Title: Account of the first discovery, and natural history of Florida
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Title: Account of the first discovery, and natural history of Florida
Series Title: Account of the first discovery, and natural history of Florida
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Creator: Roberts, William
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5


OF THE


FIRST DISCOVERY,



A- ND



NATURAL HISTORY


OF


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WITH A

Farticular Detail of the several
4" i


EXPEDITIONS and


P DESCENTS made on that Coaft.


Collected from the beft Authorities
By WILLIAM ROBERTS.


Illustrated by a general Map, and fome particular Plans, together
with a geographical Defcription of that Country,

By T. JE FF E R Y S, Geographer to His MAJEST Y.




LONDON:
Printed for T. JE FF E R s, at Charing-Crofs.
M DCC LXIII.
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AN ACCOUNT


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T H E
THE

PUBLISHER's PREFACE.
T H E Geography of Florida being but imperfectly known to the
generality of this nation, and, as it is now in our poffeflion,
a more perfe6 knowledge thereof would be of the greatefl service to
fuch shipping as may be fent to that part ; the Publifher prefumes
to offer to the public the following account of it. He has been en-
couraged thereto by many of his friends, who have been pleaded
to favour him with federal helps for that purpose. For this realbn,
he imagines that the reader will find this geographical description of
that extensive fea-coaft, determined to a much nearer degree of accu-
racy than any yet extant, as he has collected and digefted it, with
great care and labour, from a considerable number of original Spa-
niJh and French charts, found on board several different veffels (which
were made prizes) belonging to thofe nations, and which were com-
municated to him by the gentlemen in whole poffeflion they were.
He was alfo affified by federal curious remarks made by gen-
tlemen who navigated in that part of the world. He has been
more particularly induced to publish it now, fince whatsoever can
affift the navigation of that coaft muff be of the greatedl utility at
this juncture, when the settling of that country is under the confi-
deration of the government, and many veffels fitting out for that
part. If he has in any part succeeded, he hall eftcem himself
happy, and his labour well employed ; but, if otherwise, he hopes,
this performance may incite fome other person, who may have bet-
ter helps and greater abilities, to retify the errors, and render fuch
a defirable piece of service, more perfect, to his country. He
moreover flatters himself that this work, though it may, in fome
particulars, be defective, yet will be of the greatest ufe, ti!l movie
accurate flrveys can be made; and, in the mean thne, in fjme nmea-
fure, affift thole gentlemen, who may be employed by the govern-
ment for that purpose. Upon the whole, he humbly fubmits this
work to the public, hoping they will accept it with their ufual can-
dour, and pardon the deficiencies; as it was undertaken for their
fervice, by
THOS. JEFFERYS.
A z








r iv I


THE

AUTHOR's PREFACE.

F Lo RI D A being an acquisition likely to become of much fu-
ture ufe and consideration to us, as Britons, it was thought a
proper fubjea of prefent animadverfion. The reader is dclired pre-
vioufly to take notice, that we confine the name of Florida to the
traa of country lately ceded to us by the Spaniards, this appella-
tion formerly including a much greater portion of coaft and con-
tinent, and many regions which are now called by other various
titles : But we hall limit our observations as nearly as may be com-
patible to the above diflinaion ; and, if we are sometimes carried
farther, it nmuf be attributed to the neceffity that a fcene of aLion
extended into the neighboring provinces of Georgia, Carolina, Lou-
ifrana, &c. parts of the ancient Floriaa, hath laid us under of doing
fo. The reason we chufe to avoid touching upon there laft men-
tioned tracts but as little as poffible, is, that they are sufficiently
known already; or, at leaft, enough to raife every improvement
and advantage that resolution and industry can invent: Whereas
the parts we are now about to endeavour at giving a description of,
have been hitherto but little known or considered; and, indeed,
have only been very lately made of consequence to us, by being
become our own. It might be looked upon as impertinent, per-
haps, to dwell upon fo trite a fubje6t, as the mutual benefit accru-
ing both to the mother country, and our American colonies, from
the multifarious commerce carried on between them, a topic fo well
known, and fo often treated of: But it may not be amifs to con-
fider the particular benefits and conveniences which may accrue
from'this new increase of territory, and what purposes it will f. rve,
which cannot be effeced by our more northern colonies, which now
form








THE AUTHOR's PREFACE.


form one continued train along the whole eaflcrn-fide of nMrAh.-
Anrerica, without interruption, as far as the C.pe c/'Florida.

OF this prodigious extent of land we fall find but a fmall part
tolerably peopled, excepting the countries bordering upon the lea ;
and, indeed, it mufi be acknowledged, that the EL'g/~7', have alwavi
reglected the mofl obvious method of putting them in a different
condition. They have, indeed, employed themselves in driving
aw ay the ancient inhabitants, and seizing upon their native foil, out
have never taken ai y other method of increasing the number of ci-
vilized inhabitants, unlefs it be that of encouraging multitudes of
Brifitjh, and fome few other European people, to fettle in there
colonies ; which, however, tends to impoverilh our own country of
its inhabitants, and can, at beft, but flowly furnifh a suitable in-
creafe of people, and thefe too, for ages, expofld to the depreda-
tions and incursions of the favage, and, in fad, injured former
polLifflrs.

FOR, in fpite of all that the inconfiderate or vicious may pretend,
wherever a tolerably juft apprehenfion of the Divinity hath prevail-
ed, the more noble and generous have been the exertions of the
human foul; finer, and more exalted impreffions, have been called
forth into action, in proportion as the mind hath been imbued with
true and vigorous notions of a divine agent ; and, on the contrary,
whether we view the unenlightened Savage, who roams over the
deferts of Am'ri:a, the native of inbred cruelty and malice, or look
upon the European kingdoms, molly darkened with a more polilh-
ed perverfion and fupcrflition, we Ihall find th:t this departure from
truth, and their depravity of opinion in matters of religion, debates
and enflaves mankind, bringing them under fubjedion to the worfl
of the patfions, fuch as fpread havock and delblation throughout the
world.

NATURE and experience both point out a method to make the
Savage inhabitants of our new acquisitions, by fwift degrees, our firm
friends, and that is by the cement of intermarriage with their women.
Was







vi THE AUTHOR's PREFACE.
Was fuch an expedient to take place, inforced by proper rewards and
bounties, to every European or American fubject of Britain, who
should marry an Indian woman, there Would foon, from the cer-
tain tendency of this circumilance, result the happy consequences of
uniting the Indians into one people with ourselves, and pave a way
for the reception of our pure religion among them, by the gentle
method of familiarity, and frequent intercourse. We need not
' take much pains to prove the certainty of this argument, fince the
tye of marriage is the band of nations, which, continually renew-
ing connexion among people regulated by the fame laws and cufloms,
takes all, more or lefs, in fome manner, kindred to each other,
and perpetuates and fpreads this relation through every feparate
late; which, were men, on the contrary, only to match with their
own nearest of kin, would be fplit and divided into as many fepa-
rate communities as families, and fo, moft probably, the mutual
love and charity, fubfifting, in fome degree, in the breaft of every
individual of the fame country for each other, would be almost en-
tirely loft, or confined to much narrower limits than at prefent.
What confusion and mifery might be introduced into the world by
fuch an alteration as this, may be gueffed at from the horrible wars
and devaftations that happen every day between different nations,
which would be healed before breaking out into a6ts of violence,
was there fuch a relationship traceable among them.

