Title: Sketches, historical and topographical, of the Floridas
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Title: Sketches, historical and topographical, of the Floridas
Series Title: Sketches, historical and topographical, of the Floridas
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Creator: Forbes, James Grant
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The (wn aof Colinton is laid of at a place called Prospect
1 i W'lgt Jari'Gadsden, on the Apalachicola River, and eighteen
miles from the Bay'of the same name, on a fine leave plain of
.pine land, 16 feet above the river at tam wIter, his the
purchase mid. by J. Forbes &h Co. fri the Jndisi. e town
: faes are 60 feet side and 20 feet deep. The water lots are 75
feet wide, and from 160 to 300 feet deep. The swamp land
T under thelf isfrom 70 to 90feet wide, and is sufciently firm
.i ar excelleut foundations for wharves at a small.erpense. The
Slt ts., ~,.IVX Pt, a:ech kIOSb. 1 ab9fee ,aren.sered
Lfor. public ai The sites are at right a.st s, aandof the width
Said dow. ini the Plan.: TAe :.paalshicoat:and Chattahoutchie
Rivers are navigable at aft times for large Steam Boats 220
miles. in a direct line to the .Falls above Fort Mitchel, and run
through a fine fertile country, the produce of which maqt de-
cend these Rivers by Colinton to the Oceanms.








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SKETCHES,



HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL,



OF
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o a FA,:t... U A.,r o



EAST FLORIDA.



.*-A R- ,


BY JAMES GRANT FORBID


IS


ES.


PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY C. S. VAN WINKLtE


No. 101 Greenwich-street,

1821.


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S. rIorty fth Year
of t Idelendene dt of h hfAmeri, C. 8. VAn WImI u, of ma aindis
tricl, Ak dbpat is fM Ae tMi f a bok, dh riht whrenmo.he clM




m to tei, e f An w6t ppM to an act, titled, Lan act b.e
enouarme of Imanelt boy mc ing the aopia. of umpRh. mnd books, to lb
a*onwdplpieteOmd copjs, during th dae thenis mti ues.d a


our print. G. I. THOMPSOW,
Clerk of ie Southern Di biC o0 New-York.


".













P RE F A CE.





SINCE Florida has become an integral part of the
Union, and our republic has been strengthened by this
i.oirtant acquisition, curiosity has been considerably
excited on the subject of its situation, its soil, climate,
atd history. A desire to emigrate, and numerous other
a outei, combine to heighten this excitement; and
WiaI hitheerto has been but little known and regarded,
while a neglected Province of Spain, bids fair to rise to
emtinene and fame, as a component part of the Ameri-
cEan family.
'The imperfect .and contradictory accounts of the
illoridas, made it the duty of those possessing any in-
b formation on the subject, to afford their fellow citizens
the most correct and authenticated information. Un-
Sder this impression, I have ventured to publish the fol-
lowing sketches, which have grown out of personal
observation,and been strengthened by such facts as the
nature of my situation, and considerable research, have
placed within my reach.
I offer them to the consideration of my fellorwciti-
seas with all possible deference, and as my motives are
purely patriotic, I indulge the hope, that my imperfec-
rT F1







PREFACE.


tions, as a writer, may be balanced by the utility of the
work.
In my researches connected with the natural and
political history of the Provinces and their inhabitants,
I have adopted many interesting facts of other writers.
Bartram, Romans, and Pursh, have been of great service
to me; yet if their publications were not almost ob-
solete, and their subject less analogous to the present
times, my labours might hava been dispensed with.
The following description of the tract of land called
S:O Puchase," 'f which a Map is presented to
our re~qde, s from a source entitled to the fullest cre-
it mud is added in consequencee of the emigration
which is dail taking place.

That tract of land known by the name of Fores'
Purchase, contains about twelve hundred t- ousand
acres, and was purchased many years since:. John
Forbes & Co. from the Aborigines, with the approba-
tion of the Spanish government, permission having been
first obtained from the government to treat for the
same; and every step toward the iecomplishment and
ratification of the treaty, was taken in the presence of
a regularly appointed Spnpish agent, as well as an in-
terpreter in the pay of the government.
.This purchase is on record in the proper office of
Florida, as well as in that of the surveyor general, Don
Victor Pintado; and that no doubt of, or objection to,
its title should ever be made, should the land at any
time"be ceded either to the American or British govern-
ment, several sales of small tracts were early made
and recorded in the proper public offices.
w9









SiThis tract is said to possess much good land; and
ti~e who had occasion to examine it, when it was sur-
rvyed, report it as a body of land much superior to any
tjilg 'south of New-York, situated so near the sea
board.
Sfi q tract embracing upwards of a million of acres,
there must necessarily be a good deal of pine barren
but it is thought that no tract in the southern states, of
qflal extent, can be found possessing so many advan-
ages in point of soil, water, and situation. It contains
,K chestucane bottoms, and upland cane hammocks,
iMm fifteen miles of the sea, proper for the cultiva-
. .of:: sugar, the greatest profusion of oak timber of
~rirption, and saw-milt seats, surrounded with
taJe aever bee touched. S Streams of pure
b ate uhrattl every direction. It con-
eds of lime stone, and abundance of game
pI o the coast may be procured the greatest abun-
of oysters, and fish of every kind.
sugar can be produced here of the very best qua-
; lit tle doubt is entertained, that coffee can also
'alsed in large quantities. On the coast are some of
e finest sea islands for the cultivation of cotton.
t "The Apalachicola river, which is the western boun-
Sdary of this tract, is navigable for sloops of considerable
burthen to its junction with Flint River, a distance of
about 200 miles, and for boats of considerable size for
46Q0 miles from its mouth; thus supplying any settle-
ments which may be made upon it, with a rich and
valuable back country to an immense extent.
. Should a communication hereafter be made by a ca-
nal between St. Johns River and Apalachie Bay, which








is thought very practicable; this country mqst be vast-
ly important, and the dangerous navigation round Fli-
rida Cape not only be avoided, but the country border-
ing on the Gulf of Mexico, be reduced to a compara-
tively trifling distance from the northern states.
The proprietors of this tract are sparing no pains
nor expense to bring it into a proper state for the resi,
dence and accommodation of settlers ; and a regular
surveyor is constantly employed in surveying the lands
and preparing them for sale.
Sales to a considerfbleextent have been made, and
many families have already gone, and many more are
peparing to go there from the southern states.
The site of the town of Cplinton, is at Prospect
Bluff, on the Apalachicola, and embraces Fort Gads-
dep. Letters from a respectable source, dated in Feb-
ruary, 1821, say, We were there last summer for
emVe weeks, and were delighted with the soil, climn e,
and situation, and intend to take up our residence there.'
At this place will reside, also, an agent, perhaps one of
the proprietors, for the purpose of disposing of the pro-
perty to settlers, and to give such information as may
be required."














K ETCHIIES








%4 ig tame early s8g4 or
u-940 attt *bich tp
i f i li..lid .a...h t .t. K ,lm l
S "a". a.a... .. T h i a










ia i ...of Giovanni Gx.., or J". Cabot, o na -V
. .4.iiop", implQi Mo HeOwt b ,ttie $eVtA of
im f: NT 9l>W kbe am 49Cey . A*.,
















ItSh girlliltt lgacefift Wo* aspectiog t'be date whiBe Jtqp
Cibt)w or his son Sebastian, performed. .v-yagl altWugb
aidfabtihf6roto~tfet Mhas.i 4 tiei aGnm AQrinte i

S'. v. .." b

h toI 4










HISTORY.


May, 1498, with an object similif to that of Columbus, the
discovery of a north-west passage to the East Indies; but it
appears that none of them did more than make a landing of
observation on the coast.
After having proceeded as far north as the river Santa
Martheo, since called St. Johns, Cabot returned to England,
for want of provisions.
The first land discovered in these seas was by Columbus.
in 1492, when he made St. Salvador, or Cat Island, one ol
the Bahamas. Of this circumstance these islanders are not
a little proud; they have, accordingly, retained the name
given to it by Columbus, as the place of his dsalation, after a
long voyage. From this place his people, on his return from
Europe, ventured with him to Florida, being impressed, as
were the aborigines. of the island, with a belief that the
cdntinent possessed waters calculated to. invigorate youth,
and to prolong old" age. Policy required that this idea should
be inculcated; for the sterility of the Bahamas was naturally
citlulated to dampen enterprise; and something was necessa-
ry to incite to farther explorements.
Peter Martyr, highly distinguished for his commentaries
o'Ihe Bible, and other writings, was a contemporary of Ca-
bot's, but not more successful.
:" Ponce de Leon, a Spanish officer, inspired with similar no-
tibns, went from St. Domingo, in April, 512, to Florida, and,
like hiispredecessors, discovered the error into which his in-
Eituation ad led him. He took possession of it in the name
of the king of Spain.
The flattering reports of these European travellers excited







IR .ORL II.

i: oereigns for transatlantic conquests.
S.m, fiane t to. discovery, and afterwards to
until thes points were finally settled, by
thbeaew es, to the entire exclusion of the abo-
.linwStiSged in hq coalicts between the
,pwqairen..' Their rights have been understood and
'"ii oti nly Iby the government of the UVted States, al.
fil wlFrJit principlesof. liberal and enlightened
MENNii hMl..'N t at raMe.
i NA .k. que .iled .from" St. Domingo for the
,4tyig voyages.afford.nothing remarkable.
i. mes. wa sent, in 16 3, by Franci
U 4%arGeGmy and De AUleg
;.w mds ua p-o-
Mxhijeg eily O coasted.a
.1 Nwar obtained -a -grant hrom Charles the
ob 6a 4Om. FloriEda to the river Palmes,
.lefm)ici H. ea ail i. April, s28, with a
eJugi p loi iEO(amid o lBua.mn a) njand arrived atApa.
Au bu. t did not seet.with mo&uccea than tle. that
:Inilg hinm, being destructively opposed by the ldians.
I 8:h4lr;lS#i ast, near the river Palmos, by shipwreck;
oAlp Aeimse returned to Spain to relate the sad catastrophe.
*Ip4 Fe1adiannd de Sot, governor of Cuba, explored
b li ube with from 8 to 900 men, in seuch of gold; and
IpM l relntS for his adventures, and the discovery
j| iversiuini ippi, in 1541, a to obtain firo the king
Ai j tle of Marquis of Florida.- But such were the barbari-
ist..ma drtt de this royal, chief, that not only his life










f e l l a s t ri fi c e t o h it 't e m r i t y b u t h i s c ~ n t r y r en w e r e h e l d
ih'snch abhorrence as not to be allowed a Testing place i the
country. He was put to death, in 1542 or 1543, by the Ar-'
kinsa Indlt a, after traversing from Tampa Bay, through
Apilacbe, 'Penacola, and the Chickasaw country, to the Mis-
sissippi.
SPrior to this event, (in the year 1534,) the Protestants of
France sought an asylum in the Floridas, to escape the perse-
cutions which grew out of the contests between the Catholios
and Reformers: and ih 1562, James Ribaud was also sent
there by Admiral de Coligny. But the hand of persecution
followed'them, and he returned, leaving Captain 'Laudonier,
with a small garrison, at Fort St. Matheo.
In 1564, Don 'Pedro Menendez, was ordered by Philip the
Second, with a considerable force, consisting of ten ships of
the line and 10,000 men, to dislodge them., 'n doing which,
the greatest barbarities were committed upon the'French and
Indians: hanging them without discrimination, and posting
on the trees from which these unfortunates -were suspended,
this inscription, N'o as Frenchmen, but as heretics." Fr
this act of heroism, he was remunerated by a grant of all
Florida. But these outrages -were soon after met in a re-
taliatory manner by the French, headed by Dominique de
Gourgue, who, joined by the -ndians, stormed Fnot St. Ma-
theo, and had 'his opponents hung, not a la lanterns," but,
mord copveniently, on the same trees that had sustained the
dead bodies of his countrymen, bearing a like sanguinary
phadard, "bt as Spuniands, but as mundeerss." Chartee
the Niqth.;aceieir thepetition of 900'widows leon -s me-
lancholy occasion.



%1










pC r.. hBwinog resered apa. the occupa-
tp~s sTnereerd, became quiet possessors, and
rpa4at4 !forbef St. Augustine, which they
d -Sir.amncis Drake, in defiance ef King
j -his order prohibiting foreigners
on pain of death, theiGulf of Mexico, laid siege
p llaged, and retired to Europe to save
ln edAy that same Bfeet, which had pro-
iB ..... .Timi.a idW said toconsistof 425 sail.
l ed Adait, boweer, in 1584, under an
|ibSt4i.1 Waiter Raleigh, .took possesion, in right
|ijk f the.river and lands adjacent to
...... .
UlesbSir VMwaure dst.o, from
*f thM If ana, together with
iL. Migudl de Annon, and Fr. Pedro de
a sijl.by Oemihandsof the rsaages.
tubshed with.- the intrepidity and cou.
160 i I id hiai i1to1r lerida, 1omidering it gsot
l e bt as a sight ecquired-by Henry
I'in.~, atv firov the discovery of the country by Sebastian
Lflp blmore fully lllustrted in a memorial from Dr.
itWiilliai the Third.
hdi Wpbpb dainp vBis, inthetame spirit of buccaneering,
i...i. . ... a. .- St..t Augi tinr.
W1a. ati sl.rai'nuli tinmna,'is uaid-to'tave -een'dieovereid
S:ilS eithe riOrnch.; ibut a.in that.year Fancededlaref
winagi et Spain, itis more than probable thatte.tdisoven r
adSitnailata.lndeaenttwl 1679, when-the -iing aofpaiinar-







BI rTORT.


ried the daughter of King Philip of France, a more auspicious
period for the encouragement of similar voyages.
"M. De la Salle, in 1682, took formal possession of West
Florida, and went as far as Illinois. He was murdered, in
1682, by his own people, after encountering the most unpa-
ralleled hardships for several years.
/The French, more conciliatory toward the aborigines, made
considerable progress in the western parts of the Floridas,
-and settled in Pensacola in 169If without any other obstacle
than the warfare incidental to incursions. They were, how-
ever, frequently discouraged; and would have abandoned
their, pursuits, had it not-been, as Raynal states, for the sas-
safras tree, the fragrance and medicinal virtues of which sti-.
malated them to more persevering exertions.
Monsieur d'lberville, a distinguished French explorator,
wa.seat to the Mississippi in 1702, and died off the Havanna.
In the same year, the governor of Carolina, Colonel M6re,
with a force consisting of 500 regular troops, and 700 Indians,
made an unsuccessful attack on St Augustine, leaving, aftef
a campaign of three months, his shipping and stores to the
besieged.
The Carlinians, in 1704, possessed themselves of Fort St.
Marks, 240 miles from the capital of East Florida; and in th"c
year following, Apalachy fort was destroyed by the Indians.
In 1712, M. de Crozart obtained from the French govern-
ment the exclusive commercial privileges of Louisiana and
West Florida; at this time, there were only about thirty
European families in the whole of that country.
John 4aw, .&Scotchman, in 1717, took an active part in









iehttlrida, aid gained the
td0hard been more complete, if his
n o a paper system, too

AbP eihlatioa in the Mississippi

'IGedigia in.1719, (an epoch
'lle I tweVew Aieican, l for the birth of
l 4a ~) ).d''etted in Savanwah, the most
.al:net' with; notwithstanding which,
tl4 mte reducedhisia forces very considera-
,e tIeter i th an eye to conquest,
j74* Asiit't Florida. The jea-
i u.s is a .ce fr him,
*Mugdutine;tinE whence he
ib lhe General had oaly 400 regulars
|aihend 300 Indians, accompanied by 200
C i WiregnWa,eit ihe: Squirrel, of so guns.
:i d kusigied. for the :.ilure of this -expedition :
:talme Srpaniards were too strong, having 1,000 men;
*t"~Sh that the Carolina volunteers, who had come to
wf without either asking or receiving leave.
htia want of success to the weather, and to
S'Ji 'tablished his battery on Anastasia Island, at too
i~i~ ditlieeo -give effect to his artillery.
|b:rnhstion of'boundary had previously been the subject
SiaLettioi...dd General Oglethorpe wished to restrain the
.' itsolf the Spaniards to the St. Johns, in a northerly direc-
4 tiirSq ile the@Governor of Florida, with an occult policy






IISITORY.


