THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
A HISTORY OF TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 1835-1915.
LEE L. WILLIS, III
A Thesis submitted to the
Program in American and Florida Studies
in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
Summer Semester, 1998
The members of the Committee approve the thesis of Lee
L. Willis, III defended on July 6, 1998.
Professor directing thesis
William W. Rogers
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ............................... ................... iv
1. A GOOD BEGINNING......................................... 1
2. PERSEVERANCE AND PROSPERITY............................16
3. SURVIVING SECESSION AND SCHISM...........................42
4. REUNION AND RECOVERY...................................54
5. TIMBER PROFITS TOWN AND TRINITY..........................79
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................................100
A study of Trinity Episcopal Church from 1835-1915
reveals the ways in which the civic, business, social and
cultural leadership of one of Florida's oldest communities
is reflected in the history of its first religious
institution. The fluctuations in economic prosperity,
patterns of immigration, as well as the climatic conditions
of Apalachicola are closely tied to the well being of this
congregation. While some local denominations were able to
develop during the various depressions of the eighty year
period, Trinity was only able to grow in the midst of
stability. In addition, the theological issues confronting
the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States as well
as the Diocese of Florida will be examined for the impact
they had on this parish.
A GOOD BEGINNING
Trinity Episcopal Church of Apalachicola during the
period 1835-1915 reveals the ways in which the civic,
business, social and cultural leadership of one of Florida's
earliest communities is reflected in the history of its
oldest religious institution. The fluctuations in economic
prosperity, patterns of immigration, as well as the climatic
conditions of Apalachicola have been closely tied to the
well being of this congregation. While some local
denominations were able to develop during the various
economic depressions of the eighty year period, Trinity was
only able to grow amidst stability.
Trinity Church was founded during a period of fiscal
growth for the young port of Apalachicola. The men who
incorporated the church as well as help fund the
construction of an edifice, were enjoying the fruits of a
developing cotton market. Many of these individuals were
commission merchants and the owners of large warehouses
along the Apalachicola River. These coastal merchants sold
Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819. Shortly thereafter, new
settlements began to arise, particularly in the northern
portions of the cession. Enticing to settlers was the
fertile soil of the middle panhandle which would be suitable
for growing cotton. The settlement that would become the
town of Apalachicola was born out of the need to transport
cotton and other goods out of the developing hinterland of
Georgia and Alabama. The first bales of cotton were shipped
out in 1822 and a port collector was established for the
Apalachicola region a year later. The town was officially
incorporated in 1829 under the name, "Cottonton".
"Apalachicola" replaced the original title in 1831.3
Prior to the Adams-Onis Treaty, a British trading firm
known as John Forbes and Company claimed 1.2 million acres
of land in the panhandle of Florida. The firm had obtained
the tract from Native Americans who traded land to pay off
debts to the trading company. Spain, which governed Florida
from 1783-1819, honored the transaction. Part of the vast
tract included the land that would become Apalachicola.
Colin Mitchel of Savannah, representing the Georgia
firm of Carnochan and Mitchel, bought the land from the
William Warren Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf: Saint
George Island and Apalachicola from Early Exploration To
World War II. (Pensacola: University of West Florida Press)
port of St. Joseph. St. Joseph was just outside the Forbes
Purchase and quickly became a rival community.
The year 1835 also proved to be significant in the
spiritual life of Apalachicola. The Reverend Fitch W.
Taylor, an Episcopal minister from the Diocese of Maryland,
held several Episcopal services in both St. Joseph and
Apalachicola in the fall and winter of that year. Prior to
Reverend Taylor's visit, there was no evidence of organized
religious activity in either community. Services were well
attended and congregations were established in both towns.
After Reverend Taylor returned to Maryland, however, there
was no one to lead the newly formed missions.5
The territory of Florida in 1835 had seven Episcopal
churches. In addition, Anglican churches, the Christian
family from which the Protestant Episcopal denomination
emerged, were well established in Florida during the British
occupation from 1763-1783. Nine Anglican clergymen served
in Florida during the twenty year span.6 After the
territory was ceded to Spain following the Revolutionary
War, however, all of the Anglican clergy departed. Soon
Diocese of Florida, Journal of the Proceedings of the
Annual Convention, 1838, 21-23. (Cited hereafter as
Diocesan Journal, with date.
Joseph Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. (Gainesville:
University of Florida Press) 1965, 1-3.
Apalachicola's residents left town in the off-season.
Absence, rather than irreverence explained the cessation of
regular worship during the summer months. As the population
began to swell in the winter of 1836, Episcopal services
were once again held in Apalachicola. In the absence of
clergy, bank cashier George Field organized services held at
the Mansion House hotel.8 The banker's leadership would
prove to be instrumental in the development of the church.
Field had come to Apalachicola to work in the newly
opened branch of the Southern Life Insurance and Trust
Company in December of 1836. Anticipating a lack of church
life, Field brought a supply of The Book of Common Prayer
with him to Apalachicola and offered to lead Episcopal
services. According to Field, the services were "favorably
received."9 In light of the interest in organized religious
activity, Field along with eight other individuals
petitioned the territorial legislature to incorporate the
church. Given the name "Trinity Church", the organization
was officially incorporated on February 11, 1837.10
Diocesan Journal. 1838. 21-23.
Ibid., 1838. 21-23.
Acts of The Florida Territorial Legislature. 1837. 58-
recognition came posthumously."
By the Spring of 1837, Field believed the congregation
needed the regular administration of a full-time clergyman.
This sentiment was shared by others as Field recalled: "a
unanimous request on the part of the whole congregation
convened on notice, that the vestry, which had been duly re-
elected, proceed to obtain a Clergyman of the Episcopal
Church."12 Within months, the Reverend Charles Jones of the
Diocese of New York was invited by Field to serve as
With a full time rector, the church continued to
expand. Reverend Jones was well regarded in the community
and his presence fulfilled the vestry's desire that Trinity
would grow rapidly. Field's optimism was evident in his
report the following year at the inaugural diocesan
convention: "the valuable exertions of the resident
missionary seems to animate the citizens...and justifies the
belief...that the cause of true religion be substantially
Vivian Sherlock, The Fever Man: A Biography of Dr. John
Gorrie. (Tallahassee: Medallion Press) 1982. 20-27; 127-128.
Diocesan Journal. 1838. 21-23.
Ibid., 1838. 21-23.
else to do..."
Chrystie's animosity toward Field was most likely the
result of a sour business relationship. Amidst a depression
caused by the Panic of 1837, banks and cotton warehouses on
the Gulf coast maintained strained relations. Cotton prices
were low and local bank notes were devalued. On many
occasions, both banks and merchants blamed one another for
the economic mire.16 Clerking in a cotton warehouse,
Chrystie's ire toward Field, a banker, was not unexpected.
The Panic of 1837 and the ensuing depression that
lasted until 1842 did not leave Apalachicola unscathed.
Such economic instability during Trinity's early years
negatively affected the congregation. The depression hurt
everyone involved in cotton from the planters to factors.
Falling crop prices and devalued currency crippled the
businesses of nearly all of Trinity's founding vestry.
Fortunately for the church, the process of obtaining a lot
and raising subscriptions for constructing an edifice was
complete before the depression hit. The monetary
Niles Schuh, ed., "Apalachicola In 1838-1840: Letters
From A Young Cotton Warehouse Clerk," Florida Historical
Quarterly (January, 1990), 318.
Lynn Willoughby, Fair To Middlin': The Antebellum
Cotton Trade of the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee River Valley.
(Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press) 1993. 69-75.
corrupt and inevitably elitist method of raising money, was
not uncommon in the early nineteenth century. Even though
several pews remained unrented and thus left for general
use, such an arrangement in the only church of a small
frontier town could understandably lead to friction. The
floor plan of the interior church, however, did not match
the somewhat aristocratic pew sales. It was patterned after
a Baptist Meeting house with two side aisles rather than one
central processional aisle. While the floor plan suggested
a Protestant and egalitarian minded congregation, doors
attached to the pews conversely hinted toward aristocratic
sympathies. While pew doors were later removed, their
legacy, joked one life-long communicant, served as reminder
of Trinity's early efforts to "keep the Methodists out."18
The edifice itself was built of white pine in New York
state, carefully packed, and shipped to Apalachicola in 1839
by schooner. Using wooden pegs, the building was assembled
on the lot given to the vestry by the Apalachicola Land
Company. The Greek Revival structure featured large ionic
columns and a square, flat-roofed belfry."1 The
Reverend Tom Weller, Funeral Oration of Alice Hodges,
September 22, 1987.
George L. Chapel, "From Generation To Generation In The
Church", unpublished monograph, 1995.
Following the rite of consecration, Trinity Church was
an established parish, albeit a small one. The financial
backing of the cotton port's elite and the diligence of
George Field had enabled the church to become self-
sufficient six years after the Reverend Fitch Taylor first
held services in the bustling frontier town. With an
impressive edifice of its own, Trinity Church was ready to
proceed at a time when Apalachicola celebrated its status as
one of the South's busiest port cities.
the church on only three occasions. Besides confirming new
communicants, the presence of a bishop helped break the
monotony of the frontier parish. One Trinity rector
recalled the effects of such a visit: "Our beloved chief
pastor arrived in the spring...inspiring us with more
animation and reviving our zeal in every good work."2
The Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott from the Diocese of
Georgia served Florida in the years 1844-1847 and 1849-1850.
The Rt. Rev. Christopher Gadsden of South Carolina
officiated at the 1848 Convention, but did not visit
individual parishes.3 Bishop Elliott reported to the Ninth
Diocesan Convention that his visit to Trinity in March 1846,
was a great success. In addition to administering to "a
large body of communicants" Elliott believed "the promise is
fair for a rapid and permanent increase in the communion of
Though Elliott's efforts were great on behalf of the
Diocese of Florida, his multiple responsibilities in his
home state as well as the difficulties associated with
The Reverend William Treble Saunders, The Pastor's
Wife; or Memoirs of E.M.S. (New York: Little, Rennie, and
Co.) 1867, 76.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 26.
Diocesan Journal. 1846, 12.
Hailing from a prosperous family in Charleston,
Rutledge had a heritage that was rooted in Low Country
aristocracy. His father, Hugh, served as chancellor in the
state of South Carolina for twenty years. John Rutledge, the
bishop's uncle, was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of
the United States. Another uncle, Edward Rutledge, signed
the Declaration of Independence. Francis Rutledge graduated
from Yale in 1821 and the General Theological Seminary in
1823 before returning to his home state to begin his
ministry.7 He moved to St. Augustine in 1839 to serve as
rector for Trinity Church before accepting the rectorship at
St. John's, Tallahassee.
Bishop Rutledge would be able td,provide the diocese
with attentive leadership for the first time since its
formation. One of the toughest obstacles blocking the
diocese's progress, poor travel conditions, would continue
to plague the new episcopate. From his office in
Tallahassee, Bishop Rutledge had a radius of travel from
Pensacola in the west to Jacksonville in the east.
Southward, the bishop's service was requested at St. Paul's
Church in Key West. Poorly maintained roads made over-land
travel a major challenge in the young state. Fortunately
George Chapel, "Bishop, Diocese, and the Parish in the
1850s", unpublished monograph. 1986.
census, only ninety-nine children under the age of 10 lived
in Apalachicola. By 1860, that number had nearly quadrupled
to 390. Another illuminating statistic regarding the
fertility of church life was the ratio of males to females
in Apalachicola. In 1840, 408 men between twenty and forty
lived in the town compared to 105 women in the same bracket.
By 1860, the numbers of the same category had nearly evened
to 252 males and 209 females. The New Year celebration of
1839 revealed the nature of Apalachicola society prior to
these demographic shifts:
New Years Eve in Apalachicola there was a ball
given by a woman of particularly easy virtue in
the lowest class of life a washerwoman and
formerly a chambermaid on one of the steamboats.
She managed to muster about 15 or 20 of the same
kind of women as herself- everybody was there- all
the young cocks...The principle [sic] merchants
here danced with their draymen's wives, and the
Mayor of the City played the fiddle for them.
Hurrah for Apalach!"1
While the environment for a growing church improved
throughout the antebellum period, there were still problems
that directly affected the congregation. A particular
Niles Schuh, ed. "Apalachicola in 1838-1840: Letters
From A Young Cotton Warehouse Clerk," Florida Historical
Quarterly (January 1990) 320.
christened child as the lone survivor.12 Graphic details
describing the aftermath of the tragedy would likely have
returned to Apalachicola with lay delegates George Field and
Hiram Manly. While no attacks occurred in or close to
Apalachicola, it would not have required an active
imagination by residents to envision Native Americans
invading from the swampy northern border of the town.