THIS method of civilizing barbarous nations, and blending them
into the common mals, hath been fallen upon, either from reason
or natural instinct, by almost every great polity, efpeciallv the more
refined ones, at all periods; and perhaps the BritiJfi nation is alone
to be excepted from this general rule, whofe colonies have fojourned
to long among the Indians without mixing with them. This may
teem the more extraordinary, as we commonly observe foreign
inhabitants of other parts of America to propagate from the natives,
whofe countries they have conquered and planted.

ANfr it is certainly much to the interest of Britain, that Florida
shouldd be well overfpread with inhabitants, as loon as poffible, from
a consideration of what good consequences will follow from this
circumib nce.








THE AUTHOR's PREFACE.


ccuirtnftance. Whoever will perufe the annexed map with atten-
tirq, will find that Florida is not deflitute of fine harbours; that
the peninsula is interfected with arms of the fea, that form, as it
were, fo many canals, dividing the land into a great number of
illands, between which a way communicates through the peninsula,
from the Gulf of Florida to the firaits of Bahama, capable of being
navigated by large veffels. This paffage will greatly facilitate our
navigation to the aforefaid gulf, either for the fafetv of trade, or to.
annoy an enemy in thofe parts, either French or Spaniard, at the
fame time that it may be kept fhut against all foreign intrulion,.
through the fame channel, by a proper force conveniently flationed
in it. How desirable fuch a shortening of time and way muff be,
the reader may be convinced, by considering what a firong current
fets to the northward, through the traits above-mentioned, which
renders the circuit about this cape very tedious, as well as dange-
rous, in many circumstances; and that, by making a suitable ufe of
this convenience, we may, in war-time, turn all thefe disadvantages.
upon our enemy.

WE are fenfible that the poffefion of the Havana would bealways.
able to obffruc the return of the rich Spanjif fleets home to Europe,.
with treasure from Peru and Mexico, which, without doubt, was
one concurring reason for the late conqueft of Cuba : But, as iftas
been again given up by the late treaty, it remains to be considered,
whether the coaft of Florida may not be made, in a great measure,
as diltrefsful to them, on fuch occafions, as that of Cuba? With
regard to the meer direction of the land, it should feem not to be
lefs fuited to this purpose, because thefe Spanijh hips are obliged to
fetch a compafs as clofe under it as they can, in order to get a wind
large enough to carry them sufficiently eaftward to fall down upon.
Cuba, where there is a general junction made of their several fleets
bound to Europe, after which they fail together through the traits
of Bahama. On the eastern fide of Florida, which, with the range
of the Bahama-/lfands, forms thefe firaits, we, as yet, know of
no harbours of any value, nor at all fuited to receive hips of force;
and, therefore, it feems by no means calculated for the ufe of inter--
cepting the Spaniflh treasures; but, on the Wellern Ihore of this;
7, peninsula,,








vili THE AUTHOR's PREFACE.
peninfula, lies the fine harbour of Spiritu delSanto, capable of hold-
ing, it is faid, all the navies of Europe, and, to the north-well of
this, on the continent, the harbour of Penjacola is fituated very fafe
and capacious alfo; both there, when properly occupied and forti-
fied, will prove annoyances to vexatious to the Spanijh fettlements
about the Mijfiippi, that it will be impoflible for them to tranfport
the treasures and produ&s of their American dominions into Europe,
in any tolerable quantity. And, was the whole chain of Britifl
provinces, from Newfoundland to the Cape of Florida, tolerably
peopled, Britain would, at all times, with the affiftance of its navy,
be able to check and control the power of the French and Spaniards
in the American world, and fpeedily to restore tranquillity to its own
fubjeds in every part of the globe; for, if the finews be cut, the
limb of courfe muft fail.


^^@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@i@@
DIRECTIONS for placing the PLATES.
Map of Florida, to front the Title. Page.
Plan of Penfacola, 9
View of Penfacola, -
St. Jofeph's Bay, -
Bahia del Efpiritu Santo, 17
Town and Harbour of St. Auguftine, 24
@ @@*80@@@@ @940@@ @Z @@oe 0 @0606@O@


ERRATA.

Page 4. line 29. for Porta, read Punta.
Page 22. line 18. dele In this river Soto landed in 1539.


THE










C ON T


A Ccount of the firft Difcovery,
and Natural Hiflory, page i
Boundaries, I
Firft discovered by the Englifh, 2
Climate, foil, and produce, 3
Animals, 4
Natives, 4
Religion and Government, 5
Cufioms, manners, and councils, 6
Economy, and burials, 7
Priefts, their functions, 8
A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT
Barra de Matanzas, 24


BAHIA, or BAYS.
Ayamonte,
Barraderas,
El Canuelo,
Carlos,
Efpiritu Santo,
Honda,
El Palmar,
La Roque,
St. Andrew,
St. Jofeph,
St. Jofeph,
Santa Rofa,
Tampa,
Boca Grande,
Boca Ratones,
Cabo Efcondi&o,
Cabo Canaveral,
CA Yo s.
Anclote,
Bifcayno,
Chequimula,
Efcrivano,


23
23
25
'7
16
20
22
23
12
lb.
16
12
17
18
22
12
23

16
21
20
20.


E N


S


Efpiritu Santo, pag
Huefo,
Largo 6 de Doce Leguas,
Marques,
Les Martyres,
Matacumbe,
Mucaras,
Palem,
La Perida,
Playuelas,
Ratunes,
Las Tetas,
Tivanos,
Vacas,
Vivora,
ISLANDS.
Dogs,
St. Anaftatia,
Santa Rofa,
Tortugas,
Laguna del Efpiritu Santo,
Portland Race,
P-UNTA, or POINTS


2I
e 18

21
20
i8
20

21
20
21
2 I
21
22
21
20
20
20

13
24
II
i8
18
21
.


Affes, 17
Florida, 18
Janche, 18
Meneffes, 14
Rios, or R VERS.
Amazura 6 Mazuro, 16
Anades, 14
Apalache, 14
Apalachicola, '1I2
Ays, 22
Lahuitas, 12
Califtobole, 13
Carolinian I5
2 Chata









C O N T E N T S.


