- ..' -. . ''
;_ '' .. *... .
BTH .E. : DTHE I U IRVING
Son quattromila, e bone armati e bene
Buona It genie, e non pu6 da pi. dotta
0 da pid forte guid esser condotta.-TAsuo.
_j'- -, OL. IL.
CAREY, LEA & BLANCHARD.
_ ', .\ ,; : :' ,
S fLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR" M
..-, .. ..R A-E
,, ,. *' -..- tW;f ::
y- ,,. Jfllld STATE COLLEaE FOR WOlsi ^
- ( -# -, -' "*.'-.-. ... *.. *' .
9 : -..
.:- ernMn according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1835,
by TBaOPai hxe ftf., in the Clerk's Ofie of the District Court
0of t pButhern District of New.York.
..- LIB1 YArY "
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
: ~ ~ ~:
Ic .. -.. :
i-. .? i
`. ~~ 't
LORIDA STATE CLEE FOt W
*^ V -i
? Ihe -aniards resume their march. The Princess
f. Cfachiqui carried away captive. A mutiny.
;ail I e -aererse th. territory of the Cherokees.
..cape of tie y.nj rinc ss. A/ n T,, 4d
h.is pearls." .
S- 1540. On the third of May, 1540, De Soto again
set forward on his adventurous course, taking with
,-.;him the beautiful Princess of Cofachiqui and her
te.: inp* His route now lay towards the north or
: north-west, in the direction of the province of Cosa,
which was said to be at the distance of twelve day's
.'p:urney. As the country through which they. w e
J march, was represented as bare of provisions,
%AM;fi if *emstbre aad .'two lAeri cavaliers -were
Detached with a large body of horse and foot, to
.visit a village, twelve leagues' distant, where there
:' *The-captivity of the Princess is given on the authority of
,.' the Portuguese narrator; the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, make
.3 no meition of it. Tho Portuguese narrator intimates that the '
'rin~e was treated with neglect; but this is entrg'arytth ge-
'~ &rasl anduct of De Soto towards the Caciques, whom he detain.
ed as hostages.
6 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.';
was a great depaoit:of grain, with which they were
Sto load themselves and rejoin the main army.
Silvestre and his companions accomplished their
errand, and having taken as much maize as they
could carry, hastened to rejoin the army, but were
five days before they came upon its traces.: When
they. did so, they found that the army had coritinued
on, and must be a considerable distance ahead.
IHere some difficulties occurred. The footsoldiers
werB eager to press forward, but the troopers de-
murred.. Three of their horses were lame and unable
to travel fast, and it would not do to leave them be-
hind, for they were considered the nerves and sinews
of the .army, not merely from their real services, but
from the extreme awe and dread with which they in-
spired the savages.
A mutinous spirit evinced itself, for a time, among
the foot soldiers, who dreaded being separated from -
the main force; and set forward by themselves
in a tumultuous manner. The. captains, however,
thrw themselves before them, and with difficulty
* compelled them to continue'with the troopers, who
were obliged to observe a slow pace, proportioned
to the condition of the maimed horses.
On the following day, as they were marching
-. er the -heat of a noon-tide sun, there suddenly
.rose a violent hurricane, with tremendous thiinder
CONQUEST. OF FLOmIDA. 7 7
agig tni g,~ and hail of such size, as to wound and
b. z4 tverely, wherever it struck. The-SpaniardA.
i themselves under their bucklers, or took
k. igoe under some large trees which were at hand.
SFgrtunately, the hurricane was as brief as it was
- p' U yet they were so severely battered and
~' hail-stones, that they remained en-
S4 t tait nd., e el ing
.ltey resumed their march on the morning of the
Sthb~i day, passing through various deserted hamlets,
|n na at length, crossed the frontiers of a province, '
Hciq.d Xuala, where, to their great joy, they found
Si di4eatado and his troops encamped in a beauti-
|,i|f.,a1e.y, and awaiting their arrival.
STA)ee Soto, in the course of his march, had passed
..the province of Achalaque,' the m..
juntry, says the Portugues.e jaogai ri
i:e ,d.. Teyrived, principally, ,
ul iind roots and wild-fowl, which they killed
ohjr bow and arrows. Their Cacique brought
rnor two deer skins, and seemed to think
l a considerable present. Wild hens ahounded
anmtities, that in one village, the inhabitatits
in the Portuguese narration. Supposed to
be ii t of the Cherokees.
8 CONQUEST OF FLRIDA.
brought tde iGovernor seven hundred.* Most of
the inhabitants of this miserable province, had fled
to .the. woods, on the approach of the Spaniards,
living fewin their villages, excepting the old, the
blind and the infirm.
PT The army remained several days in Xuala, to re-
'cruit the. horses.t The principal village, bearing
the same name as the province, was situated on the
skirts of a mountain, with a small, but rapid river,
Slowing by it. Here the Spaniards found maize in
Sabundance, as well as the different kinds of fruits
Sand vegetables common to the country.
,iThis place was under the domination of the youth-
: lPncess of Cofachiqui; and here, as every where
..apng theroute, the Spaniards found the benefit
of.aRing her with them. She was always treated
with great reverence by the inhabitants of the vil-
lages, who, at her command, furnished the army with
provisions, and with porters to carry the baggage.
ji~ re', it is proper to observe, that De Soto en-
Savypured, on .all occasions, as far as his reans per-
SEvidently the species of Gr6use; cominonly called, The Prai.
: Xuala, or Choula, is supposed to have been on the site of the
:. -present town of Qualatehe, at the source of the Catahootche
S Vide M'Culloch's Researches, Appendix, III.
' '- '
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 9 -
p .ted,t requite the kindness of the natives; making
Jpges to such of the chieftains as treated :him
p' amity, and especially leaving with each of them
Sa couple of swine, male and female, from which to
rae a future stock.
a .; Xuala, a number of the inhabitants
t Saniards, laden with provisions.
Sr ma.eh was through a 6contryr covered
SiMt'ie9as of maize of luxuriant growth. De Soto
h.d inclined his route to the westward, in search of
,: a province called Quaxale, where the territories of
-"the princess, or rather of her tributary Caciques
i nded. While they were on the march, the female
iaciue alighted from the litter on which she was
e, and eluding the Indian slaves who had charge-
ier, fled into the depths of a neighboring forest.
fr escape is related by the Portuguese narrator',
b t6 particular reason is given for itF; pbably,
s eF ti atway captive b0edidfie
.' o* "F '' "
_b-un4, of her dominions. What seems to ha>.
c .Ued some regret to the Spaniards, if we may be-,
the Portuguese historian, was, that she took
.r:ith her a small box made of reeds, called by the
itfdians Petaca, which was full of beautiful unpierced
fwi.lti of great value.* Two negro slaves and a
Barbr y Mpor, accompanied her in her flight, and,
=* Po.rtuguese narration, c. 15;.
10 -'- UESTOFPFL DA.,
* as was afterwards understood, were harboured and
concealed by the natives, who rejoiced to have any
thing remain among them, that had belonged to
the white men.'
-.During the next five days they traversed a chain
of easy mountains, covered with oak and mulberry
trees, with intervening valleys, rich in pasturage, and
irrigated by clear and rapid streams. These moun-
tains were twenty leagues across and quite unin-
habited.* In the course 6f their weary march
Through this uninhabited tract,a foot soldier, calling
S to6a horseman, who was his friend, drew forth from
his wallet a linen bag, in which were six pounds of
pearls, probably filched from one of the Indian
sepulchres. These he offeredas a gift to his com-
rade, being heartily.tired of carrying them on his
Probably the termination of the Apalachian or Allegany
range, running through the northern part of Georgia. Mar-
tin, in his history of Louisiana, makes the Spaniards traverse
b"tath of Tenessee, and: even penetrate the state of Ken-
yoky, as far north as the'thirty-seventh degree of north lati.
tude. This supposition is evidently erroneous, as both the
Portuguese and Spanish chroniclers state, that, from the pro.
vince, of, Xuala, De Soto struck in a westerly direction, and
we find him in a few days on the banks of the rirer Cana.
Belknap, V: 1. p. 189, suggests that the Spaniards crossed
the mountains within the thirty.fifth degree of latitude.-
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. Ii
h.n& Akbngh he had a pairof broad shoulders, capable
*fbeaeing the burthen of a mule, The horseman
dftnded to accept so thoughtless an offer. "Keep
Them yourself," said he, "you have most need of
Stiemns. The Governor intends shortly to send mes-
.se'"'to Havana, you can forward these presentsi
r tkthema.- sold, and three or four horses and
fiwaiis sed for y d'with the proceeds, so that
. yaTp need no longer go on foot."
Sa Juan Terron was piqued at having his offer re-
Sftsed. "Well, said he, if you will not have them, I
swear I will not carry them, and they shall remain
h-_re." So saying, he untied the bag, and whiting
Saencd, as if he were sowing seed, scattered the-
Sarls id all directions among the thickets and herb-
3 Then putting up the bag in his wallet, as if it
was more valuable than the pearls, he marched on
stomrade and the other by-staTndirs'aston.
reis made a hasty search for the scattered
lsrls, and recovered thirty of them. When theV
$held their great size and beauty, none of them
zihcg bored and discoloured, they lamented that so
itny ad been lost; for the whole would have sold
i~p Spai for more than six thousand ducate. This
qga o i elly gave, rise to a common proverb in
the army, that, "there are no pearls for Juan Ter-
12 CONQUEST OP, FLORIDA.
ron.'. The poor fellow himself became and object.
of constant jest and ridicule, until at last, made sen-
sible of his absurd conduct, he implored them never
S to banter him further on the subject.*
SGarcilaso ti 1 Viega. L. 3. c. 20.
,-; TS^S~i-^ hri> .--- ,'-: .*^ ^'^ .J
.~~~ ~ ~~~ ?' :.' t^ 1 '- *** t' 'f .''*:
...' '* ^ ~ .* > *- ' . .*,
''- '* -'; -^ - * .. *-* .* ' ; -* *:
Arrival of the army at Guaxule. Reception of the
Spaniards by' the Cacique of Ichiaha., Two
troopers dispatched to the mountains in search of
gold, and what success they had.
1540. HAVING made their way over this moun-
tainous waste, the army reached the province of
Guaxile. When within half a league of the prin-
cipal town, they discovered the Cacique approach-
ing, followed by a train of five hundred warriors, ar-
rayed in rich mantles of various skins, and adorned
with gaily coloured feathers. In this statele ad-
valted to the Governor, received him witi great
c -d'ftit''nd escorted him to his village, which
consisted of three hundred houses. It stood in a
,.pleasant spot bordered by small streams that took
Their rise in the adjacent mountains. The Gover-
r-ior was quartered in the house of the Cacique,
ifich stood on a mound, and was surigunded by a
iftWewide enough for six men to go abreast.
1i Hetr D Soto halted four days to obtain informa-
tion respecting the neighboring country; during
" . e p .t
14 CONQUEST OF FLOMIDA.
which time the Cacique made him a present of three
hundred dogs, the flesh of which the Spaniards
used as food; though they were not eaten by the
natives.* The many streams that traverse this pro-
vince, soon mingled their waters, and formed a
grand and powerful river, along which the army re-
sumed their journey.t
On the second day of their march, they entered
the small town of Canasauga,j where they were
met by twenty Indians, bearing baskets of mulber-
ries, a fruit which abounded in this region, as did
likewise the nut and plum trees. Continuing for-
ward foi five days, through a desert country, on the
2S5th ofJune they came in sight of Ichiaha, thirty
leagues from Guaxule.
This village stood on one end of an island, more
than five leagues in length. The Cacique came out
to receive the Governor, and gave him a friendly
welcome; his warriors treated the soldiers in the
same kind and frank manner. They crossed thl
river in many canoes, and on rafts prepared for the
Portuguese Relation, c. 15.
tMr. M'Culloch suggests that this river was the Etowee,
which falls into the Coosa.
t This indian Village has probably given the name to the Con-
nesaugo one of the small tributaries of the river Coosa.-Vide
M'Culloch's Researches, p.525.
i This is spelt Chiaha in the Portuguese Narration.
16 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
De Soto adopted his advice. Juan de Villalobos
and Francisco de Silvera, two fearless soldiers,
forthwith volunteered for the enterprise, and accord-
ingly set off on foot, leaving their horses behind,
as they would only delay and embarrass them in
the-rough country they would have to traverse.