By 1843, most of the Indians in Florida had been
removed to reservations in Oklahoma, although skirmishes
continued elsewhere in the state. Though impossible to
quantify, the effects that news of Indian fighting had on
the settlement of families undoubtedly discouraged
immigration to some extent. Though the threat of an attack
on Apalachicola was practically nonexistent after the Second
Seminole War ended in 1842, news of the Third Seminole War
(1855-1858) likely stoked fears of possible raids in the
panhandle. Despite the Native American question throughout
the antebellum period, Apalachicola gradually became
inhabited by more families and became a community wanting
involvement in church life. As the records of baptisms and
confirmations indicate, an increasing number of families
became associated with Trinity throughout the 1840s and
Diocesan Journal. 1839. 14.
windows of our church have been shattered by gales, but so
promptly repaired as to hardly interrupt religious
The Rev. William T. Saunders, who was rector during the
gales of 1852, 1853, and 1857 recalled the "confusion and
consternation" that the hurricanes created.15 With respect
to the powerful forces of the storms, Saunders was also
impressed by his parish's ability to overcome the
destruction. After one of the gales he wrote that the
building: "...remained a little more than a wreck. The loss
was heavy. It is my happiness, however, to report that it
has been thoroughly repaired, and much improved in every
According to Reverend Saunders, the itinerant nature of
Apalachicola's population was the biggest obstacle for
Trinity's growth. While hurricanes damaged the edifice, one
could argue in hindsight that such natural disasters unified
the congregation amidst efforts to rebuild. Still, it was
difficult for the church to accomplish anything, physically
or spiritually, during the summer months. In his reports to
Diocesan Journal. 1844. 7-8.
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 52-53.
Diocesan Journal. 1852. 29-30.
St. Joseph was still struggling to recover from the
depression following the Panic of 1837. St. Joseph's
inability to divert river traffic away from Apalachicola, an
October hurricane, and the pestilence left the town deserted
the following season. Dr. John Gorrie, vestryman and one of
Trinity's founders, was treating patients during the
outbreak in Apalachicola. Another of the church's leaders,
George Middlebrooks, died from the virus.1 Trinity's
rector in 1841, A. Bloomer Hart, reported to the diocese
that it was in his prayers that the survivors would: "prove
indelible, and that the remembrance of mercy in the midst of
judgement may lead alarm to piety, and reflection to
devotion."2" Other epidemics occurred in the port during
the 1850s, but Trinity's congregation for the most part
escaped the disease.21
Reverend Saunders regretted that while Trinity was able
to rebound from the adversity that yellow fever and
hurricanes delivered, most of the church's efforts went into
rebuilding rather than expansion. Organized in 1841 by
Harriett Francis Raney, the wife of cotton merchant David G.
Sherlock, The Fever Man. 1982. 74-81.
Diocesan Journal. 1841. 9.
Ibid., 1853. 29.
was integral to the temperance movement as Trinity remained
Methodist services began in Apalachicola as early as
1839 with meetings held in the Mansion House hotel. After
Trinity's edifice was completed, Methodists were allowed use
of the Episcopal facility until a disagreement emerged in
1841. Following the building's consecration by Bishop Otey
in that year, the Rev. A. Bloomer Hart would not allow any
denomination other than his own to worship there. According
to Reverend Hart, the church's original article of
subscription filed with the territorial legislature in 1837
required that the church be used for worship "according to
the rites and usages of the Protestant Episcopal Church of
the United States...."26
The controversy came because a number of individuals
belonging to other denominations had purchased pews to help
fund the construction of Trinity church. Even so, these
benefactors in Reverend Hart's words, "...indulged the
erroneous supposition that the church might be used for
celebrating secular solemnities and for the ministration of
George Chapel, "Founding of Trinity Church",
unpublished monograph, 1986.
Diocesan Journal. 1845. 8-9.
for confirmation, withdrew from Trinity, according to
Zimmer.29 Following Zimmer's departure, Trinity was without
resident clergy until William T. Saunders arrived in 1851.
In his first parochial report, Saunders mentioned the
schism, but did not elaborate on why it occurred: "the
attendance, although reduced by the secession of the
Congregationalists, who have built a church of their own, is
still considerable....""3 A Baptist church was founded in
Apalachicola in 1848 and likely the congregation Saunders
was describing in this report.
In terms of seating capacity, Baptists and Methodists
were far and away the largest denominations in Florida by
mid-century. Catholics and Episcopalians represented the
smallest religious organizations. In terms of property
value, however, the Episcopalians were well endowed.
Outnumbered by Methodists eighty-seven churches to ten,
Episcopal property was worth $37,800 while Methodists had
only slightly more: $55,260.31 Next to St. John's,
Tallahassee, Trinity Church was the second most valuable
Diocesan Journal. 1849. 17.
Ibid., 1850. 24-25.
U.S. Congress, Seventh Census, 1850. (Washington, D.
C.: Robert Armstrong), 410-411.
targets of the anti-immigrant sentiment. By association,
the most visible institution of the Irish, the Catholic
church, was also distrusted.
By 1856, the American Party had a candidate for
president, Millard Fillmore, as well as gubernatorial and
congressional hopefuls in many states. The Nativists were
most prominent in the Northeast.34 Despite Apalachicola's
growing population of Irish settlers, Nativist sentiments
were not popular. In Florida, the American Party had a
candidate for governor and Congress on the ticket for 1856,
but both were soundly defeated statewide and in Franklin
county. In reality, the American Party in Florida was known
not for its stance on naturalization but rather as an
affiliation for the recently dissolved Whig Party.35 In
fact, the Florida branch of the party adopted a modified
version of the national platform in order to take a strong
stance against anti-Catholicism and religious
discrimination.36 Judge George W. Hawkins, a Trinity
Robert A. Divine, et.al. America: Past and Present.
(New York: Harper Collins Publishers) 1991. Third edition.
Herbert J. Doherty, "Florida In 1856," Florida
Historical Quarterly. (July 1956) 66-68.
Arthur W. Thompson, "Political Nativism in Florida,
1848-1860: A Phase of Anti-Secessionism," Journal of
time, the balcony also served as a symbol of deep-rooted
segregation and paternalism. Several of Trinity's rectors
indicated that they ministered separate services for slaves
and free blacks.39
At the eve of the Civil War, Eliza Morton Saunders,
wife of the rector, taught weekly lessons to twenty-five
slaves. Her lessons consisted of rote memorization of
scripture and hymns. The students learned from oral
instruction, and according to Reverend Saunders, they were
not greatly responsive to their lessons. Evangelical
gospel, which was also preferred by most whites in Florida,
was popular in the slave community of Apalachicola. While
most of her students were illiterate, Eliza Saunders taught
her own servants who worked in the parsonage how to read and
study the Bible.40 According to tax rolls from 1860, the
Reverend William T. Saunders owned five slaves.41
In comparison to the fertile plantation region of
Diocesan Journal. 1849. 23; Ibid., 1846. 15.
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 48-49.
U.S. Congress, Eighth Census, 1860. Slave Schedules,
Franklin County, Florida. (Washington, D. C.: Government
Printing Office), 126.
entered as one of the sponsors. Nourse was Cook's surname
before he had it legally changed. Three years later,
"parents Frank and Charlotte Cook" were listed as sponsors
when their eighth child was baptized by Reverend Saunders.43
The burning issue in the Episcopal church throughout
the United States from the antebellum period to 1900 was the
Oxford Movement. Also known as the Anglo-Catholic revival,
the movement began in the Anglican Church in the 1830s. In
the form of essays or "tracts", a group of Anglican
clergymen expressed their belief in the restoration of ideas
that had been de-emphasized after the Reformation and the
Wesleyan movement. In the coming decades, these English
theologians would deliver a lasting effect on Anglican and
Episcopal churches around the world.
Three concepts set the Oxford reformers apart: first,
the church was the Bride of Christ and a divine creation
supernaturally determined by the Holy Spirit; second, the
sacraments, namely the rite of Eucharist, were appointed by
Christ; third, the sacraments were passed down by an
apostolic ministry. By the 1850s, the theology behind the
Oxford Movement was expressed in Episcopal churches in New
Fred Sawyer, Sr. "Trinity Episcopal Church,
Apalachicola, Florida," 1950.; Trinity Episcopal Church
Records, Trinity Church, Apalachicola.
treatise on the rite of Eucharist. An individual opposing
Pusey's ideas published letters under the name, "Sinner."
Vesper also supported a local application of tractarian
thought: Trinity's strict adherence to the canons of the
Episcopal church and the Book of Common Prayer regarding the
disagreement with the Methodists.45 Several weeks after it
began, correspondence between Sinner and Vesper ended
In 1858, an editorial appeared in the Commercial
Advertizer criticizing the Oxford reformers, particularly
the writing of Dr. Pusey. Referring to Anglo-Catholicism
taking root in the Episcopal church in America, editor J. E.
Wyman wrote: "So well guilded is the pill and sign, that we
breathe the atmosphere, and even taste the noxious morsel
without ourselves being aware that we are thus unconsciously
subscribing and giving countenance to a doctrine that we
have from our earliest recollection been taught to view with
distrust and suspicion." Wyman did not, however,
specifically indict Trinity or its rector at the time,
Reverend William T. Saunders, as part of the growing
Apalachicola Commercial Advertiser, January 1, 1844.
Ibid., March 10, 1858.
however its share of the cotton market was shrinking.50 The
pews were subdivided in 1858 to create more seating and
plans for building side aisles were discussed. The
expansion project did not come to fruition, however, as the
economic and spiritual affluence of Apalachicola would prove
to be short lived. The Civil War and a growing network of
railroads in the hinterland would soon choke the town's
Willoughby, Fair To Middlin'. 1993. 130.
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 59; 65.
Madilson strkie Perry govermor of viorida In 1960, led
oh t~~rrcilnrst movement. A natze iot
carl hin -b- Perry shared -he .ews on
staunchly PoPular 20 the "Painetto state.- iva resit
Lc~l*rcloe behard south Cnarllne nreruh i
p"en ot of the union. on january n 1. ard
toerd f :ies to the Unzted states and ]olned the rebll
movement. several monthr later, exqungln began In ?enr~l
as confederate forces under Oeneral Braxton Brage fired on
Uno aval vessels that arrived to reinforce Fore Plcer
afederlral isallation Next to the slege on fort santer Ir
estl~ron harbor, the assault on rart slckens was h I.
'ktemish In the deadly war.
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(avor of secession die to alshoP Rutledgels gestures
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rbld 7171. 19-80
Tlnl~y CnjICh rPMin~d Lnn;(iri Illao;lirYL rhl 11I
I.Th -I. ei(ii.(iDn if 1T1 YIO ~I ~ IliYEL f~T Di iiYnn
Ch...nn Ch.pnn. r nlliur ol I~ii~shuretrr. xl~ldrranlrt
nnd ihylLil.n **~ MYII fO ipnln;;lcal~ In 11(7. Lff~Lla(id
*irh T;in;L~. th~ dcctor xrr oar ~;~nrl~ Inr;lrrd rm th~
;-ulm o(npi rh~r fr a LLU YCIII Unln he i~ni In Ihe shair.
Cutrpo*Pn In Tir rulpar( ~L 'ne Unlan. Ch~p~m irnrl-ed in
o(tlc~ll irmmr of ~nr:IFlnn Inn mnrmrrfs irnlrr i;
m- Wlr or Th- Imslllnn. irr I ii (l"(li
iuidir ~ar;o~~rcr;;nlati i;la~~.~L~nLe~i~i
n9rll; L~~lr r iirr~r. the clr.l rrr rr iln;ior, i
m-lrriu nlrroiu, la~;pn~axn Lenr r 11~1611 lil2ollinl
Jriiellih.lnrl. Ir;*nn mlnru nonOi' nlrraru
ITi..nlrab; ~~nirullie PYlll~lln~ C~IIPIOYI L981 2tllii.
Yln~ml n CnndlY nlili~OL i(II
irlrh r~r tie Lali of nearly hnlf of I
,rmuricllrr atler rrlacrr-a; durir~
,Inrunl jiauth i~ the decades lollax.
