GIEOBAPHYAND NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY
L pt mC uUE
F: 3 3 1 .. .. .0
*** :s o" ea r.: i m a :r .. .* . o :
.EP AND T.. Ji A ACCw.T OF LODIXANA; Z MIaA, 9./.
A" .::m ST RAW ZOR TBo ACaRY.
*mIRwWWW SFOR WOMI
I flm.flr.., erso wOIlTe, AMDb OThHY
II ; I
-I ".. .. .
Ei H BY WILLIAM DARBY,
un OP 411EiuSur lrofl Or 71 W TOXR ; AlroD ACTO O0p A
il j X3ajfl T r3 Tfw ClA COflT ,01OVICANA ; CXSBAl1r'S OU*DmI,
'. AHIr TOUR Ilb v IOr fO SI Tr.OIT.
DLRIBRARY r *
-,,. :., BaWOMEi Fo
: .. "- -.... .."
Jbisserns D ric of Penamyqlvni-to wit:
Ba rT uanz nn, That on the thirteenth day of March, nb
rty ft year of the. dpnden ofathes United Strtes of Am
A. D. 1821, Willm Dary of the mid district, bath deposited in i
office the title of a book, e right whereof he claims s auth in
the words following, to wit:
SMemoir on the Geography, sad Natural and Civil History
"ida, attended by Map of that country, connected with the adjacent
plaes: and an Appendix cont inn the Treaty of CeUe, and
otber rs relative to the subject. William Darby, Mphber of
Se Histoical Society of New York ani Author of a Map a4 Btatis-
tial account of Louisiana; Emignat's Guide and Tour fin New
Yark to Detroit."
Ia conformity to the act of the Congres of the United na i enti-
. ted. An act for the encouragepent oflearni, by securinae copied
6(m chts, and baeks, to the authoa propa et ach co-
pie the times therein mentioned. And o to Ad enti
e An t supplementary to an Act, entitled, AnA te en-
cn M .ewp of lewai ,b by:niu the oafp ofl a a ad
BoO, to the authors and proprietors of copies dueiu g the times
therein mentioned,' and extending the benefit the the arts of
desigthin, engraving, and etching historical and other ts."
S, pmseting to the public this brief Memoir
*pn i~ttlN conti y, now irrevocably an integfli
'.i tlie 'o. itaes, I will not attempt an
S. 'e mbjanes is one of more than common
Si Whiat: lave given I hope wiltbe a tad
hae is Eie teus entsis part.
S. be-cideed by sime persons, that moe
I ser -ais dean i aid4 upon the preliminary
t yview of tie l .p E a E BFlorida. If
rA *u ytbuhat, Aastsa my
''"T^^^^B '. ^'' .:I! ^. < ',!.. ..
eI U .MMff.o.o a correct opiniomj
r idis 'imore study to prepare the mind C
jaei t.o' judge sanely of the constitution of
ism-mn believedeces er This .
faeS.^btrtigu dash, piost
bsi et arnsttmery.ea*h mSbjmc$ are
site i ten neglected. It would& beworae than
p sum in me to pretend, that what I have over-
ed. an o and. vegetation, amounts to more than
detached ts; but I hope those hints will tend to
produce moe systematic mode of inquiry into the
apabili benefits, or inconveniences of our south.
n cl generally, thap has in most instances been
pursued even those deeply concerned to attain
i heMap considerable pains have been taken.
The u t attention has been paid to make the best
use materials catant. The latitude and longi-
tude' na were taken from an excellent
76 0/ 6
Spanish periodical work, published at that city*; the
Memoirs of the Royal Economical Society of Havanna.
By this authority the city of Havanna is placed N. lat.
230 12', and W. long. 4apon 482 13:
It will be perceived, that I have entered as far into
the detail of vegetable physiology in Florida, as the
brief nature of my work would admit. I have long
since turned my attention to fie subject of vegetable
esculent oils, and have been fully convinced that an
unnecessary stress has been laid upon the introduction
of the olive. Independent of: the translatins fr
the Abbe Rosier, which will be found in the body
this treatise, I have been informed from other .anud
pectbk. sources, that at least one half of what is esd
n the United States "foreign sweet o," is an ext
ca:poppy seed. Thisfact I have been the mort are-
fttol.tate, as tending to eiace attention to t re*
somrcei of our own country.,
.it demands. experiment to determine the latve
oeitoncec of the oily extract of the aivmane 4w .
I hinsaupedority of the olive over benn tOwuld
be assumed as a-postulate. yet as the latter igetablc,
eantbe ca inatei. so.much mosreextensively, ind with
infinitely more certainty of success than the former,
it is, in my opinion, much more likely to tIeome be.
nerial to the planter;. and it is incumbe upon the
people of our southern states and territorid to esta-
bikh, by-fair experiment, which of the twtvegetables
deserves the preference as an object of cul|ret. The
benne is used as an article of food, independent of'its
value in the production of oil. It is in reality one of the
plants, the seed of which, probably, for; a part of
human aliment from the earliest stages society.
."* Jemoris de la Real Soeiedd Econo W'a de la &a "n Vol.
m. p.7 of the Index. Su demarcatcison d o 23 gradoe flt de
tatitud, g 82 y 13 minute de legitiud."
SThe bennd oil alluded to in page Sf of this treatise, was Maented to
Dr. Mease by Mr. John M'Queen, of Svaann hw.6 Mm theseed
M~ieuCa i ima nim speakiag of the eseamum of
Babylan, that, .. .
: YA l alnmtMatiht .:to which millet and sesa-
igb splis rgIbugti have witnessed it myself,
SfabM in'e m.e atigsa I am well- aware, that
"~p l aim mae iaied this country will deem
g"a ibm subject a violation of pro.
Sbl..-Bt what they extract
I:. .. r qadmemtree)l is a very
st 3: gammilly fruitful.
iaied k.:,i is the Sre
S i bve inserted in the
ai ....... Uristi,e as amongst
"nd"aldl Florida. This
S. a rbiib hiut.at n.eglected in all those
cQmi .cme. wild, a circumstance al-
ways i gh di v inditaife of: cOmgmeiality of
w iul e, seen -the
'i Lisisi ,meti an:twenty feet in
I tit frm:.itwoo ix inches diameter in rthe
stem. Ithinr fitheiaest~ annual vegetable found
irthe .d atubs., tl a. tender plant, and sub-
mis tona d% t, eFe, 0 Feost; but might be culti-
i7te.ii, ~ .y Migabl-qunity, with perhaps less ex.
peoth i t .ather vwegetabl of equal value, as its
towering tight d rapid growth put it quickly
above c llr-firoti weeds. The Palma Christi de-
mmnds3,iowever, a strong soil. It could be planted
along s, banks, and many other places inconve-
S"eit cultivation of other plants, and thus, with
'' f O e,, Ckii. Vol, m. p. 240. fhila. Ed.
comparatively little attention, an immense quantity of
castor oil could be produced.
I have not ndtieed the sugar cane in the body of
my Memoir, as one of the valuable vegetables of
Florida. Such notice would have augmented the
treatise, without adding to its value; as it! is obvious,
that where the soil is adapted to sugar cane it may
be cultivated in Florida. I will, however, mention
in this place, a fact respecting the sugar cane, which
militates against the general opinion, that the in
parts of North America, hi the:Mississippi basin, en
joys a higher temperature oapeqal latitudes than t
Atlantic border. The highest sugar-cane farmAp
Louisiana, where either sugar or molasses has -er
been made to any advantage, is below N. aILt.
S0': on the Atlantic coast, the sugar-cane h been
successful cukiatedaffa+i rth as. S. The jas,
and live-oak also, are advanced considerably
north on the Atlanti eoboder, than in the Missppi
basin. The large palam. rewabg.p tree, is n ud
en the Deba of the Missiaippi; pthe dwar- liu or
high asl.. it. S P30F : .'
I was compelled to confie my historical notices
to a mere chronological table. It may b& observed,
indeed, that the advance of most ceoni. affords to
history very few incidents.f general intertist.
It may in general be noticed, that the itms in ta-
bles of the mean heat of places, must be ken rather
as approximate estimates than as defined results. In
my Table, page 22, Naples and Toulon appear :as
having very nearly the same degree of he# This is
indeed really the case, arising from local ces ; but
there is a discrepancy in the originals from ich my
tables were constructed, as will appear by tlhfollow.
ing: Naples, in the Annals of Philosophy, *to 18,
Centigrade, equal to 62.6 or 64.4 Fahr. he same
city, in Humboldt's Personal Narrative, is stated at
\X8r, Cietigade p4.4 Fakr. Toulon, in the Annals
of Philosophy, is given at 16.7, Centigrade, equal to
62.06, Fabr.; al d in the Personal Narrative, 17.5,
CeOn eqrl to 63.5 Fafhr. It may be observed,
by a aoqmprism n of the mean heat of Marseilles and
Tli. how much local causes elevate or depress the
lthomnmeter. Toulon enjoys a very excessive heat
whkn oampared with its latitude.
S ave observed, on the subject of rice, that that
Sill not grow in any place having a mean heat
than 640 Faihr. lat grain will, it is true, vege-
ii io oer i "MPt but not with certainty,
ily kpuedluaesrm aplpjrmward the mxpese.
e political osammq aqs of the cession of 1Fo-
die to6 obvious to need any
OWtir OAt .abjee t1 have not, therefore,
OaI fn.I US I cawpsider Ferida of
m~e te Ui tates fom. moral
S' .tzs. The towns of
"&- stAugnOinc will afford places where
te a theo see northern sections of
our I .moatesM health, whilst enjoy-
i dc the :mAt p~p eiso of his own govern-
I have aleasurm in acknowledging the liberal con-
duct of lth erican Philosophical Society, in opening
to my uasedti- vry valuabe library. By that means
I obtaind3 opportunity of quoting Mr. Gauld's
nnuscri, and of adding to my Memoir some of
tth most matter it contains.
Phail.4 arch 14, 1820.
-. ,-, :"z' ... -+.
The reader will please to eartect the following errow, and ipply L
In page 19, line 9th from the top, for "mCnden city," read Caibh
In page 22, in the thermometrical table, after equator level witqthe
ocean," &e. read,
Omtava N. lat .28..S., Men bet, 609.8; 1023 feet high. -
Punchti-N.t t. 323.37 man.hhte 68.63. i .
In p re:SS"ahe 11 Jirof e Iop, i "7a1quest," Kred a e7wta."
In page 60, before 16, re" e
174. General Ogtihope itvad P*lid took St. Diegq twenty
miles from St. Augutine, ind.'it ated tbe latter place.C olonel
Palmer, who commanded a *tachment of the lBitidi y at
3Moo, vwe i rprid a nddf detd. S s ebet andeda
meats tQotheir apprioches being, dr. A to-3.. Colonel
Plimer, the Btoti Fdl trup hfte r me a eifTeely 4nb and
destasctit r ectuixed to Findedci. Y Goe
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOriW
S e fr.ithe Spa nish term
U s. by e;~ ent
q,'L. i" I "AtAd tic ocean and
F..ia i .. orqCulJa
I Irs: west and south-
SA li Mt on the Atlan
tiAc Omomiay of St. Mary's
; Upon of Mexico betweeii Cape
Sble an4be inlet of Pcrdo -. 600
I nterioimrnite with 4libama, up the Per-
dido, and the 310 N. lat. 40
Along snma and,..'lat. 310, to the right
bank of rtVier 140
Thenceirh gorgia, down Chatahooche,
to the junoa of that stream and Flint river 40
Thence to the source of St. Mary's river 140
Down the St. Mary's to the mouth 80
14ig an entire outline of 1490
P*ua Florida, or Flowery-Easter, from the palm branches and
,owci, with whichthe churches are decorated on that day.
6 MEMOIR ON PLORIDA.
.Area, 54,600 square miles, equal to 34,944,000
acres. Of this superficies, there lies south of N. lat.
300, 39,900 square miles, 25,536,000 acres; and north
of N. lat. 300, 14,700 square miles, 9;408,000 acres.
Extreme south, N. lat. 250 nearly; extreme north,
N. lat. 310; and posessing a range of 4 degrees of
The extreme flatness of tie whole peninsula, is
the most striking general characteristic, which h must
be obtruded upon the mind of a traveller, on an actual
view of FlgrIa. Though some inequalities of sur.
f4ce fil be r' ipo the interior as far south as
N. Ilt. 28, yetn inence exists south of 30,
which in striqtness .es the name of a hill. Bluffs
are found upon some of the rivers, but of no con.
siderable elevation. But, notwithstanding the general
level surface of the country, more land s sufficiently
elevated and fit:for culture than could be expected,
arising from causes which will be explained in the
The Atlantic ocean washes Florida on the east,
from the Bahama channel to the S. E. angle of the
territory, The ocean line, is composed of a border
of islands, narrow and low, with intervening channels,
which are generally shallow and impeded'by bars of
sand. The Atlantic tides are very unequal and ir-
regular on the coast of Florida, from which circum.
stance great inequality of depth must be found on
the bars at different seasons. A strong west or N.
W. wind will make but six feet, and an easterly
wind of equal force, twelve feet upon the bar of St.
Augustine*. The lowest is the safest general es-
SStork, p. 7.
iF a r
I- ihrt Miii
3 M3QOR OJf .ORBIDA. g
lAnOi r and strong cur-
Sl l m~iafsthpshoesyf Florida, as
ll a HeA .the.current turns to
Wth weHMtniws leaving a species of in-
Aipe berl stwe.i curret and the Flo.
iJisabaerp eAweam e two Capes of
l||Bla>*$liW tlidli .. N ;-l
. lMip~ti ~ io. opemninsula are found to
ritwvnkalwnytpt.,* but consi-
S^i 3thiaseu.fceilothle Gulf of
bsr . .ae .. t nthatntio -the Atlantic
hfuposeou I.we obvious.
1 o1a111 9MwenWoard
_gi Ag e Ath U a Ame-
SAd f ott f its wa-
t irouaprf the' winds
ef silt~a.r width.
