ulrh;u( dl~c~r~T

nli.lan.ij fYndl Br(roen loi~l)or. IIllllri U1I ~n ind af

.lisiin .L.trr reuri.l rl.ei 'i Bliilui. icnn rremnn loull~

uied hli dl.clr~lon arir h;r iruih LLn~ nllrlannrler rp~n(

eiih ioiiiian Onfarrunn(ely for rrlnlry nnb if Lu*rlr.

~heii ulisi rjmr nnil at h.i drir ;n :hr ilipri ~ptlrri;l

Iro :oir

i~i :rlli(Y '"d ~ilniiiialn rrrul~lrd to Inn ruen~un

esa-sn~li~lly tnr Prarei(~i~ EF.issp~l Chu;m m island Ir

.ro*l.. rrpldly Th;uih ~hp i~n~i ie~i~ln~d ant a~:nl lesi

yo~uln~ian in m~ Unlfeb iflfer, i~r yl~~rerr urr due to

riynnilon .n nirlculrirr, nfrui. lun*r;, nsu~L r~r`ir.

lu~rrac*. ii~rr ~rrullcfunnj mo or~o; DUi~~~n;ni

ldrr~;irr ~5 mt ~o~umi~an r~irrd lu;r~sr rorri. Ihe

nuuer af i~irio~rl cnulcnrr in the diairrr iiiie~red

~ia. Isll ,2-,i. ~e. la~~ la; ~e Iss2 12.
~iri. Issl it; ~Le. 1887 PnlOCnl~li~~~T~Ii ~el
ld)~ P~iochl~lilp~or~r ~e. lara s~.

15 Ilib j .CC~~IOI

liiiiir~ ~*P

~~ rh lar~i nnd I'rl-n-

nir Lli~r jpric

of dpll~ein~ian ~n~an~ mt

Ltepr an ~n~ ruLJpc~.

hC ~Di~iii~iP X~I FOI1Ti- Si

diri.ll the LDiloll.* ~~--

Ihe dilCi~~ ~Yel n~U ~I

~1~03~1 lni Bli*iP Wle*ll ~r.nnri

liaselan. atrerleurml yelrl

~linop ~nd l~y nnd rlerlml sonrul

eYLn? ~nl m~ *PCIIPI Of fn~ ilnCT~si(l CIOTYliI

nLOid I(~Y~~~r~ 1~~ mren~mmn~ fnr r;libli:fi of

IW L(~. I;(

;CLe iP~a I*PIOEI rinirnn '.lirn.! IBPO. 1I-1(.
IB*2 Iil(


9Y~li~lei ~f the Tlel*

*n0 LPIIPYC~ tl~~ m~ lb

~CnYrSnlY i( iCot~91

cnmoll Illui~r~red a ch

occurred in 1873 when Low Church extremists led by the Rt.

Rev. George D. Cummins, assistant Bishop of Kentucky, formed

the Reformed Episcopal Church.44

The first rector in the Diocese of Florida to join the

Reformed Episcopal church was the Rev. James S. Harrison of

Christ Church, Monticello. Harrison's defection occurred

after the Rev. Edward Meany, the High Church rector of St.

John's in Tallahassee, proposed a controversial resolution

to the Diocesan Council of 1877. The Reverend Meany, an

Englishman, suggested that the Diocese of Florida should

support a movement in the national church to delete the

term, "Protestant" from its title. Meany argued that the

word was a misnomer, and it also suggested congregational

autonomy. Although the resolution was withdrawn before a

vote, its introduction fueled a fierce debate. The Reverend

Harrison, an evangelical and staunch opponent of the

resolution, realized that despite this small victory for Low

Churchmen, the diocese was on the whole moderately Anglo-

Catholic. Shortly after the council adjourned, Harrison

informed the congregation in Monticello of his intentions to

join the Reformed Episcopal Church. By 1878, Harrison

Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 1965. 98-100.


Church dieagreement or the rltualiie mue o r

Reverend *eany's services Perlaps hli background had

already -xp-sea him o iagto-ca1hollcim, and he did not

view The ritual as out of the ordinary. was parents.

cornellus and ElTz-beth Grady, Elre irish cathol-.

i-lgrants who draed their chtzaren In the Spiscopal

Church. w~hen the -rady arrived in Aalac.icola

h-s .-r nerIttet. -,
only religious Institution In torn to have its own edifice

and hold regular services. Fl-ko-g orne

co-muned at Tr.n.ty. Edlzab converted In 18.6 and .1 llb

her children wh. survived to adulth.o1 were t p. copal-ah ,"

what exactly made Trinity appeallng to Elirabeth Grady is

not known, but one could surmise that the church liad

Catholic elements which were familiar to her.

