Title: Conquest of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/FS00000083/00001
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Title: Conquest of Florida
Series Title: Conquest of Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Irving, Theodore
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Volume ID: VID00001
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S Son quattromila, a bone armati e bene
S Instrutti, ui al disagio e tolleranti.
ona 6 la gente, e non pu6 da pih dotta
Sda piA forte "ida esser condotta.--T' sso.
9" -e.-.r "o.. N .







EuNrR.D according to the Act or Congress, in the year 1835,
TlEODORE IRliNo, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court
e So, uhbrn District of New.York.
r '" **


2.~ ".1'

~fi~ A


A: Mh

F',. WI W



Si1. K-Now of no person to whom I can with more
^ propriety dedicate the following pages than to your-
eIf, since they were written at your suggestion, and
the materials of which they are composed were
-moulded into their present form and feature under
your affectionate and judicious advice.
,in the course of my labours, when I have
by unlocked for difficulties, and dis-
by those misgivings which beset an in-
enced writer, you have dispelled my doubts,
'd forward my faltering spirit, and encour-
.. The to persevere.
S-" would be pardoned for alluding to other and"
aig ter obligations yet' nearer to my heart: with


the anxious interest 'of a parent's eye, you have
S watched over the most critical period of my life.
S Amid the excitement and snares of foreign scenes,
and in the quiet eniployments of our home, your
e' unsels have been my guide---our friendship-the
O rrstances will excuse the term'from one so
msuch your junior-your friendship my happiness
S.and pride. The heedlessness of boyhood could not
' n g ur.assiduous care-the wayward habits of
'yg3ai hlavenot wearied your unceasing solicitude.
i"b.ave.been thus far led in safety, claims the
fwsasigreteide of-
Your affectionate nephew,


-. Nuw-Yonz, March, 1835.

:.; ^ ": ',
p .

^ *n-
'7 ^^



,,-- .

IE WHIEEtudyiing tlhe Spani -h intiaTagLe. -noPe I~,.v yearz
f ditit, al bid clirotni.:l w%-na pla,.--d in oniy h nlnd, re-
rly die. verrie and acli- .-Iren t of rth Sp n-
nrei'b. It \vas denormll'rin :Td --Tl .e Firri:!Ja of tie
r the Hi-.tory of th,' Ad,-lanttd.1, H-rnarii.) do:. S.to,
,?,Bi -a-id Captaui-G in.ral oft tlh K ._iiii .lou i:.m Florida,
nther heroi,. cavahli-r, Spatir.arid and Indi. n : n r1I' el0
na Garciiaio dl' la \'e-a." .A. I re-na, I be',am-? in-
engro-ieil h\Y the ?exraiordJinlr\' iente'pri.-- rtl-Trei na-r-
.id'icElit with i.nte;r e intere-ist pout tlhe ai rbramiied adve\n-
f1' daririnag eplo;l" ot 'Et. l-.?lad r.virn or', nrid he no l-s
l n itlr.us di edd of sa an e i,: ih;lita -, whi: hi enritll
tb the Ih-l pIrale b ta-.t:'.i' poi it by Mr.
i ,tfth thie tl-t de:-hlgtfuil V..oirki in the

S ee dhIl waa adiised to i.ndertak.- a tree tratn.-
it ~itfbe Eighsh. as a itrerary ex'-rse. Vihi r.lu-i
tt1 ta, I'had the good tortiune to irn-'!t witl a narra-
.*at ; fibjec. % ritten- by a P.,rtuii -n P -e A.i:ner, who
46 ie th- expedition. Thin led me to fturtlher re-'earch
-,Miihation; and. rindilIL tlant th. erikin eFv,.enls
d3ptuta'renturc-es in the chronicle of the Inca. w. re borne
'i:[he Ot it&i, by this narrative tromI ainoth Ir haind, and that,
idus lights had been thrown by iodirn travellrs upon the


aW b amid to Ilaw been taken by the adventurous band
.dA Bt. I a convinced, that what I had before regarded
weTk of feition, was an authentic, though, perhaps,
asagg td histo. ry.
bhet .that a fill account of an expedition
llglg a eh Am ani of romance-over the early history of
.'QlA lma. ounAtry, would possess interest in the eyes of
*I resolved, to the best of my abilities, to di-
i the.mraerilal before me.
~ wrou from which I have derived my facts,
SiM twa u already mentioned, by the Inca Garcilaso
S ag tand by the anonymous Portuguese adventurer.
00b0 LmMi comulted in a folio edition, printed in Ma-
r*PO .gMapdM in the history of the Indias, by Herrera, in
Almost at full length. The Portuguese
i hlafnd in an English translation, published in
Wr sat in an abridgment in Purchas' Pilgrims.
4A* t hhion, in later days, to distrust the nar-
l l b and to put more faith in that of the
This haa occasionally been done without due
Aleg thei respective claims to credibility. Gar-
Vega was a man of rank and honour. He was
'~.:' i ended from an ancient Spanish stock by the father's side,
4"le by the mother's, he was of the lofty Peruvian line of the
I'gMsw .i n:irative was originally taken down by himself,
*061" eof a friend; a cavalier of worth and respect-
bamd been an officer under De Soto, and for whose
the word of the Inca as. a guarantee. It was
and enriched by the written journals or memo-
p _two other soldiers, who had served in the expe.
Shad the testimony, therefore, of three eye wit.

The Portuguese narrative, on theaother hand, is the evidence
of merely a single eye witness, who gives himself out as a'
cavalier,, or gentleman; but. for this we have merely his
own word, and he is anonymous. There is nothing intrinsic
in his work that should entitle it to the exclusive belief
that has been claimed, for it. It agrees with the narrative
of the Inca, as to the leading facts which form the frame work
of the story: it divers from it occasionally, as to the plans and
views of Hernando de Soto; but here the Inca is most to be
depended upon-the Spanish cavalier from whom he derived
his principal information, being more likely to be admitted to
the intimate councils of his commander than one-of a differ-
ent nation, and being free from the tinge of national jealousy
which may have influenced the statements of the Portuguese.
The narrative of the Portuguese is mdre meagre and con-
Scise than that of.Garcilaso; omitting a thousand interesting
anecdotes and-personal adventures; but this does not increase
its credibility. A multitude of facts, gathered and gleaned
from three different persons, may easily have escaped the
knowledge, or failed to excite the attention of a solitary indi-
vidual. These anecdotes are not the less credible because
they were striking and extraordinary; the. whole expedition
was daring and extravagant, and those concerned in it men
who delighted in adventure and exploit.*
I have been induced, therefore, in the following pages, to
draw my facts more freely. and copiously than others, in latter
days, have seemed inclined to-do, from the work of the Inca;
still I have scrupulously and diligently collated the two narra-
tives, endeavouring to reconcile them where they disagreed,
and to ascertain, with strict impartiality, which was most likely
The reader will find a note concerning Garcilaso de la Vega and his work,
in ite Appendix.

to be correct, where they materially varied, and to throw upon
the whole subject the scattered lights furnished by various
modern investigators. While I have discarded many incidents
which appeared hyperbolical, or which savoured too strongly
of the gossip of idle soldiery, I have retained, as much as pos.
sible, those every day and familiar anecdotes which give so
lively a picture of the characters, habits, persons and manners
of the Spansh discoverers of those days, and to my mind,
bear so strongly the impress of truth and nature. My great
object has been to present a clear, connected, and character-
istic narrative of this singular expedition: how far I have suc-
ceeded, it is for the public to judge.




First discovery of Florida.
NVBnB was the spirit of wild adventure more uni-
versally diffused than at the dawn of the sixteenth
century. The wondrous discoveries of Columbus
and his hardy companions and followers, the de-
scriptions of the beautiful summer isles of the west,
and the tales of unexplored regions of wealth locked
up in unbounded wildernesses, had an effect upon
the imaginations of the young and the adventurous,
not unlike the preaching of the chivalric crusades for
the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre. The gallant
knight, the servile retainer, the soldier of fortune,
the hooded friar, the pains-taking mechanic, the toil-
ful husbandman, the loose pre"atb, and the hardy
mariner, all were touched with the pervading pas-
sion, all left home, country, friends, wives, children,
loves, to seek some imaginary Eldorado, confidently
expecting to return with countless treasure.
Of all the enterprises undertaken in this spirit of

daring adventure, none has surpassiedC t'r hardihood
S adid,,ariety of incident, that of the renowi-ned Her-
naind de Soo and hand band o t cavalitier. It nwa
ppeJtiFy put. in action; it was the iknriht c:rantry of
the did world carried into the depth- of the Ameri-
ca.u..widlderness : indeed, the personal adventures,
lth :feats of individual j.irowe-s, the picturesque de-
: sejipl.io s ofj steel clad cavalieri-. ,i ith lane' and helm
and prancing steed, Lglitt-ring thr:oui2h tihe wilder-
nesse.s of Flo rida.Geo' rgia..\ la ia.and the prairi-si
o, .the Far West. \v.iild seeii to un mniere fi ction- of
noiaul.Tce. did they not come to us rec.,r.led in nat-
1.p. ft. taclt nRa-rrativcs of contenipora rii-. anid eolnr-
I itetd' by minute and daily mnimoranda of eye

S lfibtlre-wei enter, however, upon the -tirrinig and
eve iljt ll story ot the I:,rtun-es o De S. 'to aind hi, fol-
hsi\ef. s.it is proper to notice briefly the di-ci:very
S .otthJe land which \va, the scene of his adventures,
Sand the variou, expedition, to it. which -tinmulated
h Ih,-)to his great enterpri-e..
'.- .'Wl'i..se'\,ho are cdnversant with the history of the
Fai'. sni.4n discoveries \will remember the chimerical
-,' sis ol' the brave old Governor :' Pu rto Rico,
'Ptkt'e'de Leon. in st-arncli of the Fountain :ofY.,utih.
I: Ti fabled fountain. according to Indian tradition,
ite. *eitl iit one of -the Bahama Islands. Ponce de
F. *

Leon sought after it in vain, but in the course of his
cruising discovered a country of'vast and unknown
' extent, to which, from the abundance of flowers,
and fromits being first seen on Palm Sunday, (Pas-
cha Florida) hle gave the name of Florida.
Obtaining permission from the Spanish govern-
ment to subjugate and govern this country, he made
a second voyage to its shores, but was mortally
W.i-teled in a conflict with the natives. Such was
e: fate-of the first adventurer into the wild regions
of Florida, and he really seems to have bequeathed
his ill fortune to his successors.
.-JA few years after his defeat a Captain of a cara-
vdi.mamed Diego Milrulo. \was driven t the coast
"f6Florida by stress of weather, where he obtained
bitall. quantity of silver and gold in traffic from
*'iT :es. ~WiLh this he returned well pleased to
ag-. spreading the fame of the country
bt the same time a company of
Eif San Dominso. concerned in
he head olf which was the Licentiate
ulade Axllon, auditor and judge of ap-
-istaad, fitted out two vessels to cruise
lo.nds and entrap Indians to work in
.te course of this righteous cruise
*, iidriven by stress of weather to a
co'e o a te East coast, to which they gave the

'2 (tiNk'ftST "OF TLORIDA.
iaf' #fi tin. 1e'lenar TFhe con:,try in the neihblour-
.:lil. ifs~t il l C-hicorea. and i- the same now call-
0 fitW' k-'avrtilita. Hl-re they anlchred at the
'-ir Si titrtiter which they called y the Jordan, riler
4iA iinL.en' t'-'tie sea captain whot disco\er:id it. It
-stii rttlteilf.ni kfvwvn bys lt- Indian apellatio-n. tile
h1tib 4 '* r The natives hastened to lhe shores
iS -titir'lie e-ships, N which thev inisto: ik f.,r l1ug e
-"ea -iv:nnsters; b1t, when thely lbelill men issue
f'ni hem. \vwid white cromplexi.oni and beards, and
-* I.:ii -railnent and shinilng arnmour. thley- fled in ter-

.'Pi&'r`S.paiiiard- -toun dispelled their feari, and a
4.,l i.rler.coir-se toolk place. The poor Indian,
"M kiWil and l il ho,-pitable. brouitll prolvisi:Lns to the
.' id made the trangers- presents of martin
iN*ea l'm-ars.-anid a small quantity o l'g-Id andi silver.
.l .p'tii',ardI gave them tlinkri, t iiI re:inirn. and.
kiiT cj ml:nieted their supplies o' woo''d and water
atd: iproviio -. in itedl their savage Iriends on boardl
-NTlthe Iship-. The Indians ea,:--rly accepted the in-
*I',,ittei. The.y thronged the vesels. gazing' willh

'Y ': \ ,"!,,l! 11 1w thIe 2-- neral .:.pinion, str' ngtb1' r.,ed ti' the er.u i. l.
.; fie- th-lit the l it ,.:.ril.lug -oulid and blali..J are still called by
the name or' H. H H-en. rreri plaj.S: (ape St. Helena and
ti r iv r J.,rdan in thl.: i l;rl ,e.:,nd dri. :re A.*. I, r.ide, wli.r:h is
:'* tt'l. ari.. alh riter.- ,d,. Hrrctrar D. -2. 1,6. \.e.6.


- w.ncder at every thing around them but when a
asuffiient number were below the deck;., the Spa-
sA^l perfidiously closed the hatches upon them,
a.n], weighing anchor, fnade sail for San Domiilno.
op of the ships was lost in the co:l.rse of tie vo\a-me,
t:1 otier arrived safe, but tIe Indians on board ..,f
bh a.mained sullen andl gloomy, and refiii -d fi:.,d.
slotlaaBji o t.f them perished of famine and mIlan-

rts.'^.1 ,^* ..,w^ever. Ib'r.iought 1ad-: by.the kid-
Bii~Mi <' e' lhe c'out.lry the hlad vi-iit-d. as well an
it.e spe.cim-enm of g'.ld and m iiler brli'.iult home
,b.ij tl. same tm.- ly DI-g .i;- MIlilo, roused the
MdI: and amlbitimon of Ilih au.litirl Lucas Vas-
,,gd A.vlloii. Being sh.'iitlv atlitrward, iri Spain,
ie frem the Em,:- roir Cmarl. V. permis-

ml; eand g":vern the newly discovered
Sea. W ilthi ills puinmisi.' he ri-
and ftted :lint a arma-
S ls, em,) making personal in

added d Iimiin fir to tee-i in
intr he had sriiited. and \ lirih he
S richer than (lhicorea. He ac-
Sa jtion as pi.,lot. but having. with

r .4 kn. LI. c. .
r 9 .-L x. rO.

14 *C0f&ii*'r bET nTilthA.
a itglge~ce in'worthy of a practised mariner, neg:
Idld 'iA hi first visit to take an observation, he was
4lB etltb find the place at which he had formerly
ati4rrnd- was so;much mortified by the ridicule
Ad irpf inches of his employers, that he fell, into a
Ml rii'd'melancholy, lost his senses, and died in the
3a a- few days.
Sst5as Vasquez de Ayllon now prosecuted his
o-eyage to the eastward in search of Chicorea. Ar-
-iving in the river Jordan, (or Cambahee) the scene
Sof-perfidy in the preceding voyage, his principal
%lip stranded and was lost. With the remaining
S'two he passedr further to ihe Eastward, and landed
eO.cpast adjoining Chicorea, in a gentle and plea-
*ii regioh. Here he was so well received that he
i~Osidere'd the country already under his dominion,
~A ~ permitted two hundred of his men to visit the
-'pincipal village, about three leagues in the interior,
while he remained with a small force to guard the
The inhabitants of the village entertained these
visitors with feasting and rejoicing for three days,
antil, having put them completely off their guard,
i.btr rose upon them in the night and massacred
veryy soul. They then repaired by daybreak to,
the harbour, and surprised Vasquez de Ayllon and
,bis handful of guards. The few who survived es-


caped wounded and dismayed to their ships, and
making all'sail from the fated coast, hastened back
to San Domingo. According to. some accounts
Ayllon remained among the slain on the coast he
sought to subjugate, but others assert that he re-
turned wounded to San Domingo, where the humi-
liation of his-defeat and the ruin of his fortunes,
conspired \with his bodily ills to hurry him broken
herted to the grave. Thus signally did the natives
ofCh.icprea revenge the wrongs of their people who
k.*i een so, perfidiously kidnapped.*

SIist. Florida, por el Inca. L. 1. c. 2.
I, errera. D. 2. L. x. c. 6. Idem. D. iii. lib. 8. c. 8. Peter Mar-
'.fJIL D. vii.. c. 1.
.* sns Cousm.graphie. L. 1. p. 100. Lond. Ed. 1669.