"After an absence, of ten days, they returned to
the camp, and made their report. Their route had
lain part of the way through excellent land for grain
and pasturage, where they had been well received,
aid feastedby the natives. They had found among
them. a buffalo hide, an inch in thickness, with hair
as soft as the wool of a sheep, which, as usual, they
mistook for the hide of a beef. In the course of
their jourhey they had crossed mountains, so rugged
and precipitous that it would be impossible for the
army to traverse them. As to the yellow metal of
which they had heard, it proved to be nothing but a
fine kind of copper or brass, such as they had al-
ready met with; but from the appearance of the soil,
they thought it probable both gold and silver might
exist in the neighbourhood.*
*Garcilaso de-la Vega, L. 3, c. 20. Portuguese Relation, c.
16. The mountains herementioned are supposed to be the Apa.
lachian chain, running through- the northern part of Alabama.
The existence of gold in various parts of the Southern States,
asdcertained of late years, proves that many of these Indian re.
ports were founded in truth.
[ :. -
Which the Indians extracted the
)& ,4eOjroy 9f a soldier.
is: Bravq.de 4eres while fishing
140. 'DuRIo the time that De Soto had re-
.d at the village awaiting the return of the two
ieqrs from the mines, several circumstances had
rred The Cacique came one day to the Gov-
ri singing him a present of a string of pearls,
m in length. The pearls were as large as
aid, had they not been bored by means of
ba've been of immense value. De Soto
hem, and. mi. return presented
ys f vevet, and cloth of va-
... and.ther Spanish trifles, held in much
y the natives. In reply to the demand of
.. .vernor, the Cacique said that the pearls
aed in the neighbourhood; that in--the
F his ancestors was amassed a pro-
a, d and that ey ter were welcome
rich as they pleased. The
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
Adelantado thanked him for his good will, but
replied that much as he wished for pearls, he.
never would insult the sanctuary of their ances-
tral tombs, to obtain them; and added, ,that he
only accepted the string of pearls as a present
from his hands.
As De Soto expressed a curiosity to see the man-
ner of extracting the pearls from the shells, the
Cacique instantly degpatched forty canoes to fish
for oysters during the night.' Aban early hour next
raorning, a quantity of wood was gathered and
piled up on the banks of the river, and being set on
fire,, was speedily reduced to glowing coals. As
soon -as. the canoes arrived, the coals were spread
out and the oysters laid upon them. They soon
opened with the heat, and from oQmp of the first
thus opened, the Indians obtained ten or twelve
pearls as large as peas, which they brought to the
Governor and Cacique, who were standing to-
gether looking on. The pearls were of a fine
quality, but somewhat discoloured by the fire and
smoke. The Indians were prone also to injure
their pearls, by boring them with a heated copper
De Soto having gratified his curiosity, returned
to his quarters to partake of the morning meal.
While eating, a soldier entered with a large pearl
-.I~" UNULb WF5Y~s~
CU0 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
Juan Mateos; he was the only one in the expe-
dition that had gray hairs, from which circumstance
h6 was universally called father, and respected as
.such. His unfortunate death was lamented by the
,x CHAPTER IV.
by the Cacique of Acoste, at
d. ;The manner in which
peCosa, came forth to meet
f;<'ke Indians show a hostile disposition.
.Cacique Cosa, escorts them to Talise, and
. ON the ensuing day, after the return of
rersfrom the mines of Chisca, the Governor
:1fim the village of Ichiaha, leaving the na-
tented with the presents they had re,
'7 g~ Of: the Island,'
,u, y ame in sight of -
y, laui on the extreme point.*
'ped about a cross-bow shot from
.?e Soto proceeded, accompanied
st t:roopers, to visit the Cacique.
~.~tai- twn wa6 Beven day*'
y t1ie most correct,
t.d be about five leagues,
lbe;.pa day'b mznrch.
22 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
This Chieftain was a fierce warrior, and placed
himself in battle array, at the head of fifteen hun-
dred of his braves,'who were decorated with their
war plumes, and equipped with arms. He re-
ceived the Governor with great courtesy, and ap-
p aied very kindly disposed; but while they were
conversing together, some ,of the foot soldiers had
arrived, and began rifling and pillaging the houses.
The Indians, exasperated at this outrage, seized
some war-clubs that were at hand, and assailed
theri. De Soto saw at a glance the peril of his
situation, surrounded as he was by enemies. With
his vonted presence of mind, he seized a cudgel
a'nd began beating his own men, at the same time
that his secretly despatched a trooper to order the
horse to arm and come to his rescue. This attack
upon his own followers, as if he was indignant at
their conduct, re-assured the Indians. De Soto
then prevailed upon the Cacique to visit the en-
camphient with his chief warriors, and no sooner
had the Indians left the village with this intent, than
the troopers surrounded them and carried them off
prisoners.* Notwithstanding their captivity, they
maintained an arrogant air, answering every ques-
tion insolently, shaking their fists, and insulting the
Spaniards with taunts and menaces, until they lost
Portuguese Narrative, c. 16.
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. W
0 I`0iand- were only restrained from coming
Wi"-e.,ai;:nes:'.cenmands and entreaties
i t fl m T i .,Thiis night they posted sentries,
ij4 as6vigi-lan.t a watch as though they were
wing d(lay, the Indians were more
eiil,: and the Cacique furnished
f 1' j.u Y.e, aid offer-
l1e Ein his dominions. A message
!l1 ison lIkliaha was the cause of this civility.
p 9prtphankied him for his otTer, liberated him
wryvami'iors, and in return for the maize, made
.esgnts that greatly pleased him. The same
ijlbte-y left the village, and crossed the river
a.nwd' in c-anoes, rejoicing at having extricated
y.frQ.m-.this village, without any blood-
~n .toa 4thaaL. a -!hwd.ed.leagues
o0je !te e called Cosa,
ftmin leagues a (day; some-
kJlhamlets, sometimes camping in
oighout the whole distance they
tr the utmost kindness by the in-
wartered them in their houses, sup-
ge4 vgyey'd&' 'Agthe m- fioan one vil-
,t vfer.th.ey trave e d for
-i.a they came in sight of the
24 CONQUEST OF PaW~eA.
village of Cosa, from which the province took its
name. This was the residence of the' Cacique,
from whom they had received repeated and, friend-
ly messages in the course of their journey. He
came forth to meet them in a kind of litter, borne
apen the shoulders of four of his chief warriors.
From his shoulders hung a mantle of martin skins,
fashioned much after the manner of the mantles
Worn by Spanish females, and on his head was. a
diadem-of feathers.. Several. Indians walked be-
A 4 i rede chariot, singing and playing upon in-
He was a young man about twenty-six years of
ageiof a 'ine person and noble countenance, and
wie, attended by. a train of a thousand warriors,
till- and welt formed, as were generally the peo-
ple of this country. They were in their finest array,
with lofty plumes of rich and varied colours, and
mantles of various fine skins, many of them of
martins, scenting of musk. They were marshalled
in squadrons, and with their gay plumes waving in
the. breeze, made a brilliant appearance.
The village was situated on the banks of a river,f
amidst green and beautiful meadows, irrigated by
Portuguese Relation, c. 16.
t Supposed to be the river Coosa, which takes its rise in the
Apalachian mountains-and empties into the Alabama. From the
kinds; some like those of
~ar 1t-he conry. ::Grape vines
| .pacieus the captaiae: and sol-
,accomodated. The Governor was
idnce of the Cacique.
idk- the -precaution in populous
awas aniy,,danger to .be appre-
4 t,tQ oturmnd the Caoiqq
och presumes it to
a ift ted 'on the riier
gb t been
also a part of the. Governor's policy, as has been,
already shown, to carry the. Cacique along with
.hinm, as he marched through his dominions; by
hi i~ neans he secured a supply of guides from
i. .yillages, and of .Indians. to attend upon the
: l ya: d caray the baggage. In their marching,
4 : a::iC ique was always .treated with great res-
pect and ceremony, and had fine raiment given
jii.; and, if so inclined, a horse furnished him
bi_.c*,4 to'ride., On, arriving at the. territories of
S:,~lI pique, the preceding one and his subjects
d at the frontier.
IoUis.of Gosa were indignant at the re-
p. ,pu pt upon their Cacique; and. manifested a
": ye disposition towards the Spaniards. Several
.ihezi. were taen prisoners and put in chains, but
aifer a little time, the most of them, at the interces-
Sion of the Cacique, were set at liberty.* After this
a good understanding prevailed, and the Spaniards
were hospitably entertained during twelve days that
f o.enained in the village.
.The Cacique would fain have persuaded the Go-
veroor to make this 'place his residence and seat o
government, or at least to winter there; but De So-:
to was anxious to arrive at the bay of Achusi, where
4 he, bad appointed Captain Diego Maldonado to
metl him in the autumn. Since leaving the pro-.
Portuguese Relation, c. 16.
28 CONQtEST OF F'LORIDA.
This was an important Indian post, fortified with
ramparts of earth and strong pallisades, and situa-:
ted on the bank. of a very rapid river which nearly
surrounded it. Though subject to the Cacique of:
Cosa, it was represented as being disaffected to his
if'afhd ificlined to revolt in favourof a powerful
ie, f~'in of the neighbourhood named Tascaluza.
t was, supposed, therefore, that the Cacique of Cosa
had gladly accompanied the Spaniards to this fron-
tiler.town, in hopes of overawing his refractory sub-
joetald even his formidable neighbour, by appear-
ig, i company with such redoubtable allies.
- . v1, . .
M """ ApTER V.
c/ flain Tuscaltza. His haughty
4 1ds. Great sufferings of
4t lI strangee malady
z J; the Cacique, on whose frion-'
iardsfte had now arrived, appears to
e f the most potent, proud and warlike
e chieftains of the south. His territories
.iilprised a great part of what are now
I .hama and Mississippi, and he is one
-he native heroes who have left local
t r. T'he river Tuscaloosa,*
is i 's ame, and
'p ofthe state.
swiih solicitude, of the
imi-sas to his territories, and
-hostility on their part, in com-
ijthe Cacique of Cosa. He sent,
of eighteen years of age,
bil an inembassy to
30 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
De Soto, proffering him his friendship and servie..
and inviting him to his residence, which was abos
thirteen leagues from Talise. The young ambass-
dor was of a noble stature, taller than any Spaniat
or Indian in the army, and acquitted himself in his
.mission with great grace and courtesy. The Govei,
nor was struck with his appearance and manners,i
and received and entertained him in a distinguished.
manner; dismissing him with presents fbr himself.
and his father, and assurances that lie accepted the
friendship of the latter and would visit him shortly.
lie accordingly crossed the river with his army, in
canoes and on rafts, it being too deep at Talise to be
forded, and then set forward on his march, taking
with him a number of the subjects of the Cacique of
Cosa. As to the Cacique, himself, being on the
frontiers of his province, he took a friendly leave of
On the second night they encamped in a wood.
about two leagues from the village in which the Ca-
cique of Tuscaluza was quartered, which, however,
was not the capital of his province. From hence
De Soto set off at an early hour of the morning for
the village, preceded by his camp-master-general
and several of the cavaliers.
The Cacique had already received notice from
Shis scouts, that the Spaniards were at hand, and had
J*is wa- the great
Si nd the only military
d 1 sne with throughout the
Is ~ (to adopt the modern
n!,) appeared to be about
Shis person corres jonMded to
1 i',mes~s and ferocity of
iacriss the shoulders, small
naEcniralyrlTrned, that the Spa.i -
i klgt:he, the .finest looking In-
-, - .
CONQUEST OP FLORIDA.
The .haughty chieftain took not the least notice of
the cavaliers and officers of the camp, wlpreceded
De Soto; although they arranged themselves in his
presence. The troopers sought in vain to excite
his attention, by making their horses curvet and cara-
cole as they passed, and sometimes spurring them
up to his very feet. He still maintained the most
imperturbable gravity, or cast his eyes now and
then upon them in a haughty and disdainful manner. '
When De Soto, however, approached, the Ca-
cique arose and advanced fifteen or twenty paces to
receive him. The .Governor alighted and embraced
him, and they remained in the same place convers-
ing, while the troops proceeded to take up the
quarters allotted them, in and about the village.
After this, the Cacique and the Governor proceeded,
hand in hand, to the quarters prepared for thelatter,
which was in a house near to that of Tuscaloosa.