peculiar to his government, was not only endeavouring to stir
up the Indians in his favour, but had sent emissaries to Careo-
lina, with the diabolical project of creating an insurrection"
among the blacks, whose number had increased to upwards
:of 40,000, and who killed twenty-three white people at1
his instigation. He likewise offered inducements to the
white malecontents to join his standard, with the promise of
the same pay as that of the Spanish troops. No doubt can be'
entertained, that this system' of policy originated in Europe,
where the Courts of England and Spain were alike preparing
to contend for the Floridas.
The latter government remonstrated most earnestly, through
their ambassador, Don Thomas.Geraldino, in 1737, against
the proceedings of General Oglethorpe, whose military ta-
lents were feared; and availing itself of the discontent
among the -Georgians, on account of the extraordinary
privieges granted to the Trustees, of the non-importation o
negroes, excited them by all means to revolt; but the Britis
government, more alert, declared war against Spain, in Octo
ber, 1739.
General Oglethorpe,who was the Washington of Georgia,
though the commissionerof George the Second, had taken ste
(o secure not only the affections of the people, but the friend
ship of the Indians, with whom he made a treaty, in Augus
1739, by which it was declared, that all the lands between S
vannah and St. Johns Rivers, with the adjacent islands, an
from the latter river to Apalache Bay, should belong t6U
Creek Nation, to Ne held by it as tenants in common.
The activity and talents of General Oglethorpe were not








O.::T:;. V. N
SA turally calculated to strike terror in
A i ated an offensive war, To meet
4 .h of forts from Frederica to St.
e on Cumberland, and Fort George
an '1 considered effective at this

B tarisved at St. Augustine from the
~kJ4 n ejR,. 1 De RUodowld and Monteano, for the
.eoprga this they did with a fleet of
9O a.enigjcluding 400 Florida Indians, most of
i.el4S w, In proceeding to Frederica, they were
S.taaq ted glethorpe, who, with about 450
$ ,pi.,iti, resolved to make a vigo-
4 isP gwgrouan and obliged
.. .g.by the rons de gusrre
,,tep, retteat to the Havana.
A.the t granddivisinas of North America were
.Fida 94 Canada, names.intended by the English
m h- to designate their respective pbosessions on tbe
...i.aent.
at g.j tsa- or incidents occurred in the Floridas, necesa,-
Fen in these sketches, previous to the year 1763,
q.eitentions for the sovereignty of North America,
E. Enad, Spain, and France, were in some degree
a ythe .treaty of peace concluded by these powers,
I .LAif 3d of November, 1762, and ratified the 10th of Fe-
,..1763. By this treaty, the provinces of East and West
lda weae ceded to Great Britain by Spain, in exchange
^5j 3






aHlosfts.


for Cuba. The contacted policy, and the cruelty of the t.
ter government, prevented any useful or permanent settle
meant being effected under their auspices. (See Appendix.)
The first notice I shall take of this change in the political
ituation.of these provinces, is the temporary command of
Major Ogilvie, who, by his impolitic conduct, drove all the
Spanish inhabitants to the Havana. In consequence of this,
Governor Grant issued a proclamation, inviting settlers, da-
ted at St. Augustine, the 7thof October, 1763. (See Appann
die.) )a this proclamation, be mentions the salubrity of th
climate, as well as the resources expected to be derived froq
the province in those days. What these resources were, wil
be found in the subsequent part of this work.
Governor Grant was high in command at the capture of the
Havana by the British in 1762; .and was no doubt promoted
to this government, as. a mark of approbation for his service
on that occasion, and for those in the war with the Indians.
* His administration, in a country hitherto the seat of was
between the aborigines and the several European powers res
spectively, was not entered upon without difficulties, whicl
required system, firmness, and dignified policy, to sunnounk
His. experience and deliberate courage as a soldier, had
been remarked in several engagements with the Indiangi
when he was left in command of the Carolinas, in 1769, bj
Col. Montgomery, (Lord Eglintoun.) He was, like many q
*bis cotemporaries, mistaken in his predictions as to the issue
of theAmerican contest, and was much ridiculed for join
in the assertio made in parliament, that 6,000 British troo
could march molested fromone end of the Continent to






:i: ..**.. ...'.. 1oW^ H

n, | that:doimg his command,
.....i s faithful to his sovereign, and
gtehmpsgtple : ird possessed the isasoir
00pLAou dt iota hearing of any coolness or
k|M|lfout Isi M theylvrere brought toge-
b .*4 P.~provided a..nd reconciled be-,

| i^f whet Ogletboape hadbeen to Geoaqia-

wvifis meng he had his. foibles: among thase
Wit.~pe ,of money with.this, however,
| |l :Ualan mdit other colonizing Governori.
Ss re orrtGAn together. wi th e



'NImtetnant Governor of the province,
M st ,E4. -the Chief Justice. At the. ame
ina England, moug whom were Lords
Soebvet amud Millaborotgh, became the
i..truats of land; and bein'gdesirus of imprag
i *t out gets with snitable means. None f
stlO much toward the population and settlement
| g i:rSir William Duncan, Doctor Turnbull, Den-
IS pa&jiickhard Oswald, Eaqrs. The two former, in
iriA ~, the vast expense of 166,000 dollars, and
bmK B brought from Smyrna, under indentures, 1,500
itaians, .and Minorcans, who formed a settlement
:uath- of St. Augustine, and called it New Smyr-
4h ltivation of indigo, and other ,products, iar







wiftt6ttt


eluding the sugar cane, was carried on with success ; particSt
larly the former.
This bite, which is truly admirable, is surrounded by somd
of the most valuable lands in.the province, and is at prediM
the property of Judge Hull, who had resided upon it for s&e
veral years, with much satisfaction, until driven away by tha
effect of the revolution of 1812, when his attachment to thd
great American family rendered him an object of suspicion
on the part of the royalists, who accordingly imprisoned hina
fr a short time. i
Pbor several years previous to the convulsions in the nor
thai part bf the Continent, the provinces had been improve
inginn agriculture, in population, and in commerce; but this
event made it necessary for the British government to in4
cretse the military force, for the protection of her WestA
Indit trade; land as an impenetrable barrier between thi
Spanish and French possessions in the Gulf of Mexico, an
the American States on the Atlantic, which were ripe fo
revolt.
SAs this part of my Narrative is intended as a review
political events, the reader is referred to a distinct head fo
the commercial and agricultural progress just mentioned.
N Driig Governor Grant's administration, which lasted ti
177,:i peace and prosperity seemed to pervade the province
Oi hiir departure, some differences arose between his suc
eesior,, Vijor Motltrie, and several members of the council
whith tended to create dissatisfaction, and to cast a gloo
bver the community. Presentments made by the grand ju
were disregarded; applications were made for moneys, gran









:a 4 aiddto h ,ie bee misap-
'among the heads of families,
40l iS6t tue interests of small

d'by some that Dr.
V iA' g iat-services to the oelony,
t : aim attempt was made to
% e0fiAth wee the dis-
aitte&,fromi v the wish to have
"1ectioins, a' prescribed by the
ire fhidgIble in their resolution
d o i t d without trepresenta-
beiiwetgs .onfinsting be-

n iMli.a ofr dre-
emaetwlatien of Dr.Franklin;
si JnAih iJ 1764, no doubt produced.
A ~dAltlmai in the north'; where
a.irrelished of' fotiing a ni coldni m comlpaet,
..W.W. to ke titftefi eg t ern caio at,
iTe 'routFmthik originated the prcd:jt
S t ru of the United States; and it was this
b as' a crtiction of that strength which
i l 't lly to shake off the authority of the mo-
'4 ft il rfeadily bie f t ferted, that one of thes6
IbMbt Iblt& to the Am erican ca-us, and the othet

"who was an officer of merit in the Chero.
Qebet1eil Montgoinery, possessed great trbanity









HIS&ORT.


of manners, and strength of mind, and was devoted to the
interests of tie provinces. Although brother to the General
so renowned lathe history of the American war, he differed
with him in politics, and was firm in support of the royal cause;
yet, as Lieutenant Governor, his command'was considered
temporary, and not calculated to insure that co-operation
which the affairs of the country required, and which his prede-
cessor had more successfully obtained.
The Chief Justice, William Drayton, a gentleman of ta-
lents, and of great professional knowledge, of refined man-
ners, and strong pretensions to power and influence, was un-
illing to yield implicitly to the Lieutenant Governor, and
took means to thwart his gubernatorial measures; in conse-
quence of which he was suspended..
It is unnecessary to enlarge, at this distant period, upon the
consequences of this act, which was considered very arbitra-
ry, furtherr than stating, that as Mr. Drayton was suspected to
be frienidly to the cause of liberty, his appeal to the British
ministry was unsuccessful; and he retired, first to England,
and thence to South Carolina; where his talents and services
were'rendered conspicuously useful i effecting American in-
dependence.
Th Rev. John Forbes, -o~d of the Assiitant Judges, arid
of the Council, wai called to fill the 'vatancy on the bench,
arcasionedby the suspenaiiotr of Mr. Drayton; but his politics
being alit tinttutred with republicanism, and "ti attatchrent
to the great American t'Se fis `rappointment was not con-
firted, and a Chief Justiee wis.eP tit direct fmirn England,
of whose principles, in favour of the royal' cause, no doubt
could be entertained.


II


-M








HIBTQmO 28

'A strong paty in Georgia had exhibited some symptoms of
dissatisfaction, at the conduct of the British government at
home; but it was kept so much in check by the King's-paty
and the policy of those in his pay, that the Whigs did not, at
f first, join in the American confederacy. To this temporising
conduct on their part may be attributed, in soipe degree, the
slender efforts made by the Floridians to join the Independents,
S whose cause was always depicted to them as hopeless in ex-
pectation, and atrocious in principle.
In March, 1774, Colonel Tonyn (a protig' of Lord March-
mpnt and George Rose) arrived as Governor, with full know-
ledge of the discontents in the noa..the commotions arising
from them, the remonstrances in I ly made to the British
S government, and, it is presumed, with correspondent instruG-
tions, since he issued proclamations inviting, under the ,mst
specious promises, the Americans attached to the royal cause
who wished to quit the provinces in revolt, to resort to Florida,
and enjoy every advantage which he could possibly afford
them.
He also had a talk with the Indians on the 26th of Novem~
ber, 1775, at Picolata, whither he went with the.membeq j
the Council, for the purpose of securing their alliance; apd,
S likewise, issued commissions for privateers: thus preparing
for a war of cruelty on land, and of vexation on the sea.
*' Remote from the theatre of war, which blazed forfi in the
north, the news of the declaration was accompanied by the
burning of the effigies of John Hancock and Samuel dams on
the public parade. This shameful conduct, intended to vii(y
those characters in the eyes of a mixed population, was .po0






-7.

24 HISTORY.

without its effect, particularly upon the Minorcans, an illi-
terate but ardy set f men, seasoned to the climate, who-c
services were required in the field on this as well as on more
:. .. . ; I .. i :
powerful accounts.
.I t.h p"e., wherehee "gi es of
It is worthy of remark, that the place where the effigies of
these distinguished men were burned by the British, is the
,i~-`- r:I ,*;..* ; ,;: ?"
identical spot selected by the Spaniards, thirty-six years after
this event, to erect a monument in honour of the Cortes. It is
fervently hoped, that the exertiops of this assembly may soon
enable the Spanish people to reap the advantages resulting
from constitutional ert, and secure a long and uninterrupt-
ed enjoyment of it to ves and their posterity.
oafy of these Mi released themselves from their
ibdentures, enlisted in the King's rangers, and became after-
wards actively engaged under Col. Brown in carrying the war
into Georgia; where, by a predatory system, in alliance
with th e ladians, the Americans were much annoyed, and pre-
vented from making the attacks on East Florida which were
frequently threatened, and seriously concerted. Strong ef-
forts were at the same time made, and promising inducements
,held oat by the.G.ye ror, to bring over the people of Georgia
.to the oal party; in consequence of this, many came into
te prviocy loking, to it as an asylmp or refuge from the
troubles iWident to a state of civil war,.,which became active
andwi6lent in the Carblinas as well as in Georgia.
$'vateerswere fitted out to annoy. the southern people
inimical to the king; iand a fort wa, built at St. Mary's, by
Jeomya Wright, .hretle to the governor of Georgia, to pro-








HISTORY.


tectthen with their prizes. These were indications of hos-
tility, which served to inflame the Georgians who had join-
ed the confederacy; they accordingly took measures for act-
ing offensively against the loyalists who had withdrawn to
East Florida.
While Generals Lee, Moultrie, and Howe, were contem-
plating the invasion of East Florida, with the republican forces
from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, Colonels Fuser,
Brown, and M'Girth, on the British side, were mustering all
the forces within their reach, of regulars, rangers, loyalist
militia, and Indians, for an attack upon Georgia, having the
King's brig Hinchinbrook, Captain Ellis, the St. Johns
schooner, Captain Grant, and some galleys, under Captains
Mowbray and Dames, to co-operate with them.
The capture, in August, 1795, of the 4 Betsey, Captain
Lofthouse, from London, with 111 barrels of gunpowder, gave
early proofs of American heroism, and excited both surprise
and alarm in the Governor of Florida. This was effected off
the bar of St. Augustine by some privateersmen from Caro-
lina, who from a sloop that was taken for a negro trader,
boarded the Betsey in disguise, and discharged her in sight of
the garrison and men of war in the harbour, giving a bill
signed Clement Lampriere, and drawn on Miles Brewton,
Charleston, for 10001. sterling. Immediately after this, the
Governor sent the rangers and Indians under Colonel Brown
into Georgia, where they carried on a predatory warfare.
They reached Fort M'Intosh, on the river St. Ilia, which
they attempted to surprise, but without success.








HISTORY.


Here the reader, should be informed, that Colonel Brown,
having been tarred and feathered in Georgia by the liberty
boys, for some intemperate conduct, did not feel much affec-
tion for them or their cause. To this enmity may be ascrib-
ed, in part, that inveteracy, zeal, and activity, which he al-
ways exhibited in every expedition directed against the
Americans.-He was take from the paths of private life,
and became an enterprising and intrepid officer. Inured to
the hardships, fatigues, and privations, to which this species
of warfare exposed him, he was a favourite with the colonial
government, and their adherents; yet on that account, and
from the gjgat influence he had with the Indians, he was viewed
with jealousy by the officers of the regular army,
Governor Tony.issued a proclamation in August, 1776,
inviting, in stro rms, the inhabitants of the town of St.
( Johns and of the Musquetoes, to assemble and co-operate
with the king's troops, in resisting the perfidious insinua-
tions" of the neighboring colonists; in opposing and repelling
their future incursions into the province, and to prevent any
more infatuated men from joining their traitorous neigh-
bours." This was met by a counter-proclamation in the early
part of 1777, by President Button Gwinnet of Georgia, offer-
ing protection to the persons and property of those who
would join the American standard, in opposition to tyranny.
He remarked, that since the God of armies had appeared so
remarkably in favor of liberty, the period could not be far
distant, when the enemies of America would be clothed with
everlasting shame and dishonour.
Beside the rangers, who were considered as a colonial









HISTORY.


voips, there was a body of volunteers of about 200 men,
'with officers of their own choosing, well trained, clothed
and armed at their own expense, whose services were ac-
cepted, to perform garrison duty, during the contemplated
expedition of the regular troops, under Colonel Fuser, in
Georgia.
Two incidents occurred at this period that were highly
favourable to the cause of liberty; and which, with a more
dense population, understanding its rights, would have proved
6f serious consequence, and perhaps fatal, to the king's go-
vernment in the province. One of these was, an attempt
to place the militia under the orders of the regulars, which
was permitted by the latter, though not without violent re-
monstrances. The other was the case of Walter Stezwarl, a
Scotchman by birth, one of the volunteer militia, and at the
same time a knight of the comb, who being called upon to
exercise his professional talents upon Captain Sawyer, of the
King's brig Porcupine, at anchor in the harbour, went on
board, and either by accident, or otherwise, brought on shore
a comb belonging to the Captain. An offence of this atro-
cious kind, was to be punished ; and the power was most am-
ply exercised by Captain Sawyer, who ordered the militia-
man to be lashed to a gun, severely flogged, and detained on
board. It was intended, no doubt, that he should remain there
until his wounds were healed ; but this unfortunate Scot
thought otherwise, and availing himself of an opportunity,
jumped overboard, and swam to the shore, to show his lacera-
ted back to his comrades.
This event was calculated to arouse the angry feelings and