A~4YP: ..
-.- .

I. '


*.*.:: CHAPTER II.

-.4Ep'edition of Pamphilo de Narvaez.

'*L AR of greater note was the next who as-
Ssubjugate the unknown realms of Florida.
iwas the brave but ill starred Pamphilo de
irvaez, the same who had attempted to arrest
$ernando Cortes in his conquering career against
'eico, in which attempt he was defeated in battle,
lost an eye. Narvaez possessed favour at court
'vas enabled to fit out a considerable armament
new enterprise. He was invested by the
err Charles V.with the title of Adelantado, or
Iinary governor of the country he expected to sub-
a. and occupy, which was that part of Florida ex-
tending from its extreme cape to the river of Palms.
n this expedition he trusted to wipe off the dis-
grace of his late defeat, and even to acquire laurels
Ve.h might vie with those %f Cortes.
ahe 12th of April, 1528, Narvaez anchored at
j, moith of an open bay on the eastern coast of
oida, with a squadron of four barques and a bri-
t ine. Here he landed his forces, consisting of.
hundred men and forty five horses; having lost

asy of his men by desertion in the West India
SIj ds, and several of his horses in a storm.
:,FErecting the royal standard, he took possession of
Se, country for. the crown of Spain, with no opposi-
tp) from the natives. After having explored the
. j'inity, Narvaez determined to penetrate the
Sin a, northward direction, hoping to dis-
me great empire like that of Mexico
~,hbe mean time, the ships were -to
"t e, coast in quest 1-of some conve-
U,,a. Where they' were either to await his
xi to steer for Havana and return with sup-
fthe army.*
1n was strongly opposed by the treasurer
l~ition, one Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Va-
and sagacious man. He represented
o plunnging into an unknown wilderness
a wrd of the language, and advis-
iould' continue on in their
e harbour and a fer-
.i.ghbt make incur-

ted by Narvaez. and
nio,' wJlhose imaginations
e i~.ea of inland conquest.
set sail to the north-

8 ooitahs'ts -4Ui% OMSDA.
Wii ;eai.Narv~ e and. his troops set out by land
iishe Beae'dihestion, accompanied by the faithful
LfMMu tirez -.whol since he could not dissuade' his
Naruliade from his desperate career, resolved to

WliEi*uft which proceeded by land consisted of
ti uiglen d'men, forty of whom were mounted
13iM4 es'i/ The allowance to each man, consisted
D,~bo pounds of biscuit and half a pound of bacon.
liibthe firstfew days-theymet with fields of maize,
air villages containing provisions. Here, however,
Al~ dtiaged the feelings of the natives by- rifling
Sat.dl~-aing waste their sepulchres, inistaking them
; "l amros temples. They afterwards journey-
SMte days through desert solitudes without
9# Vnhabitant, suffering greatly from want of
B h-IThey. crossed rapid rivers on rafts or by
*giaieng, continually exposed to the assaults of
l iSe of lurking savages : they traversed swamps
a sil forests, making their way with great difficulty
0~iough matted thickets and over fallen trees, and
m stufering every variety of misery and hardship.
JilllbPitthey were cheered onward by the assurances
afi* taiin capiives who served as guides, that at
i:::i distance ahead lay a vast province called
Adlachee, extremely fertile, and abounding in the
Stly so eagerly sought after.

; At length they arrived in sight of the place which
gave its name to this long desired province. Nar-
vaez had pictured it to himself a second Mexico,
and was chagrined at finding it a mere village of
two hundred and forty houses. Alvar Nunez was
sent forward to take possession of it, which he did
without opposition, the men having all fled to the
";?..e-Spaniards remained twenty five days in the
aiage, exploring the neighboring country, and sub.
. listing upon the provisions they. found in' the place.
BDuing this time they were harassed, day and
night, by the natives of the province, who were an
eieeedingly warlike people. They were disap-
i :sted in their hopes of finding gold, and discourag-
Jdl4 y the accounts given them of the country fur-
. ni;:. They were told, however, that by shaping
to the southward, towards the, sea, they
dlays' journey, come to the village
j ,ketPe was maize and vegetables and
r, and where the natives were of a

therefore, did they turn their steps,
for fqod than for gold. The jour-
*'IPtas.and full of disaster. They had to
B 1's~t sons and dismal swamps, with the wa-
steroften .p.te their breasts, their pa.'age obstruct-

ed by rst trei lt*ees. and 1:,e.et by hordes.of savage.
'Plese a'ppeared--to,-lhe disheartened Spaniards of
gii2atr e4aight ; they had bows of enormous size,
li*.in hiih yey discharged arrows with such force
as hilpetiee.trat.e armour at the distance of two hun-
di.:-s a ds,. At length, alier incredible hardships,
ail. kh.lvhe loss of many men and horses, they ar-
iw-d at the- village of Aute.* The natives aban-
dvned and burnt their ho: ues on the approach of tih
intiaders, but they left behind a quantity of maize
with which the Spaniards appeased their hunger.
m Aday's march beyond the village brought- them
tia'-iv.e'r ?which gradiially expanded. intto a large
mad.r a arm of the sea. Here they came to a pause
iWgtei"giadventurous career, and held a consultation
~.Bi 'elir future movements. Their hopes of
.ethlia'r d -conquest were at an end. Nearly a third
i4(tekhLe.eriagial number had perished; while of thel
Ssi~i trs' a great majority were ill, and disease was
daily spreading among them. To attempt to re-
nrace their 'teps, or to proceed along the coast in
'seatohl of the fleet would be to hazard all their lives.
utkri.ngth it was suggested that they should con-
etruct small barques, launch them-upon the deep,
,aftid-keep along the coast until they shouild find their

*glp8#osed to be on what is now called the Bay of St. Marks,

:Zl '"i i'Was a forlorn hope, but they caught at it
*'duljderate men. They accordingly set to wQrk
i lig$ t eagerness. One of them constructed a
O WlPf bellows out of deerskins, furnishing it with
: iWWteden pipe. Others made charcoal and a
5~i the aid of these they soon turned their
~~ AsrsA,eross-bows and other articles of iron,
~~.Walid hatchets. The tails and manes
'Pith the -fbires of the palm
'their shirts cut open and
40iIb0ied si Is; the fibrous part of
l w~is used as oakum; the resin of
sfor tari; the, skins ,of horses were
els to contain fresh water; and a
Swas won by hard fighting from
oatives. A horse was killed every
s for the labouring hands and
S by gtat exertions coin-
m botlked on the 22d of
Aetir. beig in
*&at thee
*'e ha1 e of
ieitweight to. the

-hih hy called the
.sCR or several days
ae canoes that. had

s2 .i94tW -0? TFLORIDA.
be e4 %*S thl Indian. These being attach-
S.At, t~Wmiwk enabled them to sail with greater
Spj-WtI.bey passed through the strait between
.ihjqsiaawql,4he main land, which they called the
almg ilaun.Miguel, and sailed onward for many
~y4a duwng all the torments of hunger and parch-
9sg te2a ;e.e skin, which contained their fresh
NiokM i. -bburst, some, driven to desperation,
Bk alt water, and died miserably. Their suffer-
ings were aggravated by a fearful storm. At length
*'Vypproached a more populous and fertile part
oipenqast, upon which they landed occasionally
tp"APw r.e. provisions, and were immediately in-
]pfai.,ins-bloody affrays with the natives. Thus
[iRBf -sea; and land, famishing with hunger,
; i i shattered and scarcely manageable,
RWEortQ ate wanderers lost all presence of
'* mtp became wild and desperate. They were
S6i0lrii'wen out to sea, and scattered during a stor-
nay night. At daybreak three of these tempest-'
s, teed barks rejoined each other. In one, which
1Pg whe best manned and the best sailer, was Pam-
glij -de Narvaez. Alvar Nunez, who had com-
mead of another, seeing the Adelantado making for
tbe land, called upon him for aid. Narvaez replied
t ~;it was no longer time to help others, but that
B~irPane must:take care of himself. He then made
. * '.

for.the shore, and abandoned Alvar Nunez to
make the best of his way with the other bark.
After wandering along the coast in his bark for
many day, Narvaez anchored one night off the land.
lLhis crew had gone on shore for provisions, ex-
eepjig one sailor and a page who was sick. A vio-
,a ;gale sprang up from the north, and the vessel,
Si icf h was neither food nor water, was driven out
ji ul eo, tidings ever heard of her after.' Thus
L~; 4theuifi.fated Pamphilo de Narvaez.
:-iw survivors of this disastrous expedition
SAlv'ar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, and four of his
1*1sBaions. After the most singular and unparal-
jIa hadships, they traversed the northern parts of
e~ ossed the Mississippi, and the desert and
regions on the confines of Texas and
m antains, passing from tribe to tribe of
as slaves, until at the end of se-
eded in reaching the Spanish
u~6.From thence Alvar
and ultimately arrived
I, ten years after his em-
$ Narvaez:O

i taken from the Naufragios de Alvar
ith occasional'referinces to Herrera.
S: b i ,*.4 :** <-t.- '*

ONE uldhave thought itI after the melan-

Spanish discoverers,' however, were not, to be de-
d by difficulties and dangers, and he accounts

anderedyof the savast extent this unknown ba.
and of opulentveg thous in its interior, served tolan-
pt to still of these sad more cosy enterprises, and otheof
~Leanote, but equally unfortunate, the coast of Florida
w-eoald .have, been avoided as .a fated land. The

Sp .n ish dcirov hoer, were notiards, to be de-this
tiredd by difficulties and dangers, and the accounts
*nwndered of the vast extent of this unknown eoun-
tr, and of opulent regions in its interior, served to
prompt to still bolder and more costly enter prise-.
i.Jt is proper to note that the Spaniards, at this-
period, had a very vague idea of the country called
Florida, and by no means limited it to its present
boundaries. They knew something of tlh maritime
border of the peninsula, but Florida, according to'
their notions, extended far beyond, having the con-
fines of Mexico in one direction, the banks of New-
fouindland in another, and expanding into a vast
Terra Incognita to the north.

TRl'c ao:,u'its broigiht to Europe 1:y A1\ arNi.iriez.
of the expedition of Paimpllhilo de Narvaez, contri-
buted to promote this idea.. It was supposed that
this unfortunate cavalier, in hi-i extensivc niearch. had
Ibut kirti.-d the b:'rdi-irs ofimmense internal c h i,'ire-.
\\1lich ini.-ht rival in opulence and barbaric splen-
dour, the recently discovered Kilngiil uis fii Mexico
and Peru ; and there was not waniiiin a bl-hdJ nmd
.ambitious spirit to gra p iaiiiinediat-ly at thi.e ialin

Tli.-- <.andlli It that now li'-r ,--nttd1 hin -lf i ..r lthe
subjugation ,'I"Fl'.rid.la, wasi Hernando de Soto, and
as his expedition is the subject of l,:- :'.:::-,liin-
pages, it is proper to introduce him ia;li>: .uliiy t'
the reader. He-rnanlo d. Soto was born al.i-.1it ti-
year 1501. in Villa nueva de Barcarota,' and was
of the old Spanish hidalguia, or gentry, for we are'
assured by one of his biographers that -" e- \vn- a
t- ilti]iii an by all four descents;" llat is to say, !h.:-
parents :i ibh of hliS fiuath:r and inill.-i were of gen-
tle bil..jd a pedigree which, acc,_-'diii.' :, t' he rules
of Slpani-hi i heraldry, entitled him to admission into
the noble order of Santiago.

"TIh. P.r ,i,.-. narrator a s Xi.r's l. BEi.J:.s a; iL, birth.
place ofDe Soto; we follow, lI:,\., r, liie ullrnh.r l :.r .: ii. lr.:.
Garcelasso de la Vega. Herrera. Hist. Ind. Dec VI. L. 7. c. 9.
agrees witi the Inca.


: tWhatei(.er rinig-h.t -be thf'ea-dign.iMty of his descent,
howeverr, he begawhirs career a mie-e soldier of for-
.4 upe. All his estate. say his Portuguese historian,
W -,s 4!lt a sw-ord and buckler. He acconipani-id
.PFedaria-" Davila.r when he went to America to as-
suin.iet.li colniMiand ol Terra Firma. T The nieritf fd
bi.'oto uson gai ned him favour in the eye ofPedra-
'fin-a. who ga\e him command of a troop of Ilir-e :
\wi-h th-e lie iheillowed Pizarn in hli cnll1jlUt ringl ex-
peditii:n in;o Peru. Here'he si'in iglnali.zed hinlelf
Sly a rare combination of prudence and valour : he
\as excell nt in council. NoAt forelnost in fl ery p-ril-
eil.i' e-xploit : not re, :k:leslvy -.ec1king danger for dan-
g.er's .ak- or through a vain thirst for nu.t- rie-y. but
Iwa-vely putting e\-ery lhing at hazard \\wi-re any
-. >il' ,)pll'anti i)oint was to. be gained by intrelpidi'.
Pizarro .oon '.0ingle11d him out fr.'.i the hardy 'iliiri'sl
ar:inil him. niand appointed him his lhi-u-iiinant.| l \l '-
there a service of especial danger to be prlil..rrnn: ,
BDe Sit':, lnad it in charge; was there an enterprise
irelqi.irii1', sound jlldgmeint and fearless daring, Dt-
Soto w\as i.re to be called upon. A master at all
\veap)ioli. and a cmpllli-te horseman, his prowess
and adri-.itnes. \ere the admiration of the Spanish
s-;:lielr. They declared that his lance alone was

*Properly written Pidru Ar;a- Jd Avila.
J He rr ra I-iHl. Ind. Decad.V. L. ii. .'2.

COtiBtr or LIDOTA.

equal to any ten in the army; and that in the tiav
agement of this chivalrous weapon, he was second.
'only to Pizarro.
He was sent.by that commander'on the first em-
bassy to the renowned and ill fated Inca Atahualpa,
whose subjects, we are told, were filled with sur-
prise and admiration on beholding his wonderful
feats of horsemanship.* : tl.
He afterwards commanded one of the squadrons
of horse that captured this unfortwinate Inea-' anA
routed his army of warriors.t He led the way with
a band of seventy horsemen, to the discovery and
Subjugation of the great province of Cusco, in which'
he distinguished himself by the most 4aring-and
romantic achievements.f We might trace him
throughout the whole history of the Peruvian con-
'Herrera. Hist. Ind. Decad. V. L. 3. c. 10. says, Hernan-
do de Soto sprang upon his horse, and aware that the eyes of the
Inca were upon him, he made his steed curvet, caraoole and leap,
Sand striking in his spurs dashed up so near to the savage Prince
that he felt the very breath of the snorting animal. The hqaughty
Inca was as serene and unmoved as if he had been accustomed all
9 his lifeto the charge of a horse. Many of the Indians, however,
fledin terror. Atahualpa immediately ordered the fugitives to
Appear before him, and sternly reprehending them withitheir cow.
ardice, ordered them all to be put to 4dath for having behaved so
K dastardly in his royal presence.
t Vega. Com. de Peru. L. 1. c. 21. Herrera D. V. L. 2. c. 11.
S Herrera, eoc. V. L. 4. c. x. and lib. 5. c. 2. 3.