Chatahofpa,
Chatahouchi,
Flint,
Jega 6 Goga,
Jobe,
Matanzas,
Mofquitos,
Ogelagena,
Pedro,
Perdido,
Santa Cruz,
St. Juan,
St. Marco,
St. Martins,
St. Sebaftian,
Seco,
Tocobogas,
Vafifa,
Vines,
Vitches,


page 13
12
13
22
22
24
23
14
16
8
22
24
24
16
24
22

15
.13
26. i


EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS.
Apalachicola, o 13
Ayavala, I 5
Diego, 25
Mufa, 24
Penfacola, 9
Picolata, 15
St. Auguftin, 24
St. John's, ib.
St. Jofeph. 12
St. Juan, 25
St. Mark de Apalache, 14
St. Matheo, 25
S INDIAN SETTLEMENTS.
Alochua, I5
Afpalaya, 14
SAttafees, 13
SAtimucas, 15


Ayavala, page 14
Cahuitas, 3
Capola, 14
Chataouchi, 13
Cullomas, 13
Cuffetas 13
Echetos, 13
Euchi, 13
Hogolegis, 13
Jafkegis, 13
Jurla Noca, 1j
Machalla, 15
Nuva Alla, 15
Ocon, 14
El Penon, 23
Pueblodel CaffiqueSebaftian, 22
Pueblo Raton, 18
St. Matheo, a5
St. Pedro, 15
Savanas, 13
Utoca, ". 15
\Veftos, 13
Yapalage, 14

EXPEDITIONS and DESCENTS.
John Ponce de Leon, 25
Luke Vafquez of Aylon, 27
Pamphilo Narvaez, 28
Ferdinand de Soto, 33
Rene Landoniere, 8
Dominique de Gourgues, 83
Sir Francis Drake, 85
Captain Davis, 88
S firfl, 88
Colonel Moor's second, 89
Captain Henry Jennings, 89
M. de Chateaugiie's, 90
General Oglethorp, 92
THE













AN ACCOUNT OF THE


FIRST DISCOVERY,

AND

NATURAL HISTORY

o F


FLORI D A.

TH E country called by the Spaniards FLORIDA, and which
they have ceded, by the late treaty, to Great Britain, ex-
tends by their accounts, according to the moft accurate
observations, from about 25 deg. 6 min. to 39 deg. 38
min. North latitude, and its moft Eaftern coat lies in about 81 deg.
30 min. Weft longitude from London: its whole length being
nearly 000o Englirh miles, but the breadth very variable. They
extend it on the North to the Apalachian mountains, where it is
very narrow, and make the River Altamaha the boundary between
it and Georgia, by which they-take in the whole country of the
Lower Creek Indians. On the North-weft, they separate it from
Louijiana by the Rio Perdido. To the Eaft it hath Georgia, the
Atlantic Ocean, and the channel of Bahama, or Gulf of Florida :
To the South, the Gulf of Mexico. Though the Spaniards gave
B the








NATURAL HISTORY


the name of Florida to a much greater extent of country than that
which we confine it to, calling all the coaft lying North of ttie
gulf of Mexico by that appellation; yet the Engl/ih were the firft
difcoverers of this continent; for Henry VII. King of England,
having determined to find out the North-weft paffage to Cathay
and India, took into his service Scbajlian Cabote, a very able mari-
ner, and fitted out two caravals for him in 1496 ; the account of
which we hall give in Cabote's own words.

BUT after certain days, I found that the land run towards the
SNorth, which was to me a great difpleafure. Nevertheless,
failing along by the coaft, to fee if I could find any gulf that
turned, I found the land fill continent to the 56th degree under
Sour pole: and feeing that there the coaft turned toward the
Eaft, defpairing to find the paffage, I turned back again, and
failed down by the coat of that land toward the equinotial,
(ever with an intent to find the faid paffage to India) and came
to that part of this firm land which is now called Florida, where
my vi6tuals failing, I departed from thence, and returned into
England."'

EIGHTEEN years after this discovery of the continent by Sebaf-
tian Cabote, John Ponce of Leon being discharged from his govern-
ment of Borioucna, now called Porto Rico, in which he had ac-
quired great riches, fitted out two carravals, in order to difcover the
iflands of Bcisca, in which, the Indians affirmed, was a spring,
the virtue of ~ hofe waters.was to reftore youth: Having wandered
in vain for fix months, he came by accident to the Biminis, and
discovered the land of Florida, -in 151 z, on' Erler-dayi which the
Span.iard/s call the Flouzrfl.ing day of Pajcha, and from thence gave
it the name of Florida.

A COUNTRY fo extensive in latitude muft be fippofed to vary
somewhat in point of air and climate, but it may, upon the whole,
be called very warm, though the great heats in the Southern parts
are much allayed by the cool breezes from the Tea; and fuch as
are more inland, towards the North, Ted a little of the roughnefs
of








OF FLORIDA.


of the North-weft wind, which, more or lefs, with its chilling
breath, prevails over the whole continent of Northern America,
and is observed to bring with it, and fprend, the inclemency of
froft and fnow many degrees more to the Southward in thofe re-
gions, than the North-eaft wind doth in ours; which, though the
coldeft we feel, yet is of shorter duration, as the weflerly winds
generally prevail here. Severe cold is commonly known in the
Winter months on the American continent, fo low as 34 or 35
degrees of North latitude, which is rather more Southern than the
Straits of Gibraltar in Europe, and vaft (hoals of ice are feen float-
ing, and the fea frequently frozen to a fmall dillance from the
ihore, in the latitude of 44 or 450 North, which are the fame pa-
rallels under which the Southern parts of France lie. This differ-
ence in temperature may, perhaps, in a great measure, be account-
ed for by considering the amazing extent of uncultivated land, co-
vered with forefts, and intermixed with vaft lakes and marches of
ftagnated frefh water, over which the North-weft wind blowing,
meets with no accidental caufe to mollify its rigour; whereas the
smaller continent of Europe is broken, and interfperfed with many
large feas and gulfs of fault water, which having a communication
with the warmer parts of the main ocean, do, by thd motion and
fermentation of their faline particles, greatly mellow and often the
circumambient air impregnated therewith. But, to return: not-
withftanding the climate of Florida is, as we have faid, very
warm, it is not for that reason lefs pure and wholesome; the bell
testimony of which that can be given is the fize, firmnefs, firength
of constitution, and longevity of the Floridan Indians: in all thefe
particulars they far exceed the Mexicans.

THE foil of Florida is remarkably rich and fruitful, frequently
producing two or three crops of Indian corn in the year, and might,
with proper cultivation, be made to bear every fort of grain, &c.
It abounds with all kinds of timber, particularly pines, cedar,
palms, laurel, cyprefs, and chefnut trees; but, above all, faffefras is
found in the greatest plenty ; excellent limes, and plums alfo grow
here in great abundance, with many other fruits of a delicious fla-
vour; vines likewise of various forts are the natural produf of the
B 2 country,







4 NATURAL, HISTORY
country, and the land is thought to be as proper for the cultiva-
tion of the grape, as thofe of Europe are found in general to be.
Cotton alfo grows wild here in great abundance; hemp and flax
are likewise very common. The many rivers with which Florida is
watered render it fertile. The fea-coaft is very flat, fandy, and full
of fhoals: On this level fhore there are prodigious numbers of oyf-
ters adhering to the mangrove-trees, with which the Southern coaft
is covered.