.st 2...ar SF,
'. .. . . ** *
O.W.. M .mich conae-
dhaB theitropiaCe anCcer. From
ss*euAme~ra the larger body
t -of't aipsrm itese northern
A terr u e rcsidetalp abogrces eoth
of I3evovan th tora2i thu :continent,
firoa t d apeaer irVta t~g rifitnner situated to
carry" thWr eo uliug-wnwr of ;k*id towards the
Gulf bf *hin. without inelding d4 rticular indent-
ings, the ice smt oftheabores of America, from
Cape StwiqItsapmq h)cabe is N. 59* 20' W.
3,S0 M aii.-. "
-ThumPdhew& Atlantic, current is concentrating
throughiswthis inneardistiance, and finally its enor-
mous surplus is drown into the Gulf of Mexico, be-
tweet: Yucatan and Cuba : raising the surface of that
rei S Mediterranean sea very considerably above either
of tWoceans to which it -is contiguous. The con.
gregated waters, reacting, rush with great velocity
&~YYC~ ~ -.
- ... !I.
8 MEMOIR ON FLORIDA.
along the north side of the island of Cuba, and the
southern prqlusion'of the peninsula of Florit as
far eastward as about thdee degrees We long.; were
it meets, is augmented, and *tared north, by another
volume produced byr similar cause, but which sets-
westward. along the nwrth shore of. the Leeward
islands, St. Domingo, and Cuba. The current through
the Bahama channel varies in velocity from two to
five miles an hour. This reat ocean river is about
100 miles wide, between Flrida and Cuba, and con-
tacted betweeri Florida and Bahwas to 50 miles; but
passing Cape Cannaveralt r |dly widens.
Tle entire Gulf of Mekic6 may be considered an
enormous reservoiri 'enmittingly supplied by the
strait between Cob~L Yucatan, and as constancy
losing its an s pf' by the channels of Cuba
saad t r th Td e of the getf is divided into
two unequal w rlpc i. :As thea current of rotation
4 itersa k towfery i due north, and strikes the
shore of lorida, ait- n.dthere dividing,
the larger aas turns wesatong MiSsissippi, Louisi-
anaa ad Texsp inn ad 'llfl Abec curves of
the gulf, :swep a'onD~ate sba nftw'thuicoroyalty
of Mexico, and joins the in-cuirent near Cape Ca-
toche. The second and smaller section bends S. E.
towards the mouth of Apllachicola river, lows down
the western omt of Florida, -and mingles with the
main volume sonth oS thTor:tugas Keys.
It will be evident from the foregoing, tiat the Flo-
rida peninsula is a prodigious mound or wing dam,
confining the water of the Gulf of Mexiedfrom fall-
ing with irresistible weight into the Atlantic ocean.
This circumstance explains the cause of an otherwise
inexplicable phenomenon. Ascending the St. John's
river, a current of unequal force is encountered, the
country adjacent to the stream seems to rise, though
very gradually, to a perceptible elevation above the
Atlantic ocean: whilst on the opposite side next the
MaSk .-ON FLORilA.
a IBe1mfaJi as are those
o ponas of arcl l
B... *. 11 iou iau side of the
iLuI bi h m s1he
1MOW 0TAh tsmpjiub.P Upon
ygpcu*^amrj)mmnea a tIS
.isie opeadof the winds
Wirpi ..m ad.~,.aw mpzrte
-,196E ma AL.aal maeherb
A igeacers a but
e ior .0.0i..s G.B :pQ'ept amd*b ,e. of
Contact ii .eni khL.Hi tn ~ Pforest
land, here4aB elY is atmakabl:r for i sterility
in the udalSte ^the dimetii species of
plants, g ic "ive in an ndefinite 'wiety of
rmdigenB vegettabke. The soil of thepine woods
of Florida is, piedmpmrasnd as in any other part of
the United States. A ridge of dry and in gqat part
unwooded hill, ox rather billockst destitute o water,
exaota from the Eokefimoke swamp, to an unknown
o10 MfUIR 01 O FLOBA.
disane, southward4 Mwet of St. Joh's and Nassau
rivers*. Tri dgpon. -doubt Ainks into the com-
mon level of h country before reaching the cape; or
- -]v;ai n tsdMlStisUdie O. |
SSoavnah^ep irMhmd, in Eeiidia, is in strictness
mere vuieties swanmpp The fWrmer is, indeed, part
of the kla with elevaion aucieg to admit culture
withoutS i e Mi l drainage. The. prairie grounds of
Elbida, being opposed o.M great a part of animal
emviem, are gcaiy prodWptiwe, but are confined in
EptiELT* Theirlmature will ap more clear by re-
l to ~,dleauiMption of f. John's river.
'4rmpsor uahe=es, ameto pine woods, cover the
largest~ ion of FYiS A small share of these
flat tregupr nay a qibs lamedr-but the far greater
pEtr i'btiuu~ctynd the ordinary powers
f' l some paint. of consider.
tthi tleril ii.. may be. considered valuable;
tr wijh:excellent timber,
zmg fowrattlsptW *. 4 -. ..go a-
Anasd4begwoEtsr. oap Fklida, called
hammonocdml e W=Uk*iMha OaWt instances
an interval kBtIeebas p ine. tracts and&~th marshes
or savannahl aut indeed in no. aspect differ from
the hlattaexcepuitinbe red with wood. The
hamusok :laBa~d t ~riilrida, t butof all the
southem oti4M6c a w -id' States,- yields, next
to river aliuviofs tilbsrt arable soil. In Alabama,
Georgia, aamdisMsisippi, the haaamoek lands form
much the largestpart of the cultimted susrace. The
quality ef he soil alterates from that of savannah
and.'wer alluvion, to that of the.most unproductive
pianegens. .Bay galls, or wet spongy spots, very
frequMdly dteriorate hammock land. This incon-
venience i:lessened by a slight, and removed by a
considerable inclination of surface.
flllnMM lk igha4ised opin-
' l I 1111111u11 ch disap-
AWt iOi. less, bic more
he the former class. In-a
.ame a part
a t eman in-
Seen no the tides tod.
. .t d... .. .. ..e .. ...- ad 8.t netited
Sthede washed the gulf
tuC nor ofo the
,cS~'VU *ia ~ AThe
regular Sf MiethltvIare no- moe
thua ttwoea n, by long
eontitnuoib bld ibE pint,.the tides to
leeward mrdtlOaet* adntf-l*Wedlnetimes
by burri nes to six' seven fee. Therefore, the
goat eatins of depth on the bars, or entrances
to the Alantis pants* trpeninsula, are unknown
on the side washed brthe gulf.
A"ry remwkableaircmstance int he natural his-
toi the north w e.Amarof the Gulf of Mexico,
has been, we are ilElina to believe, hitherto over-
dlooked. That is, the real motion of the current of
vssais On f"IOWA.
1 Mlt3ro1 9N PLORIDA.
rotation. What we haWtdvanced on the subjedi,
is .fom a pelso obsevat The drift of
the Miss tpi hr entirely waied weeL. The
inh f t TuitTaT re strewed with the
d ris bthWt : little oaltne is tarried east
fits mal h.. -. .
The wtt iorth- skei te g pf afi be desig-
tnaed aI', hiTal. Soundings Itbh six or seven
&atiomWr t; Vlr w be. nt fr 15 r 20 miles, and with
36 or 40 ath t y ma eventy miles from shore.
The botteplte gulf undutltes so greatly, that,
ate mdulusat chart now before us,
it&.. -...buarm ine ualities are
V moa.t ke m rft than are those of the
adijfingg .M.tns. covered by the waves
'f e i 0 miles south of Mobile,
thniB -Bo" s whish are from four
tohinda d fet rltive height' We have shown,
thethid~i e %e eMirE1of roaoea~r impinges against
the shoes of Ai'ngidflSlucr arlitd, we may now
infer, ii slowlptt coftwuaily ag the mass
of Id an itml aisl m i banks
of the gdi.F 'll^eMadkt la the-tra of large
rivera and tiMle'of tk eaf itLthe catibwhy, at the
point*pt contact, embanktants are formed which are
,composed of' a e rejecte.ospoils of both bodies.
,Penaedola andk Esptrta hi. p have cach deep en-
rtrance betB *talh FlM -Mo age. volumes
-of fresh-water adding' oe of the ocean, to accumu-
late dep6sEionl wd and asnd at their place of
But little, if any, difference of violence exists, be-
tweenhke effects of tempestuous winds on the Gulf
of M.~tico a'ai Atlantic ocean.'
In ioticingthe bays or havens of Florida, Pensa-
cola deserves the first place. itEto been frequently
ee page 8.
P fl" "
REaNS43 EYEMlIs&. is
~wspr was uncon-
hwtWm revert to
1~w pelutions in
*s.N.:q r of the
t rejce that
.t .ions o man
M al mart.
e~le of a.f h--
S.Escad bia pro-r, and
eM amaye e nUh. The
...... ..u. ghe.. enters
I: T e nearly south from
the jupawe 01.992ubf9apil umas jguws, or head
oEa' Alkaia mt r & west -byg qputh about
lime hugiu~in ir miles by.omnparvti* course,
Centers Vkilrawtiue with and loses its name in Es-
.TIge;e al surfaw drained by the Cunecuh and
Esonbia may be designated barre' pine lands,
though some favourable exceptions exit in the ajlu-
v ibndkhammock of Cunecuh. The latter stream
is fipablle for bae s more than two-thjrds% of its
.-. " -..." ,YI I* -.
14 3t06 oR ON: LORtIA.
YeHow Water, a nal~j lear, and beautiful stret,
falls into the-easteft eatetdeir o Penseamta .bay;
but neither its vdiftS a" rtei alu of its banks en-
title it to partic Waihtw. lll i '-
Perdidoe,8S. ontae's; and St.v*elrewstays are all
openings f: e:Vdc st between Mobile .aM Apalachi-
cola riveirst, d re similar, in natur'fornfm~ nd struc-
tute,, to NftiiiC ibay 'btrt the three former are of
little coblhu ,,om the shallowness of their
mouths, and u idc ve texture of the soil adjacent
tt4heir m pectively. (see Appendix, No. 3.)
e is, except the Mississippi, the only
ri U. S'thi Op. a Delta at its'mouth.
T is ftdr i *~ tutiited waters of Flint
arid Chtabbtocdlosi& 4e latter rises in Georgia,
avt, fttri aepr tn thwrc hundred miles,
uearfr~it tafl asmt : stream, whose
sofee i aeli in Gegia. TheWeit lenfth of the
Apytheirlcola,rty the Chtthooohee.9oh, is, follow-
igthtLitreiam !~ab;littepa ear 500 miles.
Betwa N. sati 1, at llt Afl of Flint, Chata.
hooche ipaleptwSaoridiJ agq tliaru Schooners
drawing i4vetW B ntmsscadl Apalachi.
cola to the junction of Flint and Chatahooche. Both
the lag&. streams are navigable for bargesaof any re-
quisit tonnage, far above the limits Florida. The
soil generally Oa this river, or its eo te, is rather
strile; butteair 'A taeptions exist, and the cli-
mate admitting the'eulture of cotton on all the
branches to their sources, the Apalachieola must
discharge, ere loIg, a large amount of valuable ex-
Froin Apalachicola to Espiritu Santo, the bays and
rivers of Florila are undeserving particular notice in
a brief survey.
Espiritu Santo bay opens at lat. 270 8'. It is
the deepest: entrance, and most pacious harbour in
the Golf of Mexico, having on its northern entrance
two feet more water than is found on the bar of Pen-
yu*.rsoaim sJle.. es,
i1 n reTd* II with man-
Sthe Tid. he adjacent
maalad Ileierall low
lyasiyer iy perfredy known,
aut part litrshy, and nearly
Sine existence of
rJ tr, near its
dF the wa-
SAth th, southern
cut by ,eep and inter.
th:e taerior, some of
Fi i gcate with St.
of the ineriar ount toren-
S t.", ight feet water
cA its Air n i ot is a l,,ce and com.
diu.. ^ :,a;i. ou,,f.or e vese- m. can nR- -. We
y agler ,epa h whemalrk already niade, that the
SAtlantic harurts of Florida are as remarkable for
thAir :Guawta as ie those in the Gulf of Mexico
for their steady deptheli, In estimating the value of
tws it is pasly, however, from their" lowest ordi.
s eilgidgs, kui correct scale of comparison
A no& of the mdin land to the north, and a point
SEi~ L~tari~ ....ths n h u~fo Mx
16 MEMOIR ON FLORIDA.
of Anastasia island to the.south, form the entrance&I
the port. St. Augustine stands on the west side of
the .vy, the anchorage b1ing ieafront of the city.
The adjacent country has a very unpromising, and
indeed rather 'febidding aspect. A An air,of barren-
ness strikes the *ye on all sides';but residence re-
moves those uafavourable impressions, sh& country
being foum- healthy and much more productive than
could be etpena t D i appearances. On the island
of Anastasia Js- a quarry of calcareous freestone, or
rather a ciibonate of lime, formed by marine
euavi.~~ u'toine has been built the fortifications,
a 'the'hise in &. Augustine.
Sof. aMi~l 4ttSi s the only stone quarry
on ist, froa the Neversink-hills in
New of the nltendancy of Vera
Crii iijn V yallof Moeco.
St. John.river falls into the AldWic ocean forty-
five mmils north of the city of St.^ietgustine. This
stream -is at onceheteinei uribAdla d important oh-
ject in the topography Fkoridja litlesters the At-
lantic ocean at bqut NA 4, W0.4i. 4i source is
unknown. Substantial reasons codl4AEe given to
render the existence of any direct and appropriate
source to this riverdoubtful. It is probable that its
originfts in extensive flats, swamps, and-sea marshes,
out of which the water exudes, S 6hirrgradually and
imperceptibly fogms the rives.
The first satisfactory account of this river given to
the world, is comprised in John Bartram's Journal;
which, as it contains also some striking facts to eluci-
date the general formation of the whole peninsula,
we have extracted, and inserted in this treatise, the
the part most appropriate to our subject.
The shores of the river were found low and sterile
in general4 open swamps approaching within a short
distant of the bank. Bluffs, cdaiposed of an aggre.
gate of sey shells admixed with those of snails, are
ha ta .