Here the Cacique left him, and retired with his In-
dians; but De Soto, who knew his haughty and war-
like character, took care to have a vigilant watch
kept upon his movements.*
A strange maladyabout this time broke out among
the Spaniards, which was attributed to the want of
salt; with some the consequences were fatal. After
Garcilaso de la Vega, L. 3. c. 24. Portuguese Relation,
eiral iS epks dis-
g eit hi herb, and
~ sAlt! Those who
'%*ea ed the fatal mor-
,who spurned at
P 6ry of ignorarit
* + "^ + :* 34 ....
Tuscaloosa, his steed and raiment. His village.
Mysterious disappearance of two soldiers. Arri-
val at the village of Mauvila.
1540. AFTER reposing two days in the village,
tfe Governor continued his march, accompanied by
Tuscaloosa, whom he kept with him for his own se-
curity. De Soto ordered, as usual, that a horse
:should be provided for the Cacique; but for some
Utme they sought in vain for a steed of. sufficient
size and strength to bear so gigantic a rider. At
length they found a stout hackney, belonging to the
Governor, which, from its powerful frame, was used
as a pack-horse; yet when the Cacique bestrode him
his feet nearly touched the ground. The Governor
-:had given Tuscaloosa a dress of scarlet cloth, and
a flowing mantle of the same, which, with his tow-'
ering plumes, added to the grandeur of his appear-
ance, and made him conspicuous among the steel-
clad warriors around him.
At the end of three days' march, of four leagues
each, they arrived at the principal village called
4V",, . i I. .I .
i libi"s formed by the
-W had here grown
'they were buisily employed
Sroops crossed it with-
~ beii eikhausted, they en-
'fI.1in .a1 'beautiful valley about
nifing two soldiers were mis-
,fini iain 'de Villalobos, was
way b himself to explore
d thb hada str-r
.36 CO1WQJEST OF FLORIDA,
they were abrupt and insolent in their replies.
" Why do you ask us about your people ?" said they;
"Are we responsible for them? Did you lace
them under our charge ?"
The suspicions of De' oto were the more awa-
'kened y these replies. He had high, woids with
the Cacique on the subject, and threatened to detain
him hostage until the Spaniards should be produced.
Seeing this menace was, of no avail, he concluded
that the soldiers had been massacred; and dissem-
bled his indignation for the present, lest he might
create difficulties and delay his progress., He con-
tinued forward, therefore, and in company with
Tuscaloosa, apparently on amiable terms, but they
wree secretly distrustful of each other, and the
Cacique felt that he was a kind of prisoner. In the
course of their march, Tuscaloosa despatched one.
of his people ahead, to a town called Mauvila,* un--
der pretext of ordering a supply of provisions and
Indian attendants for the army. The third day
Their route had been through a very populous counr-
try and they were drawing near to Mauvila. At 4
very early hour the next morning, De Soto called t
him two picked and confidential men, named Gon
zalo Quadrado Xaramillo, and Diego Vazquez, an
sent them in-the advance, to enter the village, o1
Maville, in the Portuguese account.
cqso, :thle. camp-
gjb)lr. of the Cacique
34%j oithe north side ofthe
S he Topbheebe,
r is little doubt
J<3 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
where he and his principal men resided; and, being
on tlie frontiers of his territories, it was strongly ftr-
tified. It stood in a line plain, and was surrounded
by a high -wall formed of huge trunks of trees driven
into the ground. side by side, and,wedged together.
These were crossed within and without by others
smaller and longer, bound to them I bands made
of split reeds. and wild vines. The whole was
thickly plastered over with a kind of mortar, made
of clay and stiaw, trampled together. which filled up
every chink and crevice of the wood-work, so that
it appeared as; if smoothed w ith a trowel. TIhrough-
out its whole circuit. the wall was pierced at the
height of a man, with loop-holes,. from whence ar-
rows night be discharged at an enemy, and at
every fifty paces it was surmounted by a tower, ca-
pable of holding seven or eight fighting men. Num-
bers of the trees w% which had been driven into the
ground had taken ro.:, aind flourished, spi ilging up
loftily out of the ramp.art. and iprieading their
branches above it. so as to fo iI a circle of ibliage
around the village. There were but two gate:s to:
the place, one to the east, the other to the w .est. In
the centre of the village wa, a large -square, around
which wero erected the principal d wellinis. The
whole number o.f h'ise in the place did not .ed
eighty, but they were rof .r'eat size. capable of lindg-
T* he description of ]auvila is entirely from the Idca.
*Garcilaso de la Vega. L. 3. c. 20.
CONQUEsT OF FLORIDA. 3
ing from five to fifteen hundred persons eache.They
were built after the Indian fashion, not liut u1~~ to
different roons, but consisting simply of one great
hall, like a church; and as they belonged either to
the 'Cacique or his< principal subjects, they were
Constructed with more than usual skill.*
S. /. .,%hs..r .:a-uvila.
1-540: WE ie 'nd he van guard
appeared before ltain'of war-
'rib-s tati. h~- ~d- i'fi deco-
Si de,. Ifnh flaunting
ingiflat ing 1 4nrude instru-
libfi t W MlW .Tb' '6 he c dddi a band of
tou1,tiArdiels, beautifuTl ii foh l' an tideatui:e, as
were' geierill the natives of this iprt of the
In this way the Governor entered the village, side
by side with the Cacique in his flaming mantle of
scarlet,-followed by a train of horsemen in glitter-
Sidgri'ariiour, and preceded by dancing groups of
Indians. Hivihg arrived in the square, they alight-
S ed,afid the Governor ordered that the houses should
S Be taken outside of the village and tethered until
: their quarters were prepared for them. The Ca-
'2ique then called to Juan Ortiz, the interpreter, and
pointed out one of the largest houses as.: the quar-
........-";:''', -* *
,, .* : . .
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 41
Sters for the Governor and his principal officers, and
San adjacent one f6r his servants and attendants; as
Sto the rest of the troops, they weie to be lodged in
cabins of bark and branches, prepared for their re-
ception, about a bowy shot without the walls. The
Governor was not well pleased with an arrange-
ment which would separate him" from his troops,
but replied that it should be attended to when the
Scamp-master arrived. The Cacique then signified
a wish to be left to himself, and to remain at that
Village, but was given to understand that he must
still continue with De Soto. The haughty spirit of
Tuscaloosa rose within him, at being thus kept in
Sth aldom. He told the Governor that he might de-
i part in peace, whenever he pleased; but that he
Must not pretend to carry him out of his country
Sand dominions. So saying, he entered a house,
wheree some of his subjects were assembled, armed
with bows and arrows. The moment he was gone,
SGonzalo Quadrado Xaramillo, one of the. cavaliers
Swho had been sent ahead to observe the movements
:, of the Indians, approached the Governor, and re-
Sported that various circumstances had led him to
Suspect some dark and treacherous plot. He stated, -
that in the few houses in sight, there were more'
Than ten thousand chosen warriors assembled; not
one, of them old, or of the servile class, but all
. ' ' .* .- :-
42 A QCO4QEST OF FiORiA. -
fighting men, noble and young, and well armed;
and. that many of the houses were filled with weap-
ons. Not a child was to be found in the place; and
though there were many females, they were all
Syoung girls. The.iznhabitants, too, had been dili-
Sgentily. employee. in strengthening Ithe, palisades
around the town, and in clearing the fields, for -the
distance of a musket shot round the village, so that'
the very roots and herbage had been pulled up by
the hand; as if all had been .prepared for a fighting
.. The.Goveror .pondered for a moment, then di-
etowi -wmdtodlte he :passed: secretly from one to the
othervamo4ng the trobpers,ta.hold themselves ready
,for action.; he also charged Xaramillo.to commu-
nicate all that he had observed to the master of the
camp, the moment he should arrive, that he might
make his arrangements accordingly. In the mean
time, he determined to wear a friendly aspect, and
endeavour to conciliate the Cacique by courteous
Woirdwas now brought him, hat his servants
had. prepared the morning's: meal in one of the
Houses which looked upon the square. The Gov-
S ernor immediately sent Juan Oirtiz to invite the
Cacique to the repast, as they were accustomed to,
I. ; 4 1 -, : : o ` ; .
CONQUEST. OF FLORIDA. '4
:"-Juan Ortiz presented himself at the dooirnf the
targe house into which the- Cacique had entered,
but several Indians met him at the threshold, and
I-efused him admittance. The message he brought
1 was passed in to the Cacique, and word returned
Sthat he would come to the Governor immediately.
SSome time having elapsed without his appear-
ance, Juan Ortiz presented himself with a second
message, and received a-similar reply.; After anoth-
er interval he returned a third tirie,and 'called out,
"Tell Tuscaloosa to come forth; the food is upon
the table, and the Governor is waiting for him."
SUpon this, there sallied forth an Indian, who ap-
' fearedd to be the General. He was in a furious
heat, and -his eyes flashed fire. "Who are these
i-robbers! these vagabonds!" cried he, "who keep
calling to my Chief, Tuscaloosa, come outl, come
out I with as little reverence as if he were one of
them? By the sun and moon! this insolence is no
longer to be borne. Let us cut them to pieces on
the spot, and put an end to their wickedness and
S:Scarce had he spoken these words, when another
SIndian stepped up behind him, and placed in his
S-hand a bow and arrows.. The Indian; General
threw back from his shoulders the folds of a superb
mantle of martin skins, which was buttoned round
, : --. .. '. ;'*.,, . .. .- ;' .
44 : OO .EssT-~QP._'F:: EWA.
Shis neck; and, baring his arm, rew to the head an
S arrow, levelled at s knot of Spjaniards, in the square,
-, before he. had time to wing the shaft, a blow,from
-:.. .s d:.of Ba}tasar de Gallegos laid open the
t '' rehe s-id exposed ;by throwing back his"
iM pP!e,: his entrails gushed .fqrth, and he fell dead
ie the spot.*
His son, a youth of eighteen years of age, of a
:. nob le demeanour,' sprang to avenge his death,, and
let. fly six or .seven. arrows as fast as be could
S. dathem; but, ;seeing that hey struck harmless
:. ..Bt' arpouPj f ,Gallegos, he. took his bow in
":."4: .ha d .dlsig -withhitm, dealt him three
~ ti r blow;,-9 he.head, witk such rapidity and
:: io f l at.tW hloWeQd sprang from beneath his casque,
S-and ran.qver his forehead.., Gallegos, as soon as he
could recover from the sWprise, gave him two
t' rusts in the breast with his sword, that laid him
deadat, his feet.
S The.war whoop now rang throughout the village,
., T hrie'ts -of warriors, ready armed, poured out of
q very house, attacking the Spaniards whoo were
S scattered about the principal street. Though over-
Swhelmed with numbers, the Spaniards kept a bold
face to the- enemy, fighting, stoutly, and disputing
Portuguese Narrative, c. 13. -
CONQUESBT OF FLORIDA. 45
the ground inch by inch, until they retreated &irt of-
the city, leaving five of their number slain.'. -"'
Numbers of the cavalry, who'had tethered their
horses in the plrlieus of the village, and returned
Iinto the street, seeing the furious onset of the sava- -
Sges, ran out of the gate to the places where-their,
steeds were tied. Those who made most speed
were enabled to mount on horseback. Others, who
lingered, had only time to cut the reins or halters of-
their horses and drive them off; while others, still
more pressed, were obliged to leave their horses
Stied, and abandon them to their fate; having the
Sgrief.to see them shot down by innumerable arrows,
Samidst the exulting'yells bf the savages.
The enemy being in great force, divided into two
Stands; one to fight with the retreating Spaniards,
the other to kill the horses, and gather the baggage
and effects of the army, which had by this time ar-
rived, and lay heaped along the wall and.about the
fields. 'Eery thing thus fell into the hands'of the
enemy, excepting the baggage of Captain Andres de
Vasconcellos, which had not yet arrived. The
spoils were conveyed by the Indians' into the village
with great triumph, and put into their houses; a;ihd
they knocked off the chains of the slavieswho c4'`-
ried the baggage, and gave them weapons to fight
46 -, CONQUEST OF FIORIDA.