AN MAL food is plenty here, and very good in its kind, particu-
larly beef, mutton, and veal. The country alfo feeds great num-
bers of wine, the flefh of which is very good, there being no want
of acorns, chefnuts, and fuch nourishment as is proper for thefe
creatures. Their cattle have a kind of long black hair upon, them,
fo fine that, with a little mixture, it is thought by fome capable
of being manufactured into hats, clothing, &c. Horfes are alfo
bred here very good both for the faddle and draught, and fo cheap,
that one of them may be purchased for any trifle that is brought
from Europe.

THE wild animals found in. this country are the panther, bear,
catamountain, flag, goat, hare, rabbet, beaver, otter, fox, racoon,.
and fquirrel. The rivers abound with snakes, and alligators. Birds
are here in great plenty, fuch as partridges, jays, pigeons, turtle-
doves, thrufhes, crows, hawks, herons, cranes, geefe, ducks, and
an infinite number of others, fome of which have their plumage
moft elegantly variegated.

AMONG its more precious produ6ions cochineal may be reckoned,.
of which there is both the wild and the cultivated, but the latter is
by far the more valuable. The Indigo plant alfo growth plenti-
fully in many of the Southern parts of this province. Ambergris
too is frequently to be met with on the coaft, from Porta de Janchqe
the moft Southern cape of Florida, as far as to M'exico.

T:IE native Indians of Florida are of an olive complexion,
their bodies are robuff, and finely proportioned; both fexes go na,
ked,









OF F L 0 R ID A. 5
led, excepting that they faften a piece of deer-fkin about their
middle. They lain their fkin with the juice .cf plants. Their
hair is black and long, and they have a method of willing and
twirling it about their heads, fo as to make it look very graceful
and becoming. The weapons which they make uTe of are bows
and arrows, and thofe they manage with great dexterity; the
firings of their bows are made of the fines of tags, and they arm
the ends of their arrows with the teeth of fifles,, or with flones
sharpened. The women are very handsome and well-fhaped, and
withal fo active, that they will fwim acrofs broad-rivers with their
children on their backs, or climb, with furprifing fwifcnefs, to
the tops of the highell trees.

IN point of religion, they are birotted, idolators, worshiping the
fun and moon, and bearing an extreme averfion to all Chriftians;
which indeed is not to be wondered at, fince the horrid cruelties
rxercilId by the -paniards upon the natives of the adjacent island
of Cuba, and other places, even to extirpation, could not fail to ex-
cite the utmoft abhorrence and dread of them in thofe Savages, in-
flead of recommending to them the purity of Chriflianity.

TH E Spaniards, according to their ufual cuftom, charge thefe
people with many vices, in order to calt as fair a colour as they can
over their inhumane behaviour to the Indians, both of this and
other regions, whom they firft butchered, and then represented as
favage barbarians, in order to.palliate the crime, and in fome degree
apologize for Iuch proceedings, as they knew mutf appear shocking
in the eyes of the more civilized nations of Europe. In the pre-
fent cafe, it mufl nevertheless be allowed, that, from the accounts
of all who have had any dealings with them, they. are noted for a.
bold, fubtile, and deceitful people.

THE government of the Fir/':lns is in the hands of many petty
kings, or chiefs, who are called Cafiyques: They are generally-
at variance, and carrying on war againfl each other. But war
is not waged among them in an open manner; on the contrary,
they generally make ufe of furprize, or firatagem, exercising great:
cruelty.








NATURAL HISTORY


cruelty upon fuch as they take prisoners, flaying the males, and
fcalping them. They nevertheless fpare the weaker fex and the
children, whom they carry off with them, and carefully educate.
When they have obtained a victory, they, at their return home,
call together all their friends, and feaft three days and nights,
pending the time in singing and dancing. In their warlike expe-
ditions, they carry with them corn, honey, and maize, sometimes filh
dried in the fun. But when thefe fail, they will feed upon even
the fouleft things.

THE chief marches at their head as they are ranged for battle,
carrying a club in one hand, and a bow and arrows in the other,
his quiver hanging at his back; the reft follow tumultuoufly with
the fame arms. They make their attacks with horrible bellowings
and clamours, not unlike the war-hoop of the Indians of the Six
'Nations.

THEY attempt nothing rally, previously holding a public con-
fultation; they affemble day by day at the hutt of their chief, who
is honoured with a higher feat than the reft. Thefe they enter
in order, according to feniority, and, with their hands thrown above
their heads, they each fing their Ha, be, ya, while the ret jointly
accord with Ha, ba ; after which they all take their feats. If the
matter of debate be of great moment, then their priefts, conjurers,
or physicians, (for they have a fet among them that ferve in this
threefold capacity) and all that are eminent on account of their
age, are called in, and their opinions are particularly afked. Then
the caflique carries round a kind of liquor, like our tea, made by
the infufion of the leaves of a certain tree in water, which is
much valued, not only by them but by the Spaniards alfo, for its
diuretic quality. The chief drinketh firft, after which they pour
out for the reft according to rank.

THEY have a fort of council, confilting of twelve or fourteen
chofen members, fuch as have remarkably diftinguifhed themselves
by their bravery in war, whom they call Beloved, and who have
,: considerable








OF FLORIDA.


considerable influence, upon that account, over their refpedive
clans.

THEIR economy, with regard to the managementand diftribu-
tion of their corn, which is accounted the common ftock of the
public, deserves notice. The crop, which is calculated to ferve
only for half of the year, is colleaed into granaries appointed for
the purpose, and afterwards regularly delivered out to every family
in proportion to its number ; not that the foil is incapable of afford-
ing much beyond what they have oc'cafon for, but they chufe to
fow no more than will ferve them for that term, retiring for the
remainder of the year into the deep receffes of the forests, where
they build hutts of palm leaves, and live upon roots, fi(h, and
wild fowl. They are alfo very fond of the fleth of alligators, the
young of which are delicious, but have a strong mufky fell:
Their meat is dreffed in the fmoak, upon a broiler made of flicks,.
and their common drink is water.