.sued in several ;
i-.H-;: 1 iauom
:aa. current, fd
ten a rivera
11l eating into
ts spos m b those-
,' A,, ,,, a i is~.~hs ad-
Ma ei6A s The
W, t h ave l been dis-
Ii& afaourable point
...b, pod to exag-
a.tri, gives : to its
:at _sterili. The truth
q Sa w between e dis-
'o. s.. The soil of Florida,"
gap i~elouadabedlif -white clay, with
a ti b & animd. The coast is naked
i.ld.ia Lde Jali isa Lfaeetof firs'
..';,:"A lled byl -R omanl:Awhite clay, is with
i new lubbit y ocnrectnes% supposed by Bartramn
3 puikuPuizried? ll*. with vegetable admixture.
S.a.tter.author4i 4Wldom mentions high land on
a 'i~St. John's uiwswilshout adverting to its compon-
"'!4sa a.d.n snamiuls, with some clay and sand,
i* i4eld table matter in. various states of decomposi-
..iio'The~~ best soil, no doubt, not only on St. John's
~-;-~YU Cj . . f*6..yl'AAM~il
1 8 MANlor ON FLORIDA.
river, but to be..met with in all Florida, is th at
ty -meotioaed by Bartram,, **.a dry kind of rich
swap, full of shells milCLswis? black tenacious
mf under which is a wht.be sd..ff'y or mar."
Ftlay be a~ i peqOd, Abat the whole peninsula
owes its xaisteo to minial sd sanima: deposi-
tion. As.far as the earth has beea .peimnled, this
i~nr e is .epe d by facts. The entire fertility
fond on detMl.slpots is due to animal matter.
By means of this 'lass of substances, as the original
sad banks Abe above the waves, a scanty vegetation
1v0aWp I fhi*l in the lapse of countless ages has
Expanse with herbage.
tJasimbeen established, safely
f, that the Sil of Florida, like that
of binn up sitqated near the tropics, is
mn .ie blar the pnouction of orchard
fruit tramh, than. -to gi2 s, escW et. rts, or other
annual or short-livedjld or garleqiegetabcls.
From thc forging aLorwamiom it will be seen,
that no positive engrth amp bea: i||B|Ki tSL John's
river., Iths.aavipmen ~s ais,.e.at. .28
30', above lake George, and found touamaitiinAiams
far a depth of eight feet, consequently navigable by
any vessel of requisite draught, upwards of i00 miles
following the wmdings of the.stream, and one hun-
dred and fifty momparative course isawiks mouth.
Nassau rwer a' a small and unimportant stream,
about midway between St. Jlm's and St. Mary's
rivers. Nassau rises in the sarnlswamp or flat which
gives source to the St Mary's river; the former has
a general course of about 50 miles, and enters the
Atlantic ocean between Amelia and Talbot islands.
St. Mary's, though comparatively a small stream,
is of great consequence in the topography of Flo-
rida and Georgia. This river rises in the Eokefanoke
swapip, of, which it may be considered the drain.
Its source is at N. lat. 300 30', and flowing thence
~0:hr eastward, and
S.....e of .60 mis, as
sain defeat iw. the
:Atkeis *ocn at tblthf t
Sa uo f'rsEOf 130
I Niewenls drawing
an tm bir nmberland
of IWakser rivers and
i, Alna a o. the inte at of
a tm. olwa-qua-pheno-
guinp faisdwowined tract is
.a hd-eta,,. or cover-
ug00 86 squ a Whie Arst s es* that is
Saw ilk ".a it.pl at .-this asnt, is, that.where it
.::. uba. d ace a tedgmd a laka: The Aivers which
i gre hiZ into ~ighm' tshe Attentic ocean or Gulf
41Maeo, mtqrine ; nand have more the aspect of
from ol rwNm : r ekkes, than of rivers them-
o y so ?dOeignated. The position of the
swamp, favours our theory. Occupying
so mUorn or FLORIDA.
the centre from. which are discharged, in various di-
retions, the Oke-ock-anne, St. Mark's, Suwaney,
Na.~u and St. ary'sa ierers' are warranted
sgiesting the pqahubiaisf that Zr peninsula of Flo.
rid wasw once imlad that t.~hdepOtio n from
the continnt mbgu::lf stremn, hlieitht; eosed the
separating shainnel the remains of which ak i yet de.
termined and4i ast. d by the structure of the shores
of the ndrthest ie. of Aapalache bay,. and by the
aspect of the Eokefanoke swamp, and St.. Mary's
river. P ""
a The rkabie capes of Florida, are:'St. Bias,
SFiiida, and Cannaveral.
#...-ir a low point of land extending
long ww i aeninsUl extends from Cape St.
aIr aluy : t 17 or 18-miles, between which and
themain shore, is eneleed the smal ultf or bay, St.
Jogh. The .eaa aaund the eaWis s-o extremely
shallow nd slopes so gdtlln at low tides a
naked sand bar exteBas twoar aw.l: miles to the
southward,.amt*aienty alnromi dm a mape is only
seven fathes.mwater. TIhteape itself may indeed be
viewed, as the highest point of an inunese bank
of sand spreading out from the main shore,. and im-
perceptibly sinking under the .waves of the glf.
Cape Roman, like St. Bias, is .rl .a embank.
ment of sand andshells than a capt orrectly so de.
signated ad of tUtle enawqflgWe, as being uncon-
nected with any large river cr spacious harbour.
This cape is nearly north from the Tortugas Keys,
and situated at N. lat 26 00'.
Cape Sable is the southernmost point of Florida,
N. lat. 24 50', W. on. from Washington, 40 19', by
some. harts, but by others farther eastward. In reali-
ty, some confusion respecting the geography of this
cape has arisen from its being considered rather as a
Sa..._......->--^--. K .--
1P ..' 4W 'r
i."' "' ."ll-raeowlsoaml A. St
*awoop of the penin-
A uiulmr point of land.
blte and the neighboring
li: ilo-ses white calcareous con-
mei~d ; 'everlaid by sand
.he. 1-The land, thqdgh
pofw the sea along
a -i*l ~drr. The same
7tuismui are yet in
A P SOP 41', W..lon. from
OODS SC Lwsi1wa~. .Particular
ikt. 280 15', W. long. from
T'SW. tas cape "bears a strong re-
S Bth are .fon.ed by
1T~i- iandy, and rocky, and
*e comre of to *eat
tCape Cannaveral, that on the morn-
I8 IISlie British-brig-Epervier, of
l meg a it i captured by the Us. S.
dept'. Wtl ington, after an action of
S*--3&;t|^ ; ^fMTB AD a8B4ONB.
Capt Romans, fliers profession and long ex.
dpei.w.. in that country r had a much better oppor-
an.it:: bA observe and investigate the particular proper-
S. ties of the climate of Florida, than any author who
b: written on that country. This author divides the
.jite of Florida into two sections, the northern and
iou~tern, the line of separation between which is the
parallel of N. Lat. 270 40'. Though many of the ob-
S sections of Romans are in a. high degree valuable,
mmOIa on Pom(BA.
respecting the course and prevalence of winds, and
other meteorical phenomena, of Florida, we cannot
consider his climatic, geography entitled to.-anuch
credit North and bouth are mere relative terme,-and
we shall soon see the inaccaracy of the postlate
upqn which his line of separation waa.srawn. He
considers N lat. 27 40',. as terminating the occur-
rence of frost advancing from north to south; a sup-
position unsupported by fact.
Previous to any further discussion, we have deemed
it conducive to a clear comprehension of the subject,
to insert the following comparative thermometrical
tables ofmean heat:
1 lat. Fahr.'s icale.
Mexi 19.25 62.24
Vera CUiz, 19.11 77.7
New Orleans, 30.00 65.8
Ntithear, -- .31.33 63.9
Charleston, S. C. 32.42 63.0
Kit Jamaica, 18.04 -. 81.0
St. oio, thcity, 18.20 81.0
Havannah, 23.11 78.1
St. Augustine, 29.45 66.13
Pensacola, 30.30 65.5
Savannah, 31.57 63.75
Cambridge University, 42.25 50.36
New York, 440 0 52.80
Philadelphia, -, 39;9 53.63
Washington, - 38.9 55.05
Cincinnati, 39.06 54.25
The equator level with 0a 9358
the ocean, 00.00 9- 38
Algiers, 36.48 70.00
Madrid, 40.25 59.00
Bourdeaux, 44.50 56.48
Montpelier -. 43.36 59.35
*L "'.... .
.4 _..-. . k d .. : .. .......... .. . .... ... .
MuMOIR ON FLORIDA.
This table was constructed from materials derived
from various parts of Humbd4ct's -works, particularly
his Prologomento his geograph ofgl~ a, a ed
in thedAnnals of Philosophy. vol. VU. p. 377, and
from other sources. The mean heat of Philadelphia
is founded upon a. mepn of the obasrvations of Dr.
Rush, Dr. Coxe, and Mr. Legaux; that of Cinci-
nati was taken, from Drake's Cincinnati and tiat of
Natdhze i' deduced from Mr. Dunbar's tables as
recorded in Vol. VI. Amer. Phil. Trans.
Comparing the various tables of mean heat, found
along the Atlantic coast, we find, every thing else
being equal, that a diffeence of one degree of lati.
tude changes the meanrheatof places from one and one-
tenth, to about one and twenty-five hundredths of a
degree. The change is more rapid advancing north.
wards. Within or near the tropics, the increment or
decrement of caloric, is less in a given distance than
in high latitudes. But from Florida point to Boston,
the mean heat of any two places known, that of the in-
termediate places nIay be known to very considerable
.:. .. A
mNCOIB ON FLORI A.
precision by using the foregoing formula. In deter-
miningthe course of the seasons of any country, so
great -s the inequality between the mean heatof the
succeeding seasons at .the same place, that a long
cycle alone can. give satisfactory mean. In North
America the extreme of cold is so great, and, in low
latitudes particularly, so uncertainin its periods of re-
currence,.that a mean frequently of eight or ten years
would not embrace a single instance of those severe
and destructive frosts so ruinous to vegetation.
A very unfounded idea is prevalent, that the aber-
rations of the seasons are greater in America than in
Europe. The reverse of this is the fact.
Humbold deduces,rom a great variety of observa-
tions, that at Paris those annual changes amount to
3.96 degrees of ahrenheit's scale; at Geneva 4.5
deg.; at Rome &.34 dcg.; and at Philadelphia 1.98
deg. of the graduations of the same thermometer.
This profound philosopher also remarks, that, as we
advance towards the tropics, the variations of the an.
DIfereneof elevation has in every rpect a simi-
lar aspect upon atmospheric temperature as difference
of level; therefore we find, that at Geneva, which is
elevated above the ocean 1300 English feet, that the
annual changes are greater than at Paris, though the
latter is 20 38' higher than the former in latitude. It
may be observed, that, in the foregoing table of mean
heat, the places'inserted are level with the ocean,
or nearly so; except Mexico, elevated 7468 feet, Cin-
cinnati 5,60 feet, Natchez 200 feet, Madrid 1978 feet,
Geneva 1300 feet, and Paris, Padua, Manheim, and
Vienna, whose respective heights we have not been
able to determine.
The following table exhibits the relative mean heat
SPeonal arrative, Cuey'sPhilad. Bd. p. s, note.
MRMOIB ON PLORDA.
of the two contientme from the equator to latitude
If the mean temperature at the equator be reckoned
1000, we shall find half of that temperatme iq the 614
continent at lat. 450; and in the new w"*J'iLt.
Latitude 00 00'
Frbim the foregoing tables, the mean heat of Florida,
compared with the general heat of the adjacent re-
gons, and with that 6f the eastern contineiit, is seen.
n any country enjoying a mean temperature of 65
degrees of Fahrenheit's scale, snow and severe frost
will be rare, and if the mean of temperature amounts
to 66.5 degrees, of the same scale, snow ceases en-
tirely, or occurs as a very rare phenomehno. In win-
ter, however, tle refrigeration of the air depends less
upon the mean temperature of the year, than on the
sudden diminution of heat arising from local causes.
The mean temperature of Mexico is 62.240 Fahr.
and yet snow has only fallen once in a century;
whilst in the south of Europe, and in Africa, it snows
Annals of Philoophy, Vol. VI. p. 377.
26 siet oN FLrtO' t.-
in. laaes where the mean temperature exceeds 66t,
Fahr.0 The thermometer has been down to 12 de-
gr, of Fahr. December 12th, 1800, at Natches,
where the mean temperature of the same year was
64.50 Fahr.t Snow has occurred two or three times at
New-Orletts dinng the last forty-five years; and
severe frost sufficient to produce ice an inch thick,
and destroy the orange trees, has happened at that
city three times within the same period, though en-
joying a mean heat of 65.80 Fahr. January 3d, 1766,
the ice was an inch thick in Florida, as low as N.
latoP2, and the orange, banana, the green shoots of
maple, tidi ~a ia, (buck-eye or horse chesnut,) and
manpy otY tie under shrubs and plants, destroyed at St.
Aeguatine, and over the adjacent country:; and yet
the mean heat of that acc- amounts to 66.130 Fahr.
This latter indisputable fact respecting the froot of
1766, dissipates the foundation, upon which Romans
has-mplced his demarcation of the respective climates
of Florida. But, nevertheless, though no doubt mis-
tahi as to the line of frost, the general observations
of this author on the meteorological ihenomena of
that country is more in unison with our own ex-
perience in Louisiana and West Florida, than that of
any other author whose works we have had the good
fortune to meet witH on the subject. The course of
the seasons give by this author for Florida has a very
remarkable, indite almost perfect resemblance to
those ofCLoyimamna. The effects of heat upon the
huaan body in the two countries must be, no doubt,
very different, but we are very much induced to be-
lieve, that great similarity prevails in the ordinary
routine of temperature, allowance being made for
difeence -of latitude, along the north side of the
Gulf of Mexico, including the contiguous parts of
Humboldt, P. N. Carey's Phil. Ed. p. 118.
1 Transactions A. P. Vql.VI. p. 48. Emigrants Guide, p. 145.
t Bartram's Jurnma, treS ed. p.11. Lobde 1i690.