HISTreM


excite the indignation of the whole community; but tended
particularly to incense the militia, who, as they became more
numerous by the arrival of the loyalists from the Caro-
linas and Georgia, were more tenacious of those rights of
which Englishmen boast with so much pride. The affair was
bushed, and the sufferings of the injured Scot were assuaged
by a donation in money, better calculated to alleviate his
circumstances, than to palliate the enormity of the offence.
This was a period at which, the arm of government required
all the strength it could collect; for an invasion was threat-
ened by Colonel White from Georgia, who was said to be
advancing on the Altamaha, which the Americans had forti-
fied, so as to secure that frontier by a chain of fortC. At the
same time a proclamation was sent forth, inviting all the
citizens of the United States to assemble at a camp formed in
Burke county, and from thence to march into Flomida, under
the command of the governor of the state-provisions ad
ammunition to be supplied gratis, and all captures free plunder.
These circumstances, together with the news of the treaty of
alliance entered into between the United States and France,
and a wavering disposition, manifested on the part of the
Indian tribes, were alarming. The warriors, also, became
restless, and were desirous of returning from the frontiers to
their families; while Colonel Stuart, the superintendent of the
southern department, who was actively engaged in negotia-
tions among them, had much difficulty in restraining the
Cussitahs, Oakfuskies, Big Talassies, Apalachicolas and
Watakays, all favourable to the Americans, from taking an
active part against the royalists, who w )re joined by tbh








mR~leY.


dietba and other lower Creeks. The arrival of Captain
Elpinstone (Lord Keith) and of Captain Moncrief, two
distinguished officers, high in the prominent departments of
the navy and engineers, pronlising strong reinforcements,
encouraged offensive operations. Upon which Colonel Fuser,
of the 60th regiment, proceeded with about 500 men and a
train of artillery against Sunbnry, with a view of supporting
the king's party in Georgia. However, his want of success,
and his loss of men and officers, (among whom was Captain
Muller of the 60th,) obliged him to fall back, for the purpose
of awaiting the promised reinforcements.
The daring inroads made by the Americans, whose hardi-
hood brought them, on the 24th of June, 1778, to Amelia
narrows, where they were cutting a passage through with a
force said to amount to 1000 men, required the united forces
of Capldir-lowbray of the navy, who was preparing an ex-
pediti from 3t. Augustine, for the purpose of co-operating
with Major Graham with 140 men of the 16th regiment, and
Major Prevost, with a detachment of the 60th, who marched
from the Cowford, to prevent their farther progress. But
such was the jealousy which existed in the various depart-
ments of the service, that notwithstanding every effort was
made, a sufficient number of men could not be found willing
to man two galleys carrying twenty-four pounders. Colonel
Brown could only muster seventy half-starved men ; and the
Crackers refused to join : thus rendering it necessary to
fortify St. John's Bluff. For which purpose, and to allay the
apprehensions of danger, Colonel Fuser, as commander of
the troops, issued a proclamation on tle 27th June, requiring








SO HISTORY.

all those who had not entered the militia, to join him, as
the rebels might be expected every instant at the bar, or
thereabouts."
To the alarm which this state of things naturally created,
was added a catastrophe, in the death of Captain Skinner,
deputy superintendent of Indian affairs, an active and faithful
officer, while on service on the frontiers of Georgia. The
cause and manner of his death were variously and not satis-
factorily accounted for. The event created doubts as to the
farther attachment of those important allies at such a critical
juncture.
Thus far, the war in the south had been carried on experi-
mentally, by both parties, in threatening proclamations; and,
when those were found to be of no effect, by rangers, scouts,
and riflemen, for want of regular troops, or of materials to
form them in a thinly-peopled country. In the r '' resist-
ance to the king's armies became more systemat' .-. violent;
and the American forces, now joined by the French and Spa-
niards, were more successful.
Policy, or necessity, prescribed a change of measures to
the British ;--Georgia and the Carolinas became the theatre
of war. General Prevost left Florida to be guarded by the
militia, and marched into Georgia, with a considerable force
of regulars and others, who endured many hardships, having
been obliged to depend on oysters for food. On the 6th of
January, 1779, he took possession ofSunbury, and subsequent-
ly of Savannah and Augusta; thus securing East Florida from
any encroachments. Colonel Brown had succeeded in bring-
ing over the Indians from the Cassetas, Big Talassies, and








* HISTORY.


O kfuskies, (towns in favour of the Americans,) and prevailed
upon them, by what. was termed a pardonable artifice, to
annoy the settlers on the Georgia frontiers. From 2000 to
3000 of them marched to the aid of General Campbell, whom
the Cherokees also had promised to join, as soon as required;
notwithstanding the exertions used, and great encouragement
offered, to dissuade them, by" Don B. de Galvez, a young
enterprising General in the Spanish service, and Governor of
Louisiana, who besieged Pensacola, and became master of
West Florida on the 21st of September, 1779.
The loss sustained by the British in the west, was not
counterbalanced by the temporary conquests they made in
Georgia; where they were most formidably assailed, in Oc-
tober of the same year, (1780,) by the combined forces of the
United States and France, under Count D'Estaing; who
allowed General Prevost, by a ruse de guerre, time to fortify
Savannah, and to receive such reinforcements as to oblige
the Count to retire, to the astonishment of the besieged, and
the no small mortification and detriment of the allied forces.
This state of things carried the war out of East Florida; so
that the province had, from various quarters, an increase of
population, seeking repose, and looking to it as an asylum to
repair their misfortunes : but they demanded a representative
form of government, which was soon admitted in the manner
prescribed by royal authority in 1763.
About this time, the British government was vascillating
between the extremes of adopting a lenient policy, or a rigor-
ous course, in prosecuting a war which had become formida-
ble from the accession of powerful allies to the American








HISTORY.


cause. While its armies were compelled to submit to the
former policy, the commanders in the south resorted to an
opposite and less conciliatory course, by laying violent hands
upon some of the most respectable and most illustrious
citizens in the Carolinas, as will be seen by the following list
of their names, arranged in alphabetical order: John Budd,
Edward Blake, Joseph Bee, Richard Beresford, John Ber-
wick, D. Bordeaux, Robert Cochrane, Benjamin Cudworth,
H. V. Crouch, J. S. Cripps, Edward Darrell, Daniel Des-
saussure, John Edwards, George Flagg, Thomas Ferguson,
General Gadsden, William Hazil Gibbes, Thomas Grimball,
William Hall, Thomas Hall, George A. Hall, Isaac Holmes,
Thomas Heyward, jun. Richard Hutson, Noble William
Jones, William Johnstone, John Loveday, William Living-
stone, William See, Richard Lushington, William Logan,
Rev. I. Lewis, William Massey, Alexander Moultrie, Arthur
Middleton, Edward M'Bready, John Mowatt, Edward North,
John Neufville, Joseph Parker, Christopher Peters, Benjamin
Postell, Samuel Prideaux, John Ornes Poyas, Edward Rut-
ledge, Dr. David Ramsay, General Jacob Reed, Hugh Rut-
ledge, John Samsam, Thomas Sarage, Josiah Smith, Thomas
Singleton, Philip Smith, James Hambden Thomson, John
Todd, Peter Timothy, Anthony Toomer, Edward Weyman,
Benjamin Walter, Morton Wilkinson, and James Wakefield.
Of these sixty-one gentlemen of high standing and character,
forty were most ungraciously transported from Charleston, in
August, 1780, to St. Augustine and in a few months after,
the remainder were compelled to submit, in spite of every
remonstrance, to similar atrocities, and dragged from their




ah,


I';
91:

..
ri

i


IMATOa r.


'Jp jij"Al^ miliesm, to the comfortless.quarters of a garrison
Jw hich they were all paroled, excepting the vene-
g p tb|Geperal Gadeden, who inflexibly disdained the prof-
feeadulgence, and was committed to the fort, in which he
.r(ji!ed many months a close prisoner. -
Tis harsh measure, which, without farther explanation,
Called one of imperious policy by the officer enforcing it,
little corresponded with the overtures for a pacification cone
teplated experimentally by the government at home. It
tended, however, to improve the culture of liberty in the
Pa on's orange groves, in which these gentlemen were pert
Mnitted to vegetate, and to increase the number of disaffected
rather than to excite the inhabitants to acts of aggression
againstt the party oft account of their principle., Da was hoped
o= Th part ot the ieaing royalists. General Rotherfrd ma
Cotuel Isaacs, of North Carolina, were exiled to Florida at
the same time.
This assemblage of republican luminaries, transferred from
their natural sphere of action to the capital of East FJolidS
fortuitously took place at a period when the Governw could
no longer defer the meeting of an assembly of roya ists, am
theorized by act.of parliament seventeen years before, and now
strongly urged by the people.
The immediate conjuncture of circumstances. so highly im-
portant to the province, about to change its political state,
and involving the liberties of its inhabitants, were objects o(
lively interest to the community, and perplexing to the podi
tician; of this the reader may judge, by referring to the 0o0*
respondence, and other official decumants, that flow.







51 HISTORY.


Extract of a letter from Governor Tonyn to Lord George Ger-
maine, Secretary of State.

It is with peculiar satisfaction that 1 assure your Lordship,
that since the departure of Monsieur d'Estaing, we have,
without danger, or the apprehension of it, and unmolested,
carried on the internal business of the province, in advancing
agriculture,,and furnishing naval stores and lumber for the
West India market. The season has been remarkably rainy,
and the planters have raised sufficient provisions for their own
consumption, and for the supply of this town, and increased
their stock of negroes, by which means the price of grain has
fallen from ten shillings to six shillings a bushel; and was the
garrison properly supplied, grain, beef, and every kind of pro-
visions, would be greatly reduced, and we should stand in no
need of assistance, as formerly, from the neighboring colo-
nies. The number of negroes continue to increase. The
province is exceedingly healthy, which-has not been the case
in Carolina and Georgia; yet a desire of novelty, more ex-
tensive prospect of trade, and the circulation of money with
the arny, has led some merchants, and others, to return to
their former settlements.
As an inducement to detain the most useful and industrious
part of the community, I have given assurances that his Ma-
jesty, through your Lordship's recommendation, is to build a
fort immediately at the mouth of the St. Marys, for the pro-
tection of trade to the northward; and that house of assem-
bly shall be called in the course ofthe winter, to regulate our
internal police, and to make a fe local lawl.
















I:;.
:':-














i'.
;(
! *





i.


i""';


'fhfjt l fey settlement of the northern part of this province,
wilidbce many valuable families and loyal subjects to re-
Wai in this country; whereas, if this is to remain unprotect-
'i, re shall be infested by thieves and robbers from that
(.ator, and the merchant and planter must continue to suf-
fer for want of a good pbrt, as at present the channel of com-
merce is through Charleston, by which a double freight and
insurance is laid upon all exports and imports.
fere are above 20,000 barrels of turpentine, and a variety
of other stores, now on the planters hands, at St. John's river,
for want of a market,
I have, my Lord, maturely weighed the expediency, neces-
.dity, advantages apd disadvantages, benefit and danger, of con-
voking a house of representatives; and nothing butthe neces-
sity of it, (to remove deep-rooted prejudices,) for the benefit
of this province, could have induced me to request instruc-
tions from your Lordship, relative thereto, how to pro-
ceed farther on this point; but these great objects must
actuate my conduct, and determine me to take this arduous
and dangerous step.
I perceive the cry for a provincial legislature, to remedy
local inconveniences, is as loud as ever; and suggestions are
thrown out, that without it, people's property is not secure,
and that they must live in a country where they can enjoy,
in their utmost extent, the advantages .f.the British constitu-
tion, and laws formed with their consent But mention the
expediency, propriety, reasonableness, justice and gratitude
of imposing taxes for the expenses of government, they are
all silent, or so exceedingly poor as not to lie able to pay the
east farthing.


HllTORY.








36 HISTORY,

Notwithstanding, my Lord, that this is in general the temper
of the people, I purpose to issue writs for a general election
of representatives, to meet the beginning of the year.
I foresee other inconveniences, arising from several of
the principal rebel prisoners being sent here from Charles-
ton, who may poison the minds of the people; although to
prevent this, and for their former conduct, they are treated
with great contempt, and to have any friendly intercourse
with them, is considered as a mark of disrespect to his
Majesty, and displeasing to me.
It is my most earnest wish, and chief endeavour, strictly to
comply with every instruction I have the honour of receiving
from his majesty, communicated to me by your Lordship; but
the late date of your Lordship's letters, and other circum-
stances, often puts it out of my power; and it is with an
exultation of joy and gratitude that I render your Lordship my
sincere thanks for the favorable light in which your Lordship
has viewed my endeavors in his Majesty'a service, and re-
commended to the treasury the payment of my reasonable and
necessary expenditures. Your Lordship's letter, in which
you inform me that no allowance is made for Indian presents,
I only received lately; before which, considerable expenses
had been incurred, and usually discharged from that fund,
which I am confident your Lordship will discharge. With
respect to my future conduct, I beg leave to inform your
Lordship, that the Indians have ever been well received here;
that they have been of great service, in protecting the
province against the repeated incursions of the rebels; that
a body of thernt ia settled within a few miles of the set-







sweo t. 97

elements on St. John's river;. and that by withdrawing their
usual supplies, which they trmpute to our dissatisfaction
with them, or to our povei* 'they will readily side with the
rebels or Spaniards. The murder of one man by them,
would soon break up our settlements, and unpeople the
province, which is not yet established.
Moreover, the Indian fund answered many other necessary
purposes, such as ferry boat expenses. So that, I hopejyour
Lordship will order payment of the necessary expenditures
for this year, and recommend to parliament some reasonable
provision for the succeeding; especially, as the civil depart-
ment will be considered, in times of peace, I humbly pre-
same, the most proper for regulating the Indian department.


Extract of a letter from Governor Thnyn to Lord G .orge
Germaine, Secretary of State.

St. Augustine, 170.

Apprehending, my Lord, upon grounds already comniuni-
cated by me to your Lordship, that the court of Spain intend-
ed to invade this province, I have used my utmost efforts to
strengthen the fortifications, by repairing both lines of the
town, which are now formidable, and adding several new
works, the main burden and expense of which, my Lord, has
fallen upon the inhabitants, who have for several months had
a considerable part of their negroes employed at the King's
works.
I have repeatedly represented the defenceless state of the
province to his.Majesty's commander in chief of the army








O. HISTO t

and navy, and the commanding officers of the district; but,
my Lord, to little effect. And hout particular instructions
from your Lordsbipm restrainedtLI am by his Majesty's gene-
ral instructions, my representations will be without effect.
.Last June, Lieut. Colonel Clarke* and Colonel Durnford
of the engineers, arrived here, and returned to Savannah in
a few:weeks, carrying with them the small reinforcement of
troops .they brought, and the King's artificers: however, I
have the satisfaction to inform your Lordship, that the works
are almost completed, under the direction of Captain Bur-
radt of the 60th regiment, whose judgment and close atten-
tion deserve commendation. Several galleys, mounting one
and two twenty-four pounders, have been built for the de-
fence of the bar: they are not manned, though I have put an
embargo on all vessels for six weeks past, greatly prejudicial
to the commercial interests, to facilitate the matter. I pro-
posed to Lient. Colonel Skinner to commission officers, who
would enlist men for that service, to be in readiness in case
of an invasion, and not to receive pay until on actual service.
By this means, my Lord, many of them might: follow, in the
meantime, other occupations, and would be- secure against
being impressed on board the Jing's ships.
,t is with deep concern that I take. this opportunity of sig-
nifying to your lordship my apprehensions of danger in case
of an attack by a formidable force.
The state of the garrison, although exceeding healthy, is
very inconsiderable. The militia does not consist, for com-


t Sir.Hrry.


, Sir Alanrd.