1'i.ue esca.pl. :ut our" purpose is only to late .briefly
the ci'cumnsances i\hich directed his ambition into:
ihe career of conqi.iest. and which etei ated him to
Iiti notice of hi.- sovereien, anld of all onIlieiipoil'rary
cavalier'. o'enteirpri.ing spirit.
Ielriianlido d(e Soto returned to Spain enriichr-d by
the sp9oils of thil new world ; his share of' II:h trea-
sure: of: Atalnalpa. having amniunt:el. it is said, to
itI (:-il:iril l ii- sum Of a h11un.1irI.- ali ] eihlit; (lth:; i a 111
cro' n ,ofW ':1l. i1:i now asi-umed r'eai -flati and
eqlui|a',-_. an.l appe.arled at the col.urt :of t Enmp;e':
(t'liar.I_ \.. at Vallahdlid. in liia '2nificehiit style, hli'.-
ing. hii"s .te.ward, hii major domino his master of thr
horce. hi- lia'e--. 1ac':1iey-. and all the o.ithe., house-
Ihold Otii:er -s tiat I iln t.e i...Ilntatioul_ dcla-. swelled
the ret1in1111.' of a Spari,-h nobleman. He was ac-
co-mpanied by ,%kn':,t of brave cavali,-i'- r. all benit i:n Ip'llinl tlieir Iitrlunes at court. Sime of
then hlad been his bro:ther- in arm in ar ti conquest
ofPen.i. and had returned \\ith their piir-.'--. well
filled \ ilth Peruiian s hi., iihiclh tlhei expended in
,oldielirlike style,on hi:r-,es. arms, and richi array."
T\\o or tllree of them:'i dew.crve particular notice, as
tlley will be found to figure conllpicul.ou-Ily in the
co urse of this narrative. Nuno Tobar, a native of
Xeres de Badajos, was a young cavalier of gallant

Searing, great valour, and romantic generosity
RAhbther, Luis de Moscoso de Alvorado, likewise- ol
Xeres, had signalized himself in his campaigns in the'
new world. A third, Juan de Anasco, was a na-:
tive of Seville. He had not been in Peru, but was
not inferior to the others in bravery of spirit, while
he was noted for his nautical skill and his knowledge
of cosmography and astronomy.
The world was at that time resounding with the
recent conquest of Peru. The appearance at cotrrt
' of one of the conquerors, thus brilliantly attended;
could not fail to attract attention. The personal
Qualifications of De Soto corresponded with his
Same. He was in the prime of manhood, being
about thirty-six years of age, of a commanding
height, above the middle size, and a dark, animated,
and expressive countenance. With such advan-
Stages, of person and reputation, he soon succeeded
in gaining the affections and the hand of a lady of
distinguished rank and merit, Isabella de Bobadilla,
Daughter to Pedrarias Davila, Count of Puno en
Rostro. This marriage, connecting him with a
powerful family, had a great effect in strengthening
his influence at court.*
De Soto might now have purchased estates, and

Portuguese Narrative, c. 1.
as.3 **

30 "CirGI, B O. rljRwA.
have. passer thiBeriilatndevg or his da-s opulently and
h*RWtni IFJS~ l, i.1iisntire land, in, the Iesom of his
.ri imi .biIbw1eh'w-as.escited' by the remembrance
o, _*lastqlAeitemw-es, and eager for further distinction.
Jivaithdiisijncture,-Alvar Nunez Cnbeza de Vaca
'r~t~i.tr.4e',i,.Splain with tidings o' the fate of)Pam-
S.[Ilill4 ~rita\aez.-and hiis fi'llo\ers. His tale, it is
.if,,,0as o(ne i.f hardships and diskaters. but it turned
.!; h whv.lpoht. of adventurous men tothe vast and un-
I ~ri n. interior of Florida. It is said that Alvar
Nunez observed some- reserve and mystery in his
replies \when questioned as to whether they had
fEoWnd..at- ricl-s in the countLr' th.lv had visited:
Il-ti&he .'alkhd. :,o asking pernmissi:lh :.f the Crown to
W. i.:sirhe$re. and prosecute the dil-c:,very, and that
.:il--Weiven sniorn his fellow survivors to secrecy
tehaiih t--they had seen, lest others -should be in-
.* iit .litj.s11terlc re with his prospects."
i;'The imagina.mion of De Soto t::ook fire from what
Iter hal gather irl: ':. the narrative of Alvar Nunez.
H.e doubted not there existed in the inite rior of Flori-
da some regions of wealth, equallin., if not exceed-
i"-.aMlexi(ico and Peru. He had hitherto only fol-
hlwed in the course of conquest; an opportunity
~ow presented of rivalling the fame of Cortez and

* Portuguece Narrative, c. 2.

..izarro; his reputation. his \\ .ahl-,. li i:a.I se1r-
S (vice':., and hi. niarriod.e co neii ,rn,.-- a alf v him 'll,
n ,iean- fI securing the chance before him... I In ih,
Magnificent spirit of a Spanish cavalier, he aikid.l
permission of thi Enii:-ero:r to undlililake tle co:n-
quest of Florida at his I.i\n exp 'en- e and ri.k.
IIi-. pray ': was rean-lvy ~'nrairt l. The Emlnpj i
conferred on him in advance, the title of.Adl:-lata.l:s.
\\ l.ih i : imbin miil' niliamy ailn c(iN il c.-mmnain, and a
Marquisite, with an estate ltirt-y 1I..-Tji: in Il-itli
and fifteen in breadth, in any part i:. tii:- c:ii.iiiy he
iiii.1, ,.. s: r. He, moreover, created him Gover-
nor and C'oaltain-G :n- :al for life, of I Il.riad as well
as of the Island of Cuba. 'The command of tilij
Island'had been annexed at tih.-: i .':-1 r':e-qrll'-." f
De Soto, as he knew it would in.- ifpl.'rt.-lt fir hii. :
to have tll: l'l- control of ii. t..i lth- h ;i ,-ii
,i n 1 'i- .1i iini: hii- ;irin i,"!.il, -rltsr; ,_rI ,. m ei: lt. l l-,i ..:,in-
S ,". .
N ':, -,-i,:,iir: 1r v,,- ., S .., ,l'-ii il Inthi-J min ii -h i : s:
thl:. li 1p'.- d\i1d. fi r his brothels in nai'l- \\Ih- hadl
accompanied him to Court. ii .. TobiAf'iip-
j.i.ilikil his .i ,nl~' i t-General, for v. hi.i hi l I-.,-'
was w el1 qnalifi' -.-1 lar qualities. Luis de [,1.-.:.-. d.l. A1- a:.ld,. he
made Camp Master (.,n,: Iirl, and he plii:' ".' Irl
Juan de Aras'.i: the appointment of Contador, or

32 coNQtl5'Er OF FLORIDA.
io'al acrcui iitaiit, whose ddty it wa- to take acc.ounti
o' all the Ireasuires -aniicd in the i .pldikiii. and to
si.t apart one fifth fi:r the crown.
De i-Soto would likewise have (c na-i:d Alvar
Nuriez Cab1:za de Vaca to accompany him, and
offered him hiighlly advantageoin. ter'ni., which hec
was at first-inclined t., accelfit. but subsequently re-
li'.ied. b:ieini uti\\ illii., to march under the command
of aiinher in an enterprise in which he had aspired
to tak: the ail. He afterwards obtained from the
Emper.,r the .i-,vernment of Rio de la Plata.*
SE.it Il.tl'-.h A11 ar Nuriez declined to eiiillarl in
the enterprise, hisi rieprli. l-ta.i ii:n.s Of hlIlI ci Inii'ry in-
dulced 1\-o of his kinsmen to offer their services.
One of ihanm. a bra e and hearty cavalier, named
EBalihazar di: Gallegos was so eager for the expedi-
tion that he s.il. hIi houses, hi.:-yart, and corn-
l: 1i.la. aiil fourscore and ten acres of lI;\e orchards,
in the ni.ighli,:.lhiiiId .f Seville, and determined to
take hii \% ifl \~u i him to the new world. De Soto
wa. soi well i.1'.1-aed with his zeal, that he made him
\Al-uizil Mayor. The oOihei'r.l-kiiman if Alvar Nu-
nlez was iinamed (.'liri-,jliher piii.ta. a -, eitleimaii
o.f Gellcia. to whom De Soto gave the command of
-\eleiitlv all. iriir's of hii 1.:,idy guard.
It was so.ioIn iproii.ulalt.I.1 throughout Spain that
Portuguese Narr lC e, c. 4.

Sernando de Soto, one of the conquerors of Pe
k 'was about to set out on the conquest of the great
Empire of Florida, an unknown country, equal if not
superior in wealth and splendour to any of the gold-
en empires of the new world, and that he was to
do it at his own expense, with the riches gained in
his previous conquests.
This was enough to draw to his standard adven.
turers of all kinds and classes. Cavaliers of noble
birth, soldiers of fortune who had served:in various:
parts of the world, private citizens and peaceful ar-
tisans, all abandoned their homes and families. sold
their effects, and offered themselves and their re-
sources for this new conquest.
A striking account is given us of the arrival of a
party of these volunteers. As De Soto was one day,
in the gallery of his house at Seville, he saw a bril-
liant band of cavaliers enter the court yard, and has-
tened to the foot of the stairs to receive them. They
wele Portuguese hidalgos, led by Andres de Vas--
concelos; several of them had served in the wars'
with the Moors on the African 'frontiers, and they
had come to volunteer their services. De Soth joy-
fully accepted their offer. He detained them with
him to supper, and ordered his steward to provide
quarters for them in his neighbourhood. 'A muster
being called of all the troops, the Spaniards appear-

34 cO ST F w orFviOoWA.
ed.-ii sple.ndid.-id'sht wy- attire, with ilken doublets
amdeassoc~ks-pinked and embroidered. The Por-
tugues.e., ?m the contrary, came in'soldierlike style,
in.eomtplete armour. De Soto, was vexed at the
musseasonasble ostentation of his countrymen, and or-
daeii. another review in which all should appear
a-Fmid. -here the Portuguese again came admira-
bJw Avell cqipp.i-d, while the Spaniards, who had
been so gaudy in their silken dresses, made but a
sorry show as soldiers, having old rusty coats of
mail, battered head pieces, and indifferent lances.
The General. it ii said, inark':-d his preference of the
Portuguese. by placing them near his standard. It
imu t be observed, however, that this account is
giwaenby a Portuguese historian, who naturally is
dis.pijsed to give his countrymen the advantage of
the Spaniards. Other accounts speak generally of
the-excellent equipment of all the forces.
In little more than a year from the time of the
first proclamation of this enterprise, nine hundred
and fifty Spaniards of all degrees had assembled in
the port of San Lucarde Barrameda,to embark in
the expedition.* Never had a more gallant and bril-
liant body of men offered themselves for the new
The Portuguese narrator gives six hundred as the number of
men assembled, but we follow the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega,
whose authority is corroborated by Herrera and others.

vrld. S:-arcely one among them had grey hairs,
;Jll were young and vi,:,r.us. and fitted fIr hie tohils
and hardships and danger "f ad: ntIr':>u-.u an un-
De Soto was munificent in his proffers of pecunia-
ry assistance to aid the cavaliers in fitti rin theil .Iv-.
out according. to tht ir rank and station. Man\
\\tre c .in:iell'.ld. tIhroULhl necessity,, to accept of li,
.ff,:.-r: others, \-hl :hild imnan -. w en1-r.iy de' lin, d
them d<:: mii it ini-ir pr'-.iiir Ihat ill. vy ,h.,i.. a.-
sist, than Snccpt aid from him:- irii v young' cay.ea-
liers came equipped in Si..l id style, with rich ar-
mour, costly dresses, and a train of d'in-lici.. In-
deed, some young ll'n ii.f uji.liiy ham spent a great
part of th-ir *ilh-tlice in this manila : r.
Nuiii Tobar, Luis de MTI- .i... and -'- rl 'ilitl :.
cavaliers, who had distinguished liI.-.inl.:S in thel
conquest of Peru,.- -. :ih-l1 .he greater p'a' I If their
1- il-' iii sumptuous equipment. Ei-i.-,- th- ,:av'u-
* lir.l:- 1,',-.ly specified, we avy n,,ii,,ii n Ih(re: broi
Illi t .: r.:lalii of 111h C .,,\ I: r].:.,'. vih .,i ,o..i-,, i. ,i|r) ie 1
him ; Arias Tinoco and Al-.1i.. RIr.. d, Canid-r..-
-s:. bih captains of infantry, and Diego Aria- Tii,:i-
co, who was -tanii..ard lai" ir t. i, riir nrly.
T hIri-- were also enlisted in 1th ent rliri-e li\el\v
priests, eight :l,.'i rgly: .of in!':-.ri: ranuik, and four
monks ; most of them relatives of the superior offi-

*86 cWVWfaTSOer lFQsWA.
eek.-ie.l, irellulth Spanish expeditions to the new
w 1i6l9is eamvetsion of the heathen was not lost
I6~ ffE'4 Jai e rage for conquest.
-: a jrillint armament embarked at San Lucar
aW aeda, on the sixth of April, 1538, in seven
4hsde'and three small vessels. In the largest,
: *. l'.;-thb San. Christoval, which was of eight hun-
ga4l0es, embarked the governor, with his wife Dona
isabel -de 'obadilla, and all his family and retinue.
They set sail in company with a fleet of twenty six
sail bo-nd to Mexico,* and- with great sound of
*i*y pet$sand thunder of artillery. The armament
t(.@-Stoto-avas so bountifully supplied with naval
'ii s* that. eaehman was allowed double rations.
.WJais4gd 4p useless waste; but the governor was of a
genjifieent spirit,and so elated at finding in his train
-a:pableand.gallant cavaliers, that he thought he
epid not do enough to honour and gratify them.
SOn the twenty first of April, the fleet arrived at
Gomera, one of the Canary Islands. Here they
were received with great parade and courtesy by
the Governor, who bore the title of Count de Go-
mera. The Count seems to have been a gay and
luxurious cavalier, with somewhat of an amato-
ry complexion, his domestic establishment being
graced by several natural daughters. When he
came forth to receive his guests he was dressed in
SPortuguese Narrative, c. 4.

h \lile flroml head to lbuot hat. loak, doublit, lIhreeche.
pui ad .hoe so that. according to lhe old f Priilenee
Snarrati'ec h,: lu>oked in.t unlike a captain orla gang ruCi
Sgip-i'.. 1- uriilng three d-lay-, iiat Itlie 11:t reiiiaitied
in the itpol.t. lie entertained d hii- guIe is in .iv ial -ti le.
%\:irl. I bia ltings and rr jujir-inigls.
Anii.m-n hi,, daul.lihtirs \\a s .tlie inamred Leonoi a de
Bobadilla. \.h:, particularly attracted the I.i~ .-e ol
'the .y:alth'ul a\ alier-. She \\as n,-t miiio 'han e-
SenIlteen lyetar'- a'Ze..alld t-\t remel\' leauti.firl. ','
u St. lU.'u *Alo phica-ed anl, 111it,?,-->-d \h ih er am)-'
etilearalil anll Iiiainrllli tiat ll. entleatct l.! i t j Colrint
It: pe-rmlit lIter t1: a(nco.mlilaniy his \\ile. D,,na Isabel
ile B.u.,adilla, \\hin \,:, i.ld chlierih hlr a- iher ..\n r l
dlal:hl'li 'r it ltilit1l1111 that hi- \1 u .l. p-r:iuuule an adl-
vai ta'_2,:,u mis i :atii li I C h, aniul'g thIe n1ld l Cal alI:is
tof i nlis am. and adval, '- her t. ranil and it:,rtuinle
k ii) tl,,: (::il rv l i e sl h :,.nld C, ':illi. l. .
. The C,',llt t dle. G .,lel, Ii: \ir .- the Inlllllifil.i:'ne
SDe S[ ) l % .t, Mand tlihat le \:ualil ib- dlipo-ed lo per-
t;-.:iii e n I iii:lre t lian lle I r,.liIllu-,.i. c. niliit:h.d i,
il- d'aI. -ir tu., liS. (ca e. Rand tun thi,- liaternal 1.r.,1'teC lI.
o l Ia hi-hI m indeI d and \irlu.i'i \itl,.
S iOn thle i-lith Aprill lthe 1II:t aLail set sail. The
u.:: \\u as fair and prl:- iperuui. andi about the lat
uit Ma thil arri.eIdl in the Iharlbjuir oit the ciIvy oIt
MSa tiarni di:- (Cula.

_+,, ~ ,

ni ,~.~w Ai4ke inhabitants of Cuba on the arrival
a. Deposition of Nuo Tobar. D on
0J i de Fioueroa, appointed Lieutenant
Psh.. -altof the fre. e o. .'.
bHliE arrival of a new Goverdor with so important
ihtia&manent was an event of great joy throughout
.*iallh nd" of Cuba. When De Soto landed, the
wsi~ ei~iy'of Santiago turned out to receive him.
IInitfl)^aqM beautiful horse, richly caparisoned, wait.
..i lf"re, and likewise a mule for Donna Isabella;
SiWi ,fen-erurnished by a gentleman of the town.
4l0Pa Wiateseo6rted to his lodgings. by the Burghers on
eSi M and on Iboo. and at hik officers and men were
tiy ibeiyrientertained by them; some being quar-
tered-, in the town, and others in their- equntry
houses." For several days it was one continued fes-
ti~ha' At night there were ball; and maSqueradei;
by day, tilting matches, bull fights, contests of skill
in horsemanship, running at the ring, and other
atusements of a chivalrous nature.
i'-The young cavaliers of the army, vied with each
'Portuguese relation, c.4.

4 (4f:NQL EI I l 1. RI. ) ID.'., 9

v.1 I .,llf. : r and -.I' 1 11fill' I I l if ]it ll ( lh aii r ,11. r,.
ditt.l. aieni lU ill.,Ine 1tt t1hr e[','I .i 1 -e and nm -liy :,t'

..l.eir do : t ~::- .. a ieI ill: it ani d iuii..n il ,f tell.11'

S,1 1 l 11111:-. l at I rl*.ji ll I' ,' I.* 1i I'.I itc I r I't)ll 1I.