Illr~ on apal~sh;i~lnr n~lil(;- La rrI
Ill:l(y Thelci Ifl-liclnl
Inlir~ ~ *~) to oni~ ia~i biiil trrf(
In~C inmnnnn xnr rluri ~a rnp rexrl
I~nd nnb rrerf Bri~nln Ili~ LPI~IYP.I
Ll~urlih until aprllicmral Ir~nlned a
a~pa~rr an rrlrlrylr rdillsr Xpyp CORI
el ih~ *di dY ~O Th~ dannrloni ot ipup
ChYli LII1 Xhiil lnd Ol~i dannroi (a
r;ru~an, in ir~l~;rb ~r 16(. ~~rter
n~lr rr~u;n ~o ralirir. -~r thr abll.(
ore~n~lon fo nnul -n~ r-uiih iPpnlied -
af 1867 m~ cnmcel xl Ilio re~ooe
monetary danarlan fio~ onr so~un;i~nf
rhs ~l~c~s~ In Is(i and ~868. Lnr Ipypl
(1111. fiY 9eneiaui Indluldulll Xplp
rlni inpiarioenli IhYI rhr fnrr-lllf
le;(ion ot aucinll PT~~/ICli(Y II m~
Tir fns :i(Yii If th~ ChYTin Yn~ no~
irpo~:lan ot oaoo~l rilr and clnnd~iab
amro r~~lbiy r~~ir~ ~ne ioai -i
Inn.'/ Dr;nuli nnni f;rilrei rir:~rrra iilr; dcioni-nririr
Tnp i.r.rmd 5lurdeir nr~id In hll nma~rr ~n~; illi(oi~si~
*.i .dllf~sul~ ~niil~r In the Lnllruc(lon af blac*r hecnu~p
I.licojnl I~r~arr ir;uli~d irudinlr ra rend l~r iar* or
jaMn;n r;ricr ni olo rrs'e~rrd "r'lplr PFIYIIII Cnllnl-i
.nl loi-. Df exs~tminr hrul Inclinrd the~i (a Irrfer afnel
I-ifrui(;ani mni fh~r~ af fnr P~iiiopnl ihrrch
ir.;* Crs*. I:rr~U1- -I; *~i bn?:.iel r- Tnar) .i
8(1. bc~mP.lpnbir In;n~ ijilrapll iswounl[y af
~nlnihirol~ In Lhr dcmdrr falloxinl E~anilpllon Coa*
mb Ti. rift. Cn~ilar~. ui;e cri~lmod by BLlh~~ Pi~:ds~
m l.i lli( ilonT DL r~~lT Childili XP.P *.prl~d 1(
IllilTYI dnd me ruo oldeif. i~r~n nnb nrry, xpr~ alra
cinfl;rrl Lpll;apdl'"i Ln 1~18 irm* Coo* i~ru~d ~o tit
u.ri;y 131 Ill*e yer~r brrroel lij2-:BLii. I-iri C~i*l di~ll
In 1IBP hii lun.nl x.i irlo in ILln~Y md nlr bady *~~
Laid ~a rrir in rhr Cnsifnuf Sfr~~r Cenerery nrxl ~a n~ny
:ellar rplirrjnll~i~ ~
XII.. yr.ir o~ brrrrlarl~i-~ h~rlrh. Bimop su~.~d~i
blPd in LBOi nlr rucrrrrar, lonn irrenan loun~.
r.ll... I i.und.... r;s PIIIUI.*-lf. IN1. laT*
L1(L:r, ilennlr .n~ C~n~pn"i~ 1816, tBII
inry.rl ~Irini(y iplr;a~nl Chuleh. aprlrchisoln.
iYI~IY~(~d i(i re~rrlonm;~ xlt
rirr oi, rr a~r-;ani o( -n
rlr rli;srl *rd nar h~ur ionr,
cl~~rl~n. mns*~r~ iu~~~iird
fls~ 1J In PDI( Yll~i I Tn~C*~ni Idpl YII~ 6~I10XL~
Clit LI~~ Blihop 1DYnl *hF n~d Yn~lii~ll~illy IYIheb fOr
IYPPOI- it ~i. IP.LLII ln.l
Clll~le-C~ if r~e YLi-?diif
illirnn~~rl;m ro~eri .r
rrrarl In-~rrr bmoninn(ian
I nulrr;ul Lal.;nig iI rr~-e
urrr narr *I~;L *irhoLlrrr
thm Llrri reie ieatr m nl
r~ursnil I In ~ho d~c~de r~
nen~rri In mo rlsiida C~nlel
ill ra mt lerhidlrrr. *ira l~d
ilarl;r Le:aic mt Ci-i. u~i
CPn~Yry Ln~ b~MIII~II1FI OT IPltlltSnlC~L1
BlfX.en 181o ilnd LB~O LLrlS~n~UlsllS~n~ Ln the ccunry ial
(ran iB to II p~rcpnr a~ fnr nojie~~~e papularlan. Ih
~~...,,...,.. Inprelrlue cannldPnnl ~he iaunry na;~ Ln
~,lu~li UI11. r*. Irllnlm ii The iallmsin irrrrr
Il(~san ~~rcrr UmuPiii-i irerrl 19sl ai-ai
C;nllII Ze~ien~bira~ li:r mrlin~ran.
sc~rir iinrrranll. "L1
I-LIrbUi)L~I ~f 113119311 -O IIPILICIIICOII in fhe rUn~ls
ienrYli- UCYlb n.*e fi~rl rhi Llii *laad al the foun
Ine nlld nnd nanlrnul~yio~ naney ~ioduceb by bei;
fran Lne nesrar af Lnr (uprlo ouo nI Inu~L1-~ to oplan
Ine npge.linl P.OI.;LIP. 01 (Y*ilr -oniy n~~de it
Ln;auihaul iula~r ~ib pum airr;~.i~. ~larlei a~ra
.;llrsrei ma rala ~rrrnr -nl;l lor ii d~nan* f;r
r;iulriiiolmn ~ilil~r~ ulrr Br:rienlli~l~OD. ~raduc
af nmei m srm*Lin iaunli- Iniirnir0 Lian 2(0 ;o i2.P(O
~ounoi mi maun' at br~rmx irpor:ei I--~--~e* frm I:U
.oundi in LB10 Lo 210 lou~.dr Ir le~o.( maum nilt
elOlo-ent rl~h npllrlrl *I rrllonnl, the Inl;rrry ilfl
ru~~le~en(nl Incanr to I~ho~il
mF Iduen~ or cmnlng 1~1 (a ~rar(n ii The ieafaa0
Indurfry Whll~ ayr~rr nld ~r~n miWPd up iiuir ta
iea;gll md ii~birr ~r~~ir thr Civil Ilr, fho iiou rltr
i;P,(.r i--dr ihp canmn~ ~ir;iri. ihlcn ri~en~ed r*p.
:ili. c;errrd nui* nr~d~d ~r~n~nii ~pprl;ul-rer f;i
~Lch;canni. 81Ihr rum ~I (ii c~n:u~i, rxo yl;*ini
SOIMYn1LY II ~nny Of Lne n~rupn~err xele Im~linrr tron~
rreese up until Lhe Iltai. ~II or mp xond~i rpai~el Irre
(n*ir Lra~ the eni(ern n~dl~er;an~nn 5on when ipanjei
diicauered in the Carln~pan md Tulf of Xexisa, n~ny
~r(~r~rlrlnq rrpe*r mmlilnfed La file ndumtal~ or th~
~conamlc olPo'fYolfy 1 II Lne ~YllieBI X1I rlreTlnil md
narr rpano~n~ anpOrLuniLlel IFrP la;nLed elrernerp In mm
stare. Rnnv "lee*I brb noL Irly In ~~l~shlsal~. Itnou~n
reuelrl fnrller d~d L1*e raOL Tnp iree* fm~lllP, uha
Laired;leir cmld;pn II ~nlsnlcalnnl founb I IllnLull
hone In Tnmfy cnurcn TreO* lum-nP, 1IFelrpd In
Irlnlrylr reilrrrer rr e.rlj nn 1)0" In Lnr fxm~lrfn
Sen(uil the d~rc~ndmfr Of fnlrl muhornnfr raulb *era~e
rlrm~ils~nt p~rr of the Eplscopa~ camnunl~y of ~alachl;~ln
ii Lhe iarLune of The r~un beinn to reverie In the I~r~
ihmrrer or Lne senLury. Irinlty shuiih be~~n to iniienio In
I~nln Ihe irnbili(y Of e~iiih life irienglhonrd
nr induiLry I~lned n bertei foothold In rr~n*ho sounty
Wnlh IF~L006 end Li~er besn~e Lhe rsinon~li fainl pa~ni.
I~;canrlli Lrlbr bpuplOyeb to nsconnod~fe Lhe ieedl of
Paosm. nli(nnrrr On (n- 5111~ Isst 121121. Clrollna
iomian Coinena~. -n~rldair iP""I'"~ mduriry L Culturll
nnb Esononl; ii~ilary I
IrlniLy Epiisaprl Churcn s~c~rdr, rlmmfy IPIIFOTII
mY*ii liOT..fT.I II. dPP.li*I. -thDi i-i -lii( hll
Le~r IliliYr ~enef.r ra rha~ *;rrhi p~a~.~
Irlrlrj iniir~ied In nuwerr ~u;lno ~nr .*1Cr ~in into
mt lisor. ~u( rh~ P""n xll P1.~Pd *ith _nsmii.(mi
le~arrm;~ alrh~;L In-erru~lr~ ~i Lhi Cirii u~i, uilli~n
irunlrrl.l-ii(~r~d me;anorr~r~lan fai txen(i~ lirii
Lrr*ern Isi.lsio. Dunno fnr rxo deirdei ~(Lir hlr
nlnli;ry. ~ni ihulcn rd~urred fo i.- dlllerenl clrrlir
only rhr ap, c a appl~, mo IrPnlbeb ~ran 188L :a Llii7.
ron~lned rim (ne shursh L~nli' fnnn Lnrre ymri
Unlar~unnfrly far snursh san(lnul(i. Plulrpnd ~plp diuidrd
nii ~ln~ aprnen ir~l~chlsala and *arlnnnl lorf of (ni
...rori niid u~clrl mo Iprued Irlni(y at tne md al int
nlnp(pmrh senrury xrrp ~lia In shniqe rlrr Lu*rlr Cnuic~
~, nlrl.nn. ~ uny Inmfy nrd dli~isul(i malnralnins Lh~
mt rrrror or nlrrlanrry dunno Lnli Lint Lr~~i La Ilal
Lna*r Pempi ijrlaihlcrlnlr IlOl~fPd _~i(iiiOn Uli
d.rrlrm~ ta n~air;l~rgim~"- Bo-n ~plo nnd iaundr;r nne
L..lll~r In a~~l~shl;~la rha noi li*Pli hrlp~d :nm ~djurt
llYll.:871. Bl~'aF1' U~rrir. (i
Thr roi ~'uicrr' mr ofrri ned bil :h' *10Cnr ii ~lnr
~pirClp~rr. TX.1V~ Ycdl~ -n:Er fhF ~Y o( ChYich~ dr*
tn~ -uVcr -f ii~r;o;n?-~rr -- :- rrr~~. Lrl in.ri -~
pp~,..tmr .I;~muili~nr~ ~a r;~ rurr~l: pipulnrlon. Tn~
i'oum al mp dio;Fre ua~ mi~ula~ln~ rl Thr ailno~ Irr
tLe !Inc* o;r*. the ep~~;~ya~o Co;ne ii;;rarin~.i dll!;rrlt
to i~nlle :n;ne liaor. dcl~s'r~r ri ~n~ i;rc~rar
civ~n:-onr 1PSan ~o dlrcirl xrsr ra rr;l~al.l;r mt
EBL.CDY~I diY.che~ af ilrrda
While The ~ncoulalilnl ~rourh of i~lnsapol iiluicher xnl
In larSr p~rl dup Lo Birhap larnol~ lead~rrlily, hr u~uld n~(
br tL~ dloc~ran Ta counlrl Ih~ Churcn (*louyn ~arrl(lon
i~~:~r a ~orr *i~i paun~,ia. Blrlio~ roolg bird ;n I;ouri~ol
It _lsi. Ilr i~u. Idrln Caidnpi Ye~d. ~ ii~Llur o? S~irinn~.