HISTORY.


man service, of above --- several are rMinoreaus, and I
have my doubts of their loyalty, being of Spanish andFreneh
extraction, and of the Roman Catholic religion.
The Seminole Indians, 800 gunmen, have been employed
in scouting parties along the coast, since the surrender of
West Florida. They are well affected, and I can confide in
the head men. But the body.of the nation are far from be-
ing satisfied with the economy that prevails in that depart-
ment: and Spanish emissaries are not wanting to foster dis.
content.
As the aid of Indians will be of the utmost importance to
us in our weak state, I proposed to conciliate and secure
their affections by engaging to meet them in congress at St.
John's river in October. However, I could procure neither
provisions noe presents for that purpose, the Indian presents
your Lordship was pleased to direct to be sent to me not be-
ing arrived, and it is with difficulty I can supply straggling
parties with a few sfrouds and a little rice.
But, my Lord, how can I render the Indians serviceable,
when I can have neither presents nor provisions but' by
an application through the commanding officer of the troops
to a deputy commissary of the superintendent of Indian
affairs ? And were I disposed to lead them to action, I
should Je at a loss, so circumstanced, by whom they were
to be conducted, and by whom officered and fed.
The General Assembly, my Lord, have enacted strict rules
for regulating the militia, and obliging all the male inhabi-
tants to enroll and serve. I have applied to your Lord-
ship and to to have 3,000 stand of arms laid in for








HISTORY.


their use in lieuof those given to Fifteen hundred
stand of arms have'arrived, willfAther military stores, and are
lodged in the fort. But my applications to the command-
ing officer have been ineffectual: arms have been abso-
lutely refused; and neither arms nor military stores, of any
kind, are to be issued by the store-keeper without the or-
der of the commandant. The officers of the militia send
provisions to the guard house for the poorer sort of the
inhabitants, who have been for some time doing town duty;
my application to Colonel Glazier for a day's rations having
been refused. And there is a scarcity and dearth of pro-
visions among the planters, from the dryness of the last sum-
mer, and their principal hands having been employed in
making naval stores.
The enclosed list of exports for last year will not be
unacceptable to your Lordship, by which it appears that
40,000 barrels of naval stores have been shipped in the
course of last year; and I flatter myselPnext year will give
a considerable additional increase, as I look for several re-
fugee families from the neighboring colonies, who shall
receive every encouragement and protection in my power.
The second general assembly sits in the beginning of the
year; aid I hope both houses will be well disposed, and pre-
serve harmony in the public business. *
- For your Lordship's inspection, is enclosed a state of the
late dispute between the upper and commons houses of
assembly.
The cartel vessels have arrived from the Havana: the last
informed me that great sickness prevailed there among the
troops.








HISTORY. 41

Lpr Idship was pleased to order the civil of-
Vernment who are absent to return to the province,
i m~~oaias yet appeared, my Lord, and the public business
i.* u ij urately done; no encouragement is given to persons
.qtexecuting the different trusts; and the influence of the
: il officerss is wanted to strengthen government.


P.. ;ct- ofa letter from Governor Tonyn to Lord George Ger-.
*:" : maine, Secretary of State.

St. Augustine, January, 1781.

,.By m last letter of I had the honour of informing
Your Lordship, that the first general assembly of this province
mqt on --the of and that the freeholders were
:": J. A M l .l 'W .,; : "*^ '.,'.':*.ji-5 . : "
jt~i us, in their election of the most substantial, sensible,
an. best affected persons in the province, to be their repre-
sentatives, which continues to be manifested by the modera-
tion, harmony, and zeal, with which they continue to. expe-
dite the public business. 1 had the honour of transmitting
your Lordship the addresses and speech upon that occasion,
and copies of two acts of assembly, one of which was essen-
tially necessary for establishing a militia, on a footing that
will, I hope, greatly contribute to the defence of his Majesty's
province, whilst it is expressive of the firmest attachment to
his Majesty's person and government.
I have the honour of informing your Lordship, that an act
has since passed, which enables me to call upon the planters
for a proportion of all the negroes within the province, to
work at the fortifications until they are finished. This aid








ymnOe..


from the -people, iyLoNi :IhaB.ereuuise with the almost
delicacy and moderati m~ as it is- a. very heavy burden at
present on the planters. Copies of the journal of both
housaesand of Mil the acts of assembly, are preparing to be
transmitted to your Lordship by the first favourable opportu-
nity. I am sure, from the present temper of both houses,
that their deliberations will meet with his Majesty's approba-
tion, and be auspicious to the future prosperity of the pro-
vince. And 1 am. confident, thatthe spirit of trust in govern-
ment, and a determined resolution to maintain to the utmost
their rights against any assailants, will:not only be pleasing to
their sovereign, bht saorn ~heerfmtiydrmawfrar his Majesty's
servants on this side of the Atlantic such suecour -a they
can afford.

~d Opiumon on the Slate of Ih..lProvies in tftl. f I# Se,
*-. .lumAtod e- tk he BritiskGe Q nnmemnt, with t/ reasws nug-
g:aestedfr leading -a Homse of Representatives, and forming
a Pro insil Legistatra eas e oon as convenienty a sy e.

It is known thator several ea, it has been the general
"sense of the inhabitants of his province, that a few regula-
V .Tj and laws are much wanted thi t to form them a pro-
I 'g )4 l. .:.
vincil legislature would be highly expedient and useful;
T' i i '' i i.'. ,. "
and that a cessation of calling a house would not be construed
into an encroachment upon the comtitution and libey of
the subject. That the want of such legislative body has been
presented d repe s a a gregt revae; -qn that,althqugh
sometimes thiss w done from the infl nce of ambitious
; ....** .. ...: "r ' *< ,. t i:* tsf .' -. ..S *" .,**








HISTORY.


Is M desiB dIw 'of having some weight in the administration of
:governaents it proceeded often from the real sentiments of
,leeSiMople,
SA: prejudice prevails universally, that when a provincial
legislature does not exist, the people must be governed by
military law.- This prejudice, nothing but the forming a
provincial legislature can remove. And to remove it is
necessary for the content of the inhabitants now in the pro-
vince, and to induce others to come from the neighboring
colonies. English subjects will never believe, without some
such representation, that they enjoy the privileges and ad-
vantagM of the British constitution and a free government.
.: :When people are governed by laws, to which they have,
or think they have, given their consent, they submit readily
to any inconveniences they may suffer; and burdens of their
ew~ imposition are easily borne.
In fact, there are many local inconveniences which exist
at present-such as establishing a property in negroes, regu-
lating them and their punishment, and contributing to public
works, and recovering of small debts, and debts due by per-
sons who, though not in the province, have property in it,
which cannot be attached for want of an authorizing law.
These would be remedied by a legislature; and it will be
readily allowed, that whatever ordinances of council have
been promulgated, have been generally ill received; and for
want of a sanction which a law would impose, have had
little effect.
It is generally believed, that instructions have been re-
ceived from the ministry to convoke a house of assembly.








tntoifiY.


It is presumed that: it would be ju6itjce, and pleasing to the
people to know, that these instructions originated from a
representation of the propriety and expediency of such a
nieasure; and that to form a house of representatives is per-
'fctly agreeable to the executive.
As people in most countries know, or pretend to know,
mfiny things they have little or nothing to do with, these
late suggestions respecting a provincial legislature, are by
many construed into a sense 'not favourable to popular ap-
plause, as if it was a measure forced upon the executive, or
iAt last'as if it iid hot sufficient confidence to put in those
dver whom it preidee';-especially, silence by the council
upon this subject may givb grounds for such unfavorable
insinuations.
Until some intimation of an intention to form a house of
assembly, the sentiments of the people will not be know n;
that thed, they'must be' stiffed, and methods found to djs-
cover and make known their sentiments to the executive;
and that although a code of laws may be framed in idea, or
upon paper,tliey will not be 'exact'y copied, not even from
th6se ofrGeolgidr;wherd a 'sirlan' of circumstances may be
usufiieht 'reabonu! fordoging' 'em. ..
S" Thd"6imbdrs ofb tie gisl~aure' aill think themselves free,
abl~~fait act as such.
As to takes, 'the' province: is able to' bear hone. .Some
bmiridil ones, however, may be adopted; a~in it is reasona-
'le, anid would be a'mark if our& gratitude and good sense,
to imae such; and' by this, lay a foundation for a revenue
for defraing tbit'kpeade 'd iu~ sportiSnz the government of








HISTORY.


h9eh1pr empirer, and also oQour own provincial cigencies,
p ,,Aocknowledgment of dependence upon the sqpgeme
,Jia~ttqre of the whole empire.
.Jup.?poe a tax for either of the above purposes upon every
aegro imported for sale, upon every pipe of wine or hogs-
ead. of rum. In such cases as this, the law has a great
qhow; the treasury and its officers alone may be supposed to
know how inconsiderable the sum received is; and it would be
reckoned no fraud to impose taxes that would have, in effect,
no existence for some years.
t establish taxes upon uncultivated lands, or take away,
after a certain term of years, the private property in them.
ie the province will be loyal, and show gratitude, the English
nation will support it in raising produce, beneficial to the
mother country, and the King will continue his bounty,for the
support of government.
The civil government in Georgia was supported for years
after they had a provincial legislature, and why may not this ?
The mind of man is alive, and formed. for.novelsy.npd
schemes; and people are always pleased with the appear-
ance of consequence, and works they can call their. own.
Upon this principle, it is apprehended, a house of assembly
would be useful, and increase our numbers. Dissensions
would arise, but they are a less evil. As to the expediency
of imposing taxes for the purposes required, nothing is more
reasonable; and it is to be regretted we have it not in our
power to take the lead, and set a laudable example to the
other colonies. Georgia has, it is presumed, already made
provision for the.expenses of the government of the empire,










and for theprovipaj ~sigcies. .Upon the same principle,
it would 1be 3enecial to Asugest, that a fort is immediately to
be built at the m9uth of St. Mary's river; that lots will be
granted imndiatly in Hillsborough town; .that an officer of
the custom and pilot shall be appointed, and trade encou-
raged.
That to add to this show, the surveyor should resurvey
Hillsborough town; petitions for town lots be received and
surveys ordered, and that a party of men should be sent
there for the protectipnp(, the inhabitants. .and whether any
s., .pla .:of a .fort i to be.made use of o.not, will depend'
*ptirely upon the .executive. In the mean taie, it may for-
ward the settling of the country; and if the king's troops are
not in danger of being cut off, they will be there stationed
beqpeficijly for the protection of the province.

uccw.a the jroject.submitted for the farther establish-
amet .of a, representative government and settlement in the
province of East Florida..
SPreparations .having been accordingly made, Governor
Toqr p et the upperand kower hoSes of assembly, and de-
liver rdo to tcp a lpech, in Marc 1781, of which the fol-
Iowiqg:ar eqtr4t~ showing the objects of. government, the
ggress in legislation, fortification, and at length of taxation;
which, ast was always looked to as a consequence inseparable
from the privilege of the representative government, which
it had b4ea declared by the executive most for thp interest
of the iqabitants to defer on that accqout.
Noqpit;-rents or taxes had bitheto beea called, or, and the









HISTORl.


WVtlear of cotribating towards the eipihee of tle" govern-
dleat-wa unknown to the new legislators, who were inch at
arose for expedients to raise the necessary revenues from
the stetder resources which presented themselves in the i6i
fantrstate of the colony.


Governor Tonyn's Speech on convenhig for the first time the
Legislature.

1 am Iappy that, during my administration of the govern-
ment of this province, it hath arrived at such a state of af-
fluence and importance, as to enable me with propriety to
fulfilhis Majesty's most gracious engagements, in his royal
pimoehmation of: the 7thtof October, 1763, by establishin' a
provincial legislature, for the purpose of making constitutional,
ordaining laws, statutes and ordinances, as near as may be
agreeable to the laws of England, under such regulations and
restrictions as are used in other colonies, for the public wel-
fare and good government of this province and its inhabitantii
Of late, gentlemen, the increase of property, from your
success in commerce and planting, has been considerable;
and the industry and judgment of a few may evince to Gret
Britain, that ample returns in produce may be made, fri
money laid out in raising a produce equally beneficial to the
planter and the mother country, in one of the most healthy
and fertile climates upon earth.
SAs the King and parliament have, with an astonishing and
unprecedented condescension, relinquished their just right of
taxation, provided the provincial legislature will make due









lil &" le l akso le-part of. the expenses of
,gr'eiiB :f nire it rge, and fr the internal
g nri met 'ie: colony, 'I trust that you, gentlemen, in
tai sAf ifw1 mentt r our exiAtence, will make a provision
a ppp'ura i ese important purposes ; more as mark of
fb trfl& antto jua tceifflcion and gratitude, for the go-
Ytnft*ei d6 her which e M a protected and gencrous-
iotierdd anriiintaina' tian orh any immediate real set-
SviA out suply ai s :z* '"a" fdal .I
T'heqita you in yoiir pient circumstances can make, I
I 1eflDI 111. bd d$ty le oe eipenses of'the pro-


Sevral bills were passed; the principal one of which,
JIAbit"c 'hta, 1~Met wilh much discussion and violent opposi-
onit.ibe folwing:ro. unds, ~sn-T at it was not clear,
Afm11 l~d a iai Md~jA 1 te o the understanding and
Capacities of tEse for whose conduct it was to be a rule.-
S.= i .*...r *.. .,:. *:* ^ : *. ',. ""
Thit several essentSi ;articles intended to strengthen the
hBSd. if government, Ud insurng a revenue, as well as
e teit dfwyoi t i ,, were rejected.
'st itai of ooei;ie .oAic~lI'alculated to extricate
S lttti;m anir nliicuid which ie laws o' t gland
itdbt.eatih beelae inoneeiDted applicable to tne then
sit tStic6loty, itie.fit ny important questions,which were
tht unihAbutd povine of the egistature to regiulae and to
settle, tob4liefe i4t y judges aju ppooini3 y e rown 'tus
unnecessarily! ueitithe'iiltaDts t avoluminous and
multifarious code of laws,written,ma y ofthem,in foreign lan-







HIBTORT.


mmage, and Saxon character; some obsolete, others use-
sduad only a few suitable to an infant colony.-That it
did not require a declaration from the King and Parliament
e a fundamental condition, that they would not impose any
duty, tax, or assessment whatever, except only such as might
be expedient for the regulation of commerce, and applicable
to the use of the colony. That in tolerating different religions,
and offering liberty to persons of different nations who should
become inhabitants of the province,it excepted infidel negroes,
which was an exception repugnant to the ancient bulwark of
English liberty. That the governor and council are, by a clause
in the act, vested with too extensive an authority-that of
withdrawing licenses for the exercise of public worship,
hereby establishing them judges of the doctrines of religion,
and vesting them with an authority that must greatly restrain
Sand circumscribe that spirit of toleration which this act is
meant to establish, and which may prove prejudicial to the
protestant religion.
Among the other bills which were passed, was one autho-
rising taxes, to a certain extent; but which, on their collection,
did not go farther than a very inconsiderable sum, obtained
for licenses to sell spirituous liquors; it did not amount
to the salary of the Treasurer of the province. It was
in agitation to oblige the grantees of lands either to improve
them4 or to relinquish their grants, which on a public sale
were to produce a more efficient revenue; but this was in-
terrupted by a political circumstance of no small magnitude,
being nothing less than an express order from Sir Guy Carle-








HISTORY.