'l aiTd oil: he ] iart n', ei .l: i'e l.a ral.Aniw I" l -in ,ia-
0o1' thf?, P'-,-, ri' ,l)r italf l ...ilr'-,_ei ,.1' j.- e,-.uJat~i. ni0n u Ille':h
i-.auirl. TIl- i lliil :In ( 'u':,a %% n t;i Itiir, lIv ja\.."')Ti.! t"-
hile to thi--i and a L'r..a ar, ni.l atltnt'iit -aii a
1, l ,I...iv .i t.:, t iolllti.,lv ai l D 11 i:,'.. , bl e .i, ed. ht:r-
l, is o. il'- 111 nn- 11 ,I Ili_.,ii- >lll, Al ii i. I ( C.: r. alll A i re-
{" i ri i 'la !)bl ,ili al t ,-.. 1v.!. li' .'. ilvhi.l: 112d !',''-in
c" t, '., n \ lt I li 'l h ~r- 111 n t. 1 :.1 tI ..!-. aI)n 1 ,:,1 ,:. ,:1i"
t l( t L rilch had tI\ 111 th Il Iiii il .1 r *i t i: lal 'i-

h ., Thi? cavaller o ti rm i': V had lsparied i!' cl '-,
I i i.ll i'll hin l Ih r- l Nve- itli i l1,[ in,.-t ..-l l rlJv ani
geier? , i._.i ,-.d.- Iri their iilei'n.!,:,I t:-jittdii un. M any'
i i i:li ili-l- p. .e e:l thr r t oi ir, o arl'i-:ied in
i I llOn-It co_ ,tl malill.tr ; arid ih? G': e,'ll-.,r a1ide-d
lii' -rahr \\ll\ i i ii-_ ir-,. ';tueh a, +hI nt, the 1i',[iip
e1 e> : Uiplini, llheiii_ e s _- i *.r lnia ,- t.-i le. .
S Thi,, f're ,Ily aniid moa,- iii.enih it, n tet:-. a ind ar-
rav d in their le ic" tlrc,--:-. and biirnlished an'itr.ll
flihe yo.un ca alier-, made a Irillianit display. anJ
carried orl niany oi thie nrize-:- of e' !d, and silvi. r,

Salib T ~ir.P FLeOPro .
v bi"ideia ddries,rwhich were adjudged to
Jallrlii .ngatshed .rit-emielvs at these chival-

:' -tigea, no one carried off the prize more fret
Sr :a-NurIo de Tobar, the Lieutenant Ge-
4' Stil f.e was. as has been said, a cavalier of high
Si- it rs a.:rqua.ities,.who had gained laurels in
.t MP' Pe ru. He appeared on ihese occa-
suinptuo:,s array. mounted on a superb
*i. oe a silver grey dappled, and was always
..ited, for the gracefulness of his carriage, his noble
d&.fh i.ei. r,. and -his admirable address in the mla-
itemtent o- lance and steed.
iJThfli vItgrtely the manly qualifications of Nuho
ik 'fi 'tOi l"procured him great favour in the eyes
flithibeaa'ulitiul Leonora de Bobadilla. the daughter
d*ke" Count de Gomera. A secret ambur was
carried on between them, and the virtue'of the la-
dy was not proof against the solicitations of her
iThe consequences of their unfortunate inter-
course were soon too apparent to be concealed.
b Soto was incensed at what he considered an
outrage upon his rights as a guardian over the lady,
ard his confidence as a friend. He immediately

4 portsguese Narrative of Conq. of Florida, a. 7.


psNui-rio Tobar from his station..as Lieutenmi
ae&al-: and. though that really generous spiEited
valier endeavoured to make every reparation ifo
.i6 power. by marrying the lady. Do Soto could
,jperEv afterwards be brongiht to look uponl him wiith
SALthis time there \\as on a visit to the Governor
i"lae .vi ,yot Saumiago, a .cavalier, upwards of;tiliry
tiA. gi.ofi'age, anani ed Va.'co Porca.lo a- l.W.i.f i al
,pias .hfa tnoble ..laiftily, and.;pf ag k-
. J.i;d disposition, having scen muckl~,hkta gj g
SLte., Indies, in Spain and Italy, and distinguisj!l
S*himself on various occar-in-.. He :now resided in
*ie tow n of Trinidad in (.'uba9.living ,opuleitly and
.suuriously upon the wealth he 'had gained in-'the
ar.s, honoured for his exploits, loved for his so-
ial qualities, and estolkld for his hearty hospira-

"-This magnificent cavalier had come .to S.anti-
.ago with a pompous retinue, to pay his court tlltk
wernor.and witnessthe Iestivities amnl.rejoi. ige.
-ii.,. pa.-ed .nme days ii lie city, and when he be.-
eld the array of gallant cavaliers and hardy sol-
djiers assembled for the enterprise, the splendgui..-of
ieir equipment, and the martial-stl~t.e 4.ih.nhigh
ihey acquilttd themselves, in public. lii; military spi-
ril again took fire, and I;rgleing his yearshis pa4t
r ^ ~ *

1 zp'g E..Sit *: REpRtkDA,
*tQ3.lt,&Jtp j JIg'l1$ Iii.', ir"."' 'een '' ee and ol,,-
Ia l i4lyj1gj.ece..his servi ces o Dte Solo,
te-iN,-I \ him in his anticipated career ol coin-

r lti..e,er qrl' such military experi.eni:e. ample
aS J,- lid.gr.'e.i.I influence in the island. \\as 4'o
.i apii^ i.kd.'n'.i.t to 'e-Areceiv.edl \\ilth open arm-i ilih-
..-.ier i'i'qin.Ki diately made himi Lieutelnant General
Arhe arniyn the p-, fromni \which tie gallani but
Iuqiltnllnate Nuii'i T.bl.ar had reccinly been de-

ai.W-.coQ-duet ot o1a asco Porcallo. slhewed the polli-
G, alhi.>. appointment. Hle \was so elated \\iith tlis
tli .i.Wt.c.iin, that he lavisdrl.d his Imoney without stint
iig(jJjha4ingl. provisions for ihe armada. He \vwa
I nW4iil'nt tI o in all 11i. app[ ointim,'mnts. canip equi-
a i a'..',moui and eqiiipmnents lhnainz caught the:
gay .and brafggarl spirit of liis youthtiul companion ,s
ini arms. lie calrr'ied with him a Freat train o:,' Spia-
ni-.h. Indian and ine ol servants, an a a ud ofl tlihly
six liorses ror his own use: while\ with the open.
handed liberality for which he \\as noted, lie gave
~w-ards of fifty hior.es as presents to various cava-
lier, otf the army. -
The example of this generous and high mettled,
.th.ough s somewhat whim-ical old cavalier, had a
pov;werfti efle'cl in animating the inhabitants oft Cu-


ro pi-omole the -ucces! or the expedition, andliff'
iii t'ini ,leJ sme of theiin ti enrol themselves among
f e fllowerf of De Solto.' -

Tih Pori:rgie. narratl r dryly a-ert- that Vasco Porcallo
i rcil' d in the exptdlliol I rely with a view io iT t -iv'. I.or
Li .e-tatei- in Cu'ba. Tbls inarrat.r. lowitver, is to be dlrtru-tcid,
\llcn lie.an~-ig l is oti to tie Spa' dli leaIder-, t'.r who-lio lie
eve.lim to have eterirli;ued a nalOl,, jeal.;Iesy. I lhae pre .'rrJ
the motives attrinited by vh. I nca, aI they a Stey l borne O.lt by f:t-S ,
r amid i'V the genc-ril co idluct of ltli rfttcr'al Prrcllo, wr.hle cnhih :.
ter i- qalte .S.pii;-h and pe.lihar. Inderd, tIliriuglaoilt hPei'\ui[ble
vorkof'tlhe Irca, hls rll and copiciti fact are always in harnno-
'n u little ehaiacce-raill- ol'liia per-onis.

i- ,. o *

edp,4e d to Florida Ri nar-.
wfeW wwa. WFiwal .preparations

-ani6nths the governor made a tour of
visiting the principal towns, pointing
dWl f tp jisfice.to rUie in his absence,'purchasing
,U**WIaWOlaking dthef provisions fob hist expeSi-
; clifhe end'of 'August, hd'repaired t6
MNUhe was afterwards joined by his
SHsi.::'Mred he remained for a
,iit"l& ii'ut of his own fortune;
*if lhdouies. aid churches, which had re-
h' tif destroyed by French corsairs.
"'?Wne thus' occupied he twice despatched the
&iftadr' Juan de Anasco, in a brigantine manned
tio' picked sailors, to coast the shores of Florida,
in quest of sope commodious harbour to which the
@@%ditiop might sail direct, and find secure anchor-
ag4ind a- good landing place for the troops.
ii ~lde Anasco,. was well fitted for such a ser-
Li, combining the saildi with the soldier, and pos-
tligR'iVnm- skill in nautical science.- He was fond,

So, of hazardous enterprise, never linchini fromi
t.oils or perils, and was an excellent leader, though
c soniewhat touchy and choleric.
'Three months elapsed after his departure on his
second .voyage. without any tidings of him, and
great -l-ars were entertained fbr his safety, when at
length his ternpest-tos.edl bark arrived at Havana.
No sooner did Juan de Anasco and his crew put
f:ot upon land than they threw themnielies on their
knees, and in ilis \\ay crawled to churchh to hear
mass, iin fulfilnient ofa vow made in an hour olfreat
.peril. W he:n thliis [ as done they relatedd all thel
Dangers they had passed on si a and land ; having
I-once been in imminent peril of fi.unrdering, and
having pa -Wed two mo.nthi on an uninhabited island,
subMsisting non shell lish gatleredi : along the beach,
and wild f:wl kn:.kI:-d down with clubl.
S Juan de Anis,-o. however. had faithfully iLulfilled
the great object of hi- cruise. having found a -ecure
harbour on the coast of Florida. He brought with
him, alo. otur of the natives whom he had captured.
to .,erve as interpreters and guides.
All his forces being now assembled in Havana.
and the -ea on favourable for sailing being at hand.
the Governor made his lial arrangements, appoint-
ing his wife Dona Islabel de Bobadilla to govern the
island during his absence, ith Juan de Hoxas, as


lieutenant governor, and Francisco de Guzman as
his lieutenant, in the city of Santiago. These two
cavaliers had been in command prior to his arrival
at the islad, and had proved themselves worthy of
This great mark of confidence.*

Ther oa, lib1, e. 13.
SPortuguese relation, c. vii. Herrera. D. vi. L. 7, e, 9.

., *.* .


D eI' 50"w, m .b lr ith an old comrade, I ni a e

vHILE I` I St, tha ew i.1ht~ra i "nt

LI to tmalrkL and aet 4jl a soip uvl *. t l;' rinog off
TLP~ pumr dr;;-n there 1uY 1Aue -I~~jhi bwi ('I
,Juihir enticavnouring to IWep v ii va T-uirtc I
ii -,%a I1-ectil to. We ic *inalih ;f the harbour, and:,as

.i.C. 44--n ai-gl ii-iir.On board ;;i it was Iernan
Lin-a ol u ;, I -ln, .1 it'radt_ e- of -IIIi d.1 o f l .i
avit o~lt l* d di lefit. tAt ililli v ranu

Ott'L V.-. uihJ l, da i- wrilt w ~ eli. ci I- ita
was1li as~nu Io~ Iroiulltl' dn wdv!1irhd
Tlkshpuai:fm obideDg,-p!o

coverers and soldiers of fortune in the new world.
By theser articles they bound themselves, during
their lives, to an equal participation of gains and
-lo$ses, and of all things, whether of honour or profit.
After the departure of De Soto for Spain, Her-
na -'Ponce had amassed much wealth, and had re-
eovered several debts which De Soto had leftwvith
him to be collected. Having turned all his property
into gold and silver, and jewels and precious stones,
he embarked for Spain, but, at the port of embar-
cation, heard of the new enterprise of his old com-
rade De Soto, and that he was at-Havana with a
great ,and expensive armament for the conquest of
. -;Hernan Ponce had no ambition of joining in
thc conquest; and he feared that De Soto, having
expended all his own Nwealth upon his outfits, would
claim his right of partnership and seek to share the
treasures he was carrying home, if not to grasp the
whole. Hernan Ponce, therefore, had been anxious
to steer clear of the port of Havana and to pursue
his voyage, and had made large offers to the mari-
ners'to induce them to keep to zea, but tempestuous
weather had absolutely driven them into port. No
sooner did Hernando De Soto hear of the arrival
ofhlis ancient comrade and partner, than he sent per-
sons.on board to compliment and congratulate him


utponhis arrival, and to invite him on shore Io share
w' ith hlim hi, house, his po-ei-esi:ins, and all his
bhonours and commands. The i-nessage ie followed
- p in person, repeating all his conigratulatioiis and
SHernan Ponce would gladly have dispensed \with
boh compllment-s and liaternity, and quaked in se-
ci't r:Ir the saflt\ of his treaslur.;. He affectel.
however,L to irci:pr-cate the joy and go,:,d will .o
lhids niirmer comrad,:. bu t -xcuseid lim;-iiiis f.-t'ro land-
ing until lthe till.,win day, l.leadin ihe l? necit\
'-of sltep and repose after the i fi:- th late
StemIrl:--l. De Soto left him to his repL-,:.-, Il.t u,-.
peI'ting. or having had some intimation of his real
6 circuIn-talnlit- and de-ignj. he cretly st0y i;:iollid
sontin-ls by --a and 1\% land t-i kl:-ep a watch i.ir,
tl lie iloi't:Iei il- ~f Ill. aItl,:i ill Clnr-iad.. H-Ii pro-
Sca.'tiin, \were nI.|t in vain. H-ernan Poni,:e al:ii!
iiidniu~il lanilded ti\ ., :.,t,-ri'., ::iitaini-.n all hi l -..hd.
S-|p.earl-. and i-rci,:,.i. i s.i : ., to bei c'iictaled in
*soliie hamlet. i:i l.uiii d r,in tinh- -lore. I'-avi% -jnly
-. lie -ivelr on Iboardl. to keep ip l.jpearanc-es. inltend-
g, to lma- it offon ii li piartler a< tile? \\:W-,le of his
N- N.- sr>,'ionei, had the iiiarineir larin:led !l:he -colTr.
!a nd conjveved them s,:,-l. ditance f'rI in tlie loat.
,'than a par y of s:intinel_ ru-lhed out i'-ron al-hick,:t.

put !them. .to flight, and seized upon the :treasure,
which. they conveyed in safety to the Governor.
-The'confinion and distress of Hernian Ponce, at
thus losing his beloved treasure by a measure in-
tended for its safety, may easily be imagined. He
landed the next day \vith a sorrow ful countenance,
and took up his abode\ it(d De Soto.
In the course of their private conversation, he
soon revealed the misfortune of the preceding night.
De Solo -had, been waiting for the occasion, and
now broke forth indignantly, reproaching him with
having alternpled to conceal his treasures, through
want no faith in his justice and friendship. To show
how grounlless had been his distrust, he now order-
ed the cof'ier. to be brought in,and requested himi to
open them and see if any thing were missing.
He furthermore declared that all he had expended
in his present undertaking, and all the titles. com-
mands, and privileges he had obtained from the
crown, he had considered as for their mutual bene-
ft. accorAing to their lertmi of co-partnership and
fraternity : as he could pro\e by witnesses then
with him, who had been present at the execution of
the writings. He now offered, whether he chose
to accompany him in his conquest or not, to share
with himhis titles and commands, or to yield to
him such of them as he might prefer.