~~r un~nincuill nonlnrr~d Cy a Sprcrll Coiiicll ~~ rl~
sl~c~lr lli ~OIli. 1886 r~ b~cine th~ rh-rd ~lr!.lS oL
iY~lr 18-~. :; Itii-, LB~P. sar;;lla! s~po;~l
I;Yu~l last. it.
culmi. i r~*nlv xpr;;~~r. I:2-l:li I)IIPP
f Inmry nnb Lnrou~hou;;h~ Ylacrr~ of naii*
ROYPIIPO I-:nlrinlli bir-c~ I-rcrlurl Ir iri ~
~n* Irtei rr rhi ir;ond ill~h~l at slor.lr. Jar
rarwle litiijiirl cn~lllr Irruorau-
iunr~ ioul~~i ejl~iajp(i ~'iilohcnu-r-~ rlcra
mllib Ir~s'~r;~ni, iel(~l~d mrr~nen~l elmm
iniiihei ~hrugh a s~lirr Idn~rmie ra the Baa*
~n Incipni~n~ mlhlrlr ~n rhr -I~nrI nW1
Ind;snf~on fnn~ ~ p~iilh I~r;ar xnr clarrly Lal
Ilr;rol of fnr TILLr autil`ld ii rhr prlyrr raa
;anlrnc-lar. (Tr ~rri~n ~: rrr Inr~rlol;f
~b;Llcr or rliiii~i (a ~ Bl~rl~r Ir~rlng niure
rrrler nu~beb m~ Irrr rlll~r rraa ~1~ central
pi;reislara Ihlr Lind of riiph~iii r~r Il-srd
jilai tr the Clu.l or *rr nor *noxn, au' fne p
i(erlini sllu~r Corn~ynlm ~r( mi 1 n~r~le L~L
:Be altar *ere CiLdbaurst outlntd in gold-lear Paint.
complete rr fIfr con. r;aaruii n x
decoiraroir spholme of Pnslo-cathor m r a
Eia;r cniecl s and altar; hungi s Icen added to
L c* el~ when -he attar as replaced .n Ila
the Fptscopal church on both the nation ad taeI~e
was divided over Issuer developed b) the oxford novement
Extreme nigh chu-rch supporters of iaglo-cathollclsm angered
their evangellcal Low Church bret~rrn wasn the cellebratio
ca lsul that went beyone the IlfitrY of th ia o
omoan Prayer. conversely, Low church clergy drew nigh
tirh rf cism for their Improvised prayers not outlined
:n the prayer book and therr Intercomnunlon *r lir l
ordamned ly other denominatzonr le n tin cul
ras swpatrhetil to the c~ompilaants ouC~rM~,
Lplscopal co~mmaxt as a whole e~barnd the treesl
preclpxcared by the Oxford TracTs M a lreul rhn
Iti Arll 27, lee?, 6i5-
sevyer. -Trnnity Eplscopn l ciurcl Xalnriils
(~lllje inj~ IPLllOld iF.li~~.l CTYICII n I;llnh;rrrr
IB1` nr nr can;~uerr) Ll~x~cn li.ni md Ynlrlron u.r
~ullblno. UlnrV i Errdy, uh~ uauld later
Irlnllyli ~~nl~~ xnrdon fiso LBBY un~ll hl~ d~~Lii In 1111.
Ipalachiral~ hlr ~orlrl md Chy;yh 11II In rhP 511~11
Tildy XrOfr OL hl~ Inrenlon~ r~ visit BL~nop launi I~ urll
~r n~u ~ffLn h~ ~trmdrd it iohnlr ipirFaml ChYrFh
r:lmd ' Irrrr ~ncr ~n iund~yr.l rio~~ ir~dy. ~~ur nrir-it
ri~dr d:d not d~lrul~ ~h~ br~xln~ hlgn Cnol;n-Lax
Iljjjon Df fhs itlCln~l~- lr me In(r 1BBOr mp neu Rlrrs
~n;r* xrll i~ Clii~brle. xhlih h~b Lrrei than i~a clrlien
laclud~d a Irrsr P"SI""IP Df thC ~OXnl~ 1Y~ir mrrreltl
Ir ~he i..iliir o( Coanul rd ilrlln I~r can~regrnan .r
Clrrlb~lle *II under mt leclarate of riinlly In
~pa~achlcola, rhr neu r B c Bpnubiin or the f~iif
iron TrinlTI T~ lold Ilru~cer in Cnii~brllr II
res~'eis~iar roi ri-nirv nn* ~~llrhlia? Th~ torn ~lb
oldpr~ iili~i~YI la~rlrunoa rp~rinpd *ria~rrrir Lor
a~n0rir uell *rln~ Ilrer ~he dluei~irn ~L the c~~(an
rr~de, ieiauic~~ ~~ thr foun Imgulmeb. ~nd ~~ny of
TllnlfVII pr~lrhlonrii uel
Lhe finbii nnd ~~~raod
nnciner ~ir ct r~:r~lup pt
cerrriyl Trrilry rplrsall
o~ mF In~cclllu~
r*e le~dei~ in (Ir~rr ~nb
L~ISSd ~O ~~Y~ elrerher~ Whr
lunfrrer ~rousnr rhp ~axn Lo
:~rperlTI In The Ln;r mne;e~n~l
cnurcn rlra rrb~undrd. ~ ~ns
I~n ar;ihanir rLr~ p~rlmlaneri.
Ir~foob xrir nll~ ~rlai~~LPd xll
Ilc* af r ill~old m* n dlep
Al191. 1... 9 f --Y, MIND jII 011
9901, rm 910pe9SnYY 99E~fl0~lE VII 01oF I
I dololl 0001 p0.IpEE0I9E okod pa 19d IIr tooincd~nc
an n th ya. I-. -oy .1-9 --enogh 1. ..d.-
h-l-. fO1 .. 1, 25 1900. -.- bo -E
.- h-d orn~ne ih n bl.. da rsl, ie
y .... --ioud -nIsoym- pp-...rer mr
.- lle x~ bl. 1u d... I-r 1 I.- -hityi
---h, -p-hoslrbl. 1. --h 1- --p-oped T- nty
Epp-p.1a Ch-11h ---ec~d -h P-p-ty -i ly flly
--~hd --crd high. By 1903,oe ory;e e f-111le
Ap--.- J.- 5,jne auebe 24, 1900.
twentieth century. Apalachicola's transportation dilemma
was finally improved in 1907 when the Apalachicola Northern
Railroad, a separate venture from the 1880s project, was
The new century brought more members through Trinity's
doors and the church edifice also received many
improvements. Continuing with the parish's trend toward
Anglo-Catholicism, the chancel was once again remodeled in
1902. The renovation indicated that the parish still
emphasized an Anglo-Catholic interpretation of the
celebration of the sacraments. A new altar, lectern, and
prayer desk were given to the church. The original altar
was given to the Church of the Ascension in Carrabelle.5
Perhaps most notable of all the improvements was the
addition of electric lamps in 1903.6
The new altar was given to the church by Trinity's St.
Agnes chapter of the Daughters of the King. Organized in
1900-1901, this women's group was dedicated: "to increase
the love of the church among its members, and to bring those
Rogers, Outposts on the Gulf. 138.
Sawyer, "Trinity Episcopal Church, Apalachicola,
Florida," 1950. 21.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.
developed social relationships and enhanced community life
in the often harsh and lonely frontier town.
Another church group, the Woman's Auxiliary was formed
at Trinity in 1892. The Auxiliary's function was to raise
money for missions in the diocese. Other chapters of the
Woman's Auxiliary in Florida were formed as early as 1871.
The dynamic growth of missions during the latter half of the
nineteenth century was in large part due to money raised by
Auxiliaries. According to a calculation by Bishop Weed,
more than twenty percent of the annual diocesan mission fund
consisted of money given by these organizations.10
Initially, the funds raised by Trinity's Auxiliary were
modest, but in 1908, the group donated $126.80 to diocesan
missionary coffers." A missionary's salary in that year
was $1000.12 The Woman's Auxiliary at Trinity also fostered
youth involvement in the church with the addition of a
Junior Auxiliary in 1909.13 While women were responsible
for the growth of the church in Florida on the parish and
Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida. 1989. 48.
Diocesan Journal. "Report of the Treasurer of the
Florida Branch of the Women's Auxiliary," 1908.
Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida. 1989. 79.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.
and development of the parish, there is little evidence of
their involvement in larger community and social affairs.
The temperance movement, which had waxed and waned since
the 1840s in Apalachicola, was once again gaining momentum
in the new century. By 1910, the local chapter of the
Women's Christian Temperance Movement became increasingly
vocal in favor of banning alcohol sales in Franklin county.
Several parishioners were listed in the Apalachicola Times
as having attended meetings of the W. C. T. U., but neither
Trinity or any of its affiliated societies took a stand on
the issue. In May, 1915, Franklin county voted in favor of
going dry sixty-six to thirty-three percent."
At the turn of the century, the Diocese of Florida was
led by a popular bishop, the Rt. Rev. Edwin Gardner Weed.
Bishop Weed, a native of Savannah, assumed the episcopate in
1886 and led the diocese during its period of greatest
expansion.1 Weed was well received in Franklin county
where he maintained several close friendships with
parishioners of Trinity and the Church of the Ascension in
Carrabelle. George H. and Elizabeth Ruge, communicants at
Trinity, named their son after the popular bishop. Edwin
Ibid., February 6, 1915; Ibid., February 20, 1915;
Ibid., May 15, 1915.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 1965. 176-177.
seven candidates. St. George's Mission closed after
Porter's death in 1913.20
In terms of attendance, Purdue's ministry at Trinity
church was at its peak in 1907-1908 with 113 communicants.
Financially, the church had security as Trinity's income
from subscriptions and alms produced nearly a $300 surplus
at the end of 1907. The value of Trinity's property,
boosted from improvements and the addition of the rectory,
was at its highest since the antebellum period.21 The
timber and seafood industries, the two largest employers in
Apalachicola and Franklin county, benefitted from the
completion of the Apalachicola Northern railroad in 1907.22
Though attendance at Trinity remained promising after
1910, it was down from its peak in 1907-1908. In his
letters to the diocesan publication, the Church Herald,
Reverend Purdue noted that the business in town was dull.
The war in Europe initially hurt the timber industry as
"News of the Diocese," Church Herald, November, 1911;
Ibid, March, 1914.
Diocesan Journal. "Financial Exhibit," 1907; Ibid.
"Parochial Reports," 1908.
Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf. 1986. 139.
was in the 1850s, but the livelihood of the town still
revolved around one export. Just as antebellum businessmen
in Apalachicola were greatly affected by swings of the
cotton market, supply and demand for timber wielded similar
power over local transactions in the early twentieth
century. Trinity Episcopal Church, the spiritual home of
the town's leaders in timber, reflected the struggles during
the slow years of 1913-1915. Trinity's congregation, which
had been able to raise money for numerous improvements on
church property between 1900-1910, was no longer able to
contribute money sufficient to pay the rector's salary.
Throughout 1916, Trinity Episcopal Church did not have a
From 1900-1915, Apalachicola experienced a wave of
prosperity due to the maturation of the timber industry and
to a lesser extent, a burgeoning market for canned seafood.
Tapping these natural resources, investors created
employment and related economic opportunities in the town.
During this financial upswing, Trinity church experienced
record numbers of communicants and increased involvement in
church affairs through new societies. Conversely, a
recession caused by difficulties in trans-Atlantic shipping
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1836.
fiscal troubles to recruit the Rev. George E. Benedict as
rector. Reverend Benedict, a native of Georgia, immediately
made his presence known as he arrived in Apalachicola with
his wife and five children in an open Ford automobile on
December 11, 1916. Under Benedict's leadership, Trinity
became involved in community issues like no other time in
its history as the rector never shied from controversy in
town affairs. In addition, a revival of the timber
industry, a boom in local real estate markets, and further
development of seafood businesses led to a wealthier parish.
Dramatic improvements to the edifice including a recessed
chancel, three stained glass windows, and a new organ were
added to the building in 1921.29
Ibid., 22; Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity
SYoung, John Freeman, Episcopal Address, 1868-1885,
bound with The Journal of the Proceedings of the
Protestant Episcopal Church in the State of Florida.
SChurch Herald, The. Jacksonville: Church
Publishing Company, 1911-1914.
SChurch and Home. Jacksonville: Church and Home
SFlorida Churchman, The. Jacksonville: Ashmead
Brothers Printers, 1883.
UNPUBLISHED PARISH RECORDS
Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity Episcopal Church,
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the
War of the Rebellion. 30 vols. Washington, 1895-1927.
United States Congress, Sixth Census, 1840. Washington, D.
C.: Blair and Rives, 1841.
SSeventh Census, 1850. Washington, D. C.: Robert
SEighth Census, 1860. Washington, D. C.: U. S.