. -.......S ..,.L.... ji .. i. .,..
UMoOIn ON 1..FLOl A. '7
U Leaisiana M W ii, MAlabama,Iorgi, aad Flo-
rida. See Appea o. e5. .
.. Oaef the most important subjects of liuiry,
conneel d witbt the -acquisition of Florida talJU.
&, is tlh* enlargenunt of the range of vegetable life
whidh r t coumayopaeawo the enterprise of ourtiti-
eas. This abject is so intimat~wl blended with
views of dima aa et to admit sal consideration.
To establish the practice e ti n of any
vegetable, and its beneficial culture in a given coun-
try, demands, independent of its soils, thp following
In respect to climate--L a Ieli
and mean annual heL. 2. Mea se
S Absolute length of summer, or period of tie -
tween frosts; or, in other words, that continuous
term, wherein the theru meser is at all times above
the freezing point. 44. The ettea severity of i-n-
Ster, or dhe ower thSmomeci depeald uio r &.he
mear temperature of winter. 6. Prevailing winds.
7. Exposure to seas, lakes, or other bodies of water;
to open plair&, their extent; to forests, their extent
and density; or to mountains, with their eletion,
range, ae, : conpactne.s; and 8. The absoluntae eight
of teI give place above the lepl of the ocean, or
mean of barometric pressure.
'In relation 4t sbe plant itself-]. Whether an-
nual, biennial, trienaiat or perennial. 2. Whether
tree, shrub, &c. 3. it:s ummer lifg or-the period of
time necessary to admit the produationoalEwersand
fruit. 4. If all, or what part destructible by frost,
and the degree of severity necessary to produce de-
composition. 5. The mean heat necessary to produce
aflorescence and fractification. 6. The degree of
cold, which arrests or impedes, without entirely de-
stroyig vegetable life.
In North Amerisa, as far as latitude 48, the sum-
mers are four centigrde degrees (7.21 Farnhbeit's
--~-1E~isy~jfiy~wni~C,,u; -C~smu~~lli,. ----- -----1;U~,~,~*;;;~,i*_
28 MiMOIf ON PLORLoaA.
sealsk)otY., than in the corresponding latitudes a
the old continent. Hence hbe reason why Magnmis
a" iodher equinoctial pa ts appear so far north in
America. .In la tegj : the geographical distribu.
tion of ttskf ..o wMstquene to distinguish be-
tween: atnh.v.mp nual teanpevmtwde and Ahe mean
tempeMa3~ftammer *. It is, however, it respect
to sntif f d nmops precious vegetables, as we be-
fore observed of still more consequence to distinguish
and carefully mark the greatest severity of cold.
It would swell our treatise beyond its prescribed
limits to notice very valuable vegetable which is or
may b iiitf. d ced0into Florida; we will, therefore,
wpfinew. tionsf to the most interesting species:
aisze~i nce, uease, vine, olive, coffee, date, almond,
orange, peaw cherry, fi:white mulberry, pome-
graBIatebf aM ir-t popfi few of. the meat im-
portant meadow grasses..
Respecting maize, and the common garden vegeta-
bles ,eoa y, the climate of Flrida will permit their
a -uraodction,. whee the soil ifavouBable to
their grow ,.'*': .:;: ,
Riee .enOaids a mean temperature above 64P Fah-
renheit's scale, and a summer of at least 170 days to
produce its full deyelopement. Very little of Flo-
rida, but possesses the requisite mean annual heat,
and a summer i adequate lengthee~~efoe the rage
of rice may btsnr ered arco-extensive with the
territory.'Thi e lent grass gives abundance to
immense spaces too low and vwet to admit the clti-
vation of any other known useful vegetable., Itspro-
duction.may be indefinitely extended in Fldrid t
aRlice is an exotic grain o the continent of northh
America. It was first planted in South Caiolina,
about 1688t, and then by chance, a little of it, of a
small unprofitable kind. In 1696, a large and whiter
Annals of Phtlpaehy, VoL VII. p. 377.
f Dr. Mbase, Wonders of Nature and Art, Vol. XIM. p. 230.
'YI L'LU ~II
7"m, m.t MW -.I~~4~L~
flu B ~~~~~ F~~~ Iod&i ~ Iu
abogta.e8604pia srn1i4. Mr.
DU ~ e wrzA& pupI Uh~
itGs beuwt '
tiha tone inmIaAn
referciic to hip4 a
to- sucha cmmlly aaF~oiikag toi~i mt
tussaWt kt bal
Zott' V idl ... ........Sd'Ap4hs
7 "S I
ca"t p(' rain to aGite r ening w A gathering of
the ap to betlEaici ts i6 another fad pinh
hore 'r t '. If the souters part
of !in, VtI t i ete of the
lere K, die. t!51soil
to 'It' cuvfit&ted, seents to vaty
its quilit Yil o1f prodffed ietg -from less
change of 's1 an 'ctitte, than ari Vegetabble matter
yet prtcct Ifafu labour. '"Tt 'ipebieatin-
rFtioFMine, within a&Tew tnilth, and
emi s inf~ffible such fields
," soil t sttables, th
cpe can 1i4epend-
Edf a t Chenwsitcu-
i is very ard at
3 nef qt4ae, at 30
ft in pro-
t for human
Se"--. that no
known ri an uj~ut ithe Un States, wchen
vated On.t$ i &iin ahaw*fa tfnltty such re-
t* di"a-i're to 6 t a
atitstdtiutmtN but in
and other European
't, e soil mtAt st alble to
~ii is very dif0t6 from
** In ?f8ubt be ittrv into
Florid in ETs dAw dive is successfully culti-
vated cil oh have a e mr6ineperatuer of
"'",, teA's. pumpti p..jI.
..t ....s. ..,.., .... .... .i.. ..*. .i ......'_ l :i. . ..
XQNL9S QN 8144J10IA
mer :wi We ra
la~ t~s~i~i~~lE~.nwmrro: Ue
Ancient wuiM,-W..*M -AaS' -
wherc, -11" 1 .
South af ~r~ln~ ~~1 :L i~tg~~L ~
in L';.W*-r..Avir,~ u~cdLSli~qlwwWek~
that tlu.elivmay be,
beeome wiWn. in Fl
conseumsdy .the faieiwlw $
assmW ilkas deekd. *
calct '-;---s of I&,r2~.%
venue otaJe dive# fmw: ro4b %Vin olive,
Cc=irm d'Agwultwr .V 202, Awi9*Ohie.
."Tperk.. go: .Pdai dmc ha~ .pbjeO%-!wivh evwor
tferl* 4 wce cannel tables as aawsuiffingn
'aaih~y co e t~alono coa-
io all es.
P1I1 ,in com-
therm~oifleiieI tabca; pge 22of ths Mm ir.
mane pae i.aght
OWL ig.g been a
frost, Wiwftw'aftr is-
I p c~ii~ a~t ~2e ~o~his ftq~i~e ;o
and- by 3___ "sl
and~ .5darffi ,.~ toL the
thcrmomeccial MUCK P~ age .22 of this Memoir.
qec page 26.
b% ~ Akft ON 61fiftte of IA
~UIU uuurnr ~(iEa*ICrG CI~~IEI LI. V U IJLI I`K V LJF
be orr.SuWI ~ t eGftt*ES aboivcb t.,. lk*e i--a the
cul "Ilik l
T49e vaMM W
~ili~j F pims
at -IV vdram
tutke of t
quisiFIe~ioi uwut for
instant% ~ though
PHONY 2* or
he-t s et.. 'te
rli~s~rruoi: nrst ~' e~hr
4115OW& s~RC~~ tF~ 3F.libii~idJ~~tl: in
Mi in tZim Iulture 6f tther
1. p"lBs, C~ftY PEd. PL
-:l...-.--.: llll--l ... .
Fynmf Igs beggdle ato inquire
a eimaAiviigh family of
the t~i. trv.ee grvw( iki over an
.iAd.'-N.e ,"qa -
the olive "end |Sftbhr
Compaqigrihe iiiLr^ 11(1^ o|Mts raoge m
Euthe ,a.wr i r..ae Agie, at
been *utied *A ut fruit
rather il be L Whther
wbe m*- Jb
..* 1 u dnljaae a .
hida Cf fp>ject ti"- fr"hnoti L -i. to the4
Flgou -~~ therde- at
boith t sthe
m ripo a
the lattr rgie.
viotrthat the* pmch be
canno ~us) has
been stedik mudP i not law fruit
sufliiEn to sede r -itB benekcial Whobher
CoW& .fi osrksami 0dWnhAl, VakI. p. 44.
~iYrr ~Li~uu~sa bj;LiEiL~il~u_ --u
34 u OeN. ex roman A
plactst. e4tiWAl4rt okoar.lpt "w
questici either t .I -
zowis, both ware ago 1il rnilck
lR'te i 5l i bles i a-
con...hty ).. .The
ti .*ige .i could
-be.ra T *i;tis strictly
be alW'd M:of B
ed.6qbrst Italy and
temperatuJre .as Fahe i, A small
tumm a .i "
id lA lat T.khe w .ranguag~-angI is
jo 1 heit
consequetly, ,,s t E..lrid ay.b i A um m
equal in climate to the north side of the tropic of
Cancer .in A4 i'ical cl";n cne'eetted,="
.... ,.: ,; .... : ." ... ... ; ..:.s
aM MIS O*
There m sp, whe
tB ,.. .. w npro.
Tiahere ia nog spot ,i Ai and Ameri.
the wie u i al to
.. . .. .... .-. .
eis te mo va cieo
t". ..,.%. ..a-3'ver
mible range ugh=, 'ica, and, America.
The wte imulbes the mounivea cultivated
c bft. belliv. wiR
~rc~ll~~a~ t~rI~; TADM.~;
*th whte pjpIS
a;Ei d U ;our of nut 0t14,*
noW ca .4.t 4sifWi6 -O degrees.. below the
freezing point-- -it ohiu# much fixed rai e-and r-
Cai" rEidit y ad power 1bV.t Vas in 4
* Ce^e a i6 article Pegy.VdL .1^,ta
.. : ,s. . .. .~ ~~ ~i. s.i
N:. -' .... | ia:, ian
east _. .be en
todrge amendedd** 'e*
f the ata sp a,
pos ed the deu
o ofatents o The faculty
df g-,ri.,iaterJa .ong
ti e ..... ca. 4theai
'ni s uy eml.-ppy'wa viewed, a veforceof
of. fa p ring new*o
letters putw hich tho*$'pmnufacnre utndeaele
f niouS ex h ho sold i ged with
a n Ian4ht O pitIecnlators, -hn-
tinte& oe aithe,' M 4bt patents they obtained,
C sp ei alsay papprt was viewed, as very per-
i., .A1 -, .. .. as.. *.
"fle s ex"l. whr"r o sold it, bri".ed with
b. *- -..
MNhS* .N w .Ip hm.
to mix paifteris cdswtbety ad not theeeless heati
and perfectly upply t eal ai~ f a t .. the olive oil.
They are lss d6cea~, it is true, tm-anth ftmi4t S of
isir overpay pewt 4aoilor to the ile teli.
St hara wt poppnoru
wubffilfc-i iX~aeiy' efiasitri eov(stha
tune 4 rawt. ...... o r. O u..Bt.r ,-; ..
It would of. so uewto wBell itana by any
specific nothiof -cotton, indige.,.a takepe Those
vegetables having been so longeitwiated in latitudes
fiar above any part of Florida puts the practicability
-*' Iri .
AUW e si7 pal
CA As Wo
F;~~~snai. ;~tr~slr~ li~r~~, o7t
'' "h t~~"fi~ ~~imid 4*r,~~ ~l ~ lRsk;~
ffi tpd~';n op, -MA f --A~f~r~ii : i).*I~
JOPMOM-ft. heth height
Ii At Marv. Witli.-the
b.a ?nanummd, this
*..being nwii: and
its growth, ahd the
aras which in most
attended to i' Caro5ia .
"This gras is a real blessing to the souther
MANOR ON, Via""
dw~. ~-ba~ai r~ q~~~:
Wiwas iaioed bs estvts.m.
*%t so nti ed4Ubdtt ihr Savw4bM.
advantages of thp c
"I en Sou4h 4Varad Gergia. *ppeaanoe of
this plant As *iwio we f od laud.
In Souilirr c n Georgia, 50e
CU0afed totth ~ 4~hing effectshat~
dry pCUmjW tocn~it wh' 'I C&
theeF" ng .pon .. ... m
NMWSYMiNrk hI shWul4mb
~;~i~atr f~LE.1as blrWvwmls abrda t
of oflhis ;ixMil fiir rst
years, ,C7, (91;7 51)5pr abm..,Th. a.' i is pknt
is another -atptme in fitvwow, iofo flm.io
I Pao avbie of th u biftcj,
the -oit is thint,
Ir I eiter tOn
9a 1ithin avianta is
in places wbhe
.rocky, or sandyy" It
at" b W y and if Uwd as
See Dr. Iei~ft'li .6M="Jihe Dmeutic Enqcdopudis i
and &zainjbin, au4 2Wtrag. .Ir. Soot N. r.
it rco~rig~i. h
of "I, .11WIrti'~~ ~iti %r~ii'i~ FII~WPI
that Pcouowq Hm.
water, pyet: Jw
In adcliti n tb oa, Fi
ia white oak; dwarf white oa*.Ct post oak; bkaok
;i.5~i~~.~,. 1~i~;;.: ~j~L;i~iiiii~i~in~~!;i, i.
adeeOf oV fil mWA.
aOli ~, W r i tt imtiveir s; -black o ak,
wit~ u is black Wi~~Wrland ok,
with fh re d "atiin those of ssfras; ,Caroiiia
,d aft 4ehsit'lteaved oak; white swamp ok;
willow-leaved oak; and the true white oak.
S tithl:et e t fBly, the common chesmnt, thin-
qapiin and beech, ate the oty species. The chinque-
pi; tifOiiii thsbutfe sections of Missesaippi,
ii ,: e~ t~E in all.Florida, attains the size
f *t odaler tite % often, 40 ket in height. TM e
chesnut on-the cont where fkd in thie regions,
is a dwarf, when compared with its kindred species
in higher latitudes., The beech of Florida has no-
thing peliar iftai qiage or fructification.