CONQI'L-T (t.N'.i,-.B A .. -. i
S,-Hertnan Ponce was c'a ii tlund i, as much 1by the
o v-erlwhet lllntg cOu' irt:'?sy Oaf tie (aover11IIr. as b a
sense oF his owit de-linquency biut is heart yearn-
edl mo-r" aft'?r lIii- o0\ ii treai.ireS than aft-l' all De
SSoto's anticip.ata-d coinle|.t~. *-lIe x<'ij.'fd lIiin feitl
as'\ell as he cold ,ml r the rpa.o., fpretlei-iddl to be
l hizhlvy i'alilie.l at twi,,g .till ci.ni--i.l- red lIpartil:-,e
and bIroithrr, but declined all participationi in De
Stl S t titi le.. HI lbe.-,zed I: that hl:.?ir \\ rlitin I ;I'en-
. partnership iniglit lbI:- rene-t wed ani]J ma:.e .i4il-.'li'.
S ar,1 tIhat hi- Exc:lliiV Vcy \,o.uIi.l1 pri,':)ce I '\ ith his con-
S quest; \ ile I' ? r ie t rn.-'ld toi Spain. Ica% tng t, 'niiin
future occa-ion ithe divi-ion of' ail their uain-'. To
testit l hi-, acce-itence i ',f one hallfof thi i: con> Ue.t,
he entr:nate-d his Exceillac:'!ty to ieiHiilt his \ife
Dona Isabel de Bbadilla. to receive fromi him ten
thouand diolars in gold and silver to aid in the ex-
pnt-e of the-l expcrlition : being tlie lal' of 'what .he
had broutlil ftlro n Periu.
De S gto granted hli pr'dver: the ten thotr'saiid
"*-dollar' were paid intm, tle hand of D,-ona Isabel. the:-
h articless ot' co-p:artlliIlhii\ were IreAineed. and diur-
i -ing 1the whl'ole sta\ of Hernian P:.n:ve at Havana, he
Swas always addrer~sd as hi-. Ex,'e:llen:-y and re-
ceived the -amie per-o:nal -.hoonoiir' as tiCe Governor.
The heart of Hernan Ponce. 'however, rested
i with his money bag-. and delighted not in these

emptvyhonours. Under various pretexts, he deferred
sailing forSpain until after the embarcation and de-
.p4itu.re .of De Soto and his army: for Florida.
Eight days after the Governor had .sailed, and when
there was no longer a likelihood of his prompt re-
turn, 'Her-nan Ponee addressed an instrument' in
writing to Juan de Rojas, the Lieutenant-Governor,
declaring that the ten thousand dollars given to Her-
nando de Soto, had not been paid as a just debt,
Sbut extorted through fear lest he should make use
of his power to strip him of all his properly. He
begged, therefore, that Dona Isabel de Bobadilla
might. be compelled to refund them, otherwise he
should complain to the Emperor of the injustice
with \which he had been treated.
When Dona Isabel heard -of this claim, she im-
mediately replied that there were many accounts
both new and old to be settled between Hernan
Ponce and her husband, as would be seen by the
writings of their co-partnership. That by those
same writings it would also appear that Hernan"
PTonce owed her husband more than fifty thousand
ducatq, being the half of the amount expended in
the outfit for the conquest. She demanded, there-
fore, that Hernan Ponce should be arrested and held
in safety until all these accounts could be examined

$nnd adjuittcld. which she on':rcd immediately to at-
-tfend to. in the name -of her husband. ''
* Hernan Poncen obtained a hint of tile new trouble
pirtpariig !:r lirn. anld I-tarin should! he fall into
the hands -f j-lcre. lie would meet m\ith but little
nirry, he hoi-.ted -ail )tb:-.re the liarp; if th'le law
could c'et hold o'f hini. andl iade the be-t n'4 his way
to Spaini, leaving hii ten tliou.anlld di:,llart, and alI-
the unsettle.I a countyi, in the handi.s ol Do.na I-albl.
*Havinv thui- dl-po:sed %.l ti~ tii- t:pi-:Sde. \ve s\\il'l step
back eighilt (layt in oiur lrn'.ii'iy. t relate the sail-
,ing of tdh e-xp d:-.lition ',,r Florida.

iL It. FiorF:l rn p.-r l luca. Lib. 1. c. 1., i5.


The. armmen sent sssail foom, Cuba. .Arrival and land-
s. in Floridai. E.rploit of Vasco Porcallo.
STihey cje upon the fir traces of Pam,/iilu de
Yor'ae. .
SOn the 12th May 15;39,Hernaindo de Solo sailed
'from Havana on his great enterprise. 'His squa-
dron consisted of eight large vessels, a caravel, and
two brigantine%, all freighted with ample means Of
conquest and colonization. In addition to the forces
brought from Spain, he had been joined by many
volunteers, and recruits in Cuba, so that his arma-
ment. beside the* ships' crews,- amounted to a
thousand men, and there were three hundred and
fifty horses. It was altogether the niost splendid
expedition that had-yet set out for the new world,
The prevalence of contrary winds kept ihe sqia-
dron tossing about, for several days, in the Gulf of
Mexicb. At length, on Whlitsudday. the twenty
fifth day of May, they arrived at the mouth of a
deep bay, to which, in honour of tie day, De Soto
gave thename of Espiritu Santo, which it still re-

rt~~g~t~r '~-..ST;IQTi

SThey had scarce arrived on the coast, when they
beheld bale fires blazing along the shores, and co-
lunins of smoke rising in different directions... It
wo, evident the native had taken the alarii. and
were summoning their warriors it a-semrble. De
Soto \vas caiutiou., -therefore, as to dl-lbarkiig his-
troo)ps. and reniain,:-d several :davy o-n board: sound-
ingl the hairboiil-.aid ae iig sea .ei.re landling place.
In tihe imeian time a 1.oat was ,c-lt ,ii) sh.i r,- to pro-
cure rais- I;r the ihor-!-. The sailors bliroughlt olj"
also, a quantity of green g2ap|::.. re.-,elibllinl thov e
ot Spain, wlhinh had been Ibtund -riwing u\ ild in the
\\oods. They were ol'a k;(d ditt'erent Iro'n) any
that the Spaniard, had seen either in Mexi.oo or.
Peru. and they regarded them with exultation as
prol' o"f a fruitful and pleasant country. ,
At length, on tlhe last day of the mni:itlih, a detach-
nient of three hundred soldierss were landed, and
took Ir.,inial possession ol' thI country, in nameof
Charles \'V. Nut a single Lndian was to be seen,
and thel tr. ps remained all niiiht on shli:re, in a
:state of careless security. TowarId- the dawvn of.
day, however, anM imrni-se number of hva\ges
broke suddenly upon them \\ lth deafening vells: .se-
veral of the: Spaniards were wounded with arrows,
many were seized with panic. as new levied troops
are apt to be in their first encounter. especially

56 C'ON4liEsT n iP FLORIDI.
when in a sira'lie-.lald aldr assailed by 4traiingee' Ie. .
Thc-y retreated to the ed-e of the -ea in great :Cn-
flis'io, n. .e:rov.dii li .rgc-ther Iso as to'-prevent each
u.itl.rerEi:o l. ri.htiing- t d:, atndvan etage, and sti.ndi ing lth
alarm;z.:it. lh druin antd tirunipet. "'
IT.hlirdi, lf firth.e in urlp. wava henrd ,;in bia rd a h:i
tflt l.hdrateCe.seeR.&in.;,ly\ ii-less hI.!l)s were imr-'
i.iaW4atEl.ytas~ b1nsy:as ah:. a.iv.e- f Iees. \v lia their re-
:'iPu. i is.invadled : .armino u.van. s pickled I'n in haste,
and a ri:inlbr.t:enient qt.ticll laindlrd. TIe Li, ri:ut n-
ant G -er.al Las.(o P uca.ll-. w\\it ih *evr n li .reiiin.
jltak.t e?..l.I.ea t. r,,ta. little pleaset-d with haIlin so
I' nI-). fppp pj,.i't.i. y I.,f dikpla. ing 'his prowess.
D* iJisJi h, J..ssttll r-s.it',) his liore an,:l lIraindi. iiii hi'
.ane., hJlceha.rged upon the -avasei. \\ h., made but
igjlhr.sisRia.nce..anld fled. Hle pur-id them for
Stggli di-tance, ani.I then retli'nd hislily latied with
this firl't 'ulli- of bartl'.
Scarcely hladnhe reached the camp, however,
.when his hlior.e -sinz'rfrd unidei him and fell dead,
having been woundede d by an arrow in llhe ,-cuiirse of
the kiirnmili. The 'hlia't had been _sei with such
I':,rce at Io pa-s tlir'i.gh the 'addle and its hou,,ini2-.
and to bury itelf. one third of its lekrllh, between
the ribs of the hlione. Yascor Piorcallo rose trium-
,phant from his fall, painting ihat the first hlir~e that


Iad fallen in thist expedition was hi. and his the first
..nce raised against the inldels..
.4.The remainder of the troops were now\ di.em-
.Karked and encamp.ed on ihe bLnders of the bays
where they remained a Few day,, r p:j-inig afterithe
.atigiues of the sea. They then ,mariched to a %il-
Ja2e animated about two -leaZer-a di-tant ; \Ilile the
*hlips being liitdliened by the landing of the troops.
.were enabled \\ith the aid of the tide. t t akle their
,st-allon opl:).site.
.. The v illag- dva-r deserted by lthe inhaliitants. It
.onsiited of -i-veral lan-g.e hi,-'_s, I.iuilt o*f w,,jd and
thatllchid \with palm leaves. At one end stood a
.kind of temple. \\ith the image of a bird on 6:.p,
made of \wood. \\ith gilded eyes-. In thi. edifice
-ere fIound .tringv. of Ir.arl- ofl'mall value, having
been injured by the tire, in boring th1nm f:or neck-
laces and bra'-elet-.
In an ,opposite quarter of the village upon an ar-
tificial emniiir nce. near the shore. -o cuontructed as
.to serve as a I;:,retes. stoo:d the dwelling of the Ca-
piqu.e. -l-re te gov-rnor took up hn.1 residence,
with his Lieutenant, the vt'teran Pireallo. and his
,camp man-er Llis tde Moscoso. Thet other houses
wv\ee converted into banrack-, i. the te ro:)ps. and
store-hiouses ftr the provisions and ammunition
brought on sh-ore froin tlhe ve.ssels. The tree" and

bushes w* e. cared away, for the di-.tancie of a
bow-jsot round the village, so as to ;ive r..,,an for
tbi t y.tq act and to guard azaiiilt sudden sur-
.Plsge in the night time. Sentinels al-:i \-':.r placed
at ever point, and parties of .horsemen patrolled
the .*nei.igh Io,.irhod. .
.,.-Th:' greCernor at length -.u'icededl in (.aptilirin a
t\w-y .-traggling Iinliaini. natives of tlihe ilac. I . m
whnio he learned the cause of hll- tnrei- h:istilly or
ithir, counlitryineii. anl their .lc.-.rlt:,n iof thl,. village.
Here it was that lie hir'st came ip|',:ln tlfe tra,'t-e o, his
pre.dCi:-cesL-r. Panlphil': de Narvnacz. an'] unfortu-
ji.tejy.thJey were ol'a CI-t,-I Char-tt!r. Narva':.z i
hiie.xpedition to': Flonria lhal I.er-ni blravely oppo:i-d
bv.J]e !e ('aciqu oi thi. viila-Pe. hii-ose name was Hlir-
riligua. He suct-eeded. at l-enIth. in wini iin hi
tfredd-hip. and a treaty was Iirrned bieltw:n them.
Suhseqtently. hlo, iever. Narvaez l:icamn-c e ( ii-ra'ed
at the cacique i-r -:,ine mnlki.:own rea-,:n. anid in. a

SW\'e gite tihe name ae.:r:.rig I... G( retIl's? de li Vier': the
PortlgiiIi-:e narrator :aile lle C-.'ii ..)-Ucita.. Thr'.ne -i.: alntll' ri.
I;es mr'e .n dliirr a; Ito Iidntl names. S,..,mii:| ti-lli i mrr.e lyv ir
in itII Fsptliiing, as ; nl.iir l where the nansmes .'ere caught t y 'ilr,
and did in t rginaily cxiet int ritig. Ar rtJ-l ir Tlim s thI.y dtfl, r
i ,tireil; c n narrator hating prohn hly lpaird a Villg-? aid pro-
vinee called Ity i. proper and permitanent nriine, tlh ,.tih: by lhIi
Snalle of its C e,.iiiJ-. These discrepanciies are c illin.:l i anrd una.
roidable, in the ii'arratlves of advenlitrers nmaoig ri tage Ir:-.e,


fransl,:'rt! o: passioi had ordered hi note to be chi(
ort. and his rnothler to be torn to pieces 'by do-s.
These mencik-i-.k wrongs, as may i\ll be supposed.
had filled lthe-hliart of Hirrilhigua with the biltct: it
hatred of the white men.
De S;oto. hIavin. heard this story:, enideavoured to
appease tlihe :-aienrie? and to gain hi Iri,:-n(Isliip. For
this ipirp-'1 e. I...h tr<-ate:l hids subljt 'l. \\i'nii: l hle had
capturlc in thii-, kindest manner'. and -en tilem. la-
denl \ ili i lt -li-:iit.-, to .- i 1h: iir cil*i.t'tainl i"n iM r'e-
treat. and iiin it. himi to arniall-* iIitt-rc,.ieri'- ThI~
S 'a,'-iIiie \ a, il iKi niit at his sub.l'- tf.:ir darin,-i to
bringI hlih ni m,_-:,- _- from a ra,.e \h lwh:t iiijii.r, -l
and inisul!1.d him ,-o [deply. I wat none ,.I' th-ir
*peechlt- ni:ir Ir.'1. iii, -s," said he, bitterly, I.rilng
ime th:ir li- ad... nid I \t ill ri:-i-v\ th-in j yi.illy."
I:- S.-,i w a- i--rluctani t t:o leaves pI.v Miul a I;e

rpeatidt enIlo 10 I S[ Ii i : ai i -inio-ity :.f tIle ca-

i ,:. r:' l i.. r,. r f.,i '~ Al I llt l. iani il -.......i. \- \'l%.. r-
irri I:l ,;lii lltl, wl]'..1 h! : .. :, r e .r.'i **:. rI l l ar hlw ) I i.i[-

thell P--rlr e-:l N itrrtai.-


cique.: but veiry message only provoked a more
bitter a d scornf l reply.
SWhile thus negotiating with this vindictive sa-
V-,e he received intelligence that there w\as a Spa-
niard, survive df tile fIllowers of Pamphilo de
Nlarv. tez, living under the protection of a neighbour-
ing Cacique called Mucozo.* To obtain the ser-
s, C..oi.this Spaniard was now a matter of great
nroment, for, having live-d upwards of ten years.- in
the country. and become acquainted with the lan-
guage aild customs of the natives, he iwas well fitted
to act asguide, interpreter, and negotiator. He ac-
d&dingly despatched the brave and trusty Baltasar
daffalregos, the chief Alguazil, at The head of sixty
lrWq~se and under the guidance of a native Indian.
onarlr emblassy to the Cacique, Mucozo, to obtain the
release of the Spaniard. and to invite the chiellain
t,e t he camp, with assurances of great friendship and
munificent rewards.
As this Spaniard was subsequently of great ser-
vice throtighout the expedition, and as his story is il-
luslrative of the character and customs of the na-
tives, and of the implacable resentment.of the ca-
eique Hirrihigua, we will diverge for a moment
from the main course of our narrative, to relate
Some particulars of his adventures.
SMocoso. 'Portuguese Narrative.