THE common and private people among them are satisfied
with one wife, but the chiefs and petty kings are indulged with
more, though the children only of one of them fucceed to the
father's dignity, which they feem to make hereditary. The burial
of a deceafed king is celebrated among them with great folemnity :.
They place upon his tomb the bowl out of which he was accustomed
to drink, and flick' innumerable arrows in the earth around him,
bewailing his death for three days with fafting and loud lamenta-
tion: the generality of them alfo cut off their hair, as a fingular
testimony of their forrow. Then their chieftains fet fire to, and
consume to afhes all the arms and hou(hold furniture, together with,
the hut that belonged to the deceafed; after which fome old wo-
men are deputed, who every day, during the fpace of half the
year, in the morning, noon, and evening, bewail him with dread-
ful howling, a cuflom that hath been pralifed formerly among.
fome of the more civilized nations, particularly the tJws and Ro-
mans, who frequently hired women to mourn and weep at the fu-
nerals of their friends and relations. The Floridans agree alfo with
the Jews in the cuftopi of their commerce with women, &c.
THE -








NATURAL HISTORY


THEY have their priefts residing among them, whom they call
7aviinas; and much regard is paid to them, for they a&, as was
before observed, in three capacities, as priefts, conjurers, and phy-
ficians. They are cloathed in long robes, made of the flkns of
beats, carry always a grave deportment, fpeak little, live abftemi-
oufly, and take every suitable precaution to preserve the influence
they have gained over the minds of their countrymen. As priests,
they pray, and sacrifice to the fun and moon, which feem to be
the deities they worship. As magicians, they pretend to foretell
the fuccefs of all expeditions, &c. And, as physicians, they bleed,
.bathe, vomit, and fweat the fick, till they either kill or cure them;
in either cafe expecting a reward.


A geographical Account of the Rivers, Bays, and ITands, on the
CoqIl of Florida.

W E fall begin from the North-weftern boundary to take notice
of whatever we can find remarkable in this country, fo travel
down Southward to the Cape of Florida, and up again by the Eaft-
ern fhore, till we come to that part of the coafl which confines
upon Georgia ; after this we fhall- proceed to give a detail of the
federal expeditions, made by European nations at various times, in
queft of discoveries through this trad of land.

THE Weltern limits of Florida are described by D'Anville, in
a South line from the Apalachian mountains, to the head of Rio
Perdido.
Rio PERDIDO (fo named because a Spanf!t flhip was caft away in
it, and all the men lofl) is the moft WefVern boundary on the coat of
Fkrida, towards Louifiana. This river running a course of 70 miles
nearly South-weft, and fometimnes almost due South, form' a lagune
at the mouth, and enters the gulf of Mexico about four leagues
S. W. and by W. from Penfacola.


PENSACOLA








F FLO R I D A. 9
A&co.LA is fituated in -o degrees 25 minutes North latitude.
iv be eftlfide of the entrance, within the harbour, formerly
slitown, confifting of about forty palmetto houi"s, defended
Sia fmau ftockaded fort of about i 2 or 14 guns, but of very little
uie, the inhabitants confifling wholly of malefators tranfported
SI.ibcr from Me.xico.
A..
i.- H '. place was fifth discovered by Pamphile de NIarvas, who
l eded .re in his unfuccefsful expedition to Florida, rome time
M3 *".,de Maldonado, one of Ferdinand de Soto's captains, touch-
t .., and named it Port d' Anclhui. In 558, Don Tri/tan i
S 0.ii:' led it the bay of Santa Maria; in 1693, Don Andre de Pcs
:A. deid to this name that of de Galva, which was the name of the
id .. roy.of Mexico at that time. The Spaniards never call it other-
: ife than the bay Santa Maria de Galhva; for the name of Pen/q-
S coa (which was that of the Indian tribe inhabiting round this bay,
but who were destroyed) was given by the Spaniards to the whole
.province, which they make very extensive.
In 1696, Don Andre d' Arriola took poffeffion of it, and built a
square fort with baftions, which he named Fort St. Charles, with a
church and fome houses.

THE Road.of Penfacola is one of the beft in all the Gulf of
Mexico, in which veffels can lie in safety against every kind of wind.
The bottom, which is fandy, mixed in many places with oafe, is
excellent for anchorage: the lea is never agitated here, because the
'land furrounds it on every fide; it is capable of containing a great
number of (hips, as may be judged from its extent, and by the
foundings which the figures in the plan exhibit in feet, a method
more exad than if measured by fathoms.

THE tides are irregular here as well as upon all the reft of this
coaft. All that hath been remarked is, that in the fpace of twenty-
four hours, the tide ebbs out of the harbour from eighteen to
nineteen hours, and is from five to fix hours flowing bick again;
and the greatest difference that hath been found between high and
C low


Sit


P .'- ,








io A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT
low water is about three feet, on certain days lefs; at other times
without increase or diminution, although the currents are changing
daily, but with no regularity. The winds in all probability being
in fome measure the caufe of this variety.

THE depth of water over the bar, at the entrance of the road,
in the middle of the channel, is never lefs than twenty-one feet. A
fhip that is going in, before fhe comes upon this bar mull bring
the fort of Penxfcola to bear between N. and N. N. E. and hold
on this course until fhe finds the fort on the ifle of Santa R/f bear
E. and 4. E. N. E. from her. She muft then haul up a little to-
wards the main land on the WVet, keeping at much the fae
distance between that and the ifland, in order to avoid the point,
from which a little bank ftretches out pretty far towards the Welt
North Weft.

IF the reef that is to the Weft of the bar breaks, which is al-
ways the cafe in a gale of wind, the breakers may ferve inflead of a
buoy to veffels; but you muft range, on entering upon the bar, at the
distance of a good mufket thot from them, and afterwards fteer
according to the direaions we have juff laid down.

THE currents which make out of the road are sometimes very
brifk; you muft therefore make an allowance for them, left they
fliould run the veffel upon the reef.

IF the course above directed be carefully observed, you will no
where mtet with lefs than nineteen feet and an half water over the
bar, and on the middle thereof you will find twenty feet: lb that
any veffel not drawing more than nineteen feet can enter into the
road when the fea does not run high ; but it is neceffary either to
warp or tow in all thofe which draw twenty feet. It is plain from
hence that men of war of fixty guns may enter, and if they were
-bui t somewhat flat-bottomed, as the Dutch build them, they might
pals every where, though of fl'enty guns, and all above that lize
are urneceiTary in this country.


THIS









OF FLORIDA. :
THTS road hath one inconvenience,. which is, that msnv river
emptying thernlelves into it, great currents are cui'cd thereby ; arni
both canoes and (hallops expuied to run a-grdond in going to ai
fro in the road for the service of the hips ; but as the ground is
only fand they are never flaved. There is, on the other hand, a
very considerable advantage in this road arising from the fame
caufe, which is, that the worm, not loving the frefh waters, doth
not breed here, fo that veffels are never bored by them in this
harbour.

WHEN the French ravaged this coaft in 1719, they destroyed
the old town and fort, which was then fituated on the island
of Penfacola, fince which the Spaniards have erected the new
towni on the ifland of Santa Rofiz, as being more detached and fe-
cure from the Indians. The landing place is within the bay, in
very shallow water, the town being lituate on a fandy fhore, which
is as white as fnow, and can be approached only by very fall
veffels. The bay abounds with great plenty of mullets, and other
fine fifh. The town is defended by a fmall fort surrounded by
flockados, the principal houfe is the governor's; the reft of the
town is compiled of fmall hutts or cabbins, built without any or-
der, as may be feen by the view, which was drawh by a person
who refided here in 1743, and was in the service of the Havana
company, and lent in a fchooner laden with a cargo for this place.
As foon as he arrived at Penfacola, he embarked on board an open
wherry for New Orleans; and failed between the mainland and the
ifle of Dari'hine, the ifles a Corne, aux Vaiyeaux, and aux CtL/s, thro'
the PaJi7' a Guionz into the lake Pontechar/rain, and landed within
four miles of A'Kw Orleans, where, after buying up a great quan-
tity of pitch and tar for the Havana company's ufe, he made great
advantage of 6000 dollars in private trade, and returned to Pefaco-
la; the fchooner having taken in her cargo, with two malts for
the company's ufe, each eighty-four feet long, purfued their voyage
to the Havana.