T fr i tly of the wa t, hickory, or juglans, af-
Sf lriA:i r Fonur' cies in Florida. Black walnut;
large, tWt-ebarked hickory, with egg-shaped fruit;
the ramt Virgini n bickoty; Wd the white swamp
Skl t ~3wi t W ielled bitt6r 4itt *
i Mill giiftl aiepecies. Mulbrry leaves woolly
on the unier side; mulbptry etuembring the lote-tree,
very 4breanhy and large leavestld mulberry with
Magnolia, four .ispeicis iiagi lid i the largest
flower of any of theani~Ey,i er.side bofthe leaves
ferruginous; ,magnolia, with a grey laurelleif, Whitish
below; mag~iia, with a white lower and point-
ed leafr an,iagnolia, with a very large white flower
of three petals, and scarlet fruit.
Latretl e spaces Lamr~i, withpointed leaves,
and blue brrism sending on large frt-stalks; the
the Amleindtit laurel; the laurel with trifid
ly Nar*n as the sassafras.
ST aigr dndron.
SainMambar, or sweet gum.
Sycamore, or trn plane tree.
Persinon, or diyros Virginiana.
, .' ^ **L_. I,^.'if i _- "
46 MIrMOIB o- F SORIA.
CypreS% two species. American, deca4qpasey-
press; and the large and ery useful. ecvergapse
Holly, (ilex op ca,) ith prickly leaves, and dcep
verniillion-coloured berzy., -
Maple, three species. .Maple, with compoite
leaves; maple, with five-lobed leaf sharply indented;
and -maple, with a five lobed leaf, faintly indented.
The cotton wood or poplar, two species. Large
white poplar, with small heart-shaped leaf; and black
poplar with very large heart-shapedleaves..
Willow, two or thee species.
Ash, two or three species.
Bignonia catalpa, the 'iw pante of the French.
The wood of this tree is amongst the most durable
known species of timber. It grows in, rich alluvial
lands to a very large forest tree, but is commonly of
moderate size, 50. or 60 feet high. The .atalpa is
now very carefully planted in parts of Louisiana for
the invaluable qualties of its wood.. ,I grgws I in any
soil, and quglt tes s bj. t of serious awqntion in
Florida. ZJ ddia 1t inbp;tntpeoatiee$ du-
rability, worms never or very seldom perforate and
prey upon this wood. It has a fetid acid taste and
smell, which the wood retains in any situation in
which it is placed.
Tupeloo, or swamp live tree, with broadpointed
and indented leaves, and a fruit like ihe largest wild
Locust, Robinia pseudacacia, or black locust.
Gleditsia, honey locust, two species. Gleditsia
monosperma, -with triple axillary. spines an an
oval pod enclosing a single seed; and gleditau tria.
canthos, with an oblong pod enclosing many xet.
Black birch, betula nigra, with doubly serrated
rhomboidal leaves. 2
Candleberry myrtle, or wax tree.
...i .. .-. .
IMBOOi ON TOItLDA. iT
SOf ntiv v~dae Florida three or four
apeize4- e.ftAWi which ii the mus.
cadine, o tf a pe; and the p q-Ji d river
i fregotg as added, a. of lss tnte
snhi E two ci large reed cane(rundo
igntea); a pio aqutca r water reed j dwarf
palm, (almet oeie s;u and the hawthorn tree,
two. or th e : .
Nb aiclu botfridigenous
and exotic, t otd: inir~i'Tmen~~bn of the
plants of FIiar N, fUtt lievp the.mit important
are inserted. .
: T' ,, i C. :. .
U IlOBrICAe L ePOOea.. A:
S 1497. Tee bY ti ,ab t merely
1512. Y ce Leon, Nbrto Rico, dis-
covered the country, nd landed at N. lat. 300
8', and named tihefciintfy 9ibida.
1528. 'Ti country aH visited by Paiphil Nar-
15s8. f rMai e, .~ .~t .y f Espi.
ritu Shpto, traversed t iitnsu- a thtle north-
'ard of. that habour, subjected for the
momiAi ny of the fitdian tibes. De Soto
continued his exdi iio' beyondd the bounds of
Florida, t da ie ms in i.valley
1562. ThI hench, :uft Fa rancs Kibault, planted
t..eOl ti~'ii caoybl dabhy building
-Chai h At Cb of 1 6 osaii 1 king of
SFr~ance. r u rtr ch dic:ery was at the
modfthof$t;J hn's river, called by the French
River of Mf. "and by the Spanfirds of that
period St. Matheo. Ribault continued farther
L =.' A '- .. 1 .
ilk tejA ^ t, -' ,"[ *^'. ..,.:, *..... . "W 8" '" "" *.
*"-. -*- -
- --uurM 'atH .. .. W M .....&! .... 1" ..
ItJ I eft a smal p r at pd
S.' l ce ". t o
15 M, "itl wa4 t ^ln
troops art Caro e, a san t oit otP .ei -
pedition against the Spaniards. In th~ interim,
a Spanish force undo Pedro Mclendcs sur-
prised tJe. F 9q-. 1 i )ft dcfega.lecss,
and masmared4 the inhabitants with crcum-'
staces of a.tr ciou crqdty.
!Metendez twilit three fort on S, *jbnS ri- n
S.d, ; . M .,. A. .
e .ac gnolitely,
* but v ~ s r s to
W as f .; ;, .a. '.. *<'.,
1709. wSi Mre~ tf Sau Car, headed
Jian Amospac. The town was
I*:r;t casl, to wicu .ithe Spaniards
hrs Iad, .spinedt; invader succofully,
7X&] *.%wHtis at 4siit q
SB; an on the 44 arnb th d heva-
lier Sagpyr to L uisi-
up.a soap acv sw antcked
cokpwn FUtdacNi ant 1. de Citeaug4, the
co.iBlwndt, p.s his f:opsmade i ganers.
yea,,aig inin thmnipupji (chef
'S1?Plrf'.i~aw .Se past of Louisiana
.. wilae:: aej~O a ent wItch, together
wish ~:wat fp. usdi Min.dienville, gover-
aageiwas ed a.Lomiaaa, proceeded against
La arpe 's M iu ty Blt f l French Sentiemet of Louisi-
175. Ccia P i i bdi r m I
of m ihe .iot. Tihus Penad aSid r the
tbui ta ke theu. rt. On
1735. B Jtkof P eT EY& .P.po Foida was
1725. aCa d and doeattt the
SAugustine, ddasta the country,
but could not take the Ibrt.
1765. By inue of the .Try S Pa*uflla; da was
ceuei t'o treaGi'ektid,*C"5 wblbin SEh euntry
was divided itoEtwo government Eai Florida
and West -Flodda, with the following. limits:
The .ornimeiat of East f V.id was decared to
be boude; the wstnwid by the Glf of Mexi-
co and the 4pai& a hiv~r; to` iorthdW*d by
a lineidrawn fr tbt pat of the sadlivicrwhere
the Chatihouche dad Fint riverr meet Cttiraource
of St. Mary's ver, and b the.cournt of the said
isand ia shnri '.til .h
wardtw ? hysdin' rw4fro it awi taned
The garment o et Tlorid was caredd
to be bodd to the southard by the Gulf oMexi-
co, includiitg all islands within six leagues of the sea
coast, front the river Apalachteol to-lae Ptachar-
train to the wrestaditby the said lake, e ake
Maurepas, and the rider Misuisipsi; i. t north -
ward bLa ine drawn due east from that pite of the
river bhsissippi, WWi*h Ies in thirty-one dtgiees of
north latitude, to 'he river. Apalachicola, qr Chata-
honceae; and to the easeard by the said tiv "
1769. West Florida cocaine about 6060 inhabi-
tanwts, mre thah oa third of whom'dwre set-
tied atlng the banks of the Miasai river,
between bayou Iberville and a few miles above
- a .
FL4ggtq T fA LE cw# FOR WO
MENSB OK P&BeWDA. S5
l 18.In lt a tr 4 is jear, 'tw bodies of
S .etr i uron from St. Augus
it wre, after delatig a part
d "h ctdMi outry about SunbSur and Ogechee
w. i arere 3 itreat intoFloriin.
I Aerica. .inifdrder to retaliate, project.
|%an epiedhiodid reduce St. Augustine. This
fi res, cniEdig about 2000 mne w was con.
fided to the command of al Robert Howe.
On the advance fd the merican army, Fort
Tonyn, at the mouth of St. Mary's river, was
abandoned. 'The Britis rreeated towards St.
Augustine, which would, it is probable, have
fallen, but a deadly sickness forced general
Howe to retreat, ind- withdraw his troops to
1781. Pensacola,and all West Florida wassubdued by
Don Bernardo Galvels governor of Louisiana.
1783. All FlOida reteded by GreatBritain to pain.
1795. By the treaty of St. lldefbnso, Spain receded,
to' France, Louisiana as held an4 claimed by
I the latter nation 6eiei ii possession of the
country. This session necessarily included
West Florida, west of the P-rdido river, and
consequently theJnited States, virtue of hold-
ing the ancient rights of-France, in
1810. Seized that part of West Fldrida, and annex-
ed if to the then government of the Misssssipi
terrifoty. Subsequently, the section of West
Florida betwn the Mississippi and Pearl river,
was incorporated into Louisianna. From Pearl
river, to ten miles cast of the Pascagoula river,
forms the southefli extension of Mississippi.
And the residue, to Perdido river, now forms
1Mobile county in Alabama.
1814. November 7th, Pensacola was taken by the
United States army under general Jackson, but
soon after evacuated.
*~4 r *a.Ai
,,..- ,w*. ,..
6-S I oeft .o OTf.@t, A.
S ingtbb, betuwe ash odien Aal'Sf both
: ii~~~wil r ip min: I to
VW *anyir ar was, October
-a, wie C .jing of
Sp ,and an F erumary S~i l ed
d jgvcrnmnt of the United SS, and
Flkmid m now an integral pt of ofr country.
.... . *
^fr< .-- .
., *. *" - ";
By the President of the United States.
WVHEREAS a Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and
Limits, between the United States of America and
his Catholic Majesty, was concluded and signed
between their Plenipotentiaries, in this City, on the
twenty-second.day of February, in the year of our
Lord one thousand eight hundred and nineteen,
which treaty, word for word, is as follows:
Of Amity, Seattent, and ti tietwem the United
States f .~merica andEI Cathlic My'esty.
The United States of Americi and his Catholic
Majesty, desiring to consolidate, on a permanent ba-
sis, the friendship and good correspondence which
happily prevail between the two parties, have deter-
mined to settle and terminate all their differences and
pretenlsions, by a treaty, which shall designate, with
precision, the limits of their respective bordering ter-
ritories in North America.
With this intention, the President of the United
States has furniifled with their full powers, John
Quiney Adams, Secretary of State of the United
States; and his Catholic Majesty has appointed the
3117, 7 7Tj
54 APPENDIX, NO. I.
most excellent Lord Don Luis de Onis, Gonsalez,
Lopez y Vara, Lord of the ,town of Rayaces,..per-
petual Regidor of the Corporation of the City of
Salamanca, Knight Grand-Cross of the R9yal Ame-
rican Order of Isabella* the Catholic, decorated with
the Lys of La Vendee, Knight Pensionqr :f. the
Royal and distinguished Spanish Order of earles
the Third, Member of the Supreme Assembly of the
said Royal Order, of the Council of his Catholic
Majesty-his Secretary, with Exercises of Decrees,
and his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo-
tentiary near the United States of America.
And the said Plenipotentiaries, after having ex-
changed their powers, have agreed upon and conclud-
ed the following articles:
articlee I. There shall be a firm and inviolable
peace and sincere friendship between the United
States and their citizens, and his Catholic Majesty,
his successors and subjects, without exception of
persons or places.:
II. His Catholic. Majesty cedes io the United
States, in full property i: sovereignty, all the terri-
tories which belong to him situated to the eastward of
the Mississippi, known by the name of East and
West Florida. The adjacent islands dependent on
said provinces, all public lots and squares, vacant
lands, public edifices, fortifications, barracks, and
other buildings, which are not, private property,
archives and documents, which relate directly, to the
property and sovereignty of said provinces are in-
cluded in this article. The said archives and docu-
ments shall be left in possession of the commis-
saries or officers of the United States, duly authoriz-
ed to receive them.
III. The boundary line between the two countries,
west of the Mississippi, shall begin on the Gulf of
Mexico, at the mouth of the river Sabine, in the sea,
coiitinuing north, along the western bank of that riv-
Ir.*.;... *~f~.i~. -~. -ii~~ j~Ct isa&- L-~ assaia..a .
APPENDIX, NO I.
er, to the 32d degree of latitude ; thence by a line due
| north, to '.ie degi. f 'atithde where it strikes the
Rio r6xo0of Natch'ioches,'or' Red River; then, fol-
lowing the icouise of the Rio Roxo westward, to the
degr oflongitude 100 west from London, and 23
fi'oi hington; theticrossing the said Red River,
and tnihg thenceb, by a lin'due north, to the river
Arkansas4 thenci, folobwing the course of the south-
ern bank of thfe"Arkansas, to its source, in latitude
42 north; sid thence, by that atpalll of latitude to
the South sea The whole being as laid down in
Melish's map 6f the United States, published at Phi-
ladelphia, improved to the lst of JaIhuarf, 1818. But,
if the source of- thb Ar*ansas river shall be found to
fall north or south of latitude 4% then the line shall
runt frm the iaid: source due south or north, as the
case may be, till it meets the said parallel of latitude
42, and thence, al- rg'the tdid pasralel, to the South
sea r Al the istlids in the Sibind, ~od 'te said Red
and Arkanisa rivers, throughout the course thus des-
cribed, to belong to the United States; but the use
of the waters and the navigatidn oftle Sabine to the sea,
and of the. said river 'Bff tw Arkna)Aksas; through-
out the extent of the sid ,on their respec-
tive banks, Ahai be cdni iiA ti respedive inhabi-
tants of both nations. '" '"
The two high o'ntracthig parties agree to cede and
renounce all the'r rights, e~lfis, and' pretensions, to
the territories d~icribed b."ftie' said line: that is to
say : the United States herelj ce4 to his Catholic
Majesty, and renoiitfce foeveri tt-iir righti,'laims
and pretensions, to tdiEtrttries ying esf aid south
of the above ldesi~ led fiite' and, Ii like manner, his
Catholie Majesty cedes to the said 'Uhited States all
his rights, claim, 'id preensions, to any territories
east and north of the said line, and for himself, his
his heirs, arid"successors, renounces all claims to the
said territories for ever.