As Franilin county neared the twentieth century. h

EpI-copal commtlity washealthy Besldes the nCne-y-f-d.

coh-nhcan.s at Trinity. a new mission in carracle boasted

twenty-Plx confirmed spisCopallars In 1896. The cIt.y of

Carrabelle was founded as a vacation commatry in L187 by

oliver iiudson Kelly. K~elly, well known as the founder of

The Patrons of husbandry. also helped to establrih the

churchrr a~~~p i Church Recoird. Trinity sPIscopal

P~mCnlsl~ ~IOUfn


reprelmfin~ 2ZL leolle attended ~h~ shurih. Tor the first

rwe rn r~nm history. nare than one nundred c~nflm~ed

pplrcapllr~nr uarahlpr~ II i:lnity i Dunno me bnfeb~llu~

leriad. the highert nunYFI of somn~ums~n(l. seventy. x~I

reoorded rn 18io.'

m~ iac* o~lrrll fern~.nui and me Im~ltall~nr of a

In~llor xn(rr nai~ar still Inmblfed the torn Ir 1)00

Elporfml lu~b~r. ieafaod, honey. turpentine end other goobs

Iraduced In irnnilln sounty xai (m~e conru~ln~ and

elpenilve ia~ilN CoanWI. iohn s. nnd reai~e n Ru~e.

Ueniy L. Tmby, nnd 1 T Oirnan unruccessfully Irrm~pfed ro

estnblirh a rall sannpcnon ior Iml~shlsaln In the 188or

these ;ndluldualr rho aiMns men~ represented n n~loi~fy of

me nm~er. sesiood s~nmn~. and mercantile interests In me

toin, xeie all Trlnlty plrrshloners r.nother saMoumsnnf.

Jann E rrrdy. xer fh~ ~ieslden( of the Ipnlncnlcoln Board

of Ii~ide that errlpfeb ro seiure iundr ioi de~yemn~ the

nlr~or in ~Wi~li~a(lon of funds un rrce~ueb fron~

C.nirerr. hut nor n suiilsient ~naun( i~r diedglnl

rlnshic~la say Nevertheless Irnfflo on the ~~l~ihicola

8rupr son(lnu~d (~ Ircreare during the t~rrr deslde oi the

nlncrirniOYinll lso( parochial i~eparrr

m~e. Isi,-lsbo 21


who do not go to church within the portals of God's

sanctuary."7 The Daughters of the King also presented

eucharistic candlesticks the following year to go with the

recently installed altar.8 While these improvements may or

may not have been responsible for the growth of the

congregation, the beauty of their gifts likely inspired the

individuals and families already in attendance.

Bishop Edwin Gardner Weed believed that a healthy

chapter of the Daughters of the King indicated a parish with

a strong spiritual life. Trinity's St. Agnes chapter of the

Daughters of the King joined other women's groups already in

existence at Trinity. The oldest group, Trinity Guild, was

formed in 1841. The guild primarily functioned as a sewing

society and a fund raiser.9 The Rev. William T. Saunders

noted in his reports to the diocese following the

destructive antebellum hurricanes that the money raised by

the guild was instrumental in the necessary building repairs

after these gales. Perhaps most importantly, the guild

Diocesan Journal. "Episcopal Address." 1899. 45; George
R. Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida, 1892-1975.
(Gainesville: University Presses of Florida) 1989.
Sawyer, "Trinity Episcopal Church, Apalachicola,
Florida," 1950. 21.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.


diocese level, they were not given the right to vote in

parish meetings until 1915. Women were not eligible to

become vestry members in the Diocese of Florida until


Another committee at Trinity that was in step with the

growth of the church was the Women's Rectory Association.

Plans for building a new residence for the parish rector

began in 1897-1898 under the Rev. C. L. Pinder. The old

parsonage, which had been enlarged in 1857 during another

period of growth for the parish, was deemed inadequate. The

Rev. William T. Saunders, rector from 1851-1870, described

his old residence as "comfortable and spacious," yet "humble

in architecture."15 The significant limitation of this

residence was the fact that it was not adjacent to the

edifice. The new rectory was to be built on the original

property. Led by Mrs. Carrie Kimball, the Rectory

Association raised the necessary funds, and in May 1900, the

new rectory was completed.16

While the women of Trinity were leaders in the growth

Bentley, The Episcopal Church of Florida. 1989. 58-61;
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1866. 47.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.


Gardner Weed Ruge was born in 1890.19

Trinity's difficulty in maintaining a rector continued

after 1900. For the first five years of the new century,

three different rectors served the church. The unique and

isolated nature of the town made the position difficult to

fill. Though the church's financial condition was

improving, the parish on occasion relied on missionary funds

from the diocese. Fortunately for Trinity, continuity in

leadership was delivered in 1905 when the Rev. Thomas J.