THE island of Santa Rofa is a very fandy foil, being thirty-three
miles long, extending from Pen/2cola almost due eaft to the bay
C 2 of







12 A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNrT
of Santa Rofa, and is separated from the mainland by a channel,
half a league over, which is only navigable for fmall boats.

THE Bay of Santa Rofa is twelve leagues-we4l-of Penfacola. An
ifland at the mouth forms two entrances. We have no particular
description of this harbour, though it appears by the Spanifh draughts
to be an extensive one.

THE Bay of St. 'fofeph is fituate in latitude 29 deg. 46 min.
about thirty leagues almost S. E. from Penjacola. This bay is
formed by a long narrow ridge which extends from the main-
land in fhape of a C for the fpace of twenty miles, the southern
point of which is called by the Spaniards Cabo Efcondido, and
by the French Cap Cachd. This bay is about thirteen miles long,
and eight wide, and there is very good anchorage in four, five, or
fix fathom water.

THERE are two rivulets which empty themselves into this bay,
one of falt water and the other of frefh; this laIt is a branch of
the Apalachicola river. In the year 1717 the French erected fort
Crevecwur, about a mile to the northward of the freth water river,
but they abandoned it the next year, on the representations made
by the governor of Penfacola, that this bay belonged to his Catho-
lick Majefty. This fort is faid by fome to be lined with ftone,
by others, only made of earth, well defended by pallifadoes; but,
however, all agree in its being tolerably firong, well supplied with
cannon, and a sufficient garrifon. The houfes are very neat and
commodious, and there is a handfome church; but the ftreets fo
fandy as to render it very inconvenient paffing and repafling.

THE Bay of St. Andrews lies even miles to the N. W. of the
Bay of St. 7Jofph, of which we have no particular description.

APALACHICOLA or Cahuitas river rifes in the Apalachtian moun-
tains, and receives on the well fide, about eighty miles from its
iburce, the Chataouchi,-and fifty miles lower down the Euchi
trcek, on the forks of which is a village of the fame name;-
ninety








OF FLORIDA.


ninety miles from which this river receives the Chatahofpa, between
which and the Chataouchi, on the wet fide of the river Apalachi-
cola, are fituated the Chataouchi, Cabuitas, Euchi, WYefos, Cui/omas,
Attafes, /aJkegis, Cufetas, and Ohmulgo; and more to the South,
on the eaft fide of the river, are the Hogolegis, Savanas, and Echetos.
All thefe tribes united are the Indians called the Lower Creeks;
and, though the Spaniards ufed to reckon there people under their
dominion, they have long been the allies and under the protection
of Great Britain. This river is joined by a great fiream, called
by the En/qlif Flint River, which runs from the confines of Geor-
gia, and after a courFe of r5o miles, enters this river about forty
miles fouth of the Cbatahofpa, and 120 miles from the fea, at-the
forks of which rivers is fituated the fort of Apalachicola. Within
five leagues of the fea this river divides into two branches, the
western of which is named Califlobole river, and the fall freth
water river which runs into the bay of St. yofeph is a branch of this
river.

THE river Apalacbicola enters the gulf of Mexico in 29 deg.
43 min. north latitude, and five leagues N. E. from Cabo Efcondi-
do. There is fome difficulty in finding this opening, by reason of
the many iflands and lakes before and about it; and though it is a
noble river, whofe mouth formeth a spacious harbour, from whence
a trade is carried on by fmall veffels to the Havana, yet it hath
not more than the depth of two and a half or three fathoms of
water at moft over the bar; but when that is once paffed, it growth
very deep and large. The tide is faid to flow higher up this river
than into any other on the coaft, fome fay not leis than fifty miles;
though this is not fo much to be wondered at, when we consider,
that the country all round it is one perfed level, and that it feels
the force of a double current, one from the weft and another from
the fouth in the gulf of Mexico. On both fides of this river, near
the fea coaft, live several tribes, called by the name of Apalache
Indians. On the weft fide of the mouth of this river the Spaniards
erected a fort in 1719. On the eaft fide the J. of Dogs extends
along the coaft for fifteen miles. About 22 miles from the mouth
of this river the R. de Vines enters the gulf of Mexico, and even
miles









14. A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT
miles farther the R. de lar Anades falls into the gulf. Ten miles from
hence is Punta del M.nems, the wtcfern point of the Apa'ache river.

APALACHE or Ogdacgena river enters the bay of Apalacbe about
forty miles to the ealtward of ApalaLhicola river, and rifes above 130
miles from the fea, in the confines of Georgia. It is not kn9wn
to receive any river of note in all its course, till near the bay, one
considerable river unites with it. This is a very fine river, and
it; entrance forms a large bay, which has rome il:allows and rock.,
firetching out from the land; but in the middle there is five ia-
thom water. The course into the mouth of th;s river is N. and
within is a good harbour. This place lies N. Wefterly from the
Tortugas, and in the pallge is found all the way navigable found-
ings. A trade is carried on between this place and the Havana by
fall craft On the firft of there rivers are the Tapalage, CapcL;,
lfpalaga and St fyuan, and on the other Ocon and Ayavala. On
the well of the river is fituated the town of St. Mark de Apalache,
from whence the bay alfo derives its name. This, by fome geogra-
phers, is very improperly called Santa Maria d' Apalachia ; it is an
old settlement, and lands exactly in the fame place that Garcilyjo
de la Vega fixes the Port d" Aute' It was formerly very confi-
derable, but the Englijh from Carolina having taken, and, in a
great measure, destroyed it in the year 1704, it never fince has
recovered its pristine ftatc, tho' the Spaniards often endeavoured to
re-ellablifl it. The fort is built on a little eminence, surrounded by
marfhes, fituated on the forks of the two rivers; and at about
two leagues distance from the fort, there is on this river a village
of Apalach/iin Indians, called Santo Yuan, as alf) fonme others in the
neighbourhood. The governor of Santo AM arc; is under the com-
mand of the governor of St. Augtiline, receiving his inftru6tions
in any extraordinary affair either civil or military. The country
is beautiful, being well supplied with wood and water; and we are -
allb informed the country becomes more fertile the higher you
advance into it.

THERE is a road over land from the mouth of this river to
St. Auguflin, which is as follows.
OCON








OF FLORIDA.