General Leslie in Carolina, to evacuate the province, with
the troops and such loyalists as were desirous of accompany-
ing them. Thus the flattering hopes of the colonists were frus-
trated, when they were about to derive the hard-earned fruits
oftheir attachment to the royal cause. This order, as harsh and
inconsiderate on the part of its authors as it was mortifying
and excruciating to the inhabitants, necessarily became the
subject of a strong remonstrance, first to the Governor, and
then to the King, depicting their disappointment, and
the inevitable ruin that would ensue, if it was carried
into execution, They were couched in the following
terms :
-That this province had been held out as an asylum for
the well affected in the other colonies' to resort to, where
they might expect every protection and assistance; which
assurances were sanctioned with. the royal authority.-That
the loyal inhabitants who may be enabled to embark must
depart this province devested of their property, and, in a state
'of the greatest indigence, be obliged, with their families, to
look out for new habitations, or become burthensome to the
government. Those who are obliged to remain must be in the
most deplorable and distressed situation, without government,
laws, or arms, surrounded on all hands by enemies and
savages, and exposed to the depredations of every lawless
banditti or hostile invader. And at all events, we mus.um-
bly request your excellency to apply to the commanding
officer here, for such provisions and military stores as may
enable as to make a defence,.until we can receive further










I: ,4 H.r BriM, Commander in Chief in America, addressed to
S wecoa:r -I and that your excellence will be pleased to lose no
S titse :' making the like application to the commander of the
f ticthern district.
Spring the height of festivity among the military in cele-
b atihg the King's birth day, in 1780, Mr. Manning, an en-
i il n in the army, when commanding officer on guard at the
fort, committed a most flagrant breach of the peace, and
i itagraceful to the service, by ordering the soldiers for-
S cibly to bring a married woman of the Minorcans into
the guard room, and committing a rape upon her body. Al-
- though the man was admitted to bail, the licentious soldiery
were so dissatisfied with the proceedings of the law officers
gsi~taist him, that they collected in a body of about- 200,
paraded' through the streets, went to the husband's house,
pulled it down, and immediately dispersed. The Gover-
nor, and the commanding officer of the troops, offered a
reward for the discovery of the perpetrators of this audacious
act,and proposed toColonelGlazier tosingle out some suspect.
ed persons from the troops when paraded. But theColoneland
the Captain of the corps, suggesting apprehensions of a mutiny
in that event, and the injured person and the community in
general, after the first heat of resentment, being appeased,
further attempts at detection were deemed inexpedient; the
officers promising their utmost endeavour. discover the ring-
leaders. This, however, was never done; for the ensign
put an end to his existence, as soon as he heard that the
grand jury had found a bill against him.
About the time this disgraceful act was perpetrated,








tJs'-rtTi


an Indian, in a state of intoxication, was killed in the street
by a soldier, which caused much discontent among the inha-
bitants, as well as alarm to the executive. This was a period
when small events, similar to those just cited, were calculated
to rise into an importance, which the contagious spirit of the
north might have raised to a pitch that would have over-
thrown the tottering power of the British, but for the
paucity of means within the reach of the people. At this
period the government was manifestly in the hands of a mili-
tary commandant, although nominally vested in an officer of
high grade in the army.
.,4. soon as the Spaniards were known to take an active
part in the war, they became, from their wealth and other
circumstances, more agreeable enemies than the Americans ;
and the spirit of enterprise was immediately directed against
them, although the British government and its subjects were
too.much disposed to treat them as a weaker enemy than
they proved to be.
In the spring of 1783, Colonel Devereux, who had accom-
panied the provincial corps from the Carolinas, a high spirit-
ed. youqg man, celebrated for his gallantry on many occa-
sioqrs.and who will long be remembered for the urbanity and
suavity of his manners, made a successful attack on New
Providence.
S.He sailed on thijdesperate attempt in two private armed
brigs of 12 guns each, with the rangers, &e. commanded by
Captains Dowd and Fennell, from St. Augustine, and about
fifty raggamffins as volunteers ; and, after picking up a few
recruits, principally negroes, at Eleuthera and the adjacent







wISTORT.


island; appeared of the key which forms the harbour of
NaMiu, an the east of the town, towards night. The ton-
quest of a fortified island by so disproportionate a body of
men, could only be effected by consummate ingenuity and
addraesi The men were landed without opposition to the
east of fort Montagu, which guards the entrance of the har-
hour in that quarter; and so great was the supineness of the
garrison, that when the invaders had reached the ramparts,
the sentinel only was awake to defend them. He appeared
with a lighted match in his hand, ready to blow up the for;
tgess in case of extremity. But Colonel Devereux, who headed
the attack, before the sentinel could recover from his surprise,
sprang upon him, and frustrating his intention, made him a
prisoner with the sleeping garrison Having thu easily pos.
sessed himself of Fort Montagu' Colonel Deveteux rinme.
diately proceeded to the top of the ridge, and took a position
in front of the governor's house in the upper part of the
town. Every aitifice.was used to deceive the Spaniards,
both as to the number and description of the enemy they had
to contend with. A show of boats was made continually
rowing from the vessels, filled with men, who apparently
landed, but in fact concealed themselves by lying down, ha
they returned to the vessels, and afterwards made their ap-
pearance as a fresh supply of troops proceeding to disembark.
Men of straw, it is said, were dresed out to increase the
apparent number on the heights; and some of the troops, to
intimidate the Spaniards, were painted and disguised like the
Indians. One or two galleys in the harbour had been cap-
tured : trusting to these circumstances in his favour,








r rSTont.


Colonel Devereux, with a pompous description of his for-
midable force, summoned the. Governor to surrender. Some
hesitation being at first discovered, the Colonel seconded
his overtures with a well directed shot at the Governor's
house from a field piece, which produced an immediate
capitualtion. The Spanish troops, in laying down their
arms, it is said, could not refrain from expressing the utmost
mortification and confusion, as they surveyed their conque-
rors, not only so inferior in point of numbers, but ludicrous
in their dress and military appearance.
In June, 1784, Governor Zespedez, with a few troops, took
possession of St. Augustine, in the name of his most Catholic
Majesty, when the British inhabitants, after an exchange of
civilities with the Spanish officers, took shipping at Amelia
and St. John's--some for England, and others for various
quarters of the British dominions, in search of an asylum.
Those who wern allowed to prefer the West India islands to
the barren rocks of the Bahamas, or the inhospitable re-
gions of Nova Scotia, carried their negroes to Jamaica, when
the severe treatment on one hand, and the apprehension of
the colonists on the other, that the American system would
be injurious to their slaves, created a disgust among the go-
vernors and governed to such degree, that debt, disappoint-
ment and despair were the only remuneration which the ill-
fated Floridians received for their credulity in government
which had thus deceived them by false promises. Strong
remonstrances were made to the King and parliament,
in which Lord Hawke, with his characteristic goodness, took
a most lively part. The cries of want and distress loudly







HISTORY.


qged for relief; and the people of England, recognized
b appeal by a vote of supply, and the execration, in
which ,they viewed the conduct of their ministers; but
.epre.,their humane efforts could be brought into ac-
..a ..leath had in seven years opened his jaws to
.4 ease the applicants, and to relieve thereby most of
.t.e languishing and desponding pilgrims, the survivors of
whom were allowed to perceive the baneful effects of court
favour lavished upon some by pensions, salaries, and liberal
appropriations, while others were allowed to starve, or were
turned over to the liberality of those very American people
who were most glaringly depicted and vilified a few years
before as a banditti Many of those who were placed in
S tis. ,l t predicament, have had reason to thank the great Dis-
poser. of all things, since they have enjoyed the best effects
of their well-placed confidence.
The Spaniards, thus left, confined themselves to the limits
of the town, apprehending that the Indians would annoy the
few who were disposed, or had means to continue cultivating
the plantations. Some excesses were at first committed, but
discontinued by reason of the trade to which the house of
Panton, Leslie & Forbes were licensed. Peace was main-
tained at the price of these supplies, and the provinces con-
tinued in a declining state, until the year 1792, when the
French revolution, in its all grasping wisdom, brought them
again into political notice, by the alleged project on the part
of Mr. Genet, the French minister, to render them subser-
vient to the views of his government.


A. .







6 .BISTORT.

The scheme was thwarted by the provident hand of Presi-
dent Washington, and the country rescued by his interven-
tion from the horrors incident to a state of warfare.
Although the emigrants from St. Domingo might have re-
sorted, with the remnants of their property, to Florida, and
found it an asylum promising peace and plenty, yet, distracted
and.distressed as those truly unfortunate people were, it did
not meet the views of men flying from fire and sword, to
take up arms to conquer provinces for a government to
which their evils were ascribed. Nor did the political situa-
tion of Spain cherish the acquisition of that species of popu-
lation for her colonies.
Governor White had succeeded to the command of East
Florida, and, as usual, issued a proclamation, offering, as far
as he could, encouragement to settlers. (See Appendir.)
But the conditions were relished only by such inhabitants of
the United States as looked more to convenience than to the
munificence of Spanish authority, which was supposed to
afford but a precarious protection or security, although de-
void of equivalent taxation.
The extraordinary price to which the peculiar properties
of Sea Island Cotton raised that valuable plant, stimulated
several southern planters to extend their production of it to
the islands on the coast of Florida. The Americans, viewed as
invidious neighbours, had great difficulty in persuading Go-
vernor White that the zeal manifested towards settling the
province under his government, was favourable to the Spa-
nish crown.










IQJrslor. 47
4 . 4 j H 4 I' STOBr. '7
tle man, af .Jd tekece, had all the roghneue
4th,..th .atioi4, WiM*ut, theuAavity so predominant
K jigh er.la iali.iaHtriUuotionsor the prejdices
S* qs zment, redredi hminimicaitoA erican settlerI
&iJ* iypabitants from the Bahamasweoree more fortunate,
4bLpg, permitted, to fonar agriculture l.stablmhments, near


.: . ..
f. *m m i i i S *.




Sr.s j.n" -,.* ,. .. . j;j-- 4 " '

.... .'- .. .............. .



S. ,: j .:.-.:... ... ., . ..
.* ...- ;. ". .-:

." . . ...


-*.! ';* ",' "*. ".' "


K' ... ." ......... "....








SITUATION O C 'LIMAt.E.







SITUATION AND CLIMATE.




EAST FLORIDA lies between lat. 24 54, and 30 N. hav-
ing St. Mary's river' for its northern boundary, and Cape
Florida for the southern.' It is 350 miles in length, not including
the Keys; and varies in breadth at the centre of the peninsula,
owing to its tapering form, from 200 to 240 miles. It con-
tains about thirty-two millions of acres,'and is ventilated
alternately by the Atlantic and Mexicak Seas,'to which tir-
cumstance its great salubrity is ascribed. The change of
seasons is hardly felt, except in the northern parts of the pro-
vince, where vegetation receives a check, astd in some in-
stances, an entire stagnation, for a short time. Siow is' rarely
seen, even in those parts; yet the cold north and north-west
winds are not without their influence.
The winds are less changeable in the peninsula than far-
ther north, being between the east and south-east during the
spring, summer, and beginning of autumn, wheh the rains
commence, and fall- heavily for 'a short tine each day.
There is frequently, perceptible in the northern parts of
the Province, in the months of Ju39 wnd Augnst, a thick and
heavy air, which proceeds from''the west and south-west







AdAitRoW N5 irMtA.


W*it, oS&4 iiii int srW u Ifathii t tW&6e eriod, when the
less of strangers expose themselves the better, until' they
6~b~tn fief froi tile edst'An a~d irti' and' soufh.-eastern
"i6;4, lAih aflf'rd a cdof~kde a d a n edasticity, bh ihicf' t6'e
Istm is' greeably inzigorated.' l' ti s m'nti's, at thie e-
kidd 6t' the dia most oipressive, beI~de' eifgt' tnd fn 6 ini' tfie
morning, before the sea breeze sets' in, thl thfrniometr bas
rarely exceeded 94. In St.Augustin, and south of it,
t'he winter is scarcely perceptible at mid-day, at which tiiiie
the ice previously formed' melts. On the 3d of January, 1766,
t~i6t destroyed all tile tropical productions in the country,
dicept oranges. But this does not happen more Ihan twice,
perhaps, in half a century.
.The climate ii Egast Florida is nibre uniformi tlian in any
liyrt of teh cotidunt, without either extreme; being tdo re-
mdte from the north to admit the dominion of the cold winds
to prevail l g enough for any sensible effect, while its
proximity to thb south affords the mild and refreshing cool-
ness of the trade winds.
Accouits froni all quarters correspond in representing the
capital (St. Augustine) as the JMonrpelier of North America,
t6 which the healthy repair for refreshment, and invalids for
health. This does not depend on bare round assertion, but
can be substantiated directly by facts.
One of these facts, to be relied upon, was' the extraordinary
healthiness of the 9th British regimezit, which quartered and
performed garrison duty there, for eighteen months, and never
lost a man by natural death.
A detachment of artillery, which arrived from the West







60 rSITUAZION AM... CIJUATL.

Indies in a sickly state, soon recruited, and -left no traces of
the contagion.
The great age attained by the Spaniards and others
who have resided in the province, are undeniable proofs
of the general salubrity of this country. Among these
were Mr. Jesse Fish, of New York, already mentioned; Mr.
Fatio, a gentleman of much respectability and information
from Switjerland; Clementi, an honest fisherman; and Don
Solano, a worthy farmer, now living: these last are Spaniards.
In 1765 there was a white frost on the 19th of December,
and in 1765, a fall of snow in the northern part of. the pro-
vince, which was of short duration, and of no material detri-
ment to the agricultural interests.
/ Cardena, in his history, says, that the soldiers who arrived
it Spain from Florida, in 1569, were healthy and strong, at-
tribiuting it to.the use of the sassafras tree. Such was the
confidence in its virtues, confirmed by Doctor Nicholas Mo-
navedas, who wrote upon the medicinal properties of plants
in the West Indies, that each soldier carried a piece of sassa-
fras.in his pocket, which he would exhibit and.say, This is the
tree which we have brought to cure as if we should be taken
ill, as .was. done in Florida ;-each recounting it as a pro-
digy.
Bytreference to Bartram's Journal, while on St. John's ri-
ver,:the following observations are found. In. 1765, the
thermometer was, on the-
,. ..lst December. 74 at P. M. Wind S
2d .... 70 SW
23d . 43 NW








SITUATION AND CLIMATE.


S. 24th December 74 at P.M. S
27th . 50 S
31st . 566
1;766, Sd January . 35 N W
3d ... 26 NW
S 4th .... 50 S
6th . .. 38 ..
7th . . 36 .. NW
10th
S llth 'NW
From other data until the 10th of May, 1772, the weather
was dry and cold. The winters of 1772-73, had little
frost; having been aoostly open, and favourable to the sugar
cane. Dry weather in July and August, having scarcely had
a shower "of rain from the middle of March to July.-
The. whole country was so much parched, that the corn grew
up in long small stalks, with little heads, without moisture
Sto fill them.
In the winter of 1773-4, there was a snow storm in Florida,
which was not injurious, being succeeded by moderate warm
showers throughout the season; and in 1775 the seasons were
Very favourable, having had frequent rains from the beginning
of May.
During the whole period this country was occupied by
the British, it does not appear that there were more than ten
medical men there :-namely, Dr. Turnbull, who followed
the planting line very extensively; Dr. Yeates, the Secretary;
Dr. Catherwood, a judge; Doctors West, Hill, Wright, Kemp,
Scott, and Henderson, attached to the army; and. lastly, Doctors








stfi*kfr df' 6ittitMt


Barren ahd Clitheray,rod SoUth Oarolind, *hoae' ofessional
talents were seldom required or exercised, titir income
being derived from more profitable sources. Anid, under
the present government, there is only bli physician who
practices; asid he derives his emoluments from tie crown,
which permits medicines and drugs to be sold at cost and.
charges to the inhabitants.
While experience affords undeniable proofs of the general
salubrity of the peninsula, it must not be presumed that its in-
habitants, are solitary examples of constant exemption from
such epidemics as- Providence; in'its.wisdom, dispeises to the
most favoured countries; and, therefore, it will dot' be a' mat-
ter ofsiMprise to the reader to learn that St. Augustiii should
have betn visited by one of these in 1804. So, also,
the regular sea breezes; are liable to interrdptidn by oc-
casional squalls, which are short and viblnt,. but iitnediate-
ly after the atmosphere becomes quite clear. At the equi-
noxes, particularly that of autumn, the rains fall very ihavily
between 1 A. Mi. and 4 P.'M. after which'a sdend sky, whibh
becomes' crimsoned with variegated figires.iin the w-est, bids
adieu for the day to the gldwig' tiits or a tropical sun.
The heat of a vertical -sun, every where great on the
continent, is here mitigated during the summer by the
sea breezes, as has been already stated, which effectually
refresh and enliven the system. The continuation of
summer heat, which is less perceptible than in the southern
and middle states, lasts one fourth of the year; and leaves
three fourths of cnntinurd spring, viz. from October to June







gitfATlfN tND WiNAwEjui


4icpiitely; Aiuing :which the weather: is incormparaby de-

-It maybe justly inferred, from what has already been writ-
tn upon this rpipite, that it is not subject to the vicissitudes
of the more northern parts of the continent, where the east
and north-east winds are so tedious in t- spring, and present
a continuation of cold and moisture- It cannot be denied,
that the effects of climate operate very powerfully upon the
'character and condition of rben, and that a temperate region
is preferable to one inflicting such severity as the winters of
the north do upon the human frame.
A close observer of the seasons in Florida, in order to
prove thli parity of the atmosphere, has emphatically stated,
that there were not, in ft74 anify- westerly uwinds:i ding the
summer season; and if these do not prevail, there need be no
apprehension of epidemics: the northerly winds have a
salutary effect. So, in New-York, if after every heavy fall of
rain in the summer months, the wind should veer to the
north, the local causes of yellow fever would cease to emist,
and with them the perpetual controversy as to the origin of
malignant fevers.
Thunderstorms, accompanied by vivid lightning, which
rise generally in the south and south west, are violent and
transient, but purify the air in the summer months; and
although they make great havoc among the pine trees, do
less mischief in this quarter to man or beast than in other
parts of the continent. One of the few fatal occurrences
cited, is that of Mr. Jesse Fish, Jun. who was found dead in