-",,In Ithe mean time the few cavaliers who had been
able to mount their horses, together with a few
other horsemen who had just arrived from the main
lody, -joined their forces and endeavoured to protect
Sthejr comrades who were fighting onfoot. The ap-
S:proach of the cavalry checked the impetuosity of the
savages, and gave time for the Spaniards to rally and
form themselves into two bands, one of horse the
S other of foot. They then charged the enemy
wita.a fury, inspired by their recent maltreatment,
S 'a. 4 drove them back into thevillage. They would
Sfoalo'~owed them in, .butt were assailed with such
:.; f ro stones and 'arrows,-from the wall and the
' l fIhpl,,'that they were compelled to draw back.
SThe jIndians seeing them retreat, again rushed
forth, some by the gate, others letting themselves
down from. the wall; and, closing with the Spa-
Sniards, seized hold of the very lances of the horse-
S e .men,. struggling with them until drawn more than
two hundred paces from the wall. ,
I Iln this way, they fought backwards and forwards,
without cessation, for three hours; the Spaniards
always standing by each other, and keeping their
Front to the enemy, in which alone consisted their
safety, being so few inrnumber. They found, how-
ever, that theysuffered too severely when near the
yvlTjge, from the missiles launched from- the wall,
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 47
and that their best chance ws in 'the openl filds
I'where they had room to manage their horses and
wield their lances. -
SThroughout all these attacks and defences, the
bold Captain Baltazar de Gallegos, the same who
Shad struck the first blow in the battle, was ever in
ithe front rank. and' the fiercest of the fight. 'His.
perilous deeds-were anxiously:watehed ftoi afarb
his brother, Fray Juan dd Gallegos, a worthy' Domi i-
'nican friar. Mounted on horseback, in his friar's.
Sdress, with a broad clerical hat on his head, he ho.-
vered about the skirts of the battle, spurring after
i: the squadron in its attacks, and wheeling round and
g galloping off like mad in its retreats. The worthy
friiar was not a fighting man ; his only object was to
call his brother out of the affray, and mount him on
: the horse which he bestrode, that he might fight with
more effect and less danger. ..-..
SThe bold Baliaizar, hower, ,heededdiot his calls;
: he felt that his honour would not permit him to
.::leave his post, so hd kept on fighting on foot. At
r length, the peculiar dress of the friar, and his loud
'and repeated calls to his brother, attracted the rido
Stice of the enemy, who probably supposed him some
chieftain encouraging his soldiers to fight hardly.
r Accordingly, in one: of the retreats, as, the friar's
Sbroad back was turned upon the foe, and te was
S COfQUEST OF FI LA.
galloping off at full speed, an Indian warrior sped a
shlaft ivith so true an aim, that, though at a distance,
S it struck him between the shoulders. Fortunately,
he.; was ?protected by the two hoods of his friar's
S dress, which lay in thick foldsupobn his back; his
bioad hat also, which was secured by a cord under
:. his. chin; had fallen back in his flight, and hung like
a. shield upon his shoulders; the arrow, therefore,
met with so much resistance as to make but a slight
wound. It.dampened, however, the atterndl' zeal
.. u i'ar'who-fro&mthat' time' kept himself at a
-- -fefrom' the battle. *'
A harder. fate befel the brtve. Don Carlos Enri-
qa4. -:a ydathful cavalierwwho had married a niece
4 I A Aidelh.tado, and was- beloved by the whole
Sariny, for his urbanity and his virtues.- From the
commencement of the battle he had fought valiantly,
and was conspicuous in every assault. In, the last
charge, his horse was wounded in the breast by an
arrow, which remained buried in the flesh. As
S sobt as the squadron had retreated, Don Carlos en-
, deavoured to diaiv forth the arrow. Passing his lance
From his right to his left hAind, he leaned forward,
and stooping' over the neck of his horse, seized
: the dart, and endeavoured to pull it forth.' In
his exertion, he leaned his head on one side so as to
:- 'expose .his neck, the only part of his person unpro-
... h is ,. ... .;. e o n l ....
CONQUEST OF f-LOb .A. .
S.ected by armour/. In an instant, an :
.,with flint, came with the.-wiftnisaif li-ghts lg iw .
ried itself in his throat, and the poor yotith feli fi~ot
,his horse mortally wounded, though he id riot exi
pire until the following day. -
,.The Spaniards suffered severely in these repeat-
ed copfliete; b, bftheir.los .was nothing in compare "
-spn with that of the.Indianis.vda atid&fdsaras i :f
Armour, and on whomn every blow was, effeeti've.
- Seeing the advantage that the horses gave the Sparn-
Siards in the open field, the. Indians now shut them-
Sselves up within the village, closing the gates and
manning the ramparts.
Upon this, the Governor ordered the cavalry,
Being the best armed, to dismount, and taking buel-
Slers for their defence, and battle axes in their hands,
to break open the gates, and strive to take thervil,
lage by storm. .
I :In an instant, a band of two hundred resoluteca.
; valiers dashed forward to the assault. The Indians
Received them valiantly, and beat them back seve-
Sral times. The gate, however, was soon. broken:
'open by repeated blows, and they rushed inpi ",
inell, amidst a shower of darts and stones., Tlp gate
Being too narrow to admit them all readily, theirss
attacked the. wall with their ;aes ; demolished the
facing of clay and straw, and, laying bare the cross
50 COnUE rST OF FLORIDA.
beams and their fastenings, aided each other to
scramble, up by the.n- and thus got into the village
to the succour of their comrades.
The1adians fought desperately,both in the streets
and faom- he tops of the houses. The Spaniards,-
g. a.led by the missiles from the latter, and fearful
that the enemy would retake the houses already
gained, set fire to them. As they were of reeds
Sand' other, combustible materials, they were' soon
S wrapped in flames and smoke, adding to the horror
; eo.:ee-. : .ne
W.:i' while tlit s conflict was raging in one part of the
l l gg'a.kildd of siege; as going on in another.
Th:e'lAndikus, the moment they had closed their
Sga te". had -turned their attention to the large house
in the, square, which had been assigned for the use
of the Governor's retinue, and in which all his camp
equipage was deposited. They had not assailed it
S before, as they thought it perfectly in their power,
and they now repaired-to it merely to share the
spoils. To their surprise, they found it strongly de-
fehded. Within were three cross-bow men and five
halberdiers of the Governor's guard, who usually ac-
Scompanied his camp equipage, and an Indian, armed
'with bow and arrows, who had been made prisoner
-by the Spaniards on their first landing, and had ever
sin e.,proved faithful to them. Beside these fighting
'. 7 :BcR APY
fORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOM6
`N ULLAHASSEE, FLAr
CONQUEST F FLORIDA. 51
men, there were a priest and a friar, and two slaves
belonging to the Governor. One and all defended
the house stoutly; the laymen with their weapons,
the priests fervent in their devotions. The Irdians
tried in vain. to gain the portal. They then mounted
on the roof, and broke it open in three or four places;
but so well did the cross-bow men and the Indian
ply theirweapons, that scarce did an enemy show
himself at one of the openings, but he was trans-
fixed by an arrow.
Thus did this little garris:,n maintain a desperate
and almost hopeless defence, until De Soto and his
bands, having fought their way into the village, as
has been mentioned, arrived at the door of the
dwelling, and dispersed its assailants. The fighting
part of the ga.-rison mingled with their comrades
and pursued the strife; the clerical part took ire-
fuge in the fields, were they could carry on tfeir
spiritual warfare with equal vigour and more se-
The wild and mingled affray had now lasted fouir'-
hours, but nothing could quell the fury of the Ir-
dians, who disdained to yield or ask quarter. M1anv
of the Spaniards, exhausted by the fierce strife,
fainting and choaked with thirst, ran to a pool of
water, which was now crimsoned with the blood
of the deaikand dying, and having refreshed
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY- -
52 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
themselves, hastened back and rushed again into
De Soto had hitherto fought on foot, but, as usual,
waxin hot with action, he hastened out of the vil-
lage, seized a horse, sprang into the saddle, and, fol-
lowed by the brave Nuno Tobar, galloped back
into the square, lance in hand, with the battle cry of
Our Lady -and Santiago! Calling out to the Span-
iai'ds to make way for him, he dashed among the
thickest of the enemy; Tobar .followed clokh after
himn. They spurred their chargers up and down,
through the multitude in the square and the principal
street trampling down soie, lancing others to the
.*., L q ..,- .. .
riht ana e, leaving t tra c df carnage wherever
they passed, "' .
In this wild ;.4e, ast. Gipvernor rose in his stir-
rups to lance an Indian, nhr, who was behind,
aimed at the part exposed teen the saddle and
the cuirass, and buried aa aiqow in his thigh. De
Soto had no time in the .coiJfiiion of the combat, to
extract the ariow, w hj hi rin ined rankling in the
wound for several- rs juinng which time, though
.; f-, *.9 ,, '' .
unable to sit in his saddle] he.oiitiiued fighting on
-'horseback; a proof, says the Inca Garcilaso, not
merely of his valour, but of. his good horseman-
Portuguese Narrative, c. 19.
S CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 53
In the mean time, the fire was raging through the
tillage; aid fii-ade horrible ravag s amod tlen-
dians. Those who were within doors, were co'n-
sumed by the flames or stifled by the smoke: those
who were fighting from the roofs, were either cut
off by the fire, or obliged to throw themselves below.
Many females perished in their dwellings.
At onie time, the wipd swept the flames aid smoke
along the street, upbn the Inihtlins anff ie ius
blinded and bewildered,the Spaniards charged upon
them and drove them back; but the wind veering,
favoured them in turn, and they regained all the
ground they had lost. '
Madaened at seeing their ranks thinned and their
warriors lying slaughtered in heaps, the Indians now
called upon their women to seize the weapons of the
slain and revenge their death. Many had already
been fighting by the side of their husbihids', bt on'
this appeal,every one rushed int6 the'condaict'. Some
armed themselves with the sivrds, lahices -nd par-
tisans lost by the soldiery,-and thus wounded. them
with their own weapons; others seized bows and
arrows, which they plied with almost equal strength
and skillwith their husbands. In their fury, they
threw themselves before the men, and even rushed
upon the weapons 6f their enemies; for the cobur-
age of woman, when once roused,,is fierce and
54 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. ,
desperate, arid her spirit more reckless and vehe-
inent than that of ian.i. The Spaniards, however,
had consideration for their sex, and pily for their
despair, and abstained from slaying or wounding ,
S CHAPTER VIII.
S .- Fall of Tuiscaloosa.
1540. WHILE the battle was thus raging at Mau-
S vila, Luis de Moscoso, the master of the camp, was
Loitering by the way with his forces. Insteadof
following speedily after the van-guard led by the
Governor, he had sallied forth late from his encamp-
iment, and permitted his people to scatter themselves
about the fields, hunting and amusing themselves.
S So long a time had elapsed since they had experi-
S enced any hostility from the natives, that they had
lost all fear and precaution.
In this way, they straggled negligently and tardily
forward, unsuspicious of any danger. At length,
I- those in front, heard the distant alarums of drum
and trumpet, mingled with the yells and shouts of
S the combatants, and beheld a column of smoke
S rising in the air. Suspecting the cause, they passed
S back the alarm, from mouth to mouth, of those who
were behind, and pressed forward with all speed to
the scene of action. It was late in the afternoon
before they reached it.,
D0 CONQUE..ET IF FLORIDA,
Among tlhe ;lremost that arrived bIebore the vil-
lage, was tlie gallant Diego de S tn, nephew to the
Governor. Leaning the fate of his cois'in Don
Carlos En.riquez, to %vhom lie \vas t-enrierly attaclied,
he xvovwed to revenge his death. Throwing himself
from his horse, and seizing a buckler. he ruished into
the village, sword in hand. and plhiiged into the
thictf4st of the fight. Scarce, however, had he en-
tered, whenn a arrowv pierced his eve and came out
at the back of his head. He tell to the earth. never
uttered another w6rd, and died the following day in.
great agony. His death added to the artliction which
the arLmy felt for that of his brate cousin. The
two-ybung friends alld relatives weie thus united in
ldedmath. They were generous spirits. worthy of each
otgerssr afiction, and worthy nephews to- such an
In the mean time, the rear-guard. as it arrived at
the village, found great numbers of the Indians fight-
ing in the adjacent fields, where the ground had been
cleared and prepared lor action. They assailed
them"i vigorously, and had a long and obstinate com-
balt5-o.; manvoft the savage warriors had clambered
over the walls, and swarmed into the field. At length
the Indians were routed; many were pursued and
cut to pieces by the horsemen, and but few escaped.