Government Printing Office, 1864.
SEighth Census, 1860. Original Schedules.
Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1864.
SNinth Census, 1870. Washington, D. C.: Government
Printing Office, 1873.
STenth Census, 1880. Washington, D. C.: Government
Printing Office, 1884.
Eleventh Census, 1890. Washington, D. C.:
Government Printing Office, 1895.
Twelfth Census, 1900. Washington, D. C.:
Apalachicola Florida Journal, 1840; 1844.
Apalachicola Gazette, 1836-39.
Apalachicola Star of the West, 1844.
Apalachicola Times, 1900-1916; 1936.
Apalachicola Watchman of the Gulf, 1843.
Niles' Weekly Register, 1834-35; 1840-41.
St. Joseph Times, 1838; 1840.
North and South, (Louisville, Kentucky), 1909. Records of
the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural
Engineering, Record Group 54, National Archives.
Kelly, Oliver Hudson. Origins and Progress of the Order of
the Patrons of Husbandry in the United States; a
History from 1866 to 1873. Philadelphia: J. A.
Mitchel, Cora. Reminiscences of the Civil War. Providence:
Snow and Farnham, 1916.
Moore, Frank, ed. The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American
Events, with Documents Narratives, Illustrative
Incidents. Poetry, etc.; with an Introductory Address
By Edward Everett. 11 vols. New York: G. P. Putnam's
Richardson, Simon Peter. The Lights and Shadows of Itinerant
Life. Nashville: Publishing House of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, 1900.
Saunders, The Rev. William Treble. The Pastor's Wife; or
Memoirs of E. M. S. New York: Little, Rennie, and
Schmidt, Lewis G., ed. The Civil War in Florida: a Military
History. 6 vols. Allentown, PA.: Lewis G. Schmidt.
Davis, William Watson. The Civil War And Reconstruction In
Florida. New York: Columbia University, 1913.
Divine, Robert A. America: Past and Present. New York:
Harper Collins Publishers, 1991.
Dodd, Dorothy. "The Secession Movement in Florida." Florida
Historical Ouarterly 12 (July 1933): 1-26.
Doherty, Herbert J. "Florida in 1856." Florida Historical
Quarterly 35 (July 1956): 60-72.
Ezell, John Samual. The South Since 1865. Norman: University
of Oklahoma Press, 1963.
Gannon, Michael, ed. The New History of Florida.
Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996.
The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church
in Florida, 1513-1870. Gainesville: University of
Florida Press, 1965.
Graham, Thomas S. "Florida Politics and the Tallahassee
Press." Florida Historical Quarterly 46 (April 1968):
Henneman, John Bell. (editor in chief), History of the
Literary and Intellectual Life of the South. Vol. VII.
The South in the Building of a Nation. Richmond:
Southern Historical Publication Society, 1909.
Hesseltine, William B. The South in American History. New
York: Prentice Hall Inc., 1936.
Hill, Samual S. Religion in the Southern States. Macon:
Mercer University Press, 1983.
Hume, H. Harold. "Botanical Explorers of the Southeast,"
Florida Historical Quarterly 21 (October 1932): 293-300
Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church, The. New York:
The Church Pension Fund, 1943.
Kimball, Winifred. "Reminiscences of Alvan Wentworth
Chapman," Journal of the New York Botanical Garden
253 (January 1921): 1-11.
Mitchell, Samual C., (editor in chief) History of the Social
Sweet, William Warren. The American Churches: An
Interpretation. New York: Abington Cokebury Press,
The Story of Religion in America. New York:
Harper and Brothers, 1930.
Tebeau, Charlton W. A History of Florida. Coral Gables:
University of Miami Press, 1971.
Thompson, Arthur W. "Political Nativism in Florida, 1848-
1860: A Phase of Anti-Secessionism." The Journal of
Southern History (February 1949): 39-65.
Willoughby, Lynn. Fair To Middlin': The Antebellum Cotton
Trade Of The Apalachicola/Chattahoochee River Valley.
Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1993.
Wilson, Charles Reagan and Ferris, William, eds. The
Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
cotton grown in plantations along the Chattahoochee and
Flint River valleys to buyers in the Northeast and abroad.
Working on commission, these merchants, also known as
factors, were an important economic link between the South's
cotton belt and the world's textile industry.1 The church
also benefitted from a close relationship to the
Apalachicola Land Company, the largest private land owner in
the territory. After the Territory of Florida recognized
the incorporated church in 1837, Trinity remained the only
organized religious institution in the port for nearly a
decade. Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, and other
denominations would later become prominent leaders in the
community as well. As Apalachicola developed from frontier
town to bustling international port, however, Trinity
Episcopal Church was the bellwether parish.2
The United States acquired Florida from Spain in the
For a thorough study of Apalachicola's role in the cotton
trade, see Lynn Willoughby, Fair to Middlin': The Antebellum
Cotton Trade of the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee River Valley.
(Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press) 1993.
Several unpublished histories of Trinity Church have been
written. Fred Sawyer's "Trinity Episcopal Church,
Apalachicola, Florida" (1950) is available at the Florida
Archives in Tallahassee. Both Jimmie J. Nichols'
"Sesquicentenial History of Trinity Episcopal Church" (1987)
and George L. Chapel's "From Generation To Generation in the
Church" (1995) are available at Trinity Church in
Forbes Company in 1819. When Spain ceded the land to the
United States later that year, Carnochan and Mitchel claimed
that they still retained the tract as private property
despite the fact that jurisdiction had changed. A
protracted legal struggle would last until 1835 as early
attempts by Mitchel to have the Purchase recognized in the
United States were unsuccessful. The case ultimately
reached the Supreme Court which after several years of
delay, finally ruled in favor of the claimants in "Mitchel
v. the United States." The firm, which had commenced
operations in the "Forbes Purchase" before the ruling,
changed its name to "Apalachicola Land Company" in November
With clear title, the Apalachicola Land Company mapped
out a city plan for the town. Uppermost in the minds of
investors in the land company was preparing the port to
handle high volume shipments of cotton. Lots purchased
along the riverfront were required to be improved with the
construction of three-story cotton warehouses. Many
squatters who had lost their claim to land in Apalachicola
after the Mitchel decision moved westward to the emerging
Apalachicola Land Company, Articles Of Agreement And
Association. 1-4; Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf. 11.
after Florida was obtained by the United States in 1821,
Episcopal churches were founded in St. Augustine (1821),
Pensacola (1827), Tallahassee (1827), Key West (1832),
Jacksonville (1834), St. Joseph and Apalachicola.
Under the leadership of the Reverend J. Loring Woart of
St. John's in Tallahassee, the seven parishes formed the
Diocese of Florida in 1837. Woart chaired the primary
convention and addressed the pertinent issues of the
fledgling diocese. The major concern of the convention was
obtaining a bishop for the Church in Florida. As a short
term solution, the delegates agreed to invite the Rt.
Reverend James H. Otey of Tennessee to perform episcopal
duties until the diocese was able obtain its own bishop.
The convention also petitioned the Protestant Episcopal
Church of the United States to be received into the national
body at the General Convention.7 George Field represented
Trinity as one of twelve laymen in attendance. The Reverend
Charles Jones, Trinity's rector in 1837-1838, was not
Throughout the spring, summer, and fall of 1836, no
Episcopal services were held in Apalachicola. Because its
economy was based on the winter shipment of cotton, many of
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 17-18.
The church's founding vestrymen and incorporators were
among Apalachicola's most prosperous residents. Colin
Mitchel, John Gorrie, Elizer Wood, George S. Middlebrook,
Hiram Nourse, William G. Porter, Cosam E. Bartlett, Ludlum
S. Chittenden, and George Field held a considerable amount
of wealth and influence in the community. Colin Mitchel,
whose firm Carnochan and Mitchel had formed the Apalachicola
Land Company, still served on the land company's board of
directors. Hiram Nourse, a cotton factor, also served on
the company's board in the 1830s and 1840s. Wood,
Middlebrook, Nourse, Chittenden, and Porter were all cotton
factors and dry goods merchants.
Bartlett was perhaps the most influential of all the
vestrymen. As the editor of The Apalachicola Gazette from
1835-1840, Bartlett had control over much of the information
that reached the isolated frontier town. John Gorrie, who
arrived in Apalachicola in 1833, was a surgeon but served
Apalachicola in multiple capacities. At various times,
Gorrie served as postmaster, city councilman, city
treasurer, and city intendant. His pioneering efforts in
artificial refrigeration would gain him international
recognition. Unfortunately for Gorrie, most all of his
The rectorship of Charles Jones at Trinity proved to be
short lived after he did not return to Apalachicola in the
fall of 1838. Accepting an offer from Calvary Church in New
York City, Jones left Trinity without clergy again. As
senior warden, George Field performed services and remained
upbeat about the future of the young parish. In January of
1839 he told the second Diocesan Convention that a
subscription had been filled to build a church edifice and a
suitable lot had already been obtained. The lot was a gift
of the Apalachicola Land Company. Field was confident the
building would be completed by March of 1840. The warden
also indicated that he would conduct services until the
structure was finished. He did not want to recruit another
rector until an adequate facility was in place.14
John Chrystie, a cotton warehouse clerk in the late
1830s recalled the services held by Field during the winter
Sunday, there is a man here who reads the
Episcopal service at the hotel at which all the
old women in both petticoats and breeches attend.
He is the cashier of a bank here and I believe a
damned hypocritical son of a seacook. Have never
been to hear him yet having plenty of everything
Ibid., 1839. 15-16.
contributions of individuals from other denominations also
eased the blow of economic hardship on the new church.
Though Field was optimistic about the future of the
parish in his reports to the diocese in 1838 and 1839,
Trinity and the other parishes in the territory were
affected by the depression. Out of seven parishes in 1839,
the diocese had only 100 communicants of which Trinity
claimed ten. While the number of confirmed Episcopalians
was low at Trinity and elsewhere in the diocese, baptism
numbers were more promising. In 1837 and 1838, Reverend
Jones baptized ten infants.7
Field's confidence may also have been based on the fact
that 42 individuals purchased pews to fund construction
prior to the Panic. The help of so many donors who were not
confirmed Episcopalians was crucial to the early church. On
average, each pewholder paid more than $275 for a
subscription. The motivation behind non-Episcopalians'
generosity was most likely due to the belief that their
denomination would be able to use the facility. Pewholders
who were members of the Masonic Lodge also perhaps hoped to
use the temple for meetings.
Pew sales, frequently viewed in hindsight as an often
Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity Church,
architecture of the church matched a popular structural
style of the antebellum period. The practice of shipping a
"pre-fabricated" building to Apalachicola, while ambitious,
was not exclusive to Trinity Church. Thomas Orman and David
Raney, both commission merchants, had their homes produced
in the same manner. Raney was also a vestryman at
The vestry invited the Reverend A. Bloomer Hart to
serve the Parish in 1840. The following year, Bishop James
H. Otey of the Diocese of Tennessee arrived in Apalachicola
to perform the rite of consecration. Before "an orderly and
apparently devout congregation," Otey consecrated Trinity
Church on February 14, 1841.21 In his letter to the
Diocesan Convention of 1842, the bishop commented on his
impressions of the town and parish: "Seldom has my heart
been so affected by the beautiful and touching services of
the sanctuary....Everything gives promise of the increase
and firm establishment of the church and the young and
flourishing city of Apalachicola." Bishop Otey also
confirmed five people while in Apalachicola bringing the
total number of communicants to nineteen.
Trinity Episcopal Church Records, Trinity Episcopal
Diocesan Journal, 1842, 5-6.
PERSEVERANCE AND PROSPERITY
Throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Apalachicola was a
thriving frontier town. It was the third largest port on
the Gulf coast. A demand for cotton by the textile industry
of New England and Great Britain led to steady traffic on
the Apalachicola River. As the community enjoyed increasing
financial security, Trinity Church was able to grow in the
antebellum period. The myriad obstacles which faced the
young parish were absorbed as the congregation expanded.
The problems facing Trinity after consecration in 1841
mirrored dilemmas other churches in Florida encountered.