64 tfltBewai Akh t AiiA;

thefields, withb-is hi rftd 1'io 6titifii whic" he had
aedeavourea to 'vertl by 'timbn relfla t ras 'mounting,
which it is coaeiletly believed caused isi dei thl
'The fosp .aditebmy dew Irdown t'ieitfpenodcally from
seatnd south wedt.wiksi bn the rivers aid th~ir immediate
bak', .create femallft the mind of nimny; ye it is as-
cetaised beyond doubt, that wherever the Iea breeze has free
access, these are not prejudicial. Taking into view that StA
Augustine and its mfritime frontier hai'for the south the same
charter for salubity which la adlliwe to Rhode Island in
the dnrth; the'tempeitem: 'b0Iod6' chinc" e it a.
climates, has a choicepi 'tle l6 enitarIl. "':NWr dos prove "
any thiga.gaiwst the heaitbinehs of tefoe'fd ider, t eide-
mies have prevailed; for'the hand of Providence has some-
time emittedd them id. the latter. ' "
SeveratIuthoritiesBonspir-htoI pntve l w hhit^h^jii co
firmed .byithepeero bal obserlvti6n of' thie a fio Itht ib
addition to the common effects of air, in producing mould and
rustq loafsugar has been. otited to become dai nt tle ifores
of St. Augustiae; -bert4hi hai never d etrated, to- his d;n-
ledge1 from the recognized salubkyif the'plice. '
Thee.4atiTntibnma.r.t ecouantry hrih i~ looked to as an
early e::equende W e its.. dica toithe United State Wfif
haveth*ed&ct of cleaning it*tm the stagnated air in the
woods,.and.rom tbe embalatite arising ftSm'theOpi~ and
fres.waterwgMI.ars wIshiraruurtopitUno titildtre
of rieAroa indigtbrt aresaltweld ith.i
those aglged in them. This, oFcosme, meritb'etGaonsidera.
.* 1 1 ,. .=, .:. ,' .1 .: ,- i s . N.; P. 'x.. : C ; ,"W '








sITUATLQNn hADP Cwsare


tion of those who prefer health to.wealth. Among other ciur
cumstances corroborative of the purity of the atmosphere;
may be traced the common way of drying beef and.fish i
the sun, without salt, and the. cqnatant attendance of the in-
numerable turkey buzzards, who stand ready to remove any
carrion or other obnoxious matter and, in some instances, an-
ticipate the grasp of death to the dying animal, by giving the
coup de grace to its eyes.
Nothing can contribute more to salubrity than pure ndU
wholesome water, and this is to be found more in the springs
than in the wells of St. Augustine, where the water is in
some places brackish, and requires filtering.
Although these provinces ajford alluremets,in point pf poil
and climate, to he careful and temperate residentyet author,
whose fortunate resistance for many years to the .effcts of
warm climates may perhaps entitle him to an opinion found-
edonpersonalexperience, wouldrecommend an occasional tour
to the northern states, and thus guard against dysenteries,
asthmas, and pleurisies, which sometimes attack those who
expose their constitutions top freely to the alternate beats of
noon day and dews of midnight.
Mr. Vola.y, justly celebrated for his writings and travels,
as well as for his assiduous researches into the character of
the climate of this vast American continent, makes the fol-
lowing remarks :-"Were j obliged," says he, to select the
most favourable spot in Awrica as the place of my abode, my
choice would fall upon the southern point of Rhode Island, or
the south-west chain in Virginia, between the Roanoke and
the Bappshannoek. Is the western country, J should pefer
.9.








BITUDATsQ 4nDP 9LujiAT.


to live, a hundred years hence, on. the margin of Lake Erie,
for then it wil not, as now, be infested with fevers. At pre-
sent, if my choice were guided by the .e,9prts of travellers, it
would fix upon those highlands of Florida and Georgia which
are to windward of the nearest marsh. Intermittents are en-
demial in. all low situations. Thus we see,. in ,1 the pro-
vinces' to the southward, particular places remarkable for a
continuance of disorder in them. A remedy is recommended
composed of the back of the root of the magnolia major, which
the French on the Mississippi substitute in lieu of Jesuit's
bark, with Virginia heart, snake root, rue sal absynth, and
pink root, in good wine, avoiding a too great exposure to the
frequent sudden changes of air. They ought to use the cold
bath often, wear camphor and garlic in their pockets, not ex-
pose themselves to rain, and above all keep warm and dry feet,
and if got wet by rain, not to change their clothes too sudden-
ly; never go out of a morning fasting, but before yqu go to
work, business, &c. eat a piece of bread, and drink a glass of
the bitter infusion; avoid the night air in the rooms, espe-
cially in the bed rooms, which oughttnever to be on a lower
foor, and should be in the eastern parts of the building, ex-
posed to the morning sun. By- observing these rules, the
constitution of the human body wil.be less disposed to receive
the- impressions of a bad air."
The following is an extract of a letter from the late Denys
Roee,.Esq. father to the present Lord Rolle, the founder of
Rolle's town on the St. Johns, dated Tuderly, 1st September,
1756 -' *- : : ... .'
"Th e enjoyment of the trade wind passing over the pe-
ninsula, is not felt elsewhere.








STrttrTIUON AN1D CLMATE. 67
'it ''Ti Avid I T-as extremely sensible of in amy journey to
S t o.lektf; on the Bay of Mexico, in May, where J came to
t 0 r itgh'ind of the Latchwaytrsttadian town from any set-
'ei gw:;. l w. when this wind was-rather disagreeably cold
i t "ther*ise warm month. This being the highest land
'tw6een the two seas, it'irceived less obstruction. from the
Soods: then thede are more' cltaredi every part will enjoy
"Ut.' "Etey thing in nature seems to correspond towards. the
ckfivafiioi? of the productions of the *hole.world in, some
aior 'tteri of this happy province, the most precious jewel
S*f his Majesty's American domninions."
'Te f'ollo"wing Thermometrical Obset'ations are extracted
'from Eilcot'.i Jounai, made ast Point- Peter,. :a the St.
Mary s '.,. .'t?. '' Cs .,:.i .." ...-.*,* r .:-. "
': &' [ &e Ii~ diio.a&ioM thie itt ofthoThermomurie-sat uei the
lit'its rage throughout te day.]
17998.' .
:! D4Pc l .4 Cloudy;.
16 51" 67 Cloudy at -P. M. and. o ll night. .
7. 57, 70 Heavy rain all night.. .
*1a .':; 3:56. 64 Cloudy, with rain all P. M. and night.
'v"i 9, 5 s '869 Heavy fog A. M. flying clouds all day,
r:, *! ''.. ... andrain at night.
20 60 58 Cloudy all day. fine rain A. M. and a
I h . ; -. eavyrinat night . .
1- : 59, 4 -P.fLM. olealyo with beaV rain most o the
., : I ~'day: wind N. W. at night.
22 54 55. Cloudy A. M. and in the evening.
'* s : 54 -56 .Cloudy al las, ,night, and thia day, with
fine rain. .







SITB&ATION AMl CLIMAT..


Dec. 24 34 54
25 30 51
26 41 .49k:- Cloudy all day and-night.
27 50 64
28 80 80 Cloudy A. M.
f29. 67. 63.. Heavy rain great part of the day, S. W.
wind violent.
1800.
Jan'y 1 28 54 Soattering clouds.
2 54 54 Heavy rin, wind N. E.
3 39 53
4 36 54
a 36 35 Cloudy"all day.
6 34 61
7 T- 388 38 Ditto.
8 40 48 -
., 9 38 42 Rainpartday, and rain with hail evening.
10 3.7 40. Snow and hail the whole day.
11 28 40 Snow inches deep.'
12 34 .67 Cloudy great part of the day.
13 46 57 Cloody aH dayp .
14 40 62 Do.
...5 49 61 Cloudy in the evening.
16 45 67 -.7
17 64 42 Cloudy morning, shower at Il A. M.
18 38 68 :' : *
19 37 54
The following are Ellicot's observation at Apalachicola.
1799. 23 '., '. .. .
Adg. 23 91" P. M. "


66 .










Aug. 24 75 91
U5 74 88
26 76 85 Sbhowerr~. ftiatesm, heavy main P.M.
winds from all quarters.
27 74 96 .
'28 74M Se ;Thtiaeninge ditneuingt atmosphere,
29 80 93 hazy aAnd affoestig, until 8 o'clock,
30 74 95 when light breeze from E. which car-
rected the atmosphere. "t
31 76 93 : ... I *
Sept. 1 74 94
2 75 90 Cloudy part of the afternoon.
3 73 91 Cloudy great part the day aid night.
4 76 89 Cloudy all the afternoon and night.
5 74. 87 Several showers of rain irnthetourse of
the day, thundergust P. M.
6 73 69 Sky remarkably blue, fine clear morning.
7 73 .86 Shower at day break,, cloudy great part
of the day,,little waiai "
8 73 87 Shower at daybreak and P.M.
9 74 90 Thick fog till 8 A. Mi
10 71 82 Foggy.
11 74 91 Cloudy ll the afteoon, with a little rain.
12 74 89 Thundergust at noon.
13 76 91 A .-:. : .
14 74 91 Cloudy part of the afternoon.
15 72 92
16. 76 6. Ditto. -
From the above thermometrical observations, the reader is-
led to the following conclusions : that the thermometer was.








i5ITWhT.A -NAbo CLIkALE.

at Point Petre on St. Mary's, from December 14th, 1799, to
January 19th, 1800, from 25'44 the lowest, to 67 highest, and
on oaf day, the e38&, t 80.
That from the 23d of August to the 16th of September,
1799, it was at Apalachicola,of parallel latitude with Point
Petre, iat uiirise, from 71 lowest average,'to 82,and from 80
at sunrise to 93 highest.
Some-have calculated that the mercury ranges between-84
and.*~4 ha s in the shade, where a free ventilation exists,
*ad ftaiti er Mium|lilo.* oa6. O;t, tWi Waer does not
freeze sot .of; 27 auc o nlri ta.whterea. .r.EllidLtk states,
tba.t on his realm fthE~ iliweste i su ey, in Wst Florida,
hi observed on the t November, 1799, ice formed tintle
decks of his vessel when in the Florida Keys.
From the information obtained by Mr. Darby on the sub-
ject of climate in this country, he says that the thermometer
ranges from 78 to 93 in summer, and from 40 to 70 in winter.
In farther illustration of the mildness and'uniformity of
temperature in the peninsula, it may be satisfactory to look
to the observations of professional mehi of former times, as
well as to those of the prudent day, alike respectable; of
these latter, are the reports from the surgeons of the Uni-
ted States' army, ordered to take constant and regular ob-
servations, which Dr. Lovell, the surgeon general, has very
judiciously caused to be published, for public benefit,- and
of which the following is an extract from those taken at
Amelia bland, in lat. 30 45, long. 81 67 west, where the
thermometer stood in the three fitat months of 1820:







SITUATION AND CLUNATL 71

1B20. Higbest degree. Lowest degree. Mean temperature.
uttifi ,t,4i, W iW a *jFit" ar i H ~s
A. I,9 61 36 60 83 '4 16
rn iry, 6 i. 70 o50 59 60 51 69 621 4 20
In Mhrch, 6878 70 iO i071 77 60 .70

t ;,. ... .. **: ".. Nhqee54qa...ipi,.:,.. tol4Bi tday i.
: .... lp J y m :',:ie. wQt days
i .. .. la ua, arJtyff -.9i 4 v 4,n.sdyJ12| ..mp
In February, Thursday,2 ITuesday,
In March, tTuesday, 1 7 thdiy, |l

'"Wids.' ...' Wealtbr.:"

,,,ay8.in Z NEl_ 11 -71J16 3
January, 3 2 152 2 2 NE 118 71 6-
Ie.bruary, j 4' 1 N. 5 4 SE. 26- ar






.. ............ :


i,. I`I







'I TOWeIw RIv ;S. LA.u g&c.

. : _ ..K .. .
.. .. . ..;**: '.,-. .. .i .- .* -: .;,' *. a *; 31. : *1i, .? .

TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, SOIL, AND'
;-. ? PRODUCTIONS.: :
;:. ,|,;f "'. ;" :.:'.'..-' "* ;.. .' ..;,. r '3.i .... '.-

;, .. .. :; ..* .. .. .- ..*: :'> .: '.*.' *' ': i (
"th_ ivert i t.' Wiars, whichh Tonm, at present the northern
b.ndary %f last Foid'da, is navigable for sixty nTesy

o'Ti bntafD er, AflSt a j5ae ctileMasof tt 1itt6a
ee taka lare swamp, or raee, ca' Qua-
Vaiihaike lying betiw the Fit 6and OchenmUlgee rivers,


Iai 't. MV .and"d "Aefi -lanad.
1i i 4.1 a 'C0 1Miac
rect course to Point Petre; here iflatfid ii b VYoifn
WflehI a ilf ditV atio W &t$i ofhA if 4ex-

ta"1.ge IWrWa it kt ae ine coirs e 'ieve.ra1
ili'ainAi nr, gllSgiving a i br led 'tiil St. aifs.
t lia'turreni'ofiWi c ar water mucb' iadni etrits pini-
d d, i6d eniess. ,
is tri&d~ oaieaeh aoae of thi river is oa good quality. It
' S o A r rd*ie, t* o tnlitD% l'rh e itiltffirr the ~aim-
ir aniiica, iSt piAL he fMirge is fine







Ts TOQWfn, RIVERS, LAES. &c.

* ..,. -.. .. ." .... .'. .:., .. : ;:,, ,:* -. .,',(5,. f; ..S-f ... t .f i' ,'< ,i,'>. ., ..... i:.S^ sif-
4.,. .U ', .. ..* 'i $ !: ii. .
.. .- .*. *-. :':

TOWNS, RIVEtRS LAKES, 80IL, AND.
[..'. PRODUCTIONS;




Thd tert.MEary s, whichh Tomin at present the northern
boundary bof East Florida, i navigaMble fr sixty mae r y
~*ukt~4i....;t S Ir -6, yl
Tis fine er, etifit cites ft the Aite
`. j" . ;. . .. .: .. *. ,.-: *.'. .. i .. ;. ,,*'
S&ed, takes hits ne m a a rge wamp, or ilie, ca"ed Qua-
iihanake, lying b:etweit the Fliit and Och~mUlgee rivers,
and endrsY itoy 'cfl t*tUi*bie tr-
a iAsI re tt bVa A aidAn a.

i as ate i nih b ieadth atIt mou'i whence it taies a i-
rect course to Point Petre; hereil6 :inrsec bj o a
lu fiBers, an1 aanA mo:ee le .ofrtlii hdlytnd ex-
OingHM i 5l&ttimiWL ai 2r'eit'Wid.f t6oWn of thiiise ae
''k4 aie4wt,"-~, cimrersaj ae roi seeal

t a current oiecar*atefimuch'adinler itf

1 Tfa. e'orelh si ae of this river 'is of gord .quality. ft
18* z tta* fi w4e4, to th e. trt*rtieer; ,utitl6'r the i'"-
inVw w ,UA"e, 1-0d iprIsim. "" tu4rge i[ fine








TOWNS) RIVERS, LAKES, &C.


contiguity to the United States, and serving as a resort for ad-
venturers of every kind, and for every purpose.
From these circumstances arose the town of Fernandina.
Previous to this it had but a few huts erected about a mile
south from the point on the west side. Formerly it was re-
markable only for some wells dug by the English, for the pur-
pose of supplying their cruisers with water; which, however,
they preferred taking from St. Mary's River, when con-
venient.
The harbour is spacious, and secure against the eastern
gales, and may be rendered effectually so against an enemy
in time of war. For this purpose, and that of commerce, as
well as from its contiguity to the Bahama passages, it is en-
titled to much consideration.
SThe town consists of about forty houses, built of wood, in
six streets, regularly intersecting each other at right angles,
having rows of trees (Pride of India) and a square, with a
mall fort of eight guns, fronting the water. Several of these
houses are two stories high, with galleries, and form a hand-
some appearance. In the rear, at a distance between the
town and sea, is a thick wood of large oak ; and s. E. from it
is a handsome site, known as M'Clure's Hill, which, com-
opands the town, and is nearly peninsulated by a marsh.
It was in this harbour that the British men of war and large
transports rendezvoused for the purpose of evacuating East
Florida in March 1784.
,The island is, fifteen miles in length, and nearly three
in itq grptpst brepdth. It has.much good.land, well adapted
to the culture of cotton.