It was now near the hour of sunset, yet still the
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 57
shouts and battle cries of the combatants arose from
the burning village. As yet, from the want of space,
no horsemen had fought within the place, except
De Soto and Nuno Tobar; but now a great number
of the cavalry dashed in at the gate, scattering them-
selves through the streets, dispersing and killing all
the Indians'they encountered.
Ten or twelve of the cavaliers spurred up the
main street where the battle was hottest, and coming
upon the rear of a throng of Indians, male and fe-
male, who were fighting with the fiury of demons,
they broke through them with such impetuosity, as
not merely to overturn them, but also several of the
Spaniards with whom they were contending. The
carnage was horrible, for the savages refused to sur--
render or to lay down their arms, but fought to the
last gasp, until all were slain.
Here ended this bloody struggle, which had lasted
foi nine hours.. .The village remained a smoking
ruin, covered with the slain, and victory declared
for'the Spaniards, just as the sun went down. The
last Indian warrior that wielded a weapon, was one
of those fighting in the village. So blinded was he"
by fury, that he was unconscious of the fate of his
comrades, until glancing his eye around, he saw
them, all lying dead. Seeing further contest hope-
less, he turned to fly, and reaching the wall, sprang
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
lightly toe the top, thinking to escape into the fields.
Here, however, to his dismay, he beheld squadrons
of horse and foot below him, and the field covered
with his slaughtered countrymen. Escape was im-
possible; death or slavery awaited him from the
S:Jiands-of his enemy. In his despair, he snatched the
string from his bow, passed it round his neck, and
fastening the other end to a branch of one of the
S trees that rose out of the rampart, he threw himself
from the wall and was strangled before the Spaniards
S had time to pireentit. :
Such was the deadly battle of Mauvila, one of the
most sanguinary; considering the number of the com-
batants;that- had occurred among the discoverers of
the naew world. Forty-two Spaniards fell in the
dondliit; eighteen of them received their fatal wounds
either in the eyes or the mouth, for the Indians, find-
ing their bodies cased in armour, aimed at iheir
-faces. Scarce one of the Spaniards but was more
or less wounded, some of them in many places.
SThirteen died before their wounds could be dressed,
and twenty-two afterwards, so that in all eighty-two
'.. were slain. To this loss must be added, that of
forty-two horses killed by the Indians, and mourned
-. ', by the Spaniards as if they had been so many fellow-
As to the havoc among the Indians, it was almost
< . .. .
CONQUEST OF FLOBIDA. 59
incredible. Several thousand are said to hae perish-
ed by fire and sword. The plain around the village
was strewn with more than twenty-five hundred
bodies. Within the walls, the streets were blocked
up by the dead. A great number were consumed
in the houses. In one building alone a thousand p.r-
ished; the flames having entered by the door and pre-
vented their escape, so that all were either burpjt or
suffocated: the greater part of these were females;-
Among the dead which strewed the field without
the walls; was found the body of Tuscaloosa -the
younger. As to the Cacique himself, his fate was
never satisfactorily ascertained. According to the
Portuguese Narrator,, several Indian prisoners
affirmed, that on the grand assault of the village by
De Soto and his horsemen, the warriors of Tusca-
loosa entreated him to withdraw frorp the village,
and put his person in safety, in order that, should
they all perish in battle~ as they all had resolved to
do, rather than turn their backs, he might survive to
govern the country. The proud'Cacique at first re-
sisted their entreaties, but at length yielded to their
urgent supplications, and fled from the ill-fated town,
accompanied by a small band of Indians, carrying
with him his scarlet mantle and the choicest things
he could find among the Spanish baggage. Accoid-
ing to the Inca, however, the account generally be-
60 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
lived byrthe Spaniards was, that he had perished
in the flames; and this, in fact, comports most with
Shis haughty, brave and patriotic spirit, Which would
scarcely permit him to survive so ruinous a defeat,
and turn his back upon his town and people, in the
moment of their most imminent peril. He was evi-
dently one of the bravest as well as proudest and
most potent of the native princes. His name still
S remains in the lahd which he loved so well, and de-
S fended so desperately; and it is a name which de-
serves to be held in reverence,as that of a hero, and
a patriot. - :
' i\ ,. ' '.* *
S *NrpT-Thbe Inca and the Portuguese Narrator differ-widely in
tleir estimnattf the killed and wounded in the action. Garcilaso
- de .; egae .Etates the loss of the Spaniards to have been eighty.
two, and of-the "Indians above eleven thousand. The Portu-
.guese Narrator states the Spanish loss to have been eighteen
killed and. one hundred and fifty wounded, and of the In'dians
S, twenty.five hundred slain; which is the number est:ted by the
Inca to have been killed in the battle outside of the town. The
statement of the Inca is given more in detail, and apparently
wjth a more intimate knowledge of facts; having the statements
of-ihree several eye witnesses, froin which to make up his
acciia rt. ThTat of the Portuguese is rather vague and general.
The estimate& of the Inca may be somewhat exaggerated; yet
it must be taken into consideration, that the Mauvilians were
a numerous and powerful tribe, and were jolmed in this battle
by the warriors of the neighboring provinces. Their number
past consequently have been very great. It is stated by both nar.
1 *1- ' 1 . l * '
'battle was truly deplorable. Most of t4iem were
.sev: ,erely wounded; all were exhausted by fatigue
and hunger. The village was reduced to ashes
:rou nd them, and all the baggage of the army, with M
its supplies of food and medicine, had been con-
sumed in the houses.
SThe first care of the Governor, though badly
Battle -was truly deplorable. Most of,4e4m -Were .
Sswounded himself was for his troops. Having or-
dered tht thedead should be wascollected together,
tou nd them, and allnterred on the following day, hei
reted uppt relief should ad edi inise, hadbeen on-
rWounded. Here, however, was the difficulty. Ther
wasbut ed surgeon in the army, and he was slow
and unsTheful. There of there at least rnoseventeen hun- badly
p..wounded himself,' was for his troops.,# Having or-
^ dered-that the -dead should be collected together, i
^ to be decently interred on the following dajy, he dii-
rected 'that relief should be a(6inisntig'd,: t .ihe' -
wounded. IHere, however, was the difficulty'. There
was but one surgeon in the army, and he was'slow
and unskilful. There were at least seventeen hun-
rators, that they all fought to the last gasp, so that the slaugh-
ter must have been immense. In so desperate and protracted a.
conflict, the number of eighty-two slain on the part of -tie
i Pawiia)d, appr jpich mi~f z. probable than tim of-igateen.
oL .. II .- ..
62 CONQUEST OF PLORIDA. '-
dred grievous wounds, requiring a surgeon's ca 4
several having fallen to the share of a single l-
dier. "The mere flesh ivounds were left for the pa-
tient himself to cure; but those in the joints, and
other critical parts, which threatened to maim or
Disable the patient, required great attention. Unfor-
S turiatejy, they had neither ointments nor medicines
of any kind, nor linen for bandages; all had been
consumed. "Not even shelter from the cold and dew
of the night was to be found&; for, not a house of
the village remained standing. At length, boughs
and branches were brought from the cabins that
: s a~lbe.en erected without the village, and sheds
S *irelputiu.paainat such of the walls as were still
a.de lire g?~n;ndejr'iwhich the wounded were conveyed
S --$Ei~'l'e',atd i'strawfd spread for their reception.
Those who iwere-least harmed, exerted themselves
S to succour their-suffering companions. Some open-
ed the bodies of the dead Indians, and took their
Sfat for ointment; others took off their own shirts,
and those of their slaughtered comrades, to make
:-l1ndages for the disabled. As these were of linen,
thel.wie:e allotted to the severest wounds; for those
Which were-not so grievous, they made use of their
doublets, and the lining of their hose, or other ma-
terials of a coarser kind.
'-"-.' -Others flayed and cut up the horses, preserving
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 63
their flesh for the sustenance of the wounded.
SWith all their zeal and exertions, however, a num-
ber died miserably, before any relief could be ad-
ministered to them. Thus passed that wretched
night, amid bitter lamentations and dying groans.
Y Those who were able to bear arms, patrolled as
sentinels, and maintained a vigilant watch, expect-
ing to be assailed. /
Eight days did the wounded Spaniards remain
in these miserable shelters within the village when
able, at length, to go forth, they removed to the
cabins which the Indians had erected without the
walls, where they were more comfortably quarter-
ed. Here fifteen days more were passed. In the
mean time, those whowere least disabled, sallied
forth on foraging expeditions, about the country,
or four leagues in circuit, and found supplies of
provisions in the numerous deserted hamlets scat-
In every thicket and ravine they found dead or
dying Indians, who had not been able to reach their
homes. Many, also, had taken shelter in the ham-
lets, and lay there, apparently without any one to
minister to then. It was understood, however,
that their friends came with nourishment to them
in the night, but returned to their retreats in the
forests before the dawn of day. The Spaniards
($4 CQMQeEST or FLORp&na
A treated these poor. savages wih. kindness, sharing
their food among them.
:The troopers, in their toray into the, forests, cap-
tured fifteen or twenty of the natives. On being
asked whether their people were meditating another
_a~e.tl.hey replied that their bravest warriors had
..,L fWImltk the baUle, and none were left tq make a
'head of war. Their information appeared to be
' '- 'the truth; for,.during all the time that the Spaniards
remained in.their encampment, no Indian ventured
nigh them. :: ..
'-_ph. -..:. ieprsonersl thus. taken, aid others cap-
.E.. ... "l they enquired, concerning the
.. ~. ~ii Leesigns.. of Tusealoosa, which
warlike chieftain, from the time
:te.approach of the Spaniards to-
wasds.his dominions -had meditated their. destruc-
t' : ion. With that object, he had sent his son, with a~
train of warriors, to watch their movements; and
: bahM,ealisted the-natives of the contiguous provinces
Si" '; : lopromising. to share with them the spoils
I. k : he' 1wa it.:mhmo gst of whom .had accompa-
find d.their husbaadM and lovers from the neighbour-
...;,'ig provineesb. declared they had been enticed to
't j:. wip i, by promises of rich robes of scarlet cloth,
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
and silks, and linen, and velvet, with which to deco-
rate themselves for their dances; they were to have
had horses, upon which to ride in triumph, and
Spaniards given to them as slaves. Others came
Sto be present at a great feast and rejoicing they
were to hold after their victory; aind others again,
to witness the prowess and exploits of their lovers.
Tuscaloosa, on arriving at the village 'with- the
Adelantado, had held a council of war with his
principal warriors, wherein it was debated whether
they should attack the van-gua~rd which had arrived;
or wait until they had the whole within their pow'-
er. It is probable that.the heat and impatience of
the Indian General caused the plot to explode be-
fore the appointed time.
It has been shown, that in the burning of the vil-
lage, the Spaniards lost all their baggage and pri-
rate effects. What gave them the greatest-conr-
cern, however, was the loss of a little portion of
wine arid of'wheaten flour, which::they'had Oarer-
fully treasured up for the performance of the mass.
All the sacerdotal dUesses, also the chalices, and
other articles of worship were destroyed ; but the
loss of the. wheaten flour was irreparable. Con- :
sultations were held between the ecclesiastics-and
the laymen, whether biead made of maize rightt
not be adopted, in case of extremity; but. itrwas
66 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
decided, that the use of any thing but wheat was
contrary to the canons of the church.
From thence forward, therefore, on Sundays
and Saints' days, they prepared an altar, and the .
priest officiated, arrayed in- robes of dressed deer-
skins, fashioned in imitation of his sacerdotal dress-
es.; and they performed all parts of the ceremony,
Sexceptinig the consecration of ihe bread and wine.
This constituted what-the Spaniards called "a dry
-.. ; ,, ., -
S'* r .' '
.- S -^-. ... -: ..* -
^1^'^ ;^ ^;. 1'-1 . ^.;I... " *"
CA hfAPtER X
S De Soto becomes an altered man, and why.