OCON is fifteen miles from St. 1Marks, and ten miles beyond is
Ayavalla fort; twenty-four miles further is Mllchalfl, and eleven
miles from that is St. M1Lib,'o; both thefc are situated on branches
of the Rio Vafifa, which is about eighty miles in length, and en-
ters the gulfof M.vhxico fifteen miles S; E. from St. MAl:ks. Twenty-
five miles from St. M31' h o is San Pedro, on the fouth fide of the
river SJn Pedro, which is oo0 miles long, and enters the gulf of
,Mexico feventy miles from St. Marks; eleven miles irom San Pedro
is UToca, and in twelve miles more we come to Nia."il, situated
on the eaft fide of the Carolinian river, the course of which has
not yet been afcertained, but there is very good reafon to fuppofe
that it runs a fouth coarfe into the Rio A.iana. Eight 'miles
from VNuvoi/.!. is A-'hb.',a, and in eight miles more we come to
furla Noca. All thefe places were formerly the ancient fettlenients
qf the. Atimucas Indians, who-were driven from them by the Eng-
i. from CGrolina in 1706, and have fixed their fettlement on an
island to the Eafi of the Rio de St. Juan, about fixty-five miles
S. W. of St. Augulline, and cal their chief settlement Pelb/o de Ati-
mucas. Twenty-fix miles from Jwuria Noca we come to a Spanijh
settlement on the banks of the Rio de St. Jfuan. Though the river
is here only two miles broad, yet it is eight miles over that and
two iflands to Fort Picolata, which is the la t fage, and is thirty
miles diflant from Fort St. Augufline. This road is 188 miles from
St. Marks.


The wef ern coa, of the peninsula of F/orida

BEGINs in about 30 deg. N. and terminates at the cape. It is
more than 300 miles in length, and from 140 to I8o in breadth..
-Being chiefly a low and flat land, it abounds with a great num-
ber of rivers that form a multitude of iilands, and withal leve-
ral lirge bays and lakes, which have not .been dtfcribed nor laid
down \ ith any accuracy in any of the draughts extant.


ij Lc1 r









16 A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT
EIGHT miles from the entrance of Apalachia river the R. Vitches
enters the gulf, twelve miles to the fouth of which is the Rio Fa-
ffi, and nine leagues from thence is the Rio Pedro, almost S. E.
from Apalache river.

EIGHT leagues to the fouth of Rio Pedro lies the Cayos de St.
AMartin ; and between Rio Pedro and the Rio Amafura are the two
fmall rivers of St. Martin and 7Tocobogas. Between there rivers refide
the tribe of Tecobogas.

FROM the Farellon de Pogoi extends a ledge of rocks four leagues
South WVeft; this ledge makes the north fide of the entrance into
the Rio AmaJura.

Rio Amafura 6 Mafuro. The entrance of this river, which is
in latitude 28 deg. 25 min. is ten miles wide, and it is not lefs
than three miles over for above thirty miles up the river. There
are in this river, which in general is very wide, several paffages
between- the iflands to the Atlantic ocean and gulf of Florida.
One leads out through the Rio de Mufquito, in latitude 28 deg.
50 min. another through the Rio St. Lucia, called by fome Rio de
Cruz, in latitude 27 deg. 33 min.; but the principal one is that
which is fuppofed to communicate in a direct channel with the
Rio de St. Juan, that enters the Atlantic ocean Ii 30 deg. 20 min.
about 30 miles north of St. Augtjine. If thefe rivers should
prove navigable for fmall veffels, it will be of great utility to the
Britijh trade, by making the navigation to Penfacola for fome
months shorter than the course which otherwise muft be taken
round by the weft end of Cuba.

Cayo dcl Anclote ferves as the southern land-mark for the en-
trance into the Rio Amafura. This ifland extends twenty-three
miles from North to South along the coaft, at the end of which
is the Babia de San yojefj a place but very little known.

Bahia del Efpiritu Santo. This is a very large and noble bay;
extending above twenty leagues in length, and fix in breadth where
broadeft,









OF FLORIDA.


broadeft, having from five to even fathom water, except at the
eaftern outlet that goes into the Laguna del Efpiritu Santo, where
it is not more than two fathom: there are two large iflands at the
entrance, which form two channels into it. The northern channel,
which is about fixteen leagues fouth of Rio Amafura, has from
ten to twelve fathom water, and the southern channel has three,
five and even fathom water. There is about (even leagues from
the north channel a large bay about fix miles over, and which ex-
tends twenty miles to the N. W.; this is called Tampa Bahia, and
is conjeaured to have communication with Bahia de St. Jofyf:
There is another opening on the north (hore, about twenty miles
from Tampa Bahia, which has a communication with the other
rivers. About nine leagues from the southern channel is a palfage
almost S. W. into Bahia de Carlos. This bay, which lies from
weft to eaft in about 27 deg. o3 min. north latitude, is capable of
receiving the largest fleet that ever was collected in this part of the
world, and may, in cafe of any future rupture, be of great im-
portance to the crown of Great Britain ; for the galleons in their
pafltge from Vera Cruz to the Havana are obliged, by reason of
the N. E. trade winds, to firetch away to the northward, and as
foon as they have made La Stunda, they keep as near the coaft of
Florida as poflible, and generally fall in with fome men of war
that cruize to the northward of the Tortugas on purpose tt> meet
and convoy them to the Havana.

Bahia de Carros is about four leagues S. W. of the southern
entrance into the Bahia del E/piritu Santo. This bay extends
about fourteen leagues almost S. E. from its entrance, and is abL ut
five leagues over inrthe broadeft part: it is very -lhallow, having
at mofi but threelfathoms water; There are several openings about
the bay between the islands, the chief of which communicates with
the Laguna del El~iritu Santo.

THERE are five large islands to the fourth of Bahia de Carlos,
whiclr inhabited by the Mufpa Indians. Twenty-three leagues.
fourth of -the entrance. into the Bahia de Carlos lies the Ptiata de
4jies, in latitude 25 deg. 50 min. being the molt S. W. point of
D all









18 A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT
all Florida. Twenty-fouor'leagues from this point almost S. E.
lies the Punta de Jancbe, which is the moft southern point of
Florida, in latitude 25 deg. 2 5 min. On this point there is a lake
of fre(h water,- and very good anchorage round the Cayos, near the
point.

L iguna del Efpiritu Santo is fituated between the iflands, ex-
tending from north to bfotth about 27 leagues, and is near eight
leagues wide; it has federal communications with the bays on the
weft fide of the peninsula, as well as with the Gulf of Florida.
The principal and befl known entrance is about three leagues al-
mot- weft from the Pinto de Florida, which lies in 26 deg.
20 min. N. latitude. This entrance is two leagues nearly N. W.
and at the end of it, in the lake, are two lhoals and fix iflands,
called the Cayos del Effirita Santo ; this large lake is as yet but
little known.