TOWNS, "IlVta S, AiEaS, &c.


The planters reside principally on the western skirt of the
island d-and ase doing well, while the inhabitants of the town
of Fernandina (about 150 in number) are in a depressed
- state; many of them depending upon the bounty of the go-
vernment of the United States for the means of subsistence,
and all looking to the cession of the province with hopes of
an ameliorated condition. On the score of health it would
be soon improved by draining the ponds in the neighboiur
hood; or by making them accessible to the salt water, and
influenced by the tides.
The navigation through the Narrows, for vessels drawing
more than four feet, is intricate towards Nassau River, which
lies eighteen miles south of St. Mary's. From the confuence
of several small rivers it forms itself into one of considerable
depth for twenty-five miles westward, promising at some dis-
tance from it mouth, much advantage in excellent lands, with
an abundance of pine and water, for lumber cutters and rice
planters. Some of these, however, are subject to inundations
in wet seasons. It is the only river in the province that rust,
like St. Mary's, transversely. The bar at Nassau Inlet bu ,
eight feet twter at low tide, and separates Amelia- from
Great and Little Talbot Islands, both small, but fertile. Next
to these comes the Island o Fort George, named so from a
fort being built on it by General Oglethorpe in his attack on
Florida. This fine island was opce in the possession of John
M'Queen, Esq. of Georgia, and afterwards much improved
by John Houston M'Intosh, Esq.; and is now in the posses-
sion of Kingsley, Esq. whose property is much increased
in value.









76 TOWteNS, flTERn LATKE, &c.

Near this is an eligible spot for a fortification to command
the entrance into the St. Johns. This is worthy the atten-
tion of government, when it considers the resources the na-
tion will, before long, derive from the settlement of the
country to which that river leads.
The St. John's is thirty-six miles south of St. Mary's, and
is the principal river in East Florida. In point ol commer-
cial and agricultural importance, as well as grandeur of
seneery, it is likely to become second to none in North
America, except the Mississippi. Its source is not exactly
ascertainred; but no doubt soon will be, by actual survey.
The Indians report, that canoes passed from the Atlantic,
by this river, to the Gulf of Mexico, through lakes Dun,
George, and Mayaco : should this be incorrect, it would re-
quire, at all events, but a small distance of canal to connect
that'Gulf with the Atlantic. The anchorage on the outside
of St. Johnss bar is good ; but the bar is an obstacle to enter-
ing the river, which, however, will no doubt be removed,
in time, by the ingenuity and industry of its new masters.
It lies in lat. 30 17, and is known by the high sand hill
on the south cape, called General's Mount. It admits vessels
drawing ten feet,' and at high water those drawing thirteen
feet, and carries them up 150 miles, as far as Lake George.
Cfitain Mulcaster, of the British engineers, says, he sounded
the bar himself, and found nine feet at low water. The
whole length of the river is computed to be upwards of 300
miles, and it has a great number of tributary streams, many
of whic nay be navigated by small craft.









TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, &C.


From the sea this splendid river takes a course westward,
alteroathy presenting along its whole length a variety
of bluffs and levels worthy of notice by the traveller
as he ascends it. On the north side branches out a
creek called The Sisters, from two hammocks, or small islands,
resembling each other, and so near as to leave a passage
only for small vessels. On the south, at a small distance
from its mouth, runs the river Pablo, by some called Pablo
Creek, which takes a southern course, parallel with the sea
for several miles, when it is intersected by Diego Plains. Its
communication with St. Marks, or the North River, might be
effected by a ditch, or canal, of five or six miles, thus con-
tinning the conveyance by water from Charlestown to St. Au-
gustine.
Oak timber, with which this country abounds, has been
furnished in considerable quantities from this quarter for the
construction of ships for the navy of the United States.
The land in the neighbourhood of Pablo is held in such
high estimation, that many productive settlements have been
made, and are now making. The plantation of Mr. John
Forbes, on which Messrs. Fatio and Fleming now work their
hands, and those of Don Bartolo, Messrs. Fitch & Chairs,
and Mrs. Baker, are the most conspicuous.
No part of the country comes more generally into no-
tice than this, from its presenting some of the largest set-
tlements on the present route from the United States to
the .capital of the province.
,Diego Plains afford the most luxuriant pasture for cattle,








TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, &C.


which thrive there wonderfully; the mast for hogs is very
abundant, and the wild cabbage is found in immense quan-
tities in the adjoining swamp.
The extensive view of meadow, afforded by the open
plains, exhibits a vast expanse of perpetual verdure, inter-
spersed with clusters of small copped trees, surrounding
cabbage swamps; the sea in front to the east, and an in-
termediate line of sand hills in the rear, to the west, treat
the eye to the most picturesque prospect imaginable.
On the south side of the St. Johns, a few miles
from the sea, is a bluff called by some Oglethorpe's,
or Hubert's, on which a small town was settled by
the British, in 1779, who were doing considerable busi-
ness there until the evacuation, when it fell into
ruins, from which it has never recovered. On the im-
portant subject of settling a town on this river, to be-
come, perhaps, the most commercial, if not the metropo-
lis of the territory, the conflicting interests of specu-
lators and land proprietors will clash so much with the va-
rious claimants, that no correct opinion can be formed.
The single hand of government could be applied with
more successful effect and general utility in promoting such
a desirable object by timely direction, or early arrangement,
than the projects of a hundred monopolizing lairds multi-
plied in a ten-fold degree.
The Cowford, so called from the number of cattle which
crossed that part of the river, where it is more than a mile
wide, comes next into notice. The water is here brackish
in dry seasons; but in wet seasons it is drinkable. It is








TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, &C.


twenty-eight miles from the bar, and serves to this day as a
ferry for 4e main, called the King's road, from fort Bar-
rington to St. Augustine, which, with little regulation and
enterprise, can be made serviceable to the public. As to
soil, although sandy, it is here very good. The shores are
level and shoal, extending in some places, where it is three
miles wide, one.or two miles into the river.
In other parts of the river, there are bluffs, from twelve to
fifteen feet perpendicular height 4pm the surface. While
contemplating the beautiful scenery which the shores of this
river present,from the stately appearance of the manolias,the
cypress, the oak, and the pine trees, the appetite may be gra-
Pified by the greatest variety of choice fish, with which its
waters abound; such as the sheep's-head, mullet, trout, bass,
drum, sturgeon, garr, stingrays and cat; fresh water trout are.
frequently caught near the sea, while higher up the river, by
an inadvertent change of position, travellers are regaled with
those of the sea. Oysters and shrimps are also in great abun.
dance, near the mouth of the river, and of the most delicious
kind; to these should be added the store crab, surpassing the
lobster in flavour, delicacy, and substance.
The Catle Ford, says Bartram, has below it a marsh on both
sides, with high oak banks. At William's Point, out of
which issue several little springs, the water is pretty deep.
Near these is Forbes' Bluff, where-- ji t of rush grows, to
bottom chairs, or to make mats; it is. better than the com-
mon three square or bull-rush. This bluff has been very
productive, being covered with oyster shells, on which the
Florida Indians, near the sea coast, chiefly subsisted. He.







TOWWn, RIVERSl LAKES &C.


farther states, that St. Johns is, indeed, a curiosity among ri-
vers. It rises at a small distance from the lagoon, called In-
dian River, somewhere in, or near, the latitude of 27; per-
haps out of Lake Mayaco, which, I have reason to believe,
really exists, and is the head of the river St. Lucia, as 1 was
told by a credible Spanish hunter, who had been carried there
by the way of this last river. From its source, it runs through
wide extended plains and marshes till near the latitude of 28,
where it approaches the goon. It then continues its course,
with a considerable current, northward, and glides through
five great lakes, all of which are very pleasant. Endless
orange groves are found here; and, indeed, in all parts of
the country. Below these the river grows wider, loses its
current, and has in some places none; in others, a retrograde
one; and lower down, it runs again in its true direction.
The banks are very poor land, and exhibit in a number of
places sad monuments of the folly and extravagant ideas of
the first European adventurers and schemers, and the villany
of their managers. The tide does not affect the river very
far up. In many 'places, some extraordinary springs are
found, which, at a small distance from it, on both sides, rush
or boil out of the earth, at once becoming navigable for small
boats, and from twenty-five to forty yards wide. Their course
is seldom half a mile, before they meet the river. Their
waters are so clear, t. to enable one to see a small piece
of money at the depth of ten feet or more. They smell
strong of sulphur; and whatever is thrown into them
soon becomes encrusted with a white fungous matter, the
taste of which is bituminous, and very disagreeable;








.. . a E .. .
and umwhoesozpe.

culetivativ on, an

*I f Ay the country
fpro ortionre


vSj:4 t|^ ^^ ,^ el le for its ancient o iit
. . .. S ..
S.to. .. i" i te is t e r ut "a "c t




.,oie s ,e s y ad .-m. r feo taen rw. 1 tr.
1s antotIe agenda

M Jol'( a.Wqt. spotW rund at

4fl~q $Jq 4t land Fbe, ud l in be i-



-,. .t... t ae.t ~h.. ...f wp c ... tgg in esi. tg a

,.M ~pne; w hba on.. .wk. to.. te bad nma







82 TWN?,I P 3yV.ia ,41 Ac.
Mount Hoe, o called by Mr. Joh Bartram, is a high
shelly bluff, 0 the little lake,. near a fine orange grove,
afterwards settled a an iqdigo plantaion,, He farther says,
that from Mount Royal, (formerly Kean's place,) there is
an chanting prospect of the great Lake George through
a grad avenue, as a narrow reach of the. river ay be
> .. : *. . ...
termed, widening gradual) for about two mida tovards its
entrance into the lake. Near the landing sEands a .mag-
S .. ." . ;. . -. 1; .: : .., IV
nifcent Indian mount, an.d a highway leads from it three
f rth .of .ne,thr .h an ora d ie-oak roves,
tDmui i by oe of palms and ng olia, on the erpe of an
ohlTha rtiAal lake. ,h highway fift rds wide.
S.pn Pappoachiang.the .cp! s you see 04e org a
large and beautiful body of water.. It is oval in its
f~pr, twenty miles long pd fifteen .wide, and about twenty
oe 4pts except at,tbe ,pntr e,he bar ha, osly
taW.y.*.ps t. .qre ae:ral,, sall islada, mostly
igh land, well timbered, ad fertile: one of them is. an en-
tire ,auge grove, wih .gran4 m panolias and palms. On one
qf Ait r was, ong Pmghn cuSious aB hraib t .ana,
ofumli~o aopaA j3 wet 4 thoe is, b o _ai rented with
?^srt.Js-.wwer g pthe river on the

piunf to. te east, sa ,igh forests and orapgegroyve on
tlMqguite, pe .side
ai.T ett.Pctsea ,. previous to the evacuation by.,teo British,
d .P wt ~!eud far pp, theSt- J. ,Te4j t consicnous
ofMhem ot alrepy, epentioenwere ,we r'Etio New Swit-
aerland, r, Jrett's Juliapnn, Bereaford'uMr. Marshall's







ToWSl iniv isE, LAKiis &c. 83

Sdtonia, Mr. Penman's JeridloO Gov. Tonyn's, Captain Bis-
sfetis, es rs. Egan's, Spaldbg's, Forbes', Miller's, Bot's,
Pot's, Gray, and YeUlloley.'. These are all handsome es-
tablishments.
RIaving, according to t heat information in our possession,
proceeaed as far up the St. Johns as there were plantations
Known during the last century, it becomes necessary o take
the tour of the ea coast, and' carry the reader back to the
beautilfl view wEich Tfego Plains afford, on the way from
SL. Johnd to St. Augustine; in pursuing which, you meet
with cabbage swamps, and much good land a small dis-
tance from these plains, at the head of the North River,
S where there wdre some settlements, that formerly produced
excellent i:digo.' This river is navigable for sball craft,
bidn would be unch improved, as 'continuing the iIAn~-tcodb-
lannication by water, if a canal or ditch was cut from it to
Pablo Creek, a distance of only five miles. This is an object
of vast importance to travellers, as well as to the residents of
the country; both would no doubt cheerfullycontri'bfetb-
ward effecting it; and most probably, upon a proper re6ti- -
tion of the advantages in a national point of view, the gfte-
ral government would apply a fund for the purpose of com-
pleting the chain of internal communication with the southern
frontier, which, in case of war, duId become highly impor-
tant. The settlements at present on the road, or those to be
seen from the river, are not of nimch consequence, and offer
very little for the agricultural tourist, until you meet with a
large tract of low hammock, known as the Tmelve-mile Swamp,
running parallel with the coast about ten miles from St.








ToW4ic~fiis~f~~tW3*jVLS te~.


Jolhs,: and at ithe distuise atii&tw,.ee tJh.ee. ad four
from the sea. This swamp is of cEmaid~emat ,stent, and has
been the subject of:- high estimationiwhich, draining would
render of incalculable advantage for planting cotton. or the,
sugar cane, the soil being a vegetable mould ip. layers of va-
riowldepths, loosely strewn upon a foundation. of clay and

It is common, when travelling near the sea, to. hear a hol-
low sound, proceeding from: the footsteps of tbe. hre, which
tends to codiAmn anw opipioni in which pnoms. indulge% that
thewie.s in;Florida siabterraneou niverm,. ".:' ..,.
*tA AwUdil(es front St. Joih areithe remainzu f FlrtMossa,
atwhibch the -advanced guard of General Oglethorpe's force,
was surprised by a sortie from the town, and tended
nmeh to the discomfiture of that General's projects upon the
garrison,which is treated of in another part of these Sketches
PFss.ntbeace i handsomee view of Fort St. Marks, the con-
vent- and church, may be had as you approach, either by
hand or water, the old town of St. Augustine, which comes
nast under our n:etice: .' ... :
StLujugwtim, th capital of East Florida-.is one of the most
aaieent towns on the. continent; A North America, and was
dii~d red a- thlteUi8ti of 'August, 1664, from whence its
namae is derived& Don o iLro ddeVadez and Juan de St.
Vicenie were four days on the coast after its discovery, look-
iag'out byiay, A anchoring by night, uncertain by whom it.
wa peeped. Onlanding, a grand .Te Deum was.sng, with
great solemnity, it ties in lat. S9 46b N.ad long. 81 30 W.