1540. WHILE at the village of Mauvila, over-
whelmed with care and anxiety, the ;Governoi was
Suiexpetedly cheered. by, tidings, that ships with
white men in them had arrived on the sea coast tdf
.ward which he was shaping his. course. A rumeCt
of this kind he had heard before the battle, and it
was confirmed by some of the prisoners taken in
the village. He further learnt from them that the
.: port or bay of Achusi, where he had directed Go-
mez Arias and Di'ego Maldonado to rendezvous
with their ships,,was not. more than seven das'
Journey distant.* He doubted not, therefore, t'at
the ships in question. were commanded 6y those of-
ficers, -and bought reinforcementss: and si:suppAes
from Spaini for his projected settlement.' He now
considered himself on the eve bf accomplishing all
his wishes ; of founding that colony which would
assure the possession of the country he had ex-
plored, and enable him to pursue to advantage .hi
search for, gold.'
SPortuguese Narrative, c. 19': TheInca states the'diatanee
Sas about thirty leaguess..
S68 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
S He had brought with him thus far, the Cacique,
made prisoner by Maldonado, at the port of Achusi.
He had always treated him with kindness, but had
ngot sent him to his home before because of the dis-
1 .. .,1d the.danger he would run of being killed
t tured by the .way. Learning, however, that
-'p. d.vs now secure, he granted him permis-
San1 to return ; at the same time, earnestly charging
hi~ to preserve the friendship of the Spaniards
S-ow would soon be guests in his country. The
a departed, with expressions of gratitude for
d, f i etin d and assurances to
Fd. b happy to welcome
i Depto Iregarded as the means
rmmy of his followers
k q looked .fowaidtto as means of escape out of a
Sstrous country.. ..Some of them had been enga-
."o the Conquest of Peru, and contrasted the
That golden empire with the poverty of
uqgh which they had struggled, where
w as to be fouud; and they
1 Aqitp:ast when cop-
IRV..n.h. Tle Spaniards,
Ily, wre d parlened by the disasters of
tnt battle, and the implacable fierceness dis-
by the natives. They saw that such a peo-
'^. t.. ' ,.
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
pie were not easily to be subjugated. Instead,
therefore, of wearing themselves out in this fated
land, it seemed better to seek others already con-
quered, and abounding with wealth, as Mexico and
Peru, where they might enrich themselves with less
risk and toil. For these reasons, they determined,
on reaching the 6ea shore, to abandon, this disas-
trous country, and seek their fortunes in New Spain.
Secret information of these rumours was brought
to De Soto, by some of his most devoted fdlloweirs.
He could scarcely credit it, and went round the
camp at night, alone aid in disguise, to ascertain the
truth. In this way, he overheard a conversation in
the hut'of Juan Gaytan, the treasurer, in which that
cavalier and several of his comrades expressed their
determination to abandon the enterprise, and sail for
Mexico or Peru, or return to Spain in the ships at
De Soto stood aghast at hearing these resolves.
He saw that his present force would disband the
moment his followers could shift for themselves;
while he was aware that it would be impossible for
him to raise a new army. He had no booty of gold
and silver to display, with which to tempt new ad-
venturers; and, as to the specimens of pearls which
he had intended to send to Cuba, they were all'ljost
in the conflagration of MIauvila. Should his pre-
70 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
sent forces desert him, therefore, he would remain
stripped of dignity and colnmand, blasted in reputa-
tion, his fbrtune expended in vain, and his enter-
prise, which had cost so much toil and trouble, a
subject of scoffing, rather than renown. The Go-
vernor was a man extremely jealous of his honouri;
and as le reflected upon these gloomy prospect;,
they produced sudden and desperate resolves. He
disguised his anger, and his knowledge of the
schemes h hhad overheard ; but he determined to
frustrate them, by turning his back upon the coast,
s1indg gain into the interior, and never seeking
:tA ships, norfurnishing any tidings of himself, un-
t. fl -had crowned his enterprise gloriously, by dis-
ce'oieing new regions of wealth, like those of Peru
A change came over De Soto from this day. He
wias disdoncerted in his favourite scheme of coloni-
zation, and had lost confidence in his followers.
3f Instead of manifesting his usual-frankness, energy
aid alacrity, he became a moody, irritable, discon-
tented man. He no logger pretended to strike out
any grand undertaking i but stung with secret dis-
S appointment, went recklessly wandering from place
: to place, apparently without order or object, as if
careless of time and life, and only anxious to finish
SGarcilaso de la Vega, L. 3, c. 22. Portuguese Relation.
The Adelantado breaks up his encampment at M3au-
vila. Manner of crossing a river. The pass
stoutly defended by the Indians. -
1540. It was on Sunday the 18th of November,
that De Soto, finding his troops sufficiently re-
covered from their wounds to bear the march, broke
up his encampment at' lMauvila and turned his face
to the northward, to penetrate provinces which he
had not yet visited. His feelings and motives for
thus turning his back upon the sea coast he kept to
himself; he was always a man strict and peremp-
tory in exacting military obedience, and if his troops
murmured among themselves at the route he chose,
it is probable they were -overawed and reduced to
tacit obedience, by the increased sternness of his
The soldiers were provided with two days pro-
visions of maize, yet they %were five days traversing
a pleasant though uniinhabited country, until they
entered the province of Chicaza.* The first village
SThe Portuguese Narrator says they entered into the Province
1'.-7 CONQUEST- OF FLORIDA.
at which they arrived, was called Cabusto. It was
the principal one of the province, and was seated
on a river, wide and deep, with high banks.-
S:Z.-,ke.zGorernor, Zas usual, sent proffers of peace to
t 4liabi-t-avits, butthey were rejected With scorn.
f'sW3r-ifwlhr t -we i-ant," was the reply,. a war of
Sfi re and blooI:"' Approaching the village, the Span-
*iards saw drawn out before it, more than fifteen
hundred warriors. These skirmishetd'with them for
a- time, but overpowered by the fury of their attack,
.fl.gd-totte riv.e r; ..ome sprang into canoes, others
g. ajll~fui 'inmet he. water, and thus they soon crossed
'g- U i~p~,~-~~e psite;bank, where their main fbrce, to the
S nuiber 6'e.ight: thousand warriors, was posted to
.rThe Spaniards iound the village perfectly stripped
ajid abandoned; for the inhabitants had sent off all
S their eeflcts, with lt4eir ,wives and children, and pre-
pared lbr war. Thry' had determined to risk no
,po.en battle, but to dispute the pa.;s of the river,
which, on account of its depth andi its high banks,
il ey-.could easily do. For this purpose thcy had
stretched their forces for two leagues along the op-
posite bank, and hoped to compel the army to take
a different route.
,r-.W hen night closed in, the Intdians annovyeod the
Strppor idl to b., the Bla'ik W arri-.r, or Tuiie.I.ioosa rin-r.
CONQUEST OF F~OPSID.
S.paar. atly,4 y-sudden LA
S lags, rT. y,, s.Beywoublo ssll l
atdifferent places, and then, 6mitingm a'.Ti
tack the camp. The.Spaniards made use of stLata.
gem in their defence. -There were. three la ndig
places where the Indians disembarked. Here itey
dq pits, jp i.which the archers and arquebusiere g -
oealed themseves.. As soaon dheyt y ,4
leap on shore' and leave .theit cani"es,;tE l" '
rush out, sword in hand, and cut offtheir :
Three. several times did they maltreat them in this
manper, after which the Indians adventured riot
again to attempt to land; bit contented therrnelve i
with vigilantly guarding the passage of the river..
The Governor now ordered one hundred of the
most skilful men,. to build two large boats or i .-o :
guas, nearly flat, and very spacious. ThnsWi~t- :
Sdians might not perceive their.ope aoisidw -._
iected them to be built 'in afforest, vwhic' Wi a
league and a half up the river, and about a'leage
from its banks.
So assiduous were the workmen, thai in twelve
days the piraguas were finished. To transpeit
them to the river, two carriages were conds'riitea,
on which they were drawn by mules andt .si,
and pushed forward by men, and in the most ~Tiffi-
cult places,, carried on their shoulders. In this way
--'- I^ -^ : --
St The fantr were
horsemen to keep their saddles not
ip mounting when they sho a
CnlrfJ rried toenj a;. De D o |1
noi selfhi to ttbis unneessary
ewho leaped o
S,, rca. da, cLos behind .him
r. ..; etherB the *ha id
4, : --:'. .
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. .5
upon the enemy, drove them in," ahd J)iisded
them for more than two hundred paces. Fear-
ing to be:surrounded, they then turned their reins;
and spurred back to their companions. In this
manner, now charging, now retreating, these hardy
cavaliers fought alone, for a short time; in the fifth
charge, however, they were joined by some horse-
menz, and were enabled to keep the Indians' in
The infantry, the moment they landed, made for
the shelter of a hamlet, hard by, and dared not to
sally out, as their number was very small, and every
soldier more or less hurt. The second bark in the
mean time, in which was De Soto, was carried
down the current. The troops attempted to land,
but found it impracticable on account of the high,
steep banks they were, therefore, compelled to
pull up the stream, with great labour, to the landing
place; Which by this time was cleared of the ene-
my. De Soto, with seventy or eighty Spaniards
at his back, leaped on shore and hastened to the
relief of those who -were battling in the plain.
On their approach, the Indians retreated, and
seeing the Spaniards had effected a landing, they
collected their forces, and fortified themselves with
palisades, in a swamp covered with reeds, from
whence they made frequent sallies;i but were as
,76 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
often driven back, and lanced by the cavalry. Thus
.the day passed in unimportant skirmishes, the troops
-rossed the river without molestation, and at night-
fall every Indian vanished.*
fareilaso de la Vega. lib. 3, c. 35. Portuguese Narrative, c. 20.
S: - ..
De Solo sends a i.iessengeir tol thi ntiLes wi/t offers
o(f peace. His trealmenot. Encaimp in a Chicka-
saw vilhtrge. Two soh/iers condIiemId to death.
1540. TIHE country in the neighbourhlod of the
river was level and fertile. with small scattered ham-
lets, in which the army found quantities of maize and
dried pulse. lHa% ing broken up the piraguas fbr the
sake of the nails, they resigned their march,.and after
travelling five days through a desert country, came
Sto another river," where the Indians were collected
together to dispute the pai'.age. Unwilling to ex-
Spose his men to firthler loss, De Soto halted for two
Says. until a canoe had been constructed, in which
lhe sent over an Indian messenger to the Cacique,
with offers of peace and friendship. The savages
seized tle inmescsnger, massacred him on the banks
of the river, in sight of the Spaniards, and then, as
if satisfied with this insulting Sacrifice, dispersed
S with horrid yells."-
.- Su opposed to be thei T,:inbigbe.
1 Porl'i'ue- e Relition, c. ~20.
78 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
There being no longer any enemy to oppose his
passage, De Soto conducted his troops across the
stream, and then marched onward, until, on the
18th of December, he arrived at the village of
Chicaza, from which the province took its name.*
SIt stood upon a gentle hill, stretching from north to
south, watered on each side by a small stream, bor-
dered by groves of walnut and oak trees.
S ~1he weather'was now severe, with snow and ice,
and the troops suffered extremely in their encamp-
mnents. The, Governor, therefore, determined to
ta ~p his.winter quarters at Chicaza. For this
purose, he ordered wood and straw to-be brought
from' tle neighboring hamlets, wherewith to con-
struc' houses; for, notwithstanding there were two
*. hundred in the village, they were.too small to shel-
ter the army.
Considering the nature of the country through which they
Passed, agreeing with the modern accounts of that region, the
direction of the march, the time, and the distance, it is very
S evident that this was the country of the Chickasaws, in the upper
par of the state of Mississippi; and this village probably stood
on the western bank of the Yazoo, a branch of the Mississippi,
about eighty leagues to the northwest of Mobile. Charlevoix re.
marks, "Garcilasodela Vega parlq des Chicachas dans son Histoire
::;' de la Conqueste de la Floride, et il les place a peu pros au mmme
: endrit, ou ils sont encore presentement."-Vide Charlevoix,
Jour. Hist. Let. 29, p. 408.-Belknap's Am. Biography, v. 1. p.
S 191.-.Flint's Geog. and Hist. of the Mississippi, v. 1. p. 497,
cowN roTr FLOa A. 7
Nearly two Months the Spaniards teiaai in
thistencmpmerit, a enjyierg Oixf quIetudiu "'
pose. The cavalry daily scoured ihe fields, 1ndci- K.
tured the Indians, whom the Governor sent to the
Cacique with presents and offers of peace and
friendship. The Cacique made favourable'replies,
promising, from day td day, to visit the camp, but as
often excusing his delay, and sending presents of
fruits, fish and venison. e 8ote gave the principal
warriors of this chieftain a feast, at which was served
up some pork, which the Indians had never before"
tasted, and so palatable and delicious did they find
Sit, that from this time they would prowl about the
.* encampment every night, to steal and kill the swine.