Story ofJuan Ortiz.

o SHORTLY after Pamphilo de Narvaez had left the
village of Hirrihigua onhis disastrous march into
i he interior, a small vessel of his fleet which h was in
quest of him, put into the bay of Espiritu Sute.
SAnc:horing before the town, they sa\ a few Indian
on the shore, who made signs for them to land,
pointing to a letter in the end of a cleti reed. stuck
in the ground. The Spaniards supposed, and pro-
Sbably with justice, that it was a letter of instruction
left by Narvaez, giving information of his move-
nments and 'destination. They inade signs for the
Indians to bring it to them. The latter, however, re-
liised, jbut getting ito a canoe came on board, where
four of them offered to remain as hostages for. such
Spaiiiards as chose to go on shore I:,r the letter.
.Upon this four Spaniards stepped into the canoe and
\were'sw iftly conveyed to shore, The moment they
landed, a multitude of savages rushed out of the vil-
lage and surrounded them, and. at the same time,
the hostages on board plunged into the sea and

?syam on shore. ,'Thve,;crew of the vessel. seeing the
number of the enemy, and dreading some further
mishap, made sail with all haste, abandoning their
luckless comrades to their fate.*
The captives were con eyed with savage triumph
into The village of Hirrihigua; for the whole had
been a stiraagem of the Cacique, to get some of the
white men into his power, upon whom he might
wvreak his vengeance.. HIe placed his prisoners un-
der a strong guard, until aIday of religious festival.
They were then stripped naked, led out into. the
public square of the village and turned loose,,one,
at a time, to be shot at with arrows. To prolong
their, misery and the enjoyment of their toirmentor-,
l it one Indian was allowed to shoot at a time. In
thjis.-vay.the first three were sacrificed. and the Ca-
cjque took a vindictive pleasure in beholding them,
running in their. agony from cornerto corner, vainly
seeking an asylum in every nook, until after repeat-
ed wounds they were shot to death.
Juan Ortiz. a, youth, scarce eighteen years ofage,
of a noble family of Seville. wa- the fourth victim.
As they,were leading him forth, his extreme youth
touched ith compassion the hearts of the wife and
Garcilaso de la Vega. Part 1. L 2. c. 1.
:Portugaese Narrative, c. 9.
Herrera. D. 6. -L,7. c. 10.

daughterc- of the Cacique. w ho interceded in hi' fa-
The Cacique listened to their importunities. and
granted o0r the present thlie life of Orriz ;-Ibut a
wretched life did. he lead. Front nlrnnng untiil
Sevenilg lie was emiplioed in bringing wood and
water, ald wvas allowed:l but little -.leep and scality
hood. Not a day passed that lie was not beaten.
On festivals lie %was an object of barbarous amiuie-
lme-n to thle Caciq.le. whO\\ would oblige hII to'rhit;
S roni : ll'nrie until -llietl. in the public square 'i lhe
village. w\ere hiis comptnllallon had me thlIeil untimely
*end( Indians bling stationed with bo,-s and arrows,
toi shoot him, should he halt'one moment. When
the day iwas spent. the iiiibortunate youth lay stretch-
ed on the hard door of the hut, more dead than
alive. At such time. the wife and daughters of the
Caciqui.e wouldl. come to him privately with Ibod
and clothing, and by ilitir kind treatment his life
wa-,i preservetd.
At length the Cacique determining to put an
*end to hii- victim's existence. ordered, that he should
be bound down upon a wooden fraine, in the Iform
*ot a huge gridiron, placed in the public square. over
a bed of live coals. and roasted alive.
The crics and shrieks of the poor youth reached
his female protectors. and their entreaties were once


ti '

64 OceNQi T Os. otr deA.
more successful with -the Cacique. They unbound
Ortiz, dragged him from the fire, and took him to
their dwlvetlig, where they bathed him with the
juice of-herbs, and tended him with assiduous care.
After many days he recovered from his wounds,
though marked with many a'scar.,
SHis employment was now to guard the cemetery
of the village. This was in a lonely field in the
bos6m of a forest. The bodies of the dead were
deposited in wooden boxes, covered with boards,
without any fastening except a stone or a log of
wood laid upon the top.; so that the bodies were
often carried away by wild beasts.
* In this-cemetery was Ortiz stationed with a bow
and arrows, to watch day and night. and was told
that should a single body be carried away, he would
be burnt alive.. He. returned thanks to God for
having freed him from the dreaded presence of the
Carique. hoping td lead a better life with the dead
than he had done with the living;
While watching thus one long wearisome night,
sleep overpowered him towards morning. He was
awakened by the falling lid of one of the chests, and,
earning to it found it empty. It had contained the
body of an infant recently deceased, the child of ani
Indian of great note.
Ortiz doubted- not some animal had dragged it


away, and iniledialve set out in pursuit. After
wandering lor some time. he heard, a -hort rdistanoc
within the iwood-t a noise like that of a dog:~ na\w-
ing bones. Warily drawing near to the spol. he
dinmlv iercei\ied an aniinal along lt e buiehei andl
invoking succour from on high, let fly an arro\ at
in. The thii.Ck and tangled underwood prev-\Lntl':1
hii seeing the elect of his -dhot. but as the animal
F did not ,tir he flattered hirnsell'that it had been fatal;
with this hopt:e Iie waited until thie day dawned,
S \%whe1n lie bl.el.d hii- \ii-tin. a liuge aniiiial of' thII
panthler kind.' lyin c dead. the arrlo\u ha% ing pas'i>ed
through hi- entrails and cleft llii, heart.
Gathering toLgether the mangled remains of tihe
.infant. and rep placing themll in the coffin, Orliz
dragged hi. vicitin in triumph to the tillage. with
- the arrow still in his body. The exploit gained hlirm
credit with the old hunters. and forr -.,n time sif-
trened even the fIerocity ot' the Cacique. The resent-
inent of the latter, how) ever. for thle roni n- hlie had
-r.suffered from whitn e mien, was too bitter to be ap-
pl.eased. Somie time a fier. hi- elde-rdau.2hter caine
"to Ortiz. and warned himni that her Iather liad deter-
Snmined to sacrifice hhii at the nest festival. h.ich
.vOas juot at land, and that thle initllence of her mio-
The Inca call thisi animal a Lion, a- the Spanish discoverers
"Aere prone to call annals ol'tlle Tiger or Panthier lind.

there, her 'sisters and herself w ou' ld no longer avail
hi'm. S-hie wihed him, therefore, tQ take refuge
wkh 'a neigHboaring Cacique named Mucuzo, who
loved- her and sought her in marriage, and who, for
lM i'S would befriend him. '- This very night
a-trifllti.ht" said the kind-hearted maiden, "at the
norilhern extremist of the village you will find a
tr tsty fiienid who will guide you to a bridge.
about two leigaes' hence; on arriving there, you
riuit send him back, that he may reach home be-
fore the morning dawn, to avoid suspicion-for well
he knows that this bold act, in daring to assist you,
may -bring down destruction .upon us both. "Six
leag.ies -firther on, you will come to the village of
MFteozo-tell him that I have sent youi, and expect
hi'm to befriend you in your -exrlemily--I know
whe will do it--go. and imay your God protect you !"
Ortiz threw himself at the feet of his generous pro-
(ectress and poured out his acknowledgments for
the kindness she had always shown him. The In-
dian guide was at the place appointed, .and they left
the village without alarming the warlike, savages.
When they came to the bridge, Ortiz sent back the
guide, in obedience to the injunction of his mistress,
and, continuing his flight, found himself, by break of
day, on the banks of a small stream near the village
of Mucozo.

SLooking cautiously round. lie espied two Indiains
fishing. As he was unacquainted with their lan-
guiage. and could not explain the cause of his co:mnig ,
he was in dread. lest they should take him for an
enemy and kill him. He. therefore, ran swiftly.to
the place where they ha:l deposited their weapons
and seized upon them. The :tvages fled to the
village without attending to his assurances of friendly
intention. The inhabitants sallied out armed with
bows and arrows, and made show as though( they
%would attack him. Ortiz fixed an arrl ii his bo 4.
and prepared for defence, but cried out at the same
mloment, that he came not as an enemy but as an
ambassador from a Ifmale Cacique to their chief
Fortunately one present .nderstl.,id him, and inter-
preted his words. On this the Indians unbent their
bwns. and returning with him to their village. pre-
w*lted him to Mucot.o. The latter. youthful chief-
fain, of a graceful form and handsome countenance.
* received Ortiz kindly for the sake of her ,who had
Sent him : but, on'further acquaintance. became at-
Ltached to him for his own merits, treating himn with
O Itle affection of a br.,thelr.
SHirrihigua soon heard where the figitive ,ha
aken refuge, and demanded several times thathe
Should be delivered up ; .Mucozo as often declined;
[.considering himself bound by the laws of honour and

1h4i itaj. lpiotect ,bim-. Hirrihigua then em-
plJoe.i- mediator .notherCacique a brother-in-
* .laefucozo, by the nanmeofUrribarracuxi, who
,~aatin person t9deglape Qfti~ -T'he generous
Mul~io, however, indignantly refused to deliver up
A.eiquu.l.enemy, the poor. fugitive who had come
anepimended to his protection, and treated the
very request as a stain upon his honour. The two
.Caciques continue .their importunities, but the high
pinad savage remained faithfuLto his guest, though
ip, maintaining, inviolate the sacred rites of hospi.
,tality, he .lot the friendsiipof his brother-in-law,
and forfeited the hand of her:he tenderly loved, the
asifii~daurhtr of Hirrihimm, .
*-i- :'; . . .



S l'the arrit al ol De'S.,t and i' troops at thet illae
O1" Il lihi i 1a, a' d i that it t t\\ I, thilr tiienlltiOll t1. con-
qiier the countlit. Thle ,aeiqu. alarmed at this iI-
itlliv-ence, addri es-d hi -el to I Ortiz. Yoiu w llI
.- I-n,: ." .iaid h-:., -" vhlat I hate d'.'ire ti y.ou; that I
Ihave v-helite'ed ori w\ lihn I'ierinlit ss. and have cho'enl
rather to fall into di-,srace \\itli niy relatin-:. and
Sinighbolur;., than dellitver you into the hands of your
Senemies. This I hate done without thought or hope
of' rewr\ld. lut the t lirlt- lha come when you can re-
ipay Ine r nmy 'rnendl-liip. G(o to the chieltain of_
this army ,,f white men- that has arrived-represent
Sto him ihe a-yluin I Ihave extn-iil-dd to you, arnd
Which, in like case, I v% would hate aflbrd,-d to any _of
your countrymen-entreat him, in return, not to lay
.wat\ve my small tenrit-ry. and atuire him that I and
mine are ready Ito devote, ourselves to his Ser-t ire."
Ortliz gladly departed on the mission.accompa-

nied-'bli'fly chosen warriors. It happened that
abo.tj.l same time Ballazar de Gallegos had been
desp.tehed, as has been already mentioned, on his
einqliasyv to Mucozo.
AOrtiz and his Indian escort, therefore, were
onlthe-ir way to the village of Hirrihigua, they came
in .sight ol Baltazar, and his band of lancers, glisten-
ing at a distance, in the midst of a verdant plain,
skirted by a wood.
The Indians would have concealed themselves
in the forest, until the Christians could be infoilied
that they were friends ; but Ortiz slighted their ad-
vice, insisting that his countrymen would at once
reeogniie hlim: not reflecting that in appearance he
w\as in no vwie different from his savage companions,
being like them almo-t naked. his body browned by1
exposure to the- sun, his arms painted, a quiteri at
his back, a bow and arrow in his hand, and his head
adorned with feathers.
No sooner did the Spaniards descry the savages,
than they came down upon them at full gallop,
heedless of the voice of their captain ; for they
were newly raised soldiers, full of spirit, and eager
for a brush with the natives.
The Indians seeing their furious approach, fled
terrified to the wood. One of their number, how-
ever, being bewildered, or possessing more courage

riliani the rest, loitered behIlind. lie was 1)i: 1tsued Ivy
.a, Spaniard. and before lie could attain the -l*heer of
I"le adjacent thiicket, \,a.oxertaken Ib tie t rooper'
lance. Juan O'iz \vaS as-aulted by Al\arl. Niet.:.
OU ol't le stoItii tsl anll dJ.ltest til' oilpt r II t :ll alnii'.
,ll o hiarg d upon. hiin full tilt ilhi iin; lain:e.
. Olltiz parrieid lie thlirut w il his l b.ow, runilii at
the -aiie time, and leaping lIr.i side o side withl
^ reat ag.ilihyt to avoid thle hor-. cryii in't luItily
Xi% illia. X v illa--n iianin- Se% ille. .exille : andl nik-
n. i the -.i'n of lti, cI'o ss I\i.i lhis arm and bi, ). i
p signify thIat lie \ a a ('ih i-tian. .
'.. AlvarJ Nito, l.'arin. l n out Xi ila.l dniaiid-
A.ed of Iiii' wiheti, r ie v.as- Juan (Ortiz. On his re-
plyin in tni allirrnamive. rl -eit,-. d him 1. the armn.
1.h ,l l him I n 11 ipo tlie 1Ti. Iipo' lhi -aqJdlt. amid .-iiuril
),!.,'y % illh Iui l o er tli, pl.,h m I:,I prpe.*IIt h:1 ti,
IPaliazari : (c k all-,.... T'hi c.-pltain rei-civeIl him
w'iih reat j:v. alld. ord'-red lii tIlrooper to be im-
rniehately ri e alhl ':l. I lr thi.y e ,re ,:atini, up thIe
SJIlanlh-ehl 'vo,. -, hiintinig thle poor Indhian- like -o
i'.11'V Ii.': i p
l-)tiz lii, h :l I n i lno the Ii,'e-t ald called w ith
a l''i id v..ice to the Indiia ,. to cr.-nie iut of llhe
tli..k ti ai-d ti-ar nothing. Many of them. l...w-e -r.
lere m daii -_ ruck and 1-ed la-k to lliteir' villaI ,:. to
acqi'ai it Mucozo \ith \liat hliad l'app.,:ined. Others

72- rcX 1iy 4 FLORIDA.
joined Ortiz in small, parties, .upbraiding .him with
his .iash.ess. but when- they found one of their peo-
ple, .wounded, they were so exasperated, that they
wciidd, have laid violent hands upon him had not the
Spaniards been present.
.Th.ey were at length pacified. The soldiers
bound up the wounds of the Indian, and placed him
upon.a horse. The troopers, having taken up all
the Indians behind them, galloped away for the
encampment of the Governor. Previously to set-
ting ofi, however, Ortiz despatched an Indian to
Mucozo, with a true account of the late events, lest
that cacique should be irritated by the alarming
statement brought by the fugitives.*
The night was already far advanced when Balta-
zar de Gallegos and his band reached the camp.
When the governor heard the tramp of their horse,
he was filled with alarm.suspecting some mischance
had befallen them, as he did not look for them be-
fore the expiration of three days. His apprehen-
sions, however, were soon turned to rejoicing. He
praised Gallegos and his men for the skill and suc-
cess of their expedition. and received Ortiz as his
own son, sympathizing with him in his past suffer-
ings, presenting him with a suit of clothes, arnms. and

*PFrtuguese Narrative, c. 8. Herrera, D. 6. L. 7.c. 9.

good horse.' The Indialns \v-ho acc:mpanied-
theli. lie treated with every mark of kindne:.s-.. and
ordered the wounded savtge tro lie care .li' Iv attenhd-
ed.t Hle then dlslpatcheld tw:o i:' the nan'es to MIun-
A.,zo. thankinL him ii tr his past kindness. to Ortiz.
acc:pi:' n g' his jiw:,lr!-- 'of frielndip. and iiI, itin" himin
..to Viil th- camp. Not an c ye %%as cl.>s,.d this
ighht. hbut one and all .,in:d in the rcv ry v liicl
;\\elc"-*ni -d lie lili-ratii,-n o piMir "Ortiz.
( On tlie third day after hle envvs hliad been- d-
patich.:d. the i <:a' .ie "ut.,,-., arrived. a c by Ihis \ arrir-.. lie ;--d th(- hands of lthe Go-
'.eri' :'r witlih iat >:,r.a'lion. saluted ea-: i ,u.ne of
i.t'he. olbi:r, and imad,- a -liiug t le;-ian'-e tll, r ri-
ate De S..t-j r.-ceived liim \ it-n h nifl '-.et natr.:'
c;..u'tesy. and 0: l rl'di. l hi i; lIhat Ili. pLo.pl, i..,iilil I.,l e
e-ver gratetuil to iinn for all- hi- pa-t kindvne e..
\lhliat I lhai e il. ne in':,. Ortiz,"" -a;l M I in .z-.. "' is
nt-!i tle ilf I ,-e- l lie Ii-, c,_ lf'i, elntel ded t li i if.', and1
i ,te\ l in ,:.li' ii,, ll y in l-._eCi,:, T li ti*e ik a lalv
.'lir t i.)1 -. ; li'11 I l',rbids -,:.i.ir leAi n:viYir! a 1i hLitiv-'
h(im k '' I i a: y]um. But iii. ,\\ ni iirti.e--I nl
.Ita i tl- C..uiiro',e ,'r tiil:, him- to all lle r-ie.le i
laiii'.-i \\a, i ih.\ him. That I haI le ileas.-a.l .i.ll
i.l-. I j'. :e i \cL -- d ,l.ily. nd .Ivy de:i. 'tr: min -
P. .-.', r. Njrr ,: c. 7 C r-i iI ., J L . P. 1,1.2.
.7. I. l,: c I.. : i :.. L .7. : .'.

self, hencejfrth. to their service. I hope to merit
theiir esteem.". These words were uttered with so
intfuch grace. his bearing was so noble and lofty, and
his i t.nneiae was so full of kindness, that De So., and
hi. e (ficers were touched, and' made him present
for himself and his warriors.,
Two days afternards came the mother of M1ico-
zo, ovterwhrhlmed with grief because her son 'was in
the power of the Christians. She never would have
consented to his visiting the army, but was absent
at the lime of his departure. She passionately en-
treated the go-ern-r to deliver up her so:n. and i,-i
serve him as Narvaez had s.irve-d Hirrihiaga. He
is youngg" said she, only give him his fiberyi'. and
take me, who am a poor old. woman, aind treat me
as you please. I w ill bear any punlishme!l for both."
De Solo endeavoured .to reassure her by expres-
sions of gratitude and friendship for her .nm anid
herself; but though she remained three da s in the
camp, and was treated by every one with respect:
and kindness, she continued anxious and suspicious.
She ale at the table of the governor, but would par-
take of nothing until Ortiz had tasted it; fearing she
might be poisoned. "How is this," said a Spaniard
to her, "that you have now so great a& fear of death,
you who offered to die for your son ?"
"I have the same love of life as other mortals." re-

tEONQLL-I Of FLOHIlA. j 5 1.
plied he, "I but lmosi illigll-y w\\i-ul I l..e it I.
isave a son, \\ ho i i, ir dI.arler to me than lile il-rll'!"
Even \in nia-..ire'c ol' the per''ca-t lil.-erty oIMn-
c,,zo. and.i that lie only ireiMlain-d Ii..r a time \hli tihe
Spani.arid throIuh liic'' ., IjEcauI : thi'\ \V. re .,ii111,n
bi ra e. like liimn.elf. A ,! \a but -ai:0..,rly .coril'irti d.
and dlepaitr ' -.sie loki Junn Oriiz a.id., anil Ije.oluii him Ii I libe-
S'rat- ii..z, iria.Mun,.ii'h as lie had :a'ed hii *'1'i ni
h th: veni :rli l liand. l ot' I i lii ii-n. "" '-
Thi? cacti|i.it ? r>mn1ainil., "ii ithe al-m e.i'h1 da ..
andi dui.n-l iii ii Iiii:- CliIeI-ini v iirv ia 1ilili'- I landl \\a
in-pi,'.d ith [per'l-.ipro-idine in the Spaniard-

it,_ \enit lion \U ii c.',ii, .i-.,: n aid I:'. quA.i. ilYv al.'r-
r, m\ n dit'_ '.vii.':. ih ta .'i''u,:,ri'. liriiiaili al\vm\n.; a
I Nilil 'i-' l'. l)re !: ll o t-l, a

G .
i C
% .