The Episcopal Diocese of Florida's most obvious shortcoming
was leadership. As each of the individual parishes
struggled to become self sufficient, the necessary funds to
establish an episcopate were not yet available. The
temporary solution was to invite bishops from neighboring
dioceses to perform episcopal offices in Florida.' In the
decade following Trinity's consecration, a bishop visited
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 1965, 18-20.
antebellum travel limited his contributions. Hoping to
remedy the situation, a ways and means committee was formed
to investigate methods of raising an episcopal fund at the
1848 convention. The following year, committee chairman
George R. Fairbanks of St. Augustine proposed an annual
assessment from each parish to pay the bishop's salary. If
an adequate collection was not obtained, Fairbanks suggested
allowing the bishop to serve as rector and thus earn a
salary in one of the parishes. The committee's suggestions
were well received and the election for the first Bishop of
Florida was set for the next annual meeting.5
The clergymen present at the Diocesan Convention of
1851 nominated the Rev. Francis Huger Rutledge, rector of
St. Johns, Tallahassee, to be Florida's first Protestant
Episcopal bishop. Rutledge, a native of South Carolina,
accepted the post after a brief deliberation. In addition,
St. John's, the wealthiest parish in the diocese, agreed to
retain Bishop Rutledge as rector and offered him his
previous salary. The episcopate fund established by the
ways and means committee would provide only a supplemental
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 24-27.
Ibid., 1846. 27-28.
for Episcopalians in Apalachicola, the bishop's journey to
Trinity Church was one of his least complicated. After his
ordination in 1851, Rutledge visited Trinity parish every
year during the 1850s, except 1854 and 1855.8
With the episcopate established, Trinity was able to
increase its membership nearly every year with new classes
of confirmed Episcopalians. With three diocesan visits
during the 1840s, Trinity was only able to graduate three
confirmation classes. During that decade, the number of
communicants increased by eleven whereas between 1852 and
1860, Trinity grew in communicants from twenty-five to
seventy. Forty individuals were confirmed at Trinity during
that eight year span.9 Regular diocesan visits allowed for
greater stability in the parish as-well as enabling the
church to involve families since confirmation classes were
typically made up of adolescents.
According to parish reports to the diocesan
conventions, Trinity rectors baptized 174 individuals from
1841 to 1860. Nearly all of the baptized were infants. The
growth of family involvement in the church reflected the
changing demographics of the town. According to the 1840
Diocesan Journal. 1852-1860. Parochial Reports.
dilemma that prevented greater settlement of families was
the Native American situation. While the Apalachicola River
valley did not experience as much of bloodshed as the
central peninsula did, there remained a fear of Indian
attack throughout the 1840s and 1850s. While Native
Americans traded the land later known as the "Forbes
Purchase" to settle debts with a trading company at the
beginning of the nineteenth century, a small population of
Indians inhabited the Apalachicola River valley during the
Second Seminole War. The annual report of the Apalachicola
Land Company in 1841 illustrated the anxiety of investors
and residents of Apalachicola: "...roving bands that are
supposed to have their lurking places in the 'Purchase' have
kept up a constant alarm and committed frequent murders."11
At the Diocesan Convention of 1839, delegates
representing Trinity heard accounts of horrific skirmishes
from brethren living close to the fighting. The Reverend
Francis Lee of St. John's, Tallahassee read a letter to the
convention regarding the welfare of a young boy he had
recently baptized. The letter described a massacre of a
family living outside of Tallahassee, with the recently
Apalachicola Land Company, Sixth Annual Report of the
Directors of the Apalachicola Land Company. 1841. 4.
Residents of Apalachicola were familiar with the forces
of nature. Those individuals and families who remained in
town during the summer months endured oppressive and
inescapable heat. During the antebellum period, several
hurricanes slammed into the panhandle causing major
destruction to coastal communities. A series of hurricanes
in the late 1830s left St. Joseph nearly ruined. An
outbreak of yellow fever in 1840 and 1841 completed the
destruction of the once proud boom-town. Trinity's sister
parish, St. Joseph's Episcopal Church, died with the
While storms and pestilence also battered Apalachicola,
the town was able to rebound. Destructive "gales" landed in
1842, 1844, 1850, 1852, 1853, and 1857 without disastrous
effect to the Apalachicola economy. In fact, during the
same time span cotton receipts climbed to their highest
levels. This prosperity explains why Trinity, which was
badly damaged during several of these storms, was able to
rebuild quickly. In reference to the storms of 1842 and
1844, the Reverend A. Bloomer Hart, rector from 1840-1845,
wrote to the Diocesan Convention of 1844: "...the long
Rogers, Outposts On The Gulf. 1986, 15-18.
the diocese, Saunders frequently commented on his
frustration with the seasonal attendance fluctuations."
Throughout the antebellum period, Apalachicola did not
diversify economically. The shipment of cotton, the port's
primary source of revenue, only occurred from late fall to
early spring. Individuals and families who could afford to
leave during the summer sailed north. Because twenty-five
percent of Apalachicola's commission merchants were members
of Trinity church, the impact that summer migration had upon
the congregation was keenly felt."1
Ironically, it was Apalachicola's itinerant lifestyle
that prevented a devastating plague from destroying the
town. Like many communities in Florida during the
antebellum period, Apalachicola was hit with a yellow fever
epidemic. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the virus was most
common in the summer months when most of the port's
population was elsewhere. In 1841, yellow fever swept
through the panhandle killing nearly 100 Apalachicolans
between May and October. The same year an epidemic ravaged
nearby St. Joseph as the town was still crowded with people.
The morbid result was more than the boom-town could endure.
Ibid., 1852. 29-30; Ibid., 1854. 29-30; Ibid., 1856.
Willoughby, Fair To Middlin. 1993. 115.
Raney, the Auxiliary Guild of Trinity was the driving force
behind the church's seemingly continuous rebuilding process.
The guild proved to be a successful fund raiser for the
church. The money given the vestry by the women's society
paid for necessary repairs of the church as well as
appointments such as the communion set. Following the
hurricane of 1853 the church needed repair, and the
Auxiliary Guild raised $492 in one evening from what the
rector termed: "a beautiful entertainment."22 On several
occasions the auxiliary exceeded their monetary goals and
left the vestry with a surplus.23
While the women of the church were instrumental in the
parish's business affairs, there is no evidence to suggest
that they were outspoken in any social movements before the
Civil War. A temperance society was formed in Apalachicola
by the early 1840s but there is no known connection
between Trinity and the movement. The Episcopal church in
Florida was at best indifferent to the issue, and in some
parishes both clergy and laity were outspoken against
banning alcohol.24 In Apalachicola, the Methodist church
Ibid., 1856. 17-18.
Apalachicola Commercial Advertiser, April 13, 1844.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 24-25.
sectarian preachers."2 As Reverend Hart remained steadfast
to his strict interpretation of the canon, the Methodists
resigned themselves to holding services in various members'
In 1844, a Methodist church was built which brought an
end to the ordeal. Sore feelings lingered between the
congregations. Announcements in the Apalachicola Commercial
Advertiser by the Methodist church made indirect criticism
of the Episcopalians on several occasions throughout the
1840s. One example occurred in the paper on April 27, 1844:
"There is nothing exclusive about the Methodists in their
form of worship..." Later, in 1848 a letter to the editor
from an "Authorized Agent" of the Methodist Church read: "It
will be borne in mind that we, as a sect, for what we
consider good reasons, never build a pewed church."28
Reverend W. J. Zimmer, Trinity's rector in 1848, vaguely
described another conflict during his brief tenure at the
church. Although he did not indicate what the controversy
involved, Zimmer wrote that he had to resign, "...on account
of the discord and insubordination which prevailed."
Several families, including parents with children preparing
Ibid., 1845. 8.
Apalachicola Commercial Advertiser. April 6, 1848.
parish in the diocese prior to the Civil War.32
While Catholic priests had visited Apalachicola
throughout the 1840s, a congregation was not organized until
Father Patrick J. Coffey of Columbus, Georgia, formed a
parish in 1851. Apalachicola was teeming with Catholic
families as a high number of Irish Catholics immigrated to
the port in the 1840s. According to Trinity records, two
Irish families became members of the Episcopal church before
the Catholic parish was established. The Grady family,
natives of Cork, would raise their American born children to
be active at Trinity. The eldest Grady of this generation
would later become senior warden of Trinity parish for fifty
Anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant sentiments prior to
the Civil War gained national attention as a political
organization known as the American Party grew in strength
and numbers. The American Party, also known as "Nativists"
and "Know Nothings", established a platform based on the
lengthening of the naturalization process due to the fear of
increased job competition and diminishing wages. Since a
large number of the immigrants were Irish, they were the
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 29-30.
Trinity Episcopal Church Records. Trinity Church,
parishioner, was the Democratic candidate for Congress in
1856. After a convincing victory, Hawkins became Florida's
lone voice in the House of Representatives.37
An issue that had to be addressed by all denominations
was the position of slaves and free blacks. The Episcopal
church in Florida and throughout the South was committed to
the catechising and confirmation of African-Americans. Yet,
the church in the South viewed slavery as a legal
institution and did not support emancipation until after the
Civil War. In their annual parochial reports, the parishes
of the Diocese of Florida often included the number of
blacks who were baptized and confirmed as well as the number
of slaves and free blacks who attended Sunday school.
According to the Rev. Owen P. Thackara, who served St.
Peter's in Fernandina prior to the Civil War, a rector's
success was in large part judged by "his faithful labor and
success among the colored people."38 An architectural
indication of Trinity's interest in the religious culture of
blacks was the second floor slave gallery. At the same
Southern History 15 (February 1949), 45-46.
Florida. Office of Secretary of State, Election returns
by county, 1856.
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 39; Diocesan Journal, 1877,
Middle Florida, Apalachicola had little agriculture.42 As a
result, the need for slaves was not great in the port. In
addition, the large number of Irish immigrants living in
Apalachicola were available to perform much of the manual
labor along the wharf and in the warehouses. The loading
and unloading of bales of cotton was dangerous and involved
a high risk of injury. Due to this fact, it is
understandable why slave owners would not want to use their
slaves, a costly investment, for such labor. A large
percentage of the slaves who were in Apalachicola probably
worked in domestic capacities.
Although thirty-five slaves and free blacks were
baptized at Trinity prior to Civil War, none were confirmed
Episcopalians. The first people of African descent to be
confirmed were Francis and Charlotte Cook in 1866. The
Cooks, along with four of their children, were baptized at
Trinity in 1846. Francis, who had a different owner than
his wife and children, was believed to have purchased his
freedom within a decade after his baptism. When a slave was
baptized, the owner's name was listed as a sponsor in the
parish records. When three more of Francis and Charlotte's
children were christened in 1856, "Frank Nourse, col'd" was
U.S. Congress, Seventh Census, 1860. (Washington, D.
C.: Government Prining Office), 400.
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On the eve of the Civil War, Reverend Saunders wanted
to expand the church to accommodate the growing
congregation. Funds for an expansion were not available as
the treasury was still low from necessary repairs following
a hurricane in 1857.47 In his memoirs, Saunders described
himself as having a strict adherence to the rites of the
Book of Common Prayer.48 Given these tractarian leanings,
it is possible that Saunders would have pushed for
restructuring the sanctuary in a fashion of Catholic
The years 1859 and 1860 were among the most prosperous
for Trinity Episcopal church. The rector wrote glowing
reports to the diocese: "The minister has...been much
cheered by the greater devotion of the members, and by the
general seriousness of the demeanor in the attendants of
public worship. He trusts there is a spiritual harvest, in
God's own time, to be reaped here."49 In terms of cotton
receipts, 1859 and 1860 were two of the port's best seasons,
Diocesan Journal. 1860. 24.
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1867. 65.
Diocesan Journal. 1860. 24.
savIvrac1 aEctssioN iW scHIsM
asue~rcr euffrids str -ts ;-:r rthe po ta of .;.p al a.
Ul~nblockade. Between 1B63-1B70, Trinlty s confirmed
smeaerlhip dropped from seventy to thlirty-seven while
Apalachlico la was Pard the physical destruCTI ~ ll T
committee~ in Florida and the confederacy faced. Ihe x
eprtheless~ Ioft the baserl II por onlirtur. :he port
:lire largst~ part ;r the iirt coast. :his 4.sexr1ctin made
:he town a strateIC sIte for both Borth .an southT at t
beginning of the war. Uni0n strateglists wnted to prevent
the shipment of goodl In and out of the Aipalachicole iiver
system as much as conlederates desired To keep that airtry
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irrr~ilsn cmrrir;on. ~ni ~i~aay rtlsiod iina ~' h.i or
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~nllIl if ~n~ X~T ilnii~l idllYnO l(lI*i i~iTn X1~ Iii
T1IC iFIC~I~I ChYlih in th~ ioYrlilin IT~~r~ nnl P:
111~ In ~ICtl~n~l rnalon irlar ~~ rhi r~i *irn tne
'ornrrlon at ~hi Unlulrrlly ~I Ihr iluth In IsiB In~
iclia? r~~ md~r~d ~Y outh~ln dlor~r~r nn~ plmnrl r;
cnrtr 1 u~u~rsl(p ~n pr rllh Yxlaib mt fcud~;;
mt rrh~~l ma i~~~llrr* ~I r~ulnrin bi~no~r.;nclualn(
If(Ci Tn~ ~~Cldln~ I(((I h~d I~mrl mri~rlurr.i
me Cmlrdri~fe irlrr rI M~rirn. (nr :erdr; ;f ~nr
6hrc pdo0n 6006 660666
used as lankets for rebel toc~ L;l~h Li
SCordere canro. The r.ct.oaI.,
oxid~ ve slaves.