Purdue arrived with his family in Apalachicola. A native of

England, Reverend Purdue began his ministry in the Anglican

Church serving as a missionary in London's East End.

While Trinity was fortunate to have one rector from

1905 until Purdue's departure in 1915, the parish had to

share their clergyman. Reverend Purdue held services at the

Church of the Ascension in Carrabelle on scheduled weekdays

as well as one service a month at St. John's Mission in

Wewahitchka. In addition, the family of St. George Island

lighthouse keeper, Edward G. Porter, were Episcopalians.

Reverend Purdue held services on the barrier island

intermittently. In 1911, when two families were living on

St. George, Bishop Weed landed with the rector and confirmed

Trinity Episcopal Church Records. Trinity Episcopal
Church. Apalachicola.

overseas demand for cypress and pine diminished.23

Throughout the diocese, parishes located in areas dependent

on timber, such as Pensacola, Jacksonville, and Apalachicola

were hurt by the economic downturn in 1914 and 1915. As the

diocesan missionary funds shrank during the recession,

Bishop Weed offered to cut twenty-five percent of his income

to help cover the salaries of missionaries in the field.24

While the local economy would later revive as the United

States prepared to enter the war, Apalachicola and Trinity

suffered in the meantime. "The town, like many others in

Florida," wrote Purdue in February, 1915, "is in a very

depressed state that affects the church."25 By the end of

the year, Trinity would no longer be able to afford the

rector's salary. After eleven years, the ministry of the

Rev. Thomas J. Purdue came to an end as the widowed

clergyman and his daughter moved to Washington, D.C..26

Apalachicola's economy was more diverse in 1915 than it

Edward F. Keuchel, "A Purely Business Motive: German
American Lumber Company, 1901-1918," Florida Historical
Quarterly 52 (April, 1974): 388.
Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida. 1989. 78-79;
Diocesan Journal. "Episcopal Address," 1915. 27-28.
"News of the Diocese," Church Herald. February, 1915.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.


at the outbreak of World War I, had the opposite effect.

The close link between the solvency of Apalachicola's

businesses and the well being of the town's oldest church, a

prevailing tendency from 1835-1915, was once again revealed.

Despite these peaks and valleys in its financial

status, Trinity Episcopal Church grew in its first eighty

years. Like other parishes in the Diocese of Florida,

Trinity endured outbreaks of yellow fever, destructive

hurricanes, and the strangling effects of the Civil War.

Along with its diocese and most other southern institutions,

the church also adapted to the cultural and political

upheaval of Reconstruction.

Immigration to the area increased diversity at Trinity

as natives of Greece, Ireland, and Germany attended the

church after the Civil War. Though African-Americans never

were a significant presence at the church, freedman Frank

Cook served on the vestry in the 1870s. Mannie Brash, son

of Jewish timber manager Sol Brash, was a converted

Episcopalian who became active at Trinity in the early 1900s

as a member of the choir and later as a vestrymen in 1933.28

In 1916, Trinity Episcopal Church entered a new era.

The church had sufficiently recovered from its earlier

Sawyer, "Trinity Episcopal Church, Apalachicola,
Florida," 1950.




Diocese of Florida. Consecration of the Bishop of Florida,
bound with The Journal of the Proceedings of the Annual
Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the
State of Florida, 1868. Jacksonville: C. Drew, 1868.

.The Journal of the Proceedings of the Annual
Conventions of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the
State of Florida, 1839-1916. 70 vols. (The printers and
places of publication are: 1839, Knowles and Hutchins,
Tallahassee; 1840-1841, Clisby and Smith, Quincy; 1842,
1844, Office of The Star, Tallahassee; 1845, W. and C.
J. Bartlett, Tallahassee; 1846-49, 1851-57, 1860,
Office of the Florida Sentinel, Tallahassee; 1858,
1861, 1868, 1870, 1873, C. Drew, Jacksonville; 1869,
American Church Press Company, New York; 1871-72, Dyke
and Son, Tallahassee; 1874, 1879, Florida Union Book
and Job Printing Rooms, Jacksonville; 1875-1876, John
F. Trow and Son, New York; 1877-78, Press Book and Job
Office, Jacksonville; 1880-1884, Ashmead Brothers,
Printers, Jacksonville; 1886-86, Church and Home
Office, Jacksonville; 1887, 1892-94, Dacosta Printing
and Publishing House, Jacksonville; 1895-1916, Church
Publishing Company, Jacksonville.)

Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the State of
Florida, 1867,Including the Proceedings in 1863 and
1866. Tallahassee: Office of the Floridian, 1867.

Weed, Edwin Gardner, Episcopal Address, 1886-1916,
bound with The Journal of the Protestant Episcopal
Church in the State of Florida. 1886-1916.

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