Two Indians, who were caught in the act, were shot
to death, by order of the Governor, and a third had
Shis hands cut off, and was sent to his Caciqueu as
Sexanmple and warning.to the other Indians: -'"
About this time, four soldiers repaired tothe d*: l-
Sing of the Cacique, about a league from the camp,
Without the permission of the Governor, and carried
: off by force some skins and mantles, which so en-
t raged the Indians, that many of them abanddineEd
their homes., When De Soto heard of this violence, .
he had them all arrested;. condemned the two rig-,
leadeirs Fiancisco Osoio and.one uenitez, to death,
'and confiscated the goods of all the four culprits.
.80 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
S The priests and officers of the army supplicated
the General to mitigate the sentence, and begged
the life of Francisco Osorio. De Soto, however,
S was inflexible. The unfortunate criminals were led,
foth inta The public square to be beheaded. At this
tnibfm eta paty of Indians arrived, being sent by the
C cique,'to make his complaints. This event, which
S seemed calculated to hasten the death of the Span-
iards, was the means of their salvation. Juan Ortiz,
the interpreter, instigated by Baltazar de Gallegos,
ad- ad other officers of rank, cunningly gave a false
S idpterpretation of the complaints of the indignant
i-0 : iciid n. He told the Governor that the Cacique
: sent these Indians to say; that the soldiers were
not guilty, and had in no'wise offended him, and that
he would consider it as a great favour if they were
p ardoned and set at liberty. Upon this, the Gover-
S nor pardoned the criminals.* On the other hand,
S Ortiz assured the Indians, that the soldiers who had
7 injured them were in prison, and that the Governor
;i .. would punish them in such an exemplary manner, as
; to serve as an example to all others.
S In the mean time, the subjects of this Cacique,
,'. kept up constant alarms at night, as if about to as-
ail the village; but the moment the soldiers sallied
q: Out, they would take to flight.' -The Governor sus-
Portuguese Narration, c. 20.
..; ':/ ^
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 81
pected, however, that these were but sham attacks,
intended to reader his sentinels careless and offtheir
guard, when a real attack should be made. He ex-
horted his camp-master Luis de Moscoso, therefore,
to be unceasing in his vigilance, and to maintain a
strict watch upon the camp at night. His suspicions
and expectations were correct, though unfortunately
they were but little heeded.. .
The desperate bdll i of Chicr:.
1541. A Dn.K and cloudy night,. Vlwhrni a north
wind was blowing furiously, was chosen by the
Cacique foir a grand assault upon the village. Di-
viding his forces into three bands, to make the at-
tack at three several places, he led on the cent r.' one
in person, and approached in the dead of night.
with such silence, as to arrive within a bundled
Spaces of the sentinels, without being perceived.
Having learnt by his scouts, that the two other
bands were equally advanced, he gave tie signal
Immediately thle air rebounded with the blasts of
conch shells, the rumbling of wooden drums, and
the yells and war whoops of the savages, who rush-
ed like demons to the assault. Many had lighted
matches, like cords, made of a vegetable substance,
which, whirled in the air, would blaze up into a
flame; others had arrows tipped with the same.
These they hurled upon the houses, which being of
reeds and straw, instantly took fire, and, the wind
Slowing strongly, were soon wrapped in flames.
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.- 83
!. The Spatniards, although surprised by thi sudH'f
Sand furious assault, rushed out to defend thlemsl s.
SDe Soto, who always slept in his doublet and hose,
k-that he might be prepared for such emergencies,
Clasped on his casque, drew on a surcoat of quilted
.cotton, three fingers in thickness, the best defence .
'. against the arrows of the savages., pnd seizing hu~k-
leqr and lance, moupted.his horse, .aYn4AiQ4d fqar. :
, Ilessly into the midst of the enemy. Ten,or..twetye-
horsemen followed him, though not immediately.
.The soldiers in every direction started up, with:
V their wonted spirit, to battle with the Indians; but
they laboured under great disadvantages. The.:
Strong wind, which blew the flames and smoke di-
rectly in their faces, greatly disconcerted then.
SSome were obliged to crawl out of their quarters
Son all fours, to escape the raging flames; soie.b. '
Swildered, fled from house to house; other. rus, gd
o qut into the plain ; and some flew to -restue the'sick
and the wounded, who were in a dwelling apart.
Before succour arrived, however, niany of them-
Shad perished in the flames.
The cavalry had not time to arm themselves, or
sadle their steeds. Some led their's forth, and
.lrried them from- the flames; others, who .h4d'
afastened up their horses with iron chains, on account
V of their being restive from high feeding, could not
* a ,
". f84 cQ~2ois.- or FeOA..
cast them loose in the hurry, and had to leave them
I to their fate, and fly for their own lives. A few,
~-a w fare .enabled to mount, galloped to the assist-
4-" ;Be--offthe Governor,, who, with. his scanty num-
1l:,s vs... had been battling for a long time
S'' tt,'iein'dmy. The other two bands of Indians
ibrjt' &oe the village and attacked the Spaniards on
S each flank; and, aided by the fire and smoke, -
Ka; made great havobk. ,
i' :sEprty.or fifty of the soldiers who were at the
', td of: he-.village, :where the flames and
.. - :.rA4ged;:mdst.fiercely, fled into the fields. .'
r nrsheid after, them, sword in hand, his
Sts4J ail lefttinbfiokled in the hurry. "Turn,
S-i ton," cried-he, ..whither are you flying ?
t iHere.,iJmeither Cordova nor Seville to give you
I :refuge. Your. safety lies in your courage, and in
".- the rigour of your arms; n9t in flight.". At this
t' i moment thirty soldiers, from a part of the village
-.i- ,l kthe flames had not reached, came up to in-
S.''ftA4he fugitives. They taunted the recreant
:s' 6 iavith their shameful flight, and, inducing
S. ,them to. joadorces, they hastened together to re-
-* new the combat.
a': -. At this time, Andres de Vasconcelos, with twenty-
.i.four chosen cavaliers of his company, all Portuguese
lidq.gos, most of whom had served as horsemen in
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
the wars on the African frontier, charged on the
main body of the enemy. He was accompanied
by Nuno Tobar. on foot. The fury of their attack
forced the savages to retire.
This- timely reinforcement gave new courage to
the handful of Spaniards, who, headed by the Gov-
ernor, were fighting in that quarter. De Soto had
marked an Indian warrior, who had fought with
great fury and success. Closing in with him, he
gave him a thrust of the lance ; and charging upon
him, and leaning with all his force upon the right
stirrup to repeat the blow, the saddle, which had
been left ungirt in the confusion of the assault.
slipped off, and De Soto fell with it in the midst of
the enemy. \The Spaniardi', seeing his peril, dash-
ed in, horse and foot, to hi; rescue, and kept the
Indians at bay, until he was extricated and his steed
saddled, when vaulting upon his back, he pricked
again into the fight.
The Indians, at length completely vanquished,
fled from the field of battle. De Soto, with his
troopers, pursued them as long as they could be
distinguished by the light of the burning village;
then ordering the recall to be sounded, he return-
ed to ascertain his loss. He fund it greater than
he had imagined. Forty Spaniards had fallen
in the combat. Among the dead was a Spanish
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
woman, the wife of a worthy soldier, and the only
female who had accompanied the army. Her hus-
band had left her behind, when he rushed forth to
fight.. She had escaped from the house, but return-
Sed-. t save some pearls; the flames cut off her
second -retreat, and she was found afterwards, burnt
SFifty horses, also, had perished, and many more
were wounded. Above twenty of them had been
Either burnt or shot down with arrows, in the houses
S; .wl4 theirmasters had been obliged to leave them
: ii-p..- The 'darts had been skilfully aimed at
f tInno6st'vital parts. One horse had two shafts
tl4 thtnihg the- heart, shot from opposite directions.
S Arkfther horse, and one of the broadest and heaviest
in the aimy, was.shot by such a vigorous arm, that
the arrow had passed through both shoulders, and
.four fingers' breadth beyond.
: Another loss, which grieved the Spaniards, was
:, that. of the swine which they had brought with
them, to stock, their projected settlement. These
had been shut up in an enclosure roofed with straw,
arid nearly all perished in the flames.
In examining the bodies.of the Indians killed in
|i the battle, the Spaniards find three cords wound
'..Iund several of them. These, it is said, they had
~ii~htto secure their anticipated spoils; one be-
CONQUE-1T OF FLORIDA.
ing intended to bind a Spanish captive, another to
lead off a horse, and the third to tie up a hog. The
story, however. savours strongly of camp gossip.
This disastrous battle, following on the- ruinous
one of Mau vija. increased the gloo1 and exaspera-
tion of spirit of De Soto:. Ht e mae strict en'luiryi
into ilie night attack. and the circuiisltanc-s \vlichi
had enabled the enemy to( app-roach, iuib-covered,
anid suirprii e their so fatally. All tiln lie attriibutled
to Igro'; negli'ence. on the -pait of Lui.; de Mosco-
so. in iresple t to ilai 'g s en-ti-nels and g"ing' the
r'oulind:. He had probably heen -ii already [irov:oked
by the tardy arrival of Mlos.u:,:,. on the ftatl
battle field of MaIivila: nd ino w. in this additional
cau.e of \ xatiin, forgot his feelings, of friendship
to his old brother in aimni. In hi- indignation, he
deposed Moscoso from his post of master of the
camp), and appointed in his place tlie bold Baltazar
-r4iareiltso de la Vega, lib. 3, 36, 37. Portuguese Narrative,
t"' /-. CHAPTER XIV.
The Spaniards remove to Chicacilla. Occurrences
there. ;The exploit of Juan de Guzian. The
S invention of one of the soldiers as a protection
against the cold.
1541. THREE days after the battle, the Spaniards
At d their encampment to a more advantageous
posion'I, about a league distant, which they called
i .acila.* Here they set up a forge, and busied
t se es in newly tempering their swords, injured
Sthe fire, and in making saddles, and shields, and
lances, to replace those which had been consumed.
In this village they sojourned the remainder of the
; winter, suffering grievously from the extreme cold.
They were in wretched plight, having saved no
clothing from the late battle, except what they
chianed to have on their backs. When the savages
learnt the extent of the havock they had made, tleir
fierce spirits were aroused anew, and they hovered
.:-. every night round the camp, making repeated as-
I isalts, and sounding a frequent alarms. The Span-
ai is, a Little Chicaza.
CONQUEST Jr FLORIDA. 'U
iads,, lest tihe Indians should ire the houses, as they
had done those of C'hicaza, remained all the night
long without the village, arrayed in four ditflrent
squadrons. .with sentries posted. They were obliged
to maintain a vigilant \\atcrh, lori the savages burst
upon th em, at all hours. In these nocturnal skir-
min-hces, many were killed and wounded on both
Every morning, De Soto despatched four or five
parltie;:-.if horse, in different directions, to scour the
country.' They cut dIown c'v('ry Indian they, en-
countered, and alwvav\ returned at siunetl, with the
assurance that there was not an Indian breathing
within four leagues. Tl four lor five lho ur: afterwvards,
however, hordes' of Indians would attack them.
It seemed almost incredible that t'he savages could
have assemlbled in so short a time.
One night a band of Indians approached warily,
the place where Captain Juan de Guzman. with his
company, were posted. De ;Guzman perceiving
them by the light o tile blazing faggots. sprang
upon his ho rse, and followed by fiv e horsemen and
a few foot. charged dow n uplon them. De Guzman,
who was a cavalier of unflinching spirit. though of a
delicate form, singled out an Indian in thle van-guard,
who carried a banner, and made a lunge at him
with his lance. The Indian avoiding the blow,
90 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
caught the lance with his right hand. wrested. it
S from De Guzman, then seized him by the collar, and
giving him a violent jerk, hurled him from the sad-
die to his feet; all this while holding the banner in
his left hand.