T1e congregation at Tranat, was also facing an or of;
00666an b 0sides the con00 ct. Even though lss and 1060
erel good business years for tne Part, a developing note~r
asrlloo lli Ceorge had begun al~~- a~o rifr
rand 196 produced swerlc crops ;n the *interland, and the
1:.1 aneer of cotton receipes at the pa~lacrl
commission houles stall reppreseted a lo* percentage of the
overal: necke.- Between I*50 and 1860. Apalachlcao~l r ha;
o! the ipolechctacol~rraichataboce Rivr valley agricull u
-egion dropped Lrro 79 torpre tl F*c, atmorut biverse
ryii L. Gra~di PIA I Papr PrEpd and Roa~d byi M. lienri
J: 006 -3 060
0066 6006000 6606t. M02166621
LY,. 6-1 -6o 0 0 0 60 6
0600 000~ 00600y 1960
th, b- e r II. rl Y.1 I ~ tfr I ilhl. Aolr
-.1~lo, --d by, iiay d fin~ ta~r, i n un
reoodx~~ale f n mm~e. sicrdb-adre h
rl/rjnl alelandr. ~ MLafh. calo~anding a~f~cli ot
mrrriar of uesr ilond~ ~rd narlann~ In 11I1 ieirr
196( ril~ i.~piil~n *nl n iuec~;i :oi mt Un.rlb ~f
Ib;m ~nd hi~ n~n tnr~~.lrue;p,,,~mce Crilnr
rhalr b.rflo, r~rrrlrlno Conlodoi~(r h~n~riluaidm~ri
st Lu*ii shurch nl I*niilin*o iian uhlm ~h~y It
jn-ri-.-(rii U~Fm. *na Iri roundrd ~Y n ~rll
wnllr L1-;*;dln~ ridrr~l f
Chnpo~n xli iuln~ir~lr ra
hlr drus rla;e ~ai iuppilr
UIXI* ii~l TTrililiiYi rhi Iii
)IFCI I.rP in the b~y -11 ~Ylf_
:OnfOdil~T1 IIY~TTII11~ UnO Inldl
ChlP~nn *n~ Xlill~d LY -iilnl
illliiri 11151 mil ni~ Tin~P ~D
TIIOYII Th. canl~drrlrer hrd nai~le baaililo u
LY~.I II I'd( ~nd NliYr~l Bild~s iI IBbl il~
)(IPi ietell.n~ Irrrrl. *nr nr~r dele~~ ihal
~al iabei) E i~r lurrmdrrrd ~~ a~lann((~x on
inl J;ioli E i~hnia-. *no x~r rh~ iawnn)ln~
iel`nquiihrd ~a*~r to C~nrir. ri.lion~
*ri xri auer, but Xp~l~cmcal~ besn~e ~ ~lh(i
Lhi forner co~fan urrihzurr mb
;~rr LB6i. ~;I rl ~h~ Ynl~n lor;il Irfr
ihLn LnF i;eu lilllan 1, laundrri rptuind rr
I;i..,lr n~Lli (nr unr. hr Ir:lird Tnii[y p~
ico..n mr.rorprilr) ;( enl"~'d bunn~ in rhi
~Yi/ ~ EYenl~(n h~depdl-Yr~I
dereriarnri~n ulmmn rilr ~arr
r ~nd np.dpd mly;aM~riill ~c~
i;n(l;n sri~n~lirlzn irnr L-r
yh me Lrlf~ir ~I c~r(an ~n* arr
LB66 md lill Unlor~un~(ply
mnraunb xnr rhaitl:rrd ~I nal
:~rr;rrocn~~ nid r.inr
Collf~d~llCV Bllh.P ilnCli liYl~i nYtlid~O ini
Lnl ICIIIR *irxe~n mt niarali al ilarlda and ~
cnircn wlr;ln nonrnl nllrr ipinnrrrox, iplrl~
rrrcio*iur mt f~Llm CoIII*liriili ;h~-lrd nFlr
npnnmlca~r~ rllur rliDill'lDn xnr mrl.
~a orhel p~rrr ot ~nr iiloia- allll mraucour tn
;hi i~L~ ~f ti~o~ian In rhr shurrli nld ra ~r id
ot llriinnin~riic~nr xlr inyoirml ra IIl-r-1 p
d.,p~er I~iirr;l i*. elr;*r *r;r ouoi ranrl;
IndlYldYdl. Xin I.~Ylnlli preienr r~r ~h~ lundry rprulce
In lsbl. Thr cnurcnI popul~ilr)- ~~~n *an~d and icull
becan. frulfm~pd. re.llrlng fnrf fne hfuroy of Ine Baa*
Camoan Pnyei x.i ~aa denrr for 1 iPm-li~er~(P
ion~r~larlan. Inoulh Ishulllr ichaal ~sbe i~sf~er yro~rel
Lhe inr(lrurlan II n-dr~y x~i ~har~llu~d. ilnnnclnlly
.tr.pped In 1869, fnF dloseir ionau~d monernly ruWor~ fr
icullii churcn and Icnool
Ihe ~lrcapnl snurcn Ir naildli r~nalned Infererfpb
Lnr ninfu-L uelfrlr af LLnc~n-*n~eiisnnli alrhaugh
ias~pn rum~m. n Fonnlu niilnre 6167; ~Y-Ce~L~~
~YYLII; L861. l~i (i"l; m~e. Isas, ia, m~e, lasr.
1I1CnlColn~ Lne nl(nOdlJr jlF* BIPTUT CIYTC1I~~ LI~U rh.
1C*~ PI~LLIIII lini~fii~ LI~~ ~ne~r ain cannyrl(;r BY
ii. *a~n a~ ~nrir ~ininl-~llcrr hlb ieplrlre Lfl;cm
murFnpr it. ?lu.~ ilrlr~n Nernob~r~ iF;rc;~rl
*r, i.;r Bnp(ir( il.lri~li rhirP Snpr.r( Irb
mollrr m;i~~ri~ ;anductrd Irrilrri L;i r;p *l~r*
.gregrrlanl In*o(n i~rr~. *1~;* Il-ln~prl.rrp Iruol
an the i~ejlnnlni md rir~ ~*lp Lo rfu~y Lne mnlrfry
DnFrll~ me~i xmL1 Lir(nr~n I) Tne f~rrr iplrrollrl
urch faonded *Y Lfiicm-Pn~llTiinTi it. PpTerir In Xey
.r, ri oa~ ~rqanlied un~il LBli
Ire eu.nlelli.l n~tulr af ~hp nothadii( nnd Blp:li(
ursnei x.i.r.PP~dl'"~`o ~Llsii ni Lr mi (a Ihi:ei
r Yethadl~r Cnjlch Ln iloildn h~d ipllr r~~l Ilr nrrla~
by auer ilnrri, In 1816 Ind nlijird Ifirlt rih 'he
Cuiiurm. ~ FnrOlu*rilrl~( $1Bi. Dlorrlm Inllmil
~llsop~l iddrrii 11868, ii
~nl~shiFal~ i0~.11.111 nnui;~i/rr. mish L~I 1B~B;
gerr. nllmni~- nn ~ni 61111. 21.
Cuin~~n. r innnlu Y-rlrrn- I"~
IOYL~b i- Ilei~ll P~PYL
md rhlll fZllle~
LIIC*I rerrelmreb rho nl
rhr rrrrli only nou
i~~e ~a -inilliiiaunil rrau~h
it n~eraur r.g;lrlon. they *eir
i-rlelr. Di me;urr af rh~
LIlli. i~mmY. Tiern, ril rh~
iiYl.i lined the Xn.il 1T IPnllCni~ll. BCrXeCn rli~ 1Yi
Br.thrir Cmning Calpnny.nd the Bly Clli Pnc*inl Cra~anil
m~ ruo nou~or onoiry~d note the 60Y *oi*rir an (*~ wafer
a;d in me Lacra;y di;ii-il Ica~ar.
Thr nru ~me.ailan of aurln~ra I~ad.rr In ~rl.chicola
n.d rrrrns Il.r Tr Irlni~l ipl~co~al church jlrorr
Clo~rl p"l'd."T SL Ihe CoaMI C~~P'1II ~~Tendrd IrlmiS
xIOI ms La.lly. I. S. Ilohr, uho apprlrd me CYP"II
Liunb.r Co.p.ay. ar* irrh N Xlnb~ll, uhr u*r n eaii
P.rrn.l.L L00rJ1SI *.ie ~O~h P*rilhl~n~rl ceorne H ~u~e
and jahr i- iiugel lounder. of the iiuqe Brorherr Cillinlng
CDlpaly. .Ira.or~~lscd at Lne ip.riajal ;hu-co *iiry EI
the nmrnalr and 4LLT. to m~ CIIYICI Yeic slYLn bY the
t..ille~ O( TLSe pnrirpl~,rrir.
The rpange Inbu~riy EL Fl~llda ual prlna;lly c~ir~r~d
nr.und Ced.l Xey.nd Tarpon 5*ling.. bur ~r~a mo 187os to
a;.uad ls:o ai rrny nr f*e:va ~P'"~e ~oafr l;pmrre our of
~p'Lcmc~~a lilolglnS lioug~r diu~lrl~y ra the aprlrchlrol~
larrlacnicoln- city of nanilert n~rrii~.- Ll~nnd
~uLh Ijunr. IPD91 I.
TI:iiry Lp-.C~I~'I Cnsr;n ieioid.. Tiinlfy Church.
rr~d iaxyei. Ir. ~lnmfy ipiiapal cnulcn.
i.lchlcola. F;lnda.~ L(IY 22.
mip cilmdlprlrr u~i~ rxn~olrr al Lulmirrer rllr opel
Lhe lart drcldrl a~ rh~ nin(ronrh spn~ury ii
it mt md of fnr irr *lil~~ I iiundrir~i ren~
-:r- Iii-L`i Iho p~;iih n1 rl;ll~~r Innil.r~ Ini Loi
mlr~iy iii 1819. i~uiicri rrpolrrd LhlT rru*nly rmf:
E~lrcaprli*ni Yor.hlped ~I Illllfy I Wnll~ lie n~b
LO _nl frOnrjsi IIISIIVLI
Iiii(i mi ~i-lln~ Ln ~he L.lfii )~Cldel Of -nP
irnll ra iupprrr 'ni ~~iiin smiii~m;LY ulrh;u( dl~c~r~T
nli.lan.ij fYndl Br(roen loi~l)or. IIllllri U1I ~n ind af
.lisiin .L.trr reuri.l rl.ei 'i Bliilui. icnn rremnn loull~
uied hli dl.clr~lon arir h;r iruih LLn~ nllrlannrler rp~n(
eiih ioiiiian Onfarrunn(ely for rrlnlry nnb if Lu*rlr.
~heii ulisi rjmr nnil at h.i drir ;n :hr ilipri ~ptlrri;l
i~i :rlli(Y '"d ~ilniiiialn rrrul~lrd to Inn ruen~un
esa-sn~li~lly tnr Prarei(~i~ EF.issp~l Chu;m m island Ir
.ro*l.. rrpldly Th;uih ~hp i~n~i ie~i~ln~d ant a~:nl lesi
yo~uln~ian in m~ Unlfeb iflfer, i~r yl~~rerr urr due to
riynnilon .n nirlculrirr, nfrui. lun*r;, nsu~L r~r`ir.
lu~rrac*. ii~rr ~rrullcfunnj mo or~o; DUi~~~n;ni
ldrr~;irr ~5 mt ~o~umi~an r~irrd lu;r~sr rorri. Ihe
nuuer af i~irio~rl cnulcnrr in the diairrr iiiie~red
~ia. Isll ,2-,i. ~e. la~~ la; ~e Iss2 12.