" I ," E-." . ..

. t .e r dv..,.,, ., .-', f, .. l ,,

.-'the ri, Ca m iqt e f' Hirri-,hin G 11:', r l,.-
f, .,,04, / ,..,/- on ti i .i ( p. /iiiio to the ill/og.e qof' "' i-
tlar,t l xi-.1 e t Arsll' Itf Ia I' i n /, th / h ,' n Si.'Wr,l
ab,.,ndin.g iin Li.:d.

l1131. WH[IL: 1it.l thiillg; \wrTe ias-in" in tie
a a, lt'.lei [rl' i ions- anlld in nlni tion I er landled froin
(tlp I,,jl' . t
lie trlav,'' a !(nd st-.:red a\vay in lle i illnia of Hir-
iln Ia. The Adelanina o. t: llowin; Ihell. -' inpe .:,f
Cirez aid other r:-nowned cap)tains. lI :,pat "hi.d 'S.-
'en of ilie lar'e- t i esr- ,I- to ht I v- I? lnv in *r'ler
hat hlis I :ll:owers mighl t lo'e all ihope of len\ inl the
untryr. reta inning only aD ravel and "i ol briantin -
to keep c'onInand of the sea cca.t anid :,of thli bav.
jHe aplO:inted Pedro Calderon to the co iiinand1 of
til.l important p,:it. He&wasa liardy vetEriani. nr-ed
in a roiugih school. amid camps and battle .ceenes,
and had served in his youth under (lie ,real Captain
on-nalro de C'ordova.

Herrera. Hist. I-nd. Decad. vi. L. vii. c. 10. .

De Soto left no. means untried to gain tlhe friend-
ship of Hirriliigia, being aware that the example of
this powerful chieftain would ha% e great sway with
the neighboring Caciques. Accordingly, whi.n-
Sever the troopers, in foraing thei adjacent country,
captured a vassal of this Cacique, he instantly selil
him home loaded with pres-eias and kind nies-,agi.s,
urging Hirrihigua to a(:cepL hii proflf red-amitIy, aind
promising every reparation lfo the \\rongs infieted
upon him by Pamphirlo de Narvaez. These w rongs ,
However, were too deep .to be easily .obliteinated
fr:om the stern bosom of the -.avage chieftain. The
( only reply he deigned 'to give was, The niemnry of
| my injuries forbid my sending a kind ansiveir, and
a harsh one your cooes i will not allow me to re-
turn." Still thescs constant and unwearied exer-
t lions of De Soto in some measure mitigated the
deadly rancour of the C'a'.ique against the Span-
The Governor made many inquiries of Orliz.rie-
specting the country and -whether there w%-ais-1ia-
region abounding ingold and silver. Ortiz JnebYil
no such place, and could yield but hostile inlbtimaticn.
When with Hirrilhigua he had been closely va'tch'-
.ed, and not allowed to wander: an.l although fi1e
dwelling with Mucczo he had *perfect libei-ty, "et he
dared not venture far. thro-lugh fear of being waylaid
S. 7*

by iiusmmiman .He had heard much, however, o04
aGaOsq nammd Urribarracaxi, whose village was
thirty leagues distant, who was the most powerful
iaftain of the country. To him Mucozo, Hirrihigua
iagl the otherCaciques of the coast paid tribute,
ad. his-territories were far more fertile and abun-.
dWatthan those nearer the sea.*
.Upon this the Governor despatched Baltazar de
Gallego on an expedition to the village of this pow-
erful Cacique. Gallegos chose the same sixty lances.,
that had accompanied him when in search of Juan
Ortiz,and other sixty foot soldiers, armed with cross,
bows and, b6cklers. He was accompanied by Orz
ti ai:guide and interpreter. On approaching the
vlage f Mucozo, the Cacique came forth to receive
tlina, and entertained them for the night with great
hospitality. On the following morning the Captain
demanded of him a guide to the village of Urri-
barracaxi. The Cacique at first thought their de-
signs upon the village were hostile, and shrank with
noble spirit from what would have been an act of
perfidy against his relative and neighbour. When
he found, however, that they were on a friendly
errand, and only wanted one of his vassals as a pre-
Ceraor, to go before and inform Urribarracaxi of
*Portuguese Relation, c. 9. The name ofthe Cacique in the
ortafugue Narrative is Paracoxi. We follow the Inca.


lheir anicable intention,. he gladly furni-1hed them
Aith nll Indian F;ir the purpose, who had been a fast
irfiend 'f Juan Ortiz.
In their march thu, f ar into the interior they had
been omcasio:nally impeded by in':'irln e, which,
ht.owever. Ij.-lime les. Irequent the farther they
fiwent Froi tIhi' -ea. Thwv i:'lerited many trees.
.iniilar twj thl:-,' ot' .Spain, such a Walnut, Oak,
Miilbe rv. Pliirnb. Pine. and Everl 'ee.n Oak. The re
iv-e:- \\ ild grapes also in abundance.
i. Tihe dclitnnae :frm thei village of Miuci:, j o Ilitat
pfl hl- I:r th'er-ii-law w\ a about sev-:nlten leagues.
Tfhev arrived theli'r in tbur day-, iut I:,lo d it de erct-
Ied. the inhabitants having fled to the w\\':odi. They
'1en1t their Enlc y repIeatedly I [ ti the Caiique. witl the
.ni' st Iriendl ii .c- l vy aSeft ery effort draw him
troiil hi 'ritreCat prjAved fi'uihle-', tl,,:ti.i',h ie inani-
I'tted no ho,.tilit in word vr deed. Galle.go, made
dliient inquiry of thle lndians thicy met witli as to
nin\ province \hliere gold and silver \iere to I be
.,uiind. They replied that there was a- country to
l'e \we.stwar d called Ocali, the inhabitants o:If whlit.h
vere continually at war with the pirEople i:,'anoither
'Mpro incei. in \\liicli htil? SIring laI ted all tie .year
Pling. and ,,old was so plenty Ithat their warriri's
Nwore lead piec,:-cs of tiat precious metal.*
' Portugiele Narrative. e. )10.'

I1:' *


Tih. oji,;li. ,1 rf the veteran Vasco P,.',-i,/i, in quest
of the Cacique HIirrihigud, and how he fared in a

1539. AFTER the Governor. Hernando de Soto,
had despatched Gallegos on his E .xpoIriin' c'pdili.'n,
he 'receiiv-d iillneligelnce that the Ca' iqe Hirl hiinl.
was con.r .?al: d in a forest at no great distance from
tll camnip.. He was about to send a c;nptainl \ it an
u'ini:-d force iii qu.Ist of him, when the enterprise
\avs ClaimeCd 1bvi Ilt. Lieutenant-General, Vasco Por-
.callo de Fiiter',.a. This brave old cavalier had a
passi':' f..,r military exploit, and,was '\irlal, a little
vainglorious. He liii.ulht this a fitting opportunity
to -ilializ, himself, and insisted upon linihi-r the
h-ion:,nl:ou of ralptiriii..l this fugitive, yet formidable
Cacique. The enterprise I,,ing J r b.iiil.d to him, he
pr-iparel'. for it in his usual style ; for he ,\ n; r, lnd iF
parade, and le:.- I':,i.rt il all his app.iintillil-kt. Hav-
ing selected a band of hor:,l-:-nill and foot -.liier.,
he put himself at their head and sallied t';.irh from
the camp, well mounted, and cased in aglittlriii_ ar-

mour, vaunting that he would bring home Hirri-
higua either a prisoner or a friend.*
He had not proceeded far, however, when he was
met by an Indian messenger, sent by Hirrihigua,
who had received intelligence by his spies of the
armed force, malrching in quest of him. The mes-
senger entreated Vasco Porcallo on the part of Hir-
rihigua, not to proceed any farther, as thie C'aiq1le
was in so secure a fortress that, with all his exer-
tions, he could not get to him ; whereas he and his
troops would be exposed to infinite perils from the
rivers, morasses arid tangled forests, which h: would
have to pass. The Cacique added, that he gave
this advice, not through any fear for himself, but in
consequence of the forbearance manifested by the
Spaniard-. in not injuring his territory, or his sub-
ji c.s..
Vasco Porcallo listened to the Inessenaer with
inc:reduli(y ; persuading himiielf that fear, not gra-
titude, nor court: .s dictated there mt ssage ; so he or-
dered the trumpet to sound, and marched on. As
he advanced, messenger after messenger encounter-
ed him, all repeating the warning to retu rn, and
they at length became so frequent as almost to over-
take each other. The more, however, le vwa w\arn-
Garcilaso de la Vega, P. 1, L. 2, c. 9.
Herrera. Hist. Ind. Decad. 6, L. 7. c. 10.

ed to return, the more obstinately did the stout
Iharted, and hloI headed cavalier persist in advanc-
ing: taking eer thling by contrary, and judging of
ihe panic of the Cacique. by the frequency of his
messages. His only fear was that the prize might
take to flight, and escape him. He spurred on hotly,
!iterefore, \ith his troops until they arrived at a
vast and dismal morass.
Here his men perceived tlfe truth of the warniiii-i
they had rieci.-ied. and began to rei, ontrate about
the ditlici.ilty andI danielr' of atteminptin_ this morass.
Vai.io P:or.ll- hio:I\\:.\'r. had p[ut himself too much
-on his inettle in thi- enterprise, to be eail dai]nll.ii-
ed. lit iii-,ited upon their -itlriil; but, being
an old sldi::r. lie knew the effect in time of ditiiil-
Iy. of Seliinig an examplee: so, puiiriig spurs to his
hli:r.i-s-, he dashed forward, and his men followed him
pell niKell iInt: the morass. Vasco Porcallo had not
proceeded far, however, when, coming to a deep
miry place, his horse floundered and fell. Th,: pc ril
of the Lieutenant-General was imminent; the horse
had fallen upon one of his legs so as to pin him
down. while the weight of his allirmn:,i' contributed to
sink him in the mire. Both horse and rider were in
'danger of suffocation, nor could any one come to
their -aid: being in a perfect quagmire, where all
who entered would be exposed to like peril.

At length, with infinite difficulty, the worthy ca-
taliir extricated himself and his stivld :rom this dis-
mal bog, and landed once more on firm ground, co-
vered \\ith mud and mire. All his vaiinglo:r -was
at an end, he was out of humour with himself, and
i.lt nir.'rt;fidl in the sight of his soldiers. The sa-
vage whom he had come to fight anj capture, in-
stead of encountering him with deadly ]- eap).
had conquered him by courteous and friendly I mIc--
-,-..-. and hii aingl lrio:sii enterprise hail end,:ld in
a struggle in a quagmire.
Ordering his men to face about, he :tr out
on his return for the camp, in far different
mood from that in which he had sallied forth.
.milidct the rii,:rtificatii.i. of his present plight, he
called to mind the pleasant and comfortable home
he had left behind, at Cuba, and the easy and luxu-
rious life he had led there. He ir fi,-.tied iliat lie.
was no longer a boy ; that ilie vi,'ur uf is Ii -!a-,
was past; that his present disaster was but a slight
'.,i:-ia.t;L of the toils and trouiib., tIhat must attend
this conquering expedition; that Ihe was not i.-lli-i-l
to encounter them, but had better return to Ii
home, and leave the c,:nqi.l.l, -i of Florida for the
-,.-iu hot heads who were embarked in it.
t ,: ,o1 iiiig thle-e amid simill r lthlilght-li in his niiid,
the wrtliv lI cavalier, all becdabbldti and bemired,

and totally crest fallen, rode along in crusty and
qiuertiulou.s, yet half %whim-.ical humour, muttering his
tancies to himself, and ejaculatini,. in a broken
maiuner. thie hard Indian names, with an occasional
curse upon them for their ruggedness. Hurri-
harri! Hurri-hina! Burra-coxa i Hurri-hairi-the
devil take a c:.iintry where the great men have such
inilnamous names! a fine commencement this! pro-
rni-in'ig o,1:.11n of future luck! Glorious middles and
ends to be a.ugurted fr:oi such beginnings !-Well,
1-t 'those \\% ,irk (ir food and fame who are in need of
them. For my part- I have riches and honour
enough tI:, lat for the rest of my life, and to leave
behind me."
In this moody way, the worthy Vasco Porcallo
arriv-d at the camp. All his dreams of conquest
\wre at an end. The martial fire'which he had
caught from the young sparks of the army, and
which hail blazed up so suddenly in his, bosom, had
been as .iu.Iliil,-y extinguished. His only thought
now, was, how to get rid of his command of Lieu-
I-nar;t General, and to get safe back to his comfort-
able home in Cuba.- With these views he present-
ed himself at once before De Soto, and stating his
reasons with honest force and hearty sincerity, ap-
plied for permission to resign. The Governor grant-
ed it with the same promptness and grace, with

which he had accepted his offer to join the enter-
prise, and moreover furnished him with the galliot
San Anton, to convoy him to the island.
The worthy veteran now set to work as eagerly
to get Out of the expedition, as he had done to enter
upon it. His train of servants, Spanish, Indian, and
negro, were embarked with all speed; but when
the gallant old cavalier came to take leave of his
young companions in arms, and the soldiers he
had lately aspired to lead so vaingloriously, his
magnificent spirit broke forth. He made gifts to
the right and left, dividing among the officers and
knights all the arms, accoutrements, horses, and
camp equipage with which he had come so lavishly
and ostentatiously provided; and he gave for the
use of the army all the ample store of provisions
and munitions which he had brought for the use of
himself and his retinue. This done, he bade fare-
well to campaigning, and set sail for Cuba, much to
the regret of the army, who lamented that so galliard
a spirit should have burnt out so soon.
The only one that remained behind of the train
of Vasco Porcallo, was his natural sen, named Go-
mez Suarez de Figueroa, whom he had by an In-
dian woman, in Cuba, and with whom he left two
horses and arms, and other necessaries. This youth
throughout this expedition; conducted himself as a.


good knight and, soldier, and a worthy son of such
a father, serving with great promptitude on all oc-

*The Inca. P. 1, L.2, c. 11.


De Soto leaves Pedro Calderon with a garrison in
Hirrihigua and sets out on his march into the
interior-the difficulties he encountered-Gonzalo
Silvestre sent back with a message to Calderon.
1539. ON the day after the departure of Vasco
Porcallo, a young cavalier named Gonzalo Silves-
tre, followed by three other horsemen, rode. into the
-camp, having been sent by Baltazar de Gallegos.
They brought favourable accounts from Gallegos of
the country he had explored, and assurances that, in
the village of Urribarracaxi and its neighbourhood,
there were provisions enough to sustain the army
for several days.
There was but one drawback on their favourable
intelligence, which was, that beyond the town of
Urribarracaxi there extended a vast and. dismal
swamp, exceedingly difficult to be traversed. The
Spaniards, however, who were all alert for action
and adventure, made light of this obstacle, averring
that God had given man genius and dexterity with
which to make his way through every difficulty.