'-.The soldiers witnessing the imminent danger of
their leader, rushed in, cut the Indian to pieces, and
-put the whole band of savages to rout. The troopers
dashed after them in hot pursuit. The ground
S favoured the movements of the horse, and the Span-
iards-would have signally avenged their late disaster,
-haddfit their career been suddenly arrested by the
cry of "to the camp! to the camp!" At this start-
: liongsummons, they wheeled about and galloped
back to the encampment, and thus the fugitives es-
caped. The alarm Nwas raised by onie of the monks,
who was fearful that the troopers, in their vengeful
pursuit, might fall into some ambush of the enemy.
Forty Indians fell in this affray. The Spaniards lost
two of their steeds, and two were wounded.:
The army remained in this encampment until the
Send of March. Besides being unceasingly harassed
S .by the eneniy, they suffered bitterly from the cold,
; which was rigorous in the extreme ; especially to
men who had to pass every) night under arms, \kth
s. '- rce any clothing.
S".tlhis extremity, however, they were relieved by
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 91
the ingenuity of one of the common soldiers.. He
succeeded in making a matting, tour fingers in thick-
ness, of a long and soft kind of grass, or dried ivy
one half of which served a; a mattress, and the other
half was turned over as a blanket. He likewise
made many others for his companions, who all assist-
ed him in the manufacture.
These rustic beds were brought every night to the
main guard, and with their aid, those who were on
- duty, were enabled to endure the severe cold of the
winter nights. The army also found abundant pro-
visions of maize and dried fruits in the neighbour-
S Garcilaso de la Vega, Lib. 3. c. 39.-Portuguese Narrative,
'. 1 j ,(
~a-: Jr de A'i-asco, and detachment of horse and foot,
ve'a brush with the natives; and how he was
:. t' aunted by them. Storming of the fortress of
r libamo. Challenge of an Indian warrior, aid
C. "how he fared in consequence.
QN the. first of April,.the army broke up
7A et 1.: They journeyed four leagues
y, through a chagnpaign country, thickly
t Nst:sin,! all' .hAmlet~, and halted in a' plain
'.beynd the territory of Chicaza; vainly ;faircying
iat, the Indians, now that they had left their pro-
. vince, would no longer molest them.
.A strong party of horse and foot, commanded
S by Juan de Anasco, which was foraging for provis-
ipnp, came in sight of an Indian fortress, garrisoned
b a,g.et bqdy of savages, who looked like devils
rather than men. Their bodies were painted in
stripes, white, black, and red,. as if clothed with
itastic garments. Their faces were blackened,
S. d they had red circles round their eyes, which
.them a ferocious aspect; while some wore
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA. 93
feathers upon their heads, and others horns. On
seeing the Spaniards, they sallied forth, shouting
and yelling, and beating wooden drums.
De Anasco retreated to an open field within a
cross-bow shot of the fortress, and drew up his
cross-bow men with their bucklers before the horses,
to protect them. In this way, lie received the light
skirmishing assaults of lie Indians. The latter,
seeing the inleriority of the Spaniards, taunted them
from a distance, by a singular piece of mummery.
Having kindl-ed a great fire in front of their bort,
they pretended to klnock one of their companions
on the,head with a club, and then swung him by
the feet and shoulders, as if they would throw him
into the flames: thereby giving the Spaniards to
understand the treatment they were to expect. Juan
de Anasco was of too irritable a temperament to
bear such taunts patiently, but felt the insufficiency
of his force to attack the fortress. He despatched,
therefore, three troopers to the Governor, to en-
Leaving one third of the infantry and cavalry to
guard the camp, De Soto immediately marched out
with the remainder, to the assault of the fort, which
was called Alibamo.* This fortress wvas built in
We give the name according to the Inca. 'The Portuguese
Narrator calls it Aliniamu.
S94 CONQUEST.OF FLORIDA.
t. he form,of a quadrangle, of strong palisades. The
four sides were each four hundred paces in length.
Within, the fort was traversed from side to side by
S two..ther.palisades, dividing it into separate parts.
Inthetouter wall' were three portals, so low and
narrow, that a man could not enter them mounted
on horse. Passing through these, appeared the
other wall, with three entrances, and behind that a
third; so that if the outer wall were gained, the
S gaXirrison could retreat to the second, and so on.
I. lhe last wall were three portals, opening upon a
n i *.Ojdideep river, that flowed in the rear of
t .lR ,So h:gh. were the banks of this stream,
,Po t'h .it.~ exceedingly difficult to clamber up them
"' -onot, ,and they' were inaccessible for horse. A
.'- few rude, dilapidated bridges, were thrown- across
the river, affording a difficult passage.
The Indians had. constructed their fort in this
S manner, that the Spaniards might not avail thenm-
Sselves of their horses, but be obliged to battle with
Sthfqoot to foot, when they fancied they were not
only. equal but even superior to their enemies.
De Soto, having carefully reconnoitred the for-
i, tress, ordered a hundred of the best armed horse-
mien to dismount, and, forming three squadrons, ad-
.ca, three abreast, and commence the attack;
o i.Q d to be the Yazoo river.
; : "- , .... *: '. .
CONQUEST OF FLOaIDI ~
whilst the fobttleo -w ere less taeel
defensive arifour, stiblild- iP t'tltiir Pfd
together, they should strive to seize the ihr-~t' -
? traenes. The slight formed but brave Juan de'G iz-
iman led on one of the squadrons; Alonso Rmdi i nf
-de Cardenosa, another; and the stout Gonzalo Sil-
ves1tr,t--h'e third. -
S -The Indians, wh h.haduitril thi-ftrit k
ed shut up in their fortress, perceivi:g thi: r- %'A
tins of the Spaniards for the assault, sallied"Iid -" :
battle, a hundred, men from each portal. At' the '
first discharge, Diego de Castro, Luis Bravo, aid ;
iFrancisco de Figueroa, were brought to the ground,
mortally wounded. All three were pierced in the
thigh, with arrows barbed -with flint: for, the sava-
ges having gained some experience during ther: -:,
warfare with the Spaniards, always ainr6ed.- .
S thigh, which was never guarded. THe-6 9SAri 's,
S seeing their companions fall,sisbiriid to o'dre aidfi ir
S to rush in, and leave the Indians no time to gal4l -.
them with their arrows. They charged furiously,
and drove the enemy before them, to the very por-
tals of the fortress. .-
.j while Juan de Anasco and Andres de Vafsc'i''
celos attacked the savages on the flank,'T) Sboth,
with twenty horse, charged upon theiother. As Atie
.Governor was spurring onward, an arrow struck
i .- .. - -: .. ....
hg upon his casque, with such force, that it. re-
-,; : el, a.pike's length in the air, and ],.De oto "
fAerwards that it. made 0li eyesflash
.ht -lited shock of. oprse. .and
.. l8 a4 for th~ entraOes of the fot,
e :re so narrow, that a great nurhber
ii :"' Bilaughtered without the walls. The Spaniards
iKr tq d pelll nel, with them.
..' ,Tbie.carnage within the fortress was dreadful.
A '- s ezr crowded togetherapd She Span-
t,.ria,.4imey had received
p'Ot, winter, gave loose to
"dQie dtJ i without mercy. .As
"' iy -narfllourW, they were easily
I i' t -. .th:plains, and :falling into. the hands
of-the-oldiers, were instantly slain. Many secaped
Sby the portals in the rear, t6 the bridges; but in
their haste to cross, several were jostled into the
w'~(q vhieh flowed at a great distance beneath.
.aed by the enemy, threw.themselves
i-b! ais and swain across. -In a short time,
the fentess -wasi abandoned and in-the power of
14ipaniards.; while those Indians who reached
apposite bank placed themselves in battle array. .
So of the savages who had escaped, desirous
Bhis skill with the bow and arrow, sepa-
c.* ..: ..; . ' o .
CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
Srated'hiniself from his companions, and shoute d'to
t theW paniiards, giving them to understand, by signs
Saind words, that he challenged any archer to conrle
Sort and have a shot with him, to prove which man
was the better marksman. Upon this, Juan de Sa-
Slinas, a brave Asturian hidalgo, who, with some
companioiis, had sheltered himself among trees
from the arrows, stepped forth, and'walking dow'n
to the bank of the river,, took his stand opposite to
the Indian. One of his companions called to him
to wait, until he should come to guard him with his
shield; but Salinas refused to take any advantage
Sof his enemy. He placed an arrow in his cross-
-bow, while the Indian also selected one from his
quiver, and both drew at the same moment.
S The dart of Juan de -Salinas took effect, and
Pierced the Indian's breast. He would have fallen,-
but was received in the--arms of his compari'ons,
who bore him away, more dead than alive. The
SIndian's arrow pieced the Spaniard in the nape of
Sthe neck, and remained crossed in the wound. Sa-
.' linas returned with it in this state to his-comrades,
*ell pleased with his success. The comrades of
the fallen Indian allowed him to depart without mq-'
lestation, as the challenge had been man to man.
'..The Adelantado, determined to punish the impu-
.dance and daring of these Indians, called-n .the
V UL. 11.-9
98 &0' CODQiST FWIUDA.
cavalry to follow him; -and, crossing the river by
i an easy ford above the fort, galloped out upon the
I. plain; then, charging upon the savages, he pursued
: ; ilbe than a league, -with great slaughter;
S.- '.h d 'tiight not interposed, not one would have
:iI--P t" ell the tale. As it was, the carnage
was very great.
;i :When the Spaniards gave up the pursuit, they
returned to their encampment, and halted here four
.ti the wounded were, restored. Fifteen
d ,1ied, Of these were.the three cava-
ffep at the.; commencement of the
Syeir gceatly lamented by their com-
.r. ,to heyowere noble, young, and valiant;
S .them, had reached his twenty-fifth year.*
.* iacilaso de la Vega. lib. 3, 35. Portuguese Narrative, c. 20.
I.. ' -' ...
-, ,... .. .
-. ,. -.
i . : .
. . . .- .
42tpa aiues come in sight of the Missississippi
The Cacidue Chisca.-his hostile move ts.
1T541 AT EIf foirdayt A~& jSpa.ii ,
from the encampment of Alibamo, still'tnf M I:
-towards the north, to avoid the sea. For seveh days
they traversed an uninhabited country, full of forests
and swamps, where they had sometimes to swim
their horses.* At length they.came in sight of a
,village, called Chisca, seated near a wide river. As
this river was the largest theyhad discovered in -
Florida, they called it Rio Grande; it was e ,ie
now called the Mississippi.t The Indiains -ihlis
S province, owing to their unceasing-warfare with the
natives of Chicaza, and the country lying between
Portuguese Relation, c. 22.
t The Inca, on the authority ofJuan Coles, one of the followers
Sof De Soto, says, that the Indian name ofthe river was Chucag s.
'- The Portuguese Narrator says, that in one place it was called *
STumaliseu; in another Tapata; in another Mico; and at that
Part where it eaters into theeaRi;. I t is probable it hid differ.
.' ent names amonj the different Indian tribes. The village of
,Chisca, is called Quizquiz, by the Portuguese Narrator.
100 CONQUEST OF FLORIDA.
t; hem being unpeopled, knew nothing of the approach
of the strangers. The moment the Spaniards des-
icriel'tieillage, they rushed into it, in a disorderly
!e 1 trimaly Indian prisQoners, of both.sexes
1 gs ." kidPafd' llged'the houses.
l ":atfiij'i artificial mound, on one side of the vil-
lrge, stood the dwelling of the Cacique, which
Sserived as a fortress. The only ascent to it was by
tvwo ladders. Many of the Indians took refuge there,
Swhilst othersfled to a dense wood, that arose be-
l nd-ui "d the river. Chisca, the chief-
"lnrovince,; wa very old, ad lying ill
targ the tumult. and shouts, how-
M sf and went forth; and as he
Sdi'bsack'ig of hs village and the capture of
Hiv aslS, seized a tomahawk aid began to de-
- i'nd in a furious rage, threatening vengeance and
extermination to all who had dared to enter his do-
itiains without permission. With all these bravadoes
Ot' .,tkCacique, beside being infirm and exceedingly
/'- Pi[tiful in his dimensions; the most miser-
h du'': 'l t] dithit the Spaniard' had seen in all
"- ther marchings He was animated, however, by the
-i reiinembrance of the deeds and exploits of his youth,
be had been a doughty warrior, and ruled over
proin a s te Cciq, ce.
-L ,,Wo n and attendants of the Cacique, sur-
; '.: ?'*x,:", o -, .. : .