~iri. Issl it; ~Le. 1887 PnlOCnl~li~~~T~Ii ~el
ld)~ P~iochl~lilp~or~r ~e. lara s~.
15 Ilib j .CC~~IOI
~~ rh lar~i nnd I'rl-n-
nir Lli~r jpric
of dpll~ein~ian ~n~an~ mt
Ltepr an ~n~ ruLJpc~.
hC ~Di~iii~iP X~I FOI1Ti- Si
diri.ll the LDiloll.* ~~--
Ihe dilCi~~ ~Yel n~U ~I
~1~03~1 lni Bli*iP Wle*ll ~r.nnri
liaselan. atrerleurml yelrl
~linop ~nd l~y nnd rlerlml sonrul
eYLn? ~nl m~ *PCIIPI Of fn~ ilnCT~si(l CIOTYliI
nLOid I(~Y~~~r~ 1~~ mren~mmn~ fnr r;libli:fi of
IW L(~. I;(
;CLe iP~a I*PIOEI rinirnn '.lirn.! IBPO. 1I-1(.
9Y~li~lei ~f the Tlel*
*n0 LPIIPYC~ tl~~ m~ lb
~CnYrSnlY i( iCot~91
cnmoll Illui~r~red a ch
occurred in 1873 when Low Church extremists led by the Rt.
Rev. George D. Cummins, assistant Bishop of Kentucky, formed
the Reformed Episcopal Church.44
The first rector in the Diocese of Florida to join the
Reformed Episcopal church was the Rev. James S. Harrison of
Christ Church, Monticello. Harrison's defection occurred
after the Rev. Edward Meany, the High Church rector of St.
John's in Tallahassee, proposed a controversial resolution
to the Diocesan Council of 1877. The Reverend Meany, an
Englishman, suggested that the Diocese of Florida should
support a movement in the national church to delete the
term, "Protestant" from its title. Meany argued that the
word was a misnomer, and it also suggested congregational
autonomy. Although the resolution was withdrawn before a
vote, its introduction fueled a fierce debate. The Reverend
Harrison, an evangelical and staunch opponent of the
resolution, realized that despite this small victory for Low
Churchmen, the diocese was on the whole moderately Anglo-
Catholic. Shortly after the council adjourned, Harrison
informed the congregation in Monticello of his intentions to
join the Reformed Episcopal Church. By 1878, Harrison
Cushman, A Goodly Heritage. 1965. 98-100.
Church dieagreement or the rltualiie mue o r
Reverend *eany's services Perlaps hli background had
already -xp-sea him o iagto-ca1hollcim, and he did not
view The ritual as out of the ordinary. was parents.
cornellus and ElTz-beth Grady, Elre irish cathol-.
i-lgrants who draed their chtzaren In the Spiscopal
Church. w~hen the -rady arrived in Aalac.icola
h-s .-r nerIttet. -,
only religious Institution In torn to have its own edifice
and hold regular services. Fl-ko-g orne
co-muned at Tr.n.ty. Edlzab converted In 18.6 and .1 llb
her children wh. survived to adulth.o1 were t p. copal-ah ,"
what exactly made Trinity appeallng to Elirabeth Grady is
not known, but one could surmise that the church liad
Catholic elements which were familiar to her.
As Franilin county neared the twentieth century. h
EpI-copal commtlity washealthy Besldes the nCne-y-f-d.
coh-nhcan.s at Trinity. a new mission in carracle boasted
twenty-Plx confirmed spisCopallars In 1896. The cIt.y of
Carrabelle was founded as a vacation commatry in L187 by
oliver iiudson Kelly. K~elly, well known as the founder of
The Patrons of husbandry. also helped to establrih the
churchrr a~~~p i Church Recoird. Trinity sPIscopal
reprelmfin~ 2ZL leolle attended ~h~ shurih. Tor the first
rwe rn r~nm history. nare than one nundred c~nflm~ed
pplrcapllr~nr uarahlpr~ II i:lnity i Dunno me bnfeb~llu~
leriad. the highert nunYFI of somn~ums~n(l. seventy. x~I
reoorded rn 18io.'
m~ iac* o~lrrll fern~.nui and me Im~ltall~nr of a
In~llor xn(rr nai~ar still Inmblfed the torn Ir 1)00
Elporfml lu~b~r. ieafaod, honey. turpentine end other goobs
Iraduced In irnnilln sounty xai (m~e conru~ln~ and
elpenilve ia~ilN CoanWI. iohn s. nnd reai~e n Ru~e.
Ueniy L. Tmby, nnd 1 T Oirnan unruccessfully Irrm~pfed ro
estnblirh a rall sannpcnon ior Iml~shlsaln In the 188or
these ;ndluldualr rho aiMns men~ represented n n~loi~fy of
me nm~er. sesiood s~nmn~. and mercantile interests In me
toin, xeie all Trlnlty plrrshloners r.nother saMoumsnnf.
Jann E rrrdy. xer fh~ ~ieslden( of the Ipnlncnlcoln Board
of Ii~ide that errlpfeb ro seiure iundr ioi de~yemn~ the
nlr~or in ~Wi~li~a(lon of funds un rrce~ueb fron~
C.nirerr. hut nor n suiilsient ~naun( i~r diedglnl
rlnshic~la say Nevertheless Irnfflo on the ~~l~ihicola
8rupr son(lnu~d (~ Ircreare during the t~rrr deslde oi the
nlncrirniOYinll lso( parochial i~eparrr
m~e. Isi,-lsbo 21
who do not go to church within the portals of God's
sanctuary."7 The Daughters of the King also presented
eucharistic candlesticks the following year to go with the
recently installed altar.8 While these improvements may or
may not have been responsible for the growth of the
congregation, the beauty of their gifts likely inspired the
individuals and families already in attendance.
Bishop Edwin Gardner Weed believed that a healthy
chapter of the Daughters of the King indicated a parish with
a strong spiritual life. Trinity's St. Agnes chapter of the
Daughters of the King joined other women's groups already in
existence at Trinity. The oldest group, Trinity Guild, was
formed in 1841. The guild primarily functioned as a sewing
society and a fund raiser.9 The Rev. William T. Saunders
noted in his reports to the diocese following the
destructive antebellum hurricanes that the money raised by
the guild was instrumental in the necessary building repairs
after these gales. Perhaps most importantly, the guild
Diocesan Journal. "Episcopal Address." 1899. 45; George
R. Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida, 1892-1975.
(Gainesville: University Presses of Florida) 1989.
Sawyer, "Trinity Episcopal Church, Apalachicola,
Florida," 1950. 21.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.
diocese level, they were not given the right to vote in
parish meetings until 1915. Women were not eligible to
become vestry members in the Diocese of Florida until
Another committee at Trinity that was in step with the
growth of the church was the Women's Rectory Association.
Plans for building a new residence for the parish rector
began in 1897-1898 under the Rev. C. L. Pinder. The old
parsonage, which had been enlarged in 1857 during another
period of growth for the parish, was deemed inadequate. The
Rev. William T. Saunders, rector from 1851-1870, described
his old residence as "comfortable and spacious," yet "humble
in architecture."15 The significant limitation of this
residence was the fact that it was not adjacent to the
edifice. The new rectory was to be built on the original
property. Led by Mrs. Carrie Kimball, the Rectory
Association raised the necessary funds, and in May 1900, the
new rectory was completed.16
While the women of Trinity were leaders in the growth
Bentley, The Episcopal Church of Florida. 1989. 58-61;
Saunders, The Pastor's Wife. 1866. 47.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.
Gardner Weed Ruge was born in 1890.19
Trinity's difficulty in maintaining a rector continued
after 1900. For the first five years of the new century,
three different rectors served the church. The unique and
isolated nature of the town made the position difficult to
fill. Though the church's financial condition was
improving, the parish on occasion relied on missionary funds
from the diocese. Fortunately for Trinity, continuity in
leadership was delivered in 1905 when the Rev. Thomas J.
Purdue arrived with his family in Apalachicola. A native of
England, Reverend Purdue began his ministry in the Anglican
Church serving as a missionary in London's East End.
While Trinity was fortunate to have one rector from
1905 until Purdue's departure in 1915, the parish had to
share their clergyman. Reverend Purdue held services at the
Church of the Ascension in Carrabelle on scheduled weekdays
as well as one service a month at St. John's Mission in
Wewahitchka. In addition, the family of St. George Island
lighthouse keeper, Edward G. Porter, were Episcopalians.
Reverend Purdue held services on the barrier island
intermittently. In 1911, when two families were living on
St. George, Bishop Weed landed with the rector and confirmed
Trinity Episcopal Church Records. Trinity Episcopal
overseas demand for cypress and pine diminished.23
Throughout the diocese, parishes located in areas dependent
on timber, such as Pensacola, Jacksonville, and Apalachicola
were hurt by the economic downturn in 1914 and 1915. As the
diocesan missionary funds shrank during the recession,
Bishop Weed offered to cut twenty-five percent of his income
to help cover the salaries of missionaries in the field.24
While the local economy would later revive as the United
States prepared to enter the war, Apalachicola and Trinity
suffered in the meantime. "The town, like many others in
Florida," wrote Purdue in February, 1915, "is in a very
depressed state that affects the church."25 By the end of
the year, Trinity would no longer be able to afford the
rector's salary. After eleven years, the ministry of the
Rev. Thomas J. Purdue came to an end as the widowed
clergyman and his daughter moved to Washington, D.C..26
Apalachicola's economy was more diverse in 1915 than it
Edward F. Keuchel, "A Purely Business Motive: German
American Lumber Company, 1901-1918," Florida Historical
Quarterly 52 (April, 1974): 388.
Bentley, The Episcopal Diocese of Florida. 1989. 78-79;
Diocesan Journal. "Episcopal Address," 1915. 27-28.
"News of the Diocese," Church Herald. February, 1915.
Apalachicola Times, February 1, 1936.
at the outbreak of World War I, had the opposite effect.
The close link between the solvency of Apalachicola's
businesses and the well being of the town's oldest church, a
prevailing tendency from 1835-1915, was once again revealed.
Despite these peaks and valleys in its financial
status, Trinity Episcopal Church grew in its first eighty
years. Like other parishes in the Diocese of Florida,
Trinity endured outbreaks of yellow fever, destructive
hurricanes, and the strangling effects of the Civil War.
Along with its diocese and most other southern institutions,
the church also adapted to the cultural and political
upheaval of Reconstruction.
Immigration to the area increased diversity at Trinity
as natives of Greece, Ireland, and Germany attended the
church after the Civil War. Though African-Americans never
were a significant presence at the church, freedman Frank
Cook served on the vestry in the 1870s. Mannie Brash, son
of Jewish timber manager Sol Brash, was a converted
Episcopalian who became active at Trinity in the early 1900s
as a member of the choir and later as a vestrymen in 1933.28
In 1916, Trinity Episcopal Church entered a new era.
The church had sufficiently recovered from its earlier
Sawyer, "Trinity Episcopal Church, Apalachicola,
Diocese of Florida. Consecration of the Bishop of Florida,
bound with The Journal of the Proceedings of the Annual
Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the
State of Florida, 1868. Jacksonville: C. Drew, 1868.
.The Journal of the Proceedings of the Annual
Conventions of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the
State of Florida, 1839-1916. 70 vols. (The printers and
places of publication are: 1839, Knowles and Hutchins,
Tallahassee; 1840-1841, Clisby and Smith, Quincy; 1842,
1844, Office of The Star, Tallahassee; 1845, W. and C.
J. Bartlett, Tallahassee; 1846-49, 1851-57, 1860,
Office of the Florida Sentinel, Tallahassee; 1858,
1861, 1868, 1870, 1873, C. Drew, Jacksonville; 1869,
American Church Press Company, New York; 1871-72, Dyke
and Son, Tallahassee; 1874, 1879, Florida Union Book
and Job Printing Rooms, Jacksonville; 1875-1876, John
F. Trow and Son, New York; 1877-78, Press Book and Job
Office, Jacksonville; 1880-1884, Ashmead Brothers,
Printers, Jacksonville; 1886-86, Church and Home
Office, Jacksonville; 1887, 1892-94, Dacosta Printing
and Publishing House, Jacksonville; 1895-1916, Church
Publishing Company, Jacksonville.)
Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention of
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the State of
Florida, 1867,Including the Proceedings in 1863 and
1866. Tallahassee: Office of the Floridian, 1867.
Weed, Edwin Gardner, Episcopal Address, 1886-1916,
bound with The Journal of the Protestant Episcopal
Church in the State of Florida. 1886-1916.