S ,l .:. -. .;- .. .. . .., .. -.... -a .'
56 APPENDIX, NO. 1.
IV. To fix this line with more precision, and to
place the land marks. which shall designate.. ex .ly
the limits of both nationss each of the contrating
parties shall appoinMtla ei iiier and a surveyor,
who shall meet before the termination of one year,
from the date of the ratification of this a, at
Natchiteches, on the Red river, and prce~fi run
and mark the said line, from the mouth of the Sabine
to the Red river, and from the Red river to the river
Arkansas, and to ascertain the latitude of the source
of the said River Arkansas, in conformity to what is
above agreed upon and stipulated, and the line of
latitude 42 deg. to the South Sea; they shall make
out plans, and keep journals of their proceedings, and
the result agreed upon by them shall be considered
as par of. this treaty, and shall have the same force
as it were inserted there. The two governments
will amicably agree respecting the necessary articles
to be furnished to those persons, also to them, respec-
tive escorts, shabnl 4a be deemed necessary.
V. The inhaitai tof tie eded teriories shall
be secured, ik the f~ia e~a e f tuir a i with-
out any restriction a irall those who may desire to
remove to the Spanish dominions, shall be permitted
to sell or export their &ects at any time whatever,
without being subject, in either case, to duties.
VI. The inhabitants.of the territories which his
Catholic Majesty cedes to the United States,. by..this
treaty, shall be incorpoated in the Union of the.. ni-
ted States, as soon as may be consistent with the
principles of the fcrecat constitution, and admitted to
the enjoyment.ot afl the privileges, rights, and .i-
munites of the ciizens of the United States.
VII The officers and troops of his Cathli Ma-
jesty, in the territories hereby ceded by,hiaimto the
United. States, shall be withdrawn, and possession of
the places occupied by them shall be given within six
months after the exchange of the ratification of this
* .t '- ~r
.a-.': : l-~*
APPENDXL, NO,. I, 5T
S eaty,. or srpr, if wai ki, Jy officers of his
CatholicMESV tt u e ;icamswslonCra;or officers of
the itucJ.z uy appointed to receive them;
and ti i taes shall .urnish the transports and
esco necessary to convey the Spanish officers and
S^ their baggage, to the Havanna.
. :' theigrnts of land made before the 24th
of January J by his Catholic Majesty, or by his
I ftw a.abio~ idMn said territories, ceded by his
Maeaty to the United States. shall be ratified and
S confirmed to .the persons in. possession of the lands,
to the sae.e extent that the ame. giants would be
valid, if terrtcies had remained under the do.
minion of his Fo ai Majest .. But the owners in
possasilr of ,.h i4nad who,by, reason of the recent
cirouaotanes .of the Spanish nation, and the revolu-
tions in Europe, have been prevented from fulfilling
all the wcondiF o(thir ptats shall complete them
within.t. totpEm i*t*. u"se, sespectively,
from the ~,.of tis treaty a in default of which, the
said grants shall be null and void. All grants made
since te said .4th of Januar, 1818, when the first
proposal, on the part of his Catholic Majesty, for the "
cession of the Floidas, was ade. hereby declared,
andagreed. to be, n.fri a,: .al
IX. The two high contractng parties, animated
with the most earnest desire of conciliation, and with
the object of pMting an .od to all the differences
which have exsted between thbm, and of confirming
the good understanding whi hy. wish to be for ever
maintained: bctwen,: hes, zeigrc aly, renounce all
claims for dam wiotinr ps which they, themselves,
as well as their respect icitiaens and subjects, may
have sy*ted unil the tiuO.of signing this treaty.
1 TLterenunciation ofh the United States will extend
toall.the.injuries mentioned in the convention of the
11th of August, 1802,
iy. ""., ., &' a..YaC' "
58 APPENDIX, No. L
2. To all claims on account of pri-es made by
French privateers, and condemned by French cdWils,
within the territory and juisdiction of Spain. "
3. To all cdims of h demnities on account-~F the
suspension of the light of deposit at New Orlans in
4. Tb all claims of citizens of the Unii&s-tes
upon the government of' Spain, arising from the un-
lawful seizurcs-at sea, and in the ports and territories
of Spain, or the Spanish colonies.
5. To all claims of citizens of the United States
upon the Spanish government, statements:oi ofrhib,
soliciting the interposition of the govenrmnnt of the
United States, have been presented to the Department
of State, or to the Minister of the United States in
Spain, since the date-of the convention of 1802,.until
the signature of this-treaty. ....
The renunciation of his Catholic Majestyextetds:
1. To all the injuries mentioned in' the convention
of the !lth of August, 18208
2. T'o the sums-:4iich his Catholiet Majety ad-
vanced fIe k* ret hi of ainn Pike fret the' Pro-
vincias Internes. "'. :-..
4. To all injuries caused by the expedition of
Miranda, that was fitted out' and equipped at New
5. To all claims of Spanish subjects upon the go-
vernment of the United States, arising from-unlawful
seizures at sea, or within the ports and territorial juris-
diction of the United-States.
Finally, to all the chims of subjects of his Catholic
Majesty upon the government of the United Stas,
in which the interposition of his Catholic Majesty's
government has been solicited before the da tf this
treaty, and since the date of the convention 1f 1802,
or which may have been made to the Department of
Foreign Affairs of his Majesty, or to his Minister in
the United States.
.^ .. -.... f ,? ., ^,... : '.".. .
APPIENHD, ND. L s9
:n;Aat i:couutin parties, respectively, re-
iutg pfRr lqic !nddi smes for any of the recent
ev-ensteofstaggtiets"-of tir respective commanders
and ~aiit.the Floridas.
S. invited States will cause satisfaction to be
ihe injuries, if any, which, by process of
ih e b Jtlished to have been suffered by the
SpRnlihjiers, a nd jdividual. Spanish inhabitants,
by ta.c.: petRis,'af, the Amnerican army in Flo-
X. The convention entered into between the two
goveirnnets, on the ,1th of August, 1802; the ati-
ficationm-e. whi.. were changed onlthe l1st De-
ceiberi. 1818fis.fii etled.
X.L .e. Iaeilad.$tates, exonerating Spain from all
deadws,is s unteron account of the claims of their
citizens to which the renunciation herein contained
extend, sid; .tmide ug hem ~ ecanoelled, un-
decranqg* we u'ftIwo 4* 4 e itse.Aane, .to an
amount ..utar0eeding itvei milioas of dollars., To
ascertain the full amount and validity of those claims,
a commission .to.onsist.o;athlace ommissioerm, citi-
zens of the: Unitd .States., lee a pointed by the
President, ty ad with ltb heiweu*dndsoslent of the
Senate,. which coqIfisa l .tu-j i -e. a-the. city of
Washington,. apd, within the..paee of three years from
the time of the.-,rlicsfe neetipg, shall receive, examine,
.and decide upo the amount and validity of all the
claims included:~within, thidescriptiois above men-
tioned. ,The said cnmuaissiosw s shall take an oath
or affirmation, ,t beO.. ritplredt te record of their
proceedings,..fr the faithul and diligent discharge of
their duties t andin case 'af the death, sickness, or
nccesucn absena, of aip such -commissioner, his
place ay be supplied by the appointment as afore-
said or by the President of the United States, during
the recess of the Senafe, of another commissioner in
his stead. The said commissioners shall be authori-
APPANWI, r#'E, ,.
zed to hear and examine on oath, every qwaist ri .
latiWito the said etim and to recive.zj-vl M* S
authentic testimony cod*tniag the same. Ae ath~me
Spanish government shalt wtiah atl ioch doctrnts
and elucida6ti8es ~my "te" ~thelpoen8eu the
adjustment of the said claims, accodin~ g t -
ciples of j'dice t.he laws of nations, antila- I
tions of the treaty between the two: parties t. 27th
October, 1795; the said documents to be specified
when demanded at the instance of the said commis-
The payment of such claims as may blrdahited
and adjusted by the aaid commissiOers, orthe.najur
part of them, to an amount not etceeding five mil-
lions of dollars shall be made by the Unith States,
either inmediaCtely ~ their teasur-y~ bythe creation
of stock bearing m ihterest:of 6 gper et. per ainuft,
payable from the proceeds of&tsa escFi pabiwe lands
within the territeie reby d to the Unid states,
or in sech t he eraneri s the Cougmss of the
U4ild St.teran.; .....by. aw.
The S iwip dadg H ee town-
issiiojners; 'gethir with the vouchersahddocrimeaits
produced before them, relative to the claims to be
adjusted and decided spont by them, shall, after the
close of their transactions, be deposited in the De-
partment of State of:the'United States; and :i s
of them, or any part of them, shall be .firaided to
the Spanish government, if required, at the demand
of the Spanish Minister in the United States.
XII. The treaty of limits and navigation of 1795,
remains confirmed hi all, and each one of its tiles,
excepting the Sd, 3dM 4th, 21st, and the secoattlause
of the 22d article, which, having been atevby this
treaty, or having received their entire election, are
no longer valid..
With respect to the 15th article of the same treaty
of friendship, limits, and navigation, of 1795, in
which it is stipultr I that the fag shall cover the pro.
a, .. 1 fark-- .
ma.y it such
tre s Catholic
Majety, ago MatO ith.iessels coming laden only
l i -j. *,< .-**B...1 .*.t L.~S.Si. :f ite ... B,,' A
on thousn M digh
last past, a treaty was concluded dad sgned in
*. $ -4
;j, *,~, ~.:; ~ .~~ ~ ~*..... .
J- 4i ,qlW*
ip -. -
~e" ~ -~q
l: ,i ,
l^^^.-^^^.l..-.^-^? ^~*;ihte-^k^ ;.-. *. .4;.
opptuitics of knowing.
id.L*~'i*i~ijy i~ XIW~: ~~l* 'ii.L~
I *: i
igms~g~uot kmdd% -ten 9
fep~iiaisdou *flfylj% i~0-
dolmeb to k'a "'Y; ndrtrpcs turr
.. .. ...
IP~a$L~j~....... ... .....e~
Thmr~t`Mi~-i~ Tp n~~~~eE~r~~u~~;e~ir
466er;ilc:ik toJ conterd
C::i*r coftfso great a%. Mi
etflte from 'them-in&* nce
he influence cOnLjiaeonOn
iS, i equal, in winer, at
thre-. svordora e of thiORT.s g dc
t t latitade anotf; and about
the eaksvt f
lab.no,. oti:ar dr -a
ofa.ah Mi, awi his provisncei ch
it thisnwe find, ttrin wfhia wind
maets aver at ritp2Fst it lows directly a
but when mates tivsept4p arle iaalkN
it ipamedisi" d in. patop to the aagaK
the ingle, qa p or ~. as the ase m ; a
ways show tdi to, foieRlne .curse of
t re water. increased in propolaiop
Thnigt p. e, if i||te iot frhangest iltactod,
dri uy lf.teaidet g strigely theh b-
PIZBway, iiy^ o t.lpO it haas t
ai e y .f~'.=anres W Wse stringy t he sa
.p.. .i .or . q.~ a .s. it.
ia a.the a or tex e
colda[. moh,. A day or twom i~4. are
generally cool tdwoughout the summer; NoI we these
sudden trfations productive of tcageiaou con-
sequences that o frequently grow t of these in
other.countries. Colds are common with us, but
_17-7111177 .m.7 -A W-r 7T"
A~mVDIX,~ ~~a Ir
SIm- cops of
,. ; ........ ~, ~-*
bladick .,s cotton iaed on tsc g -aog -at
tht. ,e miles 4 dl irect *IMalp m
T'n alhabitan4a jkn g.h a.t -
pa3ned," a md& fl wnen
of the O apicuii seea.
than do as r gg iofea ie a ae i'es
Au4Aethe (y wMGak lirlly maorPd
oae or t, year iamis%- d carry a b.,pw o.
reach of nmiLveplul h 2
p.cEntnar ssennilt ppt t IWo ajSy
Mien1 I a.i Sai these ina n i4~ mI
of oq unr pine.wrrew; a'Fae ct envPa i m far
their south, '-d prticg when eJwy liave iglaq m
.tcher Bet:al .4 zar.-Th~;ea',
however*, mlins grades of Cra g Slnef si
miatiotRofa 4nd, es.a e 44 the. !,_.- for
lit*e 4s99 4WIIRaga agn
reaction. Its bar, tyigbout eighteen miles foathit
of St. MaryW', A4a iti m t&oSlan from use
to eleven Rfo lip flr. :1 *S Hp, is bs.
and .&aip ; taiih -lVBtt .-aum4a y 'tAii
whire Itais MMp ewtrks iaushea ;ieadjlpe
appear to have ito ie tee: ea aW ,xdg io
their manifold eiabicimgs mhiia kish
extensive railing b a i
bourhnod, aiu a mousi op*IRK fOr
ble knde~s; Mip
andbomend UsekL *iaBliVe eardin mSaS of
lutuher iRn Ityintie amta, AlMt M'ft tthe
good kItads *hs: riAver, wMhbe beui.ous
inundatieaso wwsww stif&BgNO SA.ure
crooake beads; t9-Aanchees ar*aFWaihtened bgy
N QLNWAY. cape
Abit VOKAW9YLJt tr
~arP ~8i~ua~A9b ~t i hr um,Iogh
iq all parts
d~i is ~4wippion
amnd~i~~~ roi ap.