TOW s-awlm.ebJ~ 9 .$&. 85

witith WiS irtheiatern etienity opea to the sea, at the dis-
S tdivet 6 f e mile from i-: .. -. :
SfiEfSew, built if the -panis manner, forms an 4blong
af H r tpaallelograin; the streets are regularly laid out;
but fiutibildings iaveno bee.pat-tp to conform strictly to
thlrifnd. The streets ire generally so narrow as to admit
With difficulty carriages to pass each other. To make up for
this Incobveniencd they hwe a: terrace fonmdatiom; and .be-
idgC~aide rend3ri the walking very agreeable. The houses
are built generally of a free stone peculiar to the country,
which, with the aid of an outer coat of plaister, has a hands
some and durable effect. They are only two stories high, ,
thick wall, with spaeions entries, large doors, windowas d.
bile 6t IadI S d igardee 'otteo atchymost cmmbaly stocket.
wit (drage' andiftigtree, iat dsersed with.graperins itS
floeren. .
On entering this old town from the sea, the grandeur 6f
the castle of Fort -St. Mark's presents itself, and imposes a
degree of respect from travellers, upon 'seeing tof~t, forti
feet high, in the modern taste of militaryawnhitectuerseoe&
manding the entrance. It is of a regular qtadrangular fomr,
with fe1t battioms a-wide ditch, a covered way, a glacis, &
ravelin to defendtlhe gate places of; arms, casemated and
bomb-proof; with a water battery next to the sea.-
The works are entirely of bew stone :df a calcareous na-
tire, and peculiar to the country brolzed atd squamated by'
agetad will, with some-Americantingenuity, be justly deem-
ed` bnd of the handsemest in the western hemisphere.i It
mounts sixty guns, of twenty-four pounds, of which sixteen




%_ '7M


86 TownS, kidVftS, LAKES, &c.

are brass, and is caltclated to contain one thousand men for
action; with which, ahd the couriag such a fort should in-
spire, it isg capablcof an'oble defeitce'having, in old times,
resisted some formidable attacks. It is not liable to be shat-
tered by balls; nor does it expose its defenders to the fatal ef-
fects of storm.
From the Fort, southwardly, are the remains of a stone
wall, touching its glacis, built to prevent the encroachment of
the sea; along this is a very pleasant walk, as far as the
market place,'which is opposite to the old government house
in the centre of the town, and separated by an oblong square,
catWid the parade; on which there is a R'oman Catholic
church of modern construction, 'and quite ornamental. In
front of this there formerly stood a handsome and spacious
edifice, built in modern style, by Lieut. Governor Moultrie, for
a State-house, which was hot completed. For 'want of:an'ex-
terior coat of plaister; it' has crumbled to pieces, leaving
not a single vestige of its former splendour. The old go-
vernment house, now much decayed, is'occupied as a bar-
rack for the royal artillery. It leaves the iarks of a
heavy pile of buildings, in th~e Spash siyle, having balconies
in front, galleries and areas on both sides, with several irregu-
lar auditions, we'l codiitried for the climate. Among these
was a look-out, built by Governor Grant, on the western sqm-
mit of the main building, which commanded a full iew of the
sea 6oast, and the surrounding country.
The garden attached to fhe government house is iurround-
ed by a stone wall it was formerly laid out Wth great taste,
II r '' -









If-l q p t of4,T w'4a1Apd iadi^enou^pslant s
th iearooics and. !.!a !
c:"as ^,9the yt rpic t1 at .~il states; asuh a as the
s it, plantajE p'le n P hve ,.l sugar can;
I h Jt A ,FflemotttY i ti 1t1of the soil, and
"umeoss" of thec" .
I From the parade, environed by orange trees, the streets
extended, sothwardly to some.large stone buildings, one of
wihich- former w Franciscan convet, nov ~ converted
it bui bt under the Britieshgovernment it was used as
S barracks. In addition, a very handsome range, four stories
h ,g, was constructed of wood, and of materials brought from
0 ew York, and intended for Pensacola; but was detaiaeq
SGoeror Grant These barrack., at the southern e-
r t.b southe .

treita of te penijusulai c, theown t isq w ibutor
I an ele iit a ~egdage, o rt, r bt re ba; anT now e it
ionly the stacks of chimneys, of which the bricks appear as
perfect as they did h u century past, notwithstanding their
S constant exposure to wind and weather.
In a course westward from these vestiges of royalty, are
streets leading to a bridge, ormerlj of wood, but now of stone,
cromsn a small creek, running parallel with the sea, on the
east side, and St. Sebastians on the west: over this are seve-
,: 'i. : .".-'! ;.i-, :. .* :i, ". ,
ral valuable and hghly improved orange groves, and several
redoubts, forming the south and western lines of fortification.
. .' .f '' .. % ."' "' I .
Near this bridge, in the sam street with the government
house, is the burying ground of the protestants, where stood
.* ... .. ,,' .
an episcopal church, with a handsome steeple, of which not
a vestige remains.
Before the entry of some of the houses, built by the Spa-







48 8tw.4,..
ajardes.,risp a o t a re
commoldy la~ T. aeuT~ i~e ad houses ofl
descriptip ~4th.ton, whij quarter ofa
O p v.... e. v ". . -". -*r 'of.&-.
mile in legtb, agd one quarter in bredthf As it is built
upoq a point of apd, it is, .some degree. Bjlated by the
confux of Matnza River, and St. Sebastiap's Cre by which
means the egress by land must be by the nortliern gte% and
by a bridge and causeway in a western direction, the whole
forms a very picturesque pieceof scngry,, being surround .4
ad by p9Rngogry p$ kitqheg garden r
siithbihJ$!b *li n waBa 'suga wttie f Germns,
"a 4qa$ckiqzr *w 4 apqSt..M sRi ihi the
ame .lips,. was Indin towq, with a chrch .also but it is
., .. : . . .,.1 ..-I L- .,
much to be regretted that nothing of these remains, as they
served if not q. temples, certaiiy as., o;ramental relics.
ThsreFqr Ms fli the. hui. t thist e
sg^lpb lap jahgrjea'k, Ih fnob doubt be
conMrme dbtlT Ainerica govenIiuu 4 itr liberal appro-
priatibns fw relgious purposea,
Althpugb tn;." j.* :.r.M dq. 1 ui;.. i .... .e. .'.

^f t:N ^ N ia far rpk bing
"w ",, I t".'. of. Jn4an* Indiame
EwWn#4^*N !egetls.. atiny in p oatrprJection :
apng ig ..f i, th.alrtichoke. The ore and. $ entrees
p "e .ENtho9t cultiya io, to p #e.d:ce

bricw^t tqipt1*8i Mn a 3 P J r
rksjntfp~ietwikr!j# A itaW~~h drawi not








TOwns, RIVEhS, LAKES, he. 89

"!'' nore than six feet with safety. In common with other bars
in O the eastern shore of East Florida, it is regulated by the
S winds. A strong west wind will make but six feet, and an
east wind I feet of water at low tide. It is surrounded by
S breakers, which are not as dangerous as they appear to be,
S on account of the bar being short. As the spring tides afford
S more water, the gort is approached with greater safety
from March to November, than at other periods of the year,
the stream between the Florida coast' and the Bahama Isl-
ands being very narrow. There is a roadstead on the north
side of the bar, with good anchorage for such ships as draw
too much water to enter the harbour, which is formed by a
neck of land, on the north, and a point of Anastatia Island on
the sonth.
The island of An usatia, opposite Af Augustine, is twenty-,
two miles in length, and separated from the town by Matanza
river, which had an outlet at the southern extremity of the
island, near the old fort of that name; but this, report says, is
now closed by the sands. This island, known as Fish's Isl-
and, from the hospitality of Mr. Jesse Fish, one of the oldest
inhabitants of the province, is remarkable for the date and
olive trees, the flavour of the oranges, the cultivation of his
garden, and for the appearance of the light house, where
signals are made, by a company stationed by government,
for the information of the inhabitants of St. Augustine. The
light house also serves as a land-mark for vessels at sea.
In this island is an excellent quarry of free stone, useful for
building the houses in town. The stone is a concretionr0f
small shells petrified. It is soft under ground, where it may
12







90 TOWNS, RIVERS LAKES, &C.

be cut to mould, but becomes very hard and durable by be-
ing exposed to the air. This island forms the northern
boundary of that remarkable kind of stone; it runs in simi-
lar veins southwardly, along the coast of East Florida,
spreading not more than three miles in any part.
About ten miles south from St. Augustine, after pass-
ing Sebastians, you come to Wood Cutter's Creek ;
forn the road to which was the handsome stone house
and country seat of Lieut. Governor Moultrie, called,
from its beautiful site, Bella Vata. The lands at this plan-
tation were highly improved, and consisted of very good
swamp and highlands. Next to Wood Cutter's Creek,
about twenty miles' distant from the town,'is Matanza Inlet,
always very shoal in its approach to the main land, but
'abounding in sh, particularly of sheep's head and mullet.
From Matmana, by ineans of rollers, a boat may be hawled
bver a mall space of land into Halifa River, which runs, like
it, parallel to the sea; but its source, though certainly not
l"r from St. Johns, is not well ascerbained, although the land
'carriage to it is only four miles. Previous to coming to
biMsquiito Inlet, Tomokee river falls into it: here Governor
St tilre also had a valuable rice plantation; and Messrs.
'Stj'NF ylbr,Pennan, and M'LEan, had lands plantedwith in-
'Eig iNear them, Mr. Oswald, one of the peace maker between
'he Unite& States and Great Britain, had another valuable
fblnishlh t, called Mount Oswald; the sugar cane was
Stthe;t anf 'tie soil found most lunaist and highly
Wt*e* 'ud r tie abhe man1gemnit XftMr. Anderaos, now
of Onoipteir, Sout Carolina. Tmii 4aMe property has







90 TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, &C.

be cut to mould, but becomes very hard and durable by be-
ing exposed to the air. This island forms the northern
boundary of that remarkable kind of stone; it runs in simi-
lar Veins southwardly, along the coast of East Florida,
spreading not more than three miles in any part.
About ten miles south from St. Augustine, after pass-
ing Sebastians, you come to Wood Cutter's Creek;
-' on the road to which was the handsome stone house
and country seat of Lieut. Governor Moultrie, called,
from its beautiful scite, Bella Vsta. The lands at this plan-
tation were highly improved, and consisted of very good
swamp and highlands. Next to Wood Cutter's Creek,
bout twenty miles'distant from the town, is Matanza Inlet,
always very shoal in its approach to the main land, but
abounding in fish, particularly of sheep's hoad and mullet.
From Matanza, by means of rollers, a boat may be bawled
over a small space of lind into Halifax River, which runs, like
it, paraflel to the sea; but its source, though certainly not
Tar from St. Johns, is not well ascertained, although the land
carriage to it is only four miles. Previous to coming to
Idusquito Inlet, Tomokee river falls into it: here Governor
M oiutr also had a valuable rice plantation; and Messrs.
'iti,'rayor, Penian, and M'Lean, had lands plantedwith in-
diguitNear them, Mr. Oswald, one of the peace makersbetween
the United States and Great Britain, had another valuable
establishmentt called Mount Oswald; the sugar cane was
ete fthre, and the soil found most luxuriant and highly
rtOdutiiv th&lr the able management of Mr. Anderson, now
of C*oo tin South Carolina. Th is valuble property bas








TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, &C.


shelly bluff, having three solid stone wharves, which a little re-
pair would render of immediate service. There appears near
this old settlement, a conflux of three rivers: on the north, Hali-
fax; on the south, Hillsborough; and in the centre, running
nearly west, Spruce Creek. The land in this quarter has
always had the character of being rich, and adapted to the most
advantageous culture. It is nowfwned, as has been stated,
byJudge Hull. Messrs. Perpall, M'Hardy, Bethune, Stubbs and
others, have plantations contiguous. There is in the rearofthe
town an extremely valuable hammock of level land, extending
itself north and south about six miles in length, and about one
half that in width, having an excellent assortment of timber.
This part of East Florida will, in all probability, attract the
southern planters, whose experiments in cotton have met with
such. uneampled success in the neighboring states; and
whose resources will enable them to extend their agricultural
pursuits to the more fertile tracts which will be found, for
the purpose of raising sugar, improving the vine, and of at-
tempting the cultivation of tea, coffee, and cocoa. If these
latter can be produced in the North American Continent suc-
cessfully, how happy must every American feel, in contem-
plating the advantages of so important a link in the chain of
independence, as those luxurious products must afford; and
that, in any state of political commotion, they may be derived
from their own joil. What is to prevent this, under our libe-
ral and enlightened government, devoted to the happiness of
its citizens of every class, without distinction ? To the indus-
trious poorer classes, ease and competence can no where be







TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, &C. 93

more readily obtained. Corn, potatoes, and conti, (or arrow-
root,) are easily raised; and as td oysters and fish, they are so
abundant that, as some writers have termed the Banks of New-
foundland the kingdom of the latter, this.may be considered
the republic of both. Fit, says Romans, may be taken with
pointed sticks in the lagoon of Aise, or Idian River. This
River has nothing very remarkable; the tide falls a foot and'
a half at the bar. It runs parallel with St. Lucia, (and in
s6me parts, within two miles of it,) to latitude 27 20, where
there is a mouth, or outlet into the ocean. This mouth can
seldom be entered by any vessel that draws above six feet wa-
ter. Before it, in the sea, are two bars: the inner one has
. about ten feet water in summer time, the outer one seven-
S teen. The latter is about four miles from land.'t
The sand before this entrance, Romans says, is a fine white
quicksand, of a peculiar nature. He states that he anchored
several times within three or four leagues of this mouth, and
not above once or twice without having his cable eaten
through in the ring of the anchor; sometimes he has preserv-
ed the anchor by a single strand only. He had, at various'
times, lost six or seven anchors, and some large grapples, at
this place; yet there is no where any foul ground, or, in other
words, rocky bottom, in the vicinity. He supposes that this
fine quicksand,having sharp angles, by continual motion,chafes
and frets the cable through, which is generally done in less
than twenty-four hours. I have been informed, by more re-
cent accounts, that the bar at tfneatrance has six feet water
in winter, and ten feet in summer.




_I_~


9Q. TOWNS, RIVERS, LAKES, &C. *

The lands in this quarter have been held in high estimation
for cotton, bearing hammock and live oak; particularly by the
surveyors'and officers under the British and Spanish govern-
ments) who took up considerable quantities.
The period'of rendering these lands productive will short-
ly arrive, when the policy of European governments can no
longer prohibit the cultivation of the plants just referred to,
on account of its interfering with their parent or insular pos-
sessions-when the vine and the olive will also thrive. Ham-
mock lands,of tast extent, and great fertility, are met with from
Indian River to the Cape; 'particularly about Fresh River;
and there is a tract of it thirty miles long on the banks of the
Indian River.
From thi~ihouth of the lagoon an island stretches to about
the latitude 26 55, where there is another mouth, or inlet,
called Hobi, by the Spaniards; and by- the'English, Jupiter, or
Grenville. This island is thirty-nine statute miles long. Twen-
ty-four miles from its north end, are several high cliffs, form-
ed of blue stone; these are the first rocks that lie high out of
the water along the American beach. They are placed at
about high water mark; and a small ridge, or reef, runs off,
sloping from the northernmost one. About nine miles further,
tbwardsHobE, and also at its entrance, there are a number of
other ridges, of very solid, hard rock; all of which, particular-
ly those most to the north, are excellent land-marks for sea-
men going south. On the beach are always:to be found a
greatnumber of pieces nish cedar, originally cut for
the use of his Catholic M ri's ship-yards on the windward
rivers of Cuba, but are driven, by land floods, into the Baha-







t OWN, lVERS, LAKES, &C. 95

i a, channel and Gulf Stream, whence the frequent east wimds
force them upon soundings, and so on this beach. Very few
pieces are found either, north or south of this. The island is
indented onthe west side,almost regularly,into pointsand bays.
Fresh water may be obtained by digging in almost any part
of the beach. A few spots of hammo4c, or upland, are found
, on this island. During the season, the loggerhead turtles land
here in vast multitudes, to lay their eggs; which the bears,
led by instinct, or otherwise, dig up. 'They are so expert at
digging, that they sometimes make wells for their supply of
water. They sometimes fell the wild pine, which, from its
structure, generally contains a considerable quantity of rain
water, preserved in a fresh sweet state. So. vigilant are
the bear, that the turtle seldom leaves her nest above a quar-
ter of an hour before the eggs are eaten. If a traveller chooses
any of this provision, he is obliged to watch the coming of the
turtles. At times, when we had some of these eggs, I have seem
the bears approach to within five or six yards of our camp ; but
this stretch of boldness generally cost themaiheir lives.
About six miles from the mouth ofHobd on the edge of the
sound, in a direction N. s. w. is a .hill, called the Bleach Yard,
from its appearing like white spots. This is a remarkable land-
mark, and the first of any note on the coast from the hills of
Neversink.
From the mouth of the river south, the sound is cut into
threeibranches, by means of two peninsulas of-mangroves,
divided by their lagoons, from the main island. The branch,
which disembogaes itself at Hobi, is shallow, and full of op-







TOWNS, K VERS, LAtES, &C.


ter banks; it is about fourteen miles long, and admits vessels
drawing five feet water.
This inlet, like others on this coast, is subject to be closed,
but.is easily opened by a little digging, and thus affords an im-
mediate and serviceable channel; it was shut for some time pre-
vious to 1769, and subsequently open for many years. Fertile
land is found in less proportion in the interior of the peninsula
south than northerly.
The coast from Hobd to lat. 25 44 is all double land, or nar-
row necks between the sea, having rivers and lagoons, some
of which are fresh, with large bodies of improveable"marsh
land.
Between Bald Mount and the Bleach Yard a Spanish ad-
miral was in 1775 cast away with fourteen valuable ships.
Report says, that after violent storms, pistareens have been
frequently found on the beach, which were supposed to
be part of their cargo.
As the traveller leaves the parts of the province which
were formerly cultivated by the British, uncertainty in the
accounts as to the exact state of the interior of the peninsula
becomes greater, narrowing towards the southern points,
which the Indians represent as impenetrable; and the sur-
veyors, wreckers, and coasters, had not the means of explor-
ing beyond the borders of the sea coast, and the mouths of
rivers. Romans' account, therefore, appears to be stamped
with more authenticity than is derived from any other-source
that has met the public eye. St. Lucia River lies, according
to Romans, one mile seventy-four chains and seventy links
s. w. by s. from the Great Rocks, is fifty-four chains eighty-
wt




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