Satisfied from the relation given by these men
that he might readily penetrate into the interior, the
Governor issued orders for every one to prepare to
march on the fourth day. In the mean time he des-
patched Gonzalo Silvestre, with twenty horsemen,
to notify Baltazar de Gallegos of his intended march
to join him.
As there was a great quantity of arms, ammuni-
tion, and provisions in the village of Hirrihigua, he
left a garrison there of forty horsemen and eighty foot
soldiers, with Pedro Calderonr as Captain; who had
command also of the shipping in the harbour, con-
sisting of a caravel and two brigantines with their
They were enjoined to remain quiet, and not to
move to any other place without orders from De
Soto: they were, moreover, to cultivate peace with
the surrounding Indians; not to make war upon them
even though they were taunted and insulted, and
above all, to treat Mucozo with marked friendship.
Having made all these arrangements, and trust-
ing, as well he might, in Pedro Calderon as a good
soldier and discreet Captain, De Soto set out on
the appointed day, with his main force, from the
Bay of Espiritu Santo and the village of Hirrihigua.
It was an arduous and difficult task to conduct such
a body of troops, encumbered with armour and

,with all kinds of baggage and supplies, through a
wilderness, exposed to hardships and dangers, and
a wild kind of warfare, to all which most of them
were entirely unaccustomed.
As a leading object with .the Governor, also, was
to found a colony, .he. was encumbered with *0y
things that embarrassed the march of his. army.
Among these are particularly noted three hundred
swine, with which he intended to stock the country
.when he should settle, having been found the. most
advantageous stock for the sustenance of new cole-
nies. These animals were placed in charge of a
company of horse, to keep them to the line of march;
and guard them in traversing the swamps and
Besides the match locks and cross-bows -with
which the infantrywere armed, there was one piece
of ordnance in the army, the transportation of
which must have cost vast labour, while it appears
never to have rendered any efficient service *.--
After two days' march, always to the northeast,
De Soto, on the morning of the third day, Oamopin
sight of the village of Mucozo. The Cacique~ teae
forth to receive him, expressing great gWst-k.is
intended depatrure from the county, and entreat-
.ing him to remain that night in. hi a. illage.-. The
Governor, however, excused himself, not wishing to

.taishi ol spitiLi Wyith such.a'.multitude of guests.
~ Sg~Speuigpwmed his. thanks for the kindness
aoilqdi* to Juan Ortiz, and commend-
eL to i~ f1indship and. good offices the Captain
A jsW -'who.G remained in garrison in the village
-*aHI iguta. The Cacique promised to observe
them the strictest amity. He then took
pff.i the >Governor and his principal officers and
W'qaliers, with many embraces and apparently sin-
ae tears, praying that the sun might shine upon
Saa throughout their journey, and prosper them in
A their undertakings. The Spaniards, themselves,
mql gradly affected at parting with this generous
psagPebp. had in all things proved himself so true
a iD~,iFre d.-friend. .
tdBowrti ig at the village of Urribarracaxi, De
ira44.f ewd Baltazar de Gallegos waiting to receive
.ip,~.tThe Cacique, however, was still absent, re-
,ainiig in the fastnesses-of the forest, and though
Is Governor sent envoys with offers of peace and
,.mity,.nething could draw him forth from his place
-7ra grand obstacle now lay in the way'by which
4de Spaniards were to proceed. About three
teagues from. the village extended a great morass
' iaegue in width, two thirds mire and one third wa-
,4a)rud-very deep.at the borders. Runners were

sent fdrth in three different directions to discover
a pass, which they succeeded in doing after several
days' search. By this pass the army crossed with
ease, although it took a whole day to do so.
They now arrived on a broad plain, and sent the
runners ahead to explore their route. The latter
returned the next day, declaring that they could not
proceed farther on account of the many bogs made
by streams which ran out of the great morass and
inundated the country. Upon this the Governor
determined to seek a road himself. Choosing, there-
fore, one hundred horse and as many foot soldiers,
he left the rest 6f the army where they were, with
the Cainp-Master-General. Luis de MIoscoso, and
re-crossing the great swamp, he travelled three
days along one side of it, sending runners at differ-
ent distances, to seek for some outlet.
During the three days. the Indians incessantly
sallied forth from the woods which skirlud the
swamp, discharging their arrows at the Spaniards
and then retreating to their thickets. -Some, h;iw-
ever, were killed and others taken prisoners& The
latter were used as guides, but they led the troops
into difficult passes, and places where the Indians
were lurking in ambush. Discovering their perfidy,
the Spaniards let loose the dogs, \who killed four of
them. Upon this, an Indian, fearing a similar fate,

of fetetd guiae them surely, and accordingly, after
a 'wide '~ti it,-" iroghc 'them to a place free from
Iltf;, T; f'uwhere they had to proceed for the dis-
tfaice'of a fdague breast high in water, until they
eaie to the inid 'channel, where, for a hundred
~ri4i, it was too dbep to be forded.' Here the In-
Wi&ftThad 'cnstructed a rude bridge, by felling two
Ir"e trees into the water; and, where they did not
t~e, the space was supplied by logs tied to each
other, with poles across them. By this sanim bridge
Pamphilo de Narvaez had passed, ten years before,
.with his unfortunate army.
,ii t rnahdo de Soto,,well pleased to have found
k&,hi -bridge, sumnuoned two soldiers, half-breeds pf
.ilhe4'hilnd of Cuba, named Pedro Moron and Diego
.itedOliva, who were expert swimmers, and ordered
themlto take hatchets and cut away several branches
;iiich obstructed the passage of the bridge, and
ifiear away all other impediments.
" The two soldiers set to work with all diligence,
but'in the midst of their labour, several canoes with
Indians darted forth from among the rushes, and
galled the workmen by a flight of arrows. The
two half-breeds plunged headlong from the bridge,
*tam under the water and came up near their com-
rades. They were but slightly wounded, for being
under the surface of the water, the force of the ar-

rows waa broken and they did not pe:-netrate deeply.
After this sudden onset the Indians retired. The
Spaninads re-airled t ie bridge w tli'hout being again
nolesteld, and at a short distance abi._e they dis-
covered a very good pas fi:r i e lt. hior,;.
Having thi.iu succe led in the object of his search,
the Governor called to him Gi:,zalo Silvesire, one
of the most hardy and pih-ited of hsi youitliful cava-
liers. aiid ti best 'n i.i-iited of lhis troo To your
lot," -aid he. --has fallen the l.)e- hor-e in the arnim.
and the more w-irk you will haace in coInseqJuence,
for we have to assign to you the nro. dilic-ult tasks
that :ccur. It is important to our lives and thie su--
cess of our enterprise, that you return ihis iiight to
the camp, aiid tell Luis de Moscoso to follow us
with all tie army; and as for you, that he immedi-
ately despatih Iyou to us w ithl provision,., to sustain
us until \we fiiid food: for our need you well know
is great. And that you may return with more
satlety than you go, tell him to give you thirty lances
as an escort. I will wait fIr vyo in thiis same place
until to-morrow nii:ht, so return w without delay. The
road may seem long and- difficult to you. and the
time short, but I know to whom I entrust the under-
taking. -That you may not go alone. take with you
the companion you like best: and be off at once,
for you should be at the camp before day breaks ;

lest, should .the day daw n lbef-.re you have passed
the swamp, the Indians capture and kill you."
'The.very. peril of lie mihi.'i' i put the %.uiliful Sil-
3aestre upon hi- metal. Witlliout answering a word,
le left t.leGovernor. vault.d in In saddle. and was
aL.eadv ,on the \way when he encountered ainuth:-r
.ith, one Juan Lopez Cacho, native of Seville,
qnd page of the Governor. who had an es.llnt
lwirse. "Juan Lopez," cried Silvestre, "the Gene-
ral- has ordered that you and I go with a nmes;age
tobe delivered before day-lreak tat the camp; fol-
law ime. theifretbe, inimediately. for I am already
uqh, road."
-.Take some other person. I enrcicat ou," said
Aa.joppez, .. I am fatigued. and cannot make the

S,'tAs you plreae," replied Silvetre. "the Gover-
nxr, ordered Ine to cl'iose a companion, and I have
cl.ho-en you. If you are so disp,,cd. come and wel-
oame; if not. remain. Your company will not dimi-
nish the danger, noiwill my.going alone encreaee
the toil." So saying he put pIurs to his horse and
continued on his way. Juan Lopez, much a- it
went against his will, leaped into his saddle and eal-
loped after him.


The perilous journey of Gonzalo Silvestre, and his
friend, Juan Lopez.
1539. THE sun was just selling as Gonzalo Silves-
tre and his comrade, Juan Lopez, departed on their
hazardous mission. These youthful cavaliers were
well matched in spirit, hardihood, and sprightly va-
lour; and neither of them had attained his twenty
first year.
They galloped rapidly over the first four or five
leagues, the road being clear, free from forests,
swamps, or streams.. In all that distance they did
not perceive a single Indian. No sooner, however,
had they crossed this open tract, than their dan-
gers and difficulties began; 'for, being ignorant of
the country, they were obliged t, trace back step by
step, the track they had made three days previous,
through bog and brake, brambles and forest, and
across a labyrinth of streams meandering from the
great morass: guiding themnstelves by the land
marks they had noticed on their previous march. In
this toilsome twilight journey, they were aided by
the instinct of the horses. These sagacious animals,

6 C coiqQAtIsr T-F rV DRIDA.
as if possessed of understandings, traced the road
by'wlhich they had come, and like spaniels or setter
1l-gsr thli'st their noses along the ground to discover
th iMsalc'k. Their riders did not at first understand
aithrtftekation, and checked them with the reins to
t-ielQkheads. Did they at any time lose the
track, on finding it again the steeds would puff and
snrrt, which alarmed their masters, who dreaded
beiig overheard, by the -avage..*;
Gonzalo Silvestre, comprehending at length the
intention or his horse when he lowered his head to
s6ek the. track. gave him his will. without attempt-
ihi i~~tguide him. Encountering these difficulties
i@.in. ny others more easily to be imagined than

iAj e Inca is curiouslr minute in his account of these horses.
'i ee'Vi!of Gonzalo Silvestre, says he, was the most sure in the
,at-; ah d certain t.i discover it when lost. However, he adds,
ae.,miuA C not L.e &irprised at this excellent quality, and many
g.btiers that line horse possessed; for, his marks and colour prov-
ed him admirably fitted either for peace or war. He was of adark
chpstnul or a pitchy shade, with white on one of his left feet,
a'nd striped above the nostrils, marks which promise more excel.
fence and gentleiess than any r oll.r. The dark chestnut colour,
especially w hen of a pitchy hue, is above all others the most ex.
cellent, either for light or heavy labour. The steed of Juan Lo-
xez Cachero, was of a light bay, commonly called fox colour, and
his extremirtes were black, excellent marks, but inferior to the
dark cheitnrii colour.
, Gascilaso de Ia Vega. P. 1, L. 2, c. 14.

written, these two daring youth travelled all nighlit.
without any road, half dead \\ith huiic Itr. worn out
with e:x sleep. Their Ior:,.s \were in no better plight, a, for'
three days they had not been unisaddlle., the bits
being merely tak-ln firon their mouths oi(cai.:onally.
that they might graze.
At times they passed willin eightt of huge fires,
aron:,id \lich the savages were iten st rtl che d in
wild and fanilartic gr'i:,:i. some rcapt ring and sitg-
ii,\. and making the .-ilent Cjre,- s ring with their hi-
dei-iis vyl. l. aid 1iiw;,Iig-. These were probably
cti,: latiimg some of their fr:ast with war danl,-s.
The d,-afmiiiini' d.in Ilit'y rni-el was the -afr''mard ofi
tlle tw N1j i aliarls, aq it prevented the .n a_',:- I' ndric-
ing thie claimr'-ious barking of their dogs, and hear-
ing the trailiing of the horses as ih-y vpa _d. -
Thus they j..'''i. r-y d for more than ten l:agu.rm.
Juan Lopez \ a; Irl.ear t-dly so much o.: ,:- rp1'' .we r-
by sleep, that he etireaetedl that ithiy shi-uld. l]nit.
and take some repose. bhi Silve-tre -ris,,h1t'l re-
fused. At 1n2th pu:',r Lop-z .could c-itain limiIs-ll'
no longer. Let me s':e-, I .,r a -ishort tim11e." ;aid Ie.
" or kill mne \with y.jur la Ine: on the sp,|ot. I '' t an-
not p'':sibly go' on any rthee. ,or kerp imy saddle."

Tlhe Inca, p. 1 1. c; 14.


.*Dis'm6untll'th1,e'. and sleep iF you please." said
Silv:e-se;e- since you hIad rather run the rii of
.kigAbti.tt-lhered than bear up an hour llo'igei. Ac-
t01Sd tidfl the distance we have come, we must be
iii'-:;lt pass of .lthe inoras.' and cross it we must
i tflra In; tlor. iFt day rinds u- in this place our
ShIfh .is certain."
n$Jiai Lopez made no reply, but let himself fall
,n, the riround like a liltle.s body. His compa-
liot'n took ftroin hiin hi' lance. and hel' lii- hir-,e by.
he bridle. Night now rapidly drew in-tlh: clouds
'fired thrith a declge -of rain. but notlilig could
f itkiehi Juan Lopez from his dieep and de;ith-like

le a:in ceased. I h.e cloinds disp:r-.ed and Sil-
'f-e. declared Ihlt he Ibund lhiii':lF -,.h uddunlv in
.I.nirJ. daivlight. N ithlout lha inl p. i'-ei'ed it dawn;
ijs .' probable that lie liad be)ni uncnrii-uhy leep-
Sihid in hii s laddle. Startled at belhildilu t lh. di y so
narr. J,.i hastened to call Lqpe z. but finding that the
I,\- (line in \\Ihich he spoke, were insufficient, he
iiiade iue fIt' his laIice, and gave him some hearty
Sblo\w. calling out, Look wlhat your sleeping has
"tlirou.i-iht iupl'n us: see, the daluhlit which we dread-
'ed I, o\eritaklien u. and we have now no escape
f'ronli 1i.ir enilemnies "
0"< J'an Lopez, roused at last by t!ii'. -Mim iary pro-


cess, sprang into his saddle, and they set off.at a
hand gallop. Fortunately for them, the horses ,were
of such bottom, that notwithstanding past atigue,
they were yet in spirit. The light revealed the two
cavaliers to the Indians, who set up yells and howl-
.irigs, that seemed to arise from every part-of the
morass, accompanied by a frightful din, and claug-
our of drums, trumpets, coaches, and other rude in-
struments:ofi arlike music.
A perilous league remained to be made. over a.
expanse of water, which the horses would have to
ford. Before the Spaniards reached it, thc'be held
canoes darting fbrth from among thickets and cane-
brakes, until the water seemed covered with them.
They saw the imminent -danger that awaited them
in the water, after passing so -many on land; -but,
knowing that in courage alone consisted their safety,
they dashed boldly into it ; seeking to pass it with
all speed. Throughout the whole distance they
were beset by the Indians, who discharged cloud&
of arrows at them. Fortunately thiey were cased
in armour, and their horses were nearly covered
with the water, so that they both escaped without
wounds, though the cavaliers declared that, on
reaching land, and looking back, ihe whole -urface
of the water seemed strewed with arrows.
The Indians still continued to pursue them on

lJajplyiing-Ilecir-.bo\ws, and speedling lights of ar-
r.tJ.s, a Le: the.m, when suddenly a band of thirty
.h ,~i .e.ielie galloping to tlie rescue, headed by
tl, j i,.':,NiinT: T'obar, m:n his IaiiInIls daipple grey
St T-' The ild cries alld velk of the Indiazis
r a(j.ed thle arm'ln had caum-ed a surmise tliat
'tpaiiiar-d were in danger, and Nurio Tubar
,minediately propost, d this -a1ly :, t llher irecue ;
I F'iLhiat geneIrou cavalier, In-' that lie was out of
a vour with hi.h general. seemed. will the ,)rie c:if a
Sspliri t,to piquii hilmnell' the< mlorne on signalizing
I1 by ':,rth deeds.
iih of Nuno Tobar, and liis Ihand. the Iln-
.-iovir tile pursuit: and i"'aiilg to Ibe tram-
r -7 nr h tile hirsc-s. hted lo the tllicke:ts and
4,1-' a fe tN-..

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