Pea~,~it~scir~i:;. BrP~th~f;~ .n.Jswat that
74 SgwluI K41
hundrcd5o pcrsen8 frI-nzie T '
Ge~iVE, who have isis&i.
tl~: Itis therEk~~tb
Will be g~eafly .tn I a uon only caoinparingisvt0
it the domnHrCid 4@vaplkes, of an'izdkid navioti ui
between thiNM "s" :41 ol tateid"d
cwher rhore, Vwwe ;A on.
other equal extht-I: flow*. 4'~btii tnd
America. A dmk
bay are unqusstdMy highest l o.i hose.
side oF -i 6Mdk,7& uer Cr
the workl anb pedF, jfutgw. t
The watc-iWt '. i 81 John's rivte
V ed down 'tiu )the harbor
the wif Mll e creek., hl1
that river about sekenty iwks &orIkIb ba, ;ai4di4.
AMW~IESt4 IONk -11 is
.f....od, o.. tmddis
e~4s *a!~ I eitepq.f
Men "V. r~i~~d in
i~j4i bziu u7sk be found
WU pith ~ A~~
C~t.~ict by heavyy
i~JR:~%IIII~'"Pi~~ j~: 9P-hde weate
P:;'~Ei~lYa':3C~~-a oV4:~ Aljidicen low
.........~?jg it& way
:i~baa e~w been er-
Ii*: igbboistd .of this
nul squinted wiih
ist twenty 3 M- ; and
b bemn nD cause or such
mug ~Olt *fid have rived like civilized
Is. . .
The hefdof *je H
head of Ld EaS
a pleaip~ot g l'0WJOU:
die oth;e' *W V-h
ty miles farthoiw 'sg
the Matanzas iivei
along the sea 4iqRit1
skfibridus ubd id s
the large p.po1
vaintages, not eW~hly
.~i- . :. 3 .ZIra~~. : .i ; ~.:..i'~*m... Y icid
APAfltwalx, so:. Im. I.
oft.he g itis aid, is not
4k4Qt called the is said
dud oat Pwe0 ifbrmE persons to
|it Sion Oft province; but I
0.... t aC 1 4M. thane th ey are
of dmof about four
ied, 4que of the
stcne sti" the town of
N~ r ySSn l.y .ris i ls sti visible.
hI *Irn.s ine ofme IMiSgrt of
oit ty Auaitine--the effc
SU.. Ia river, t t promon-
hto ofd r and forty
26" &AI u the noeror
e nam e t N.es at. 30
ois o These
jed concert de, and .even when ts
'no l a AN sT. AU.
t*ow mq. p ,tuamed on the north-
w4est ~f i6' : name, lat N. lat. 30"
30' :a IAstVon 10* 1M'
', ,r..~hMiods of Great Britain, en-
jrs-ae y co iri' rlj e irtde, and even when trans.
78 APPENDI, Ms4 OI.
ferred to Spain, such were the, intrinsic teXqIppncie .of
its port, and thasRabrity of itt rs that tiplisde
not undergo ,sdanwth de adqep- a ,wan ea
ed. Conidetble aqgoij i W laptft s twagFS l
here while. pos6 t0 4W
of twto.I maiS aS4l pg twed stiK ,3itc, t
almost aspt. .wiha aqpa4y il ;.TwoJ '.rl
frqEL.tha I. bak ofa to houses, .jno almqot ap: t
the place. : TheJ .ar iads in. a.beautif~.lpest,,of
water, from 12 V 36 jtA inep*, Tbhe:Wtt&nm
sandy or Umidf, affosrds ii c^
harbour in Anerica ~smqreefectplly d 4 e fE
all winds,. and. .even tp 4 a .vssel be. riwqon
shore or accident strain th g ;pgtlm-
posed of soft tnaa l .lsqai 4: psequpspe can
not e~~4y QU.~I ,-: ,i
* Penogsopa (uobtnsi; alUpz i buutL
it must becpg d f united
States on the ip tqe Ao
certain and',d4s .It
sacola, andits, I'.xq Ws
not more than county nced by thp certa' .conse-
quent openness-'of q harbour, and purity of it' at-
mosphere. Eery thing jasidr, no reasonable
doubt can be entertained anisi t e.fu augmen-
tation of this town, in wealth and'popuan.
The following d .cito: of the Bay of Pensa-
cola, is extractedt& .a. .manugcript account of Flo-
rida, by George md, fonmety.Aurveyor-geqr. of
Florida, when a British .coloo.. The mapueript
isdated 1769, and deposited in the ibrqry'of the
American Philotophical Soity' .... ; ,
Thewest end of the. ial of AR' tches
athwart the mouth of the harbotir,.wit from
the sea. It would be difficult to .obsve the.efapance
if not for a remarkable red cliff, which not onj dis-
ArP~iNDir, NO. r. 79
tinguishc the ph~e, ibt is'a niak '%b go over the
par in WIS
Si is of a seia ular form,
with thifdVe side to 'the sea, at a ci'siderable dis-
tanceiionm the land; do itfo r i doubtf6; the con-
fit wiv e the sa a&ithei t~~e of the bay.' 'he
aiir iin' a burve. ft m rtyslreakers, all the
waq to dte eastwkai4 of the iof, Pir Signirl' Hohse,
on RBihse lari The otiftr itir~it extendtpg about
a tmitdeithottthte breaks '"It 4& a flAt hrird Iand,
but the bdtwion- byedes is so o y ground.
When ygku ake itCre A' 'th bar in deepest charn-
nel,' the" fort ori Pose ilitd, itei -E4I N. 2'
mies; the middle o'r h st zecliff N. WI S
miles. The'wMie gfduaAy from 4 to 34'fa-
tinms, iOil o ntt o :art is 2LTett, thence re-
gularl ydeepe ttt bm 'softer.
J Of. of I is- N. 1it.
t87. THe it-in 4 the
'^^9'-~e fi ;you'miust
All .~% i .tt tWtbank, ex-
tbfficgbiert Ip wo'f Rose
Ilalh waelike winter
ov the t ove't Pihe est spit of this
bank; tlfEWiythin'i at 1? 1' 2 cables'.
lent oAr-fhe 'd of which
thrcis a diy ft oint of Rose
Island opeh 'ti Wo the south-
ward f Deer N ith~& f ndc o St' ase chan-
nel, when yb 1fd up to the eastward betten
them, clar of 10:. biahit f "' There is a narrow
channriof 13 I 1 f between this bhik add the
point l .-.'
T t ift i a li A ichihg in d'sweep from the
Red Cliff, towards the above mentioned sandy key;
80 APPENDIX, NO. IH.
therefore, care must be ta!en not to,shutp Tartar
Point with Deer Point; bit as. the soutdings are
regular, unlea thome-be liu wind wit tide ebb,
which sets directly on0 thbi..s l,..and in that oe it
is necessaWy to ui*hp.Apteis..- -
Within T'Srt r t the. bay is about $ or .6ailes
broad, stechinghV to A northeast towarsi~tow; ,
whichis situated an the main-land about 8 males from
Rose Island, from thence the bay turns more to the
eastward, and is divided intp two la .6ralnces or
arms; one of which contan to the' w ward about
Igmiles from' ensacola, anithe other to the north-
ward nearly the Fsae disance, fro0 three to ive miles
broad. .,, t .ar
Between Tartar Point apd ensacola, there are
two large lagoups, the ao erBo of which runs
behind the Rad.iff. All the ent ide of the bay,
which forms a awep towards the town, i.b4boal for
upwards of hblf a mite offshore, but th ioE dihgs
are regular tol,." ',, '* ..
St. AugstinetbM hin no epect COfiEMiab$tQ
Pensacola isp spl M tse, piw 'w-
ever, advank ij athet ahspiccs. a tit'
ed States govente The remarkable healthiness
of its situation will reder the former the Montpelier
of the Atlantic slope. Its harbor ia pqr tly safe,
but impeded by a bar having only &4 ei a2ud a
tortuous- esfance. $The town -I alzh the west
side of the bay, arid"pnder the former Spish..go-
vernment, bef op~r se.ssion Florida to Great Jri.
tain, contained i people most of whom, eo the
British taking possess n, remove to Cuba. .hader
thri shsh government this place.eqjiyed as .!much
coftnerce as the nature of its port, a the pucity of
populatiowould pdmit. When itwe otr was
again receded to Spain, St. Augustiwa emd, and
languished till the present tia~p. It now destined
to rise from its isaed ;ith' awln hopes of. a
St. ies 44iasst ouldt heFl bc Atlaatic
bordqPs. f the waited States. -*
Its tieopt population doensaflexeeds0Ze*a*500
Frsot Situo at M PlSjW'. W. ing. from
Washngtonab 5. : AP 5'
* "; CIV. "' 'r" "!****' '
i *4 ".
4 ,llq1 I-
%. . -.
* aliSaiE.UN coc&te ":.
.A of NAlot hiwe..wa
m Amu 1746 UM.,
'I. '^ I' .'y
e ,nuts. At 7 ags tee
wpd thq s with its
**es 5^ dollars
some lal .' IV.. I moal ;.-*
culture ai A bEa .. il. v A but
exp Eswi .thalfex.
hImistcd $gi 12 years'
derneath. &eae as pted .e ranges
of ca .o l.1. i~ t7o yars al~.i so
that, wheiae. d.mtA rwi ccme r a re
wa1tt~c^c &r a #4 y14 for sreaem to rise
on it .ig i a could recover ks fist Ikfulness-
the e and, bing epnia covered by a new forest of
productive tlra the fruib of which growing and ma-
Aa iwB ix, to4,. qW.
touring all the ye. round,' eh day brings inmitsCrop.
I could net :selamit t l peepe jiace t ae, that it
seems, that pvideneerhiit se dipmns, in-
tended the cqcqa tree shou~ te the means of quickly te-
newing *the4sa0iBi1l4 at-produetionsAo. t is a
fact kisam tdinmiY't -this'mdaent, be- u-,
he who made thasuccessful experiment,l *:Berlt- ,
and thode who wee eye-witnesses to it, were by the
bloody eects of St 'Domingo's regenerating system
doomed to an untimely gray, and I am the only sur-
vivor. The fact is this : MP4- Berlie, a-planter on the
high land of DIonna Maria, had planted, after the cof-
fee had exbhustediJis land, the whole of his estates
withicoco trees.i-i l answered well; .buts coflee
became more productive, he thought of making an
experinaent, wtkh was, to q~lblam 20 acres of cocoa
trees, settingCthem on fire, in the same manner as is
doneinc Wi land,an hplantintFig with
coffee, it was t coee grew anEfC tifully
thai 't haf dd hA .. The cocoa trees wer when
"Tae Arsrmrt in
regeneration p.ipon which it ptjies,'ys
easily be acou r. This tree seldom attins
higher than 15 feet '.,it is branchy. its leavesivery
large; kad the tbdy, or stalk, of a" mniing size;
the leamve&ntihnual llin -f i&tre^'lllt M inew
ones gr dJti vertYlTarth witlikehtIdc 1of leaves,
which allswtolvefh a bidde of grass to' rw Iwith
them; hence ) ground requires no cultuie, and the
trees but a ligftpruizdng, when any ravages have been
caud by some storm.: This constant thick bOd of
Iea, returns to the earth five time tr mldreiiment
than the diminutive size of the tree-'equires from it,
and in O ii -than 30 years, it brings the s6 back to
its originahji tile state." i; r .
fS. : .. ,,' '
"4.* .. _ J
AND .MS.W nl ff.il TE seloQ..tjRi.e tm
*" .ount .' rlark a* ot ..^ G "CERS1
5" in vines aprodS ~ befo:.re ...
,,; for a an's xtI ur 55,9B SO
1 Olivet trtes, Vat, f. feef-I'nt, wil
yield, after 7 years' of age,.ar Mone
gait bf oil each, whiah valued at the
lowI price bf 81 50 cts. per gallon, is 262 50
45 Mw*t hdo pUrOduce valued abak *..... 5
-*ioa-l6-'a 4 *^ ."
T4or Yearly proceeds of a musikabour 8100W d
S ...., e i the above.
I shal n4w-.-ppofe, A atifkhe waeh e, "
of Wapeae m.
vfbiabwW'vik1a an rnu pelavpAte 9f 3 %t,,965,000
... 50,1)pi i ~ 62.. .
.w Vr( 9* .iv 7,f .o
50,000. peraons engaged: in citure of cocoa,
will cultivate 200,000 aires of land, which yill yield
an annual revenra of 526,420,000
100,0%0 persons engaged in the culture of coffee,
will cultivate 200,009 acres of land, which will yield
an annual revenue of 388,200,000.
Ml AreFawaz, io er. m
; Recapitaulq4o gt pecsdin estisan .
.Nse p,. m, # ,: ....w. .. W ,,.. .
&c. prodwe 0w0*gWyi5o
50,000 pesnra vstitig acres cocos 2643000
100,J ....r..fu ln ....1 8%206000 0
The home conS lSpi 'tlii country iay be eliia
ed to be maualb.itet, .
Wne., olve, k 1:05,00
Ca p ". .... ~,4 ,0,O
Hoie comtsuiiN ,. .
Leaving an immense wrplus for exportaibp to f t
enters, of wie'M oguy, &c. M,"00000
C cofee ____onooa
Dhpftj on *^',' V *16%0,W000
In a discott'Si n li'lort~"t' ar t the tiest
suitable mode.'btt soiediv in ti e ndi MWI0 bf
fruit te., tewht t heymm caiDrmU f,
S e evin w~"are i lWlaeewna
"eT. hana, Amit 15th, 7' i
any otR a Montalian what they natmal n"ve
1from therl : ,in wb b red evn
eiss motYsa t fri yeac, sieor Alk the se-
eid. Hiavanna, April 15th, 1794.
afael Montalo Codnt de Casa fyona."
|. *X .., ,." . .. :\ . : "
BW -o 41im *:-: ha: 4.7. 0. .
i. .: : . .
:S adtttor observes, "1 shall begin with the
penintd dividing it into two puts, which I will
ca Ell tuites, the one beginning r Mtuatoliar St.
Mlya irt. ifiti latitude 31, and exteAidk soth-
wardte the latitude of- 27:40: this will 'ii4 de t6e
rivers t. Masy,Msaaw, St'. lots or Ylaco, andte
t .eift Lagoon (fdcl iely no one can call this last
a river): besideerateral- smaller oans, which will be
,eiiatitplawsi taleumuIpty themaives
of Itk IA hielK ( *tittO-
ewizf| i Qat tlelaat the
Auan de GuuAaro, vulgly called little
Scg* the iMer AmaxAur, and tMs natee, which
'I hsba5g 4 T ~uuppqu of Spirito
laidtei Si: -'40: and tindij a*aethww4 the
latitude of 2. o the ftain, to 24: 17 : including
the keys, tis elisais a largf~ rier, which emptiep
itself inta~le ew iarj trs f 1biih I the first
explorer wei have gil it det naie of Charlotte
hartbur lit X other crta nor ri baf6 en~tet des-
criied y lthe Sparnils ih their mips, ard the Span-
ish fishermen distingtOi tle place by the nates of
its inlets, which ae a v.~fsid w ll hereafter be describ-
ed; next is Carlos lay t A Carlos harbour, into
which tivr Colo CISShi nptie itself; further
souti c Mot any mae e7serIrng the ame of rivers,
but such. si they are, Ihitall give them a place also;
.. it ... .- ii-
86 APPENDIX, NO. V.
on the east side is only the river St. Lucia, with
its southern branch, the riber Ratones, 4nd the Lagoon, 4
known by the name of; iA Hatcha, Rio de'ais ca
"After this generaldivi*ap of the country, -I think
it is not inroper. to begii with an account of the air,
which thti-rovince enjoys very pure and. tar .fogs
are seldom known any where except upon St. John's -
river, but the dews are very heavy, the spring and
suagmer.are in general dry, the autumn very ch.nge-
able ; the beginning of winter .wet. and. tQp~, a t
the latter part very dry and serene; from thlied ,gf
September to thi end.of June, there is perhaps not.any
where a more delightful climate to be found, but. all
July, August, and. most of September are excessively
hot, y: th. changes front hot to.cold are not-so sud-
den, as ia Carolina: and frost is notfewqu.enty knpwn,
the noon day's. un is always warm; the ac.i ..pqld
eyvr. known there affects not the tender ching;. tige
tres,.FbiWh Bgow heritq.a very reat pkfeto ..
WARpM t aii that flruit here exee d-
neagevery thakifnd MI y9Sil s r
the change fvm the middle pf this cliRte,,,l e
northern part of it is much more perceptible frboj
heat to cold, that it was, to the southward t;oapcld to
heat, in the year 1770 and 1771.. I felt vy severe
wpath ei about.thr river Nassa., and to the swutkHwar
of .te town of St. Augustine, the climate changes so
gradually, that it is not perceivable to the abovenam-
ed lat. of 27 : 40 : where there is no frost at all, ahd
which I, have always set down as the line of no frost.
From this line to the southern extent, is a most.ci'm.
ing climate, the air almost always serene; qn the east
side .the common trade wind, aid on the west side
the Apal qhian sea breeze from the west to the north-
west, refresh this delightful Peninsula duringthe sum-
mer; here we,fiad all the produce of more northernn
climes mixed with the inhabitants of the tropics, and
APPEINDtI, t o #7
this as wll .in t*.i e 6i9,6a theI lrid, nor is there
ever- WI W t. Mr.M g r
south, i ' teir a it to' pattiW he produce of
theallt~'lt In all this Peninsula is reI ialbe, that
S`rtiin'II mi ore or two' l' before
it lafal ad iitiioderate d or no
Sden *i a aU, l. "if -i~-tey havy et falls, it s a
S cerin inf rainii anid the A I b bna calm tine nights
.. .d:w, bit ci n'dt acdount for this pheno-
'' I n* l" di t ari not so very chliigEaaldle lhthey
aref" ifthir ~iBe't hard, but FWdt the ft-
est pVlWi pg the whole suaide, alf.dlre in-
Unintfltlrnm nrgeneralty betwei thde ast Iid M -
e ati& *:s l'riIt g ithe lA'of aitoutit and fiist plia of
Wintt;'theya aliconitonfly in the north-eastiquarter;
the latter part of the winD and firtt spring they are
i mitena.ly west and northwest i thde aut u
qsot Viisa to be dreaded hft'i asoifrillw dirtee
wci.tii t itwo oei tre"oitii after it, great
storMls riil then happen, aliU many vessels are irove
on shore,, or otherwise disabled : -. It'b never Jieard
of a 'ibiitlhlef in *ie vinl qetuit, and if liur-
aimweh Mer known hn tiS Peiawl, it was on
the Liter Octoter, 'u i~s ei he ifir ~ t"tie le
gust between the lat. f 10, aeit25.: 5, w.lch fi ew
many trees i"wn, and drove the Snow Ledbury
ashore, where d re muained d ay on a key, ntii dis-
tinguished by Iher nfi, but lheretanltnr i sied as
a part .of whiriwas anpropTey eala by tbnamte of
Key. rgo. .. .:: ..- .La
"Thtt soath andr south-West winds mite a thick
heavy ai5, a niartai-imyn ophin, hurtful to the rlugs ;
they also oceaEdon the. a~'tr eathe,' so much c6n-
plained of in July at A sit. The windsfrom the
eastmn quarter every wheqruWtween the suth-east and
the ntth-east, are cMol and moist, and they cause the
frequent showers, by which the very sand of this
S -. ....... ...., -- ^-..L "
8s APPENDIX, NO. V.
climate is endued with so prodigious a vegetative
power that it amazes -ca one. The winds.frem the
east to the coth are ag~reqly, cool* and from the
north to the north*wea,. po 4siqa what is here called
cold weather I .hanisw4en lt thermqmetrital
journal, but bare one.left now for i io.'..
".I rpqeuber the general heighto the aroury
on Falhenheit's seale to have been, in the. iade
Whee, the air was not prevented circulating freely
about it, between 840 and 880 and on some sulfy hot
days in July and August, I have knowon-it.-t4eu up
to 940, when at th, same time by carrying, itu sand
exposing it to th aen, it will rise in a very short time
up. to 114, nor can I remember ever to have .een it
above one or two degrees beow the freeing point
it is impoqible for one to imagine how inexpressibly
temperate the weather is here from the latter ed of
September to the latter end of June; the wetemr
part of this northern, division is not so very-hot is
suRqMap asa Wwhole eastern shore of 't0 Peainsula
Wia .t ite aseahogN is mo.uch: morte epaed to the
Sblet wintemindJ ..:**: .-i ,.
n the southern division I have never seethewmer-
cury in Fahrenheit's thermometer below the'temperate
point and I cannot remember ever to have. seen it
hiher than in the northern division.
"This southern part of the Peninsula is in the
months of May, Juiw, July, and August, very sub.
ject, on its west side, to dreadful squalls, and there is
a certainty of one or more of these tornadoes every
day, when during that season, the wind oomes any
where between the south south-east, and southwest,
but they are of very short duration; then aio thun-
der and lightning is frequent, but nothing near so
violent asjin Carolina and Georgia, nor do.I remem-
ber any m.onu than one instance of damage.ocasion-
ed by it, when it made a large hole in a stone wall of
lfIslM STATE COTLE FOg
...... *APPAN1Wi NEt-a 89
a house at St, Augustine; yet very few electrical
conductor madld Wof4 .
BefceT 'quit this tsbject of the air, I cannot help
taking otice of a remark, which I have rad some
whein,'i by Dr. J.ame MKenzie, w1ibi 1sathat
dampbei or d di.. orr i laister, and wivtscoat,
the soon qmq0g of bread, moistness of. sponge,
diist itjion f lo j gu i, rusting of metals, and rof-
tiUng. titd re certain marks of a bad air;
nobw vey onp o6those marks, except the last, are
more t be ten at t. Augustine, than iin any place I
S ever wa atri s adyt Edo not think, tat on all the
conismt. thert is-n iore healthy spt; burials have
S been Is le fqi thare t any where else, whete
an .eqtaa nam r af iEtubitants s to be found, and it
was marked daring my stay thee, that when a de-
tachmaent of tthe. ro l tegiment of-artillery once- r-
S rived thdie- in a sicky state, none .of the inhabitants
caught the uEoxtio~, and the'troops themselves noon
ree "tiu ; :I dvlvkam of several asthmatic and- on-
sunmptie subjects, who have been greatly relieved
there; the Spanish inhabitants lived ,here to a great
age l cair ce tainr it thet te people of the Havanna
looked e. it as their Motpelier, freqemting it for the
S sake of heafb; I theefre ascribe the above dircum-
stances to the natret-oftthe stone wherewith the
houses are built
"Haloes, -ras tMhy are vulgarlycalled circles road
the sum and mram, -a very often seen, and are sure
Sforermniuate ni if not wind star; those of the
sun a~ a s rquen, but they are always followed by
very vioert gas of wind; it is remarkable, that if in
those aioem a b reakis observed, that break is always
towards the quarr, from whence the wind begins;
water spouts are often seenalong this coast, but I can-
not liemn hat they ever occasioned any mischief, nor
could I learn, that earthquakes have ever been ex-
perienced in this part of the world."
90 4PPENDIX, wo. vI.
The following Ant n*0 vr uied in frini for ueier-
Stio n mi proper place, in Appej, No. I.
AN ACT for carrying into execution the trty be-
tWeen the United States and Spain, coDnc d at
Washington, on the twenty-second day ,6 Feb-
ruary, one thousand eight hundred irnp.
BE IT ENACTED by the Senate atd Housewf&-e-
presentatives of the United States of America, in
Congress assembled, That the President of the Uni.
ted States be, and he is hereby authorized to take pos.
session of, and occupy the territories of East and
West Florida, and the appendages and appurtenances
thereof; and to remove and transport the office and
soldiers of the King of Spain, being there, to the
Havanna, agreeably to the stipulations of the treaty
between:te united Statet and. S encndad at
Washington on'the twenty- scond6f f :lbr~ y,
in the year one thousand eight hundred and nineteen,
providing for the cession of said territories to the
United States; and he may, for these purposes, and
in order to maintain in said territories, the authority
of the United States, employ any part of the army
and navy of the United States, and the militia of agy
state or territory, which he may deem necessary.
Section 2. And be it further enacted, That, until
the end of the first session of the next Congress, un-
less provision for the temporary government of said
territories be sooner made by Congress, all thei mili-
tary, civil, and judicial powers exercised by the ofi-
cers of the existing government of the. smne territo-
ries, shall be vested m such person and psona, and
shall b6 exercised in such manner, as the President
of the United States shall direct, for the maintaining
APPENDIX, RIO. VI.
the inhabitants of said territories in the free enjoy-
ment of bg ;:l region; and the
laws, of gh so- IE t m g the -.revenue
and its collection, suAject to the modification stipu-
lated brthr ; ffteenth anicle of the said trUaty, in fa-
vour of Spanish vessel aani: their cargoes, and the
laws relating to the importation of persons of colour
shall be extended .to the said territories.' And the
-Presi4 et of the: -United- States shall be, and he is
hereby, authorize:d within the term aforesaid, to es-
tablish such districts for the collection of the revenue,
and, during the recess of Congress, to appoint such
officers, whose commissions shall expire at the end
of the next session of Cngress, to enforce the said
laws, as to hiii sha seem :expedient.:
&S. S. Anibeit farther enacted, That the Presi-
dent of the Unite State be, and he is hereby autho-
rized to apppins .during the recess of the Senate, a
commissioner and surveyor, whose commissions shall
expi aftr. 4 ~ af th next session of Congress, to
meet the aomi issioner and surveyor, who may be
appointed on te part of Spain, for the purposes sti-
pulated in the ifurth article of said treaty : and that
th~e ~aine be, ,:a he is hereby father authorized
to ta a er ii,~.das which he sha judge pro.
per,'for carrying into effect the stipulations of the said
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That a board of
tilre commissioners shall be appointed, conformably
to the stipulations of the eleventh article of the said
treaty: and the President of the United States is
hereby authorized to take any measures which he may
deem exedient, for organizing the. said board of
commissioners; and, for this purpose, may appoint a
secretary, well vered in the French and Spanish lan-
guagpr .aod a clerk; which appointments, if made
during it recess of the Sena*, shall, at the next
meeting of that body, be subject to nomination for
their advice and consent.
-1-57 _ -,177%41PRJW --
92 APPENDIX, NO. IN .
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the com-
pensation of the respective officers, for whase ap-
pointment provision is made by this act, Fhal not ex.
ceed the following sums::
The commissioaer4beapi pointed conformably to
the fourth article, dt the Irte, by the year, of three
To die surveyor, two thousand dollars.
To each of the three Commissioners to be appoint.
ed conformably to the eleventh article of the treaty,
three thousand dollars.
To the Secretary of the Board, two thotismd dol-
STo one Clerk, one thousand five hundred dollars.
Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That, for car-
sying this act into execution, the sum of one hundred
thousand dcila be, and he&eby is appropiated, to be
taken from any moneys in the Treasury cot other-
JOHN W. TAYLOR.
Speaker of the fll ise of Representatves.
President of the Senate, pro tewpore.
Approved, JAMES MONROE.
Va~dington, March 3, 1821.
*, i:1;`' .~
4 i ; v
D :~~a :i
Section 4. Biographical sketch of the early life of
Columbus, and a Historical View of his various ex-
peditions in the Atlantic ocean, previous to, and sub-
sequent to the discovery of America.
Section 1. Review of the moral and political con-
dition of society amongst the aboriginal nations of
America, at the epoch of the establishment of Span-
ish and Portuguese colonies on the continent and
Section 2. Condensed pictures of the empires of
Peru and Mexico, with an abstract of their History
from their foundation to their final conquest by the
arms of Spain.
Section 3. View of the History and present relative
extent and population 'f the Spanish and Portuguese
colonies in America.'
Section 1. History of English and French voyages.
of discovery made to America, previous to the esta.
blishment of permanent colonies by either nation.
Section 2. Establishment of English and French
colonies in North America, and their respective pro-
gress up to the peace of Paris, 1763.
Section 3. History of the English North American
colonies, from 1763, to the declaration of ihdepen-
dence by the United States, July 4th, 1776.
,- ,;.^v &_