La Sonda is a very large bank, that extends on the weft fide of
the peninsula into the gulf of Mexice, beginning in latitude 24 deg.
23 min. at the distance of thirty leagues from the peninsula, ftretch-
ing to the northward along the coaft, and having in fome places 0oo
fathom water, decreasing very regularly as it approaches the fhore.
On the fouth part of .this bank are about nine or ten iflands on a
bank, which is dry at low water, called the Cortrgas : they are in
latitude 24 deg. o5 min. North, filrrounded on the S. F. end by
rocks. Round thefe iflands there is very good anchorage from
three to twenty fathom water.

THE CGayo larques confif of orn large and about ten fmall
iflands, furrou ded.on the N. W. fide by a great number of rocks
that extend .to .the N. W. above ten Jeagues. On the eaft fide
is a channel about four miles over of five fathom water: this is
called Soca Grande or the Great Mouth.

ON the La Sonda, north of the Tortugas, there is a very good
fithery, where is plenty of meros and pardos, which are as large,
or rather.larger, and more delicious: than the Newfoundland cod;
and








OF FLORIDA.


and it alfo abounds with great plenty of feals, the fat of which
the Spaniards pay the bottom of their thips with at the Havana.
The Indians of Ratones and the fouth parts of Florida cure great
quantities of this fifh, which, with, the hats and mats they make
of grafs and barks of trees in great perfe&ion, they exchange in
traffic with the Spaniards, who come here from the Havana with
European goods for the ufe of the natives.

THE vafl current of water which fets in with a conflanf and strong
ftream tb the welt upon all the. southern parts of the main land in
the Mexican gulf, as far as the firand of La Vera Crud, returns
back towards the Eaft, between the island of Cuba and the southern
coaft of North America ; and finding no vent till it cometh to Cape
Florida, it is there forced about again from South to North, and fo
runs through this channel between Florida and the Bahama iflands
into the Atlantic ocean.

THE caufe of this continual diverfion towards the North may
be the opposition that this.efflux meets with in its tendency eaft-
ward back from the trade winds, which always blow between, and
a little way without both the tropics, and the westward deCtion
of the Atlantic ocean in thofe parts; not to mention the strong
barricade of the Bahama iflands, which are ranged, as it were on
purpose, to dired and alter the course of this outfetting current.
The navigation upon the extreme parts of Florida is remarkably
dangerous, not only because it is within the course of the trade-
winds, but because the whole thore upon which the current for
the moft part fets is particularly low, flat, broken ground; and full
nine leagues into the fea the water is in many places quite thal-
low, excepting fome winding deep channels in federal parts of it,
which are the causes of frequent shipwrecks; for whenever a thip
falls into one of thefe channels, the very rarely, if ever, gets clear
of it ; because, being deceived by the deep foundings, and'havirig un-
warily entered fo far within the banks, that there is no returning by
the fame way, the veffel muff inevitably be loft. From the confi-
deration of thefe dangers, mariners are obliged to make an allowance
of about five points in the compafs for the current, keeping as
D 2 near









20 A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT
near as poflible to the Bahama fide ; and from fome errour in this
allowance it is that hips are infenfiblv driven too cole upon the
coat of Florida.

THE Ca)os de los Martyrcr are a large chain of islands and
rocks, extending in a circular form about 60 leagues from the Boca
Grande, in 24 deg. 40 min. North latitude, at the dirlance of thir-
teen leagues from Punta Janche to Punta Florida.

A PERFECT knowledge of thefe iflands and rocks would be of
great consequence in navigating the gulf of Florida with safety. The
beft account we have been able to procure of them is as follows.

Cayos de Chequimula are about ten in number, lying in the lati-
tude of 24 deg. 40 min. and extend above eight leagues eaft from
Boca Grande.

Cayo de Huefo is 2 miles in length from Weft to Eaft, and
eight miles to the fouth thereof runs a ledge of rocks: there is a
channel between them having five fathom water. To the eaft-
ward of this island lies the Cayo Pinero and the Babia Honda, clofe
to which there is five fathom water.

THE Cavos de Vacas are a clufler of mall iflands and banks,
which, with the Vivora and Matacumbe, extend quite to the Cayo
Largo, the principal of all the Martyres.

Cayo Largo de Doce Leguas. This is the largest of all the lMar-
tyres, beginning in the latitude 2; deg. and extending from the
fouth point about 13 leagues almofl N. E. On the well fide of it lie
federal fmall Cayos, and along the eaft coat there ranges a bank
which is dry at low water, on which fland Cayo de Evanos, fir-
rounded with rocks; alfo the Cayo Palem and Cayo Ejirivano. To
the caft of this bank there is another, which is alfo dry at low wa-
ter, and between them there is a channel near two miles wide, ha-
ving from three to four fathom water all the way through. Each of
thefe banks range in the direction of the coalt of faid Cayo, and
are









OF FLORID A.


are about ten .-agues long; and without them, to the eastward,
runs a ledge of rocks called the Martyres, at about three leagues
diflance from the Cayo Largo.

Las Tetas, fo named from two hills on it, lies in the latitude of
2 5 deg. 45 min. The channel between this and Cayo Largo is three
leagues over. Almoft a league north of this lies Playmelos in latitude
2 deg. 55 min. being three leagues long; and to the north hereof
are several fmall Cayos, the largest of which is four miles long,
called Mucaras, lying in latitude 26 deg. ; to the northward where-
of are three fmall Cayos in four fathom water. The next is Cays
de la Perida, fituate in latitude 26 deg. o1 min. being even miles in
length. On both fides of this island there are banks running out
a league from fhore, and on the eaft fide is four fathom water.

Cayo de Bifcayno, otherwise called by fome Portland Race, is
fituate in latitude 26 deg. i min. ranging in a N. E. and S. W. di-
reLtion. It i even miles long, and has four fathom water clofe
in fhore. To the North hereof lies the fmall island of

Cayo Ratones, about four miles in length, on which there is an
Indian town, called Pueblo Raton, which is the only settlement
of InAians that we have any account of on the Martyres.

IN the year 1733, a fleet of fourteen galleons, on their return
through the Gu/l of Florida for 0,'d, S/ain, ran foul of the Alir-
tvres rocks, occasioned by the ignorance of the Admiral Don Rode-
rigo de Torres. For one of the captains difobeying the admiral's
fignals, thereby avoided the danger, and faved his flhip; but the
other thirteen were entirely loft, with great part of their treafure:
and, for many years after, thefe wrecks were much frequented
by the Spanih/ and Indian divers, who were often very fucceEsful
in recovering great quantities of dollars.








22 A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT


The Eal? Coaji of the Peninfula of Florida.

BOcA DE RATONES lies in 26 deg. 40 min. North latitude, and
5 leagues to the Northward of Pueblo de Raton. There are
numbers of iflands in this channel. Five leagues to the North-
ward hereof lies Rio Seco, in latitude 27 deg. at the mouth where-
of is ten fathom water; and three leagues to the Northward lies

Rio Jrego 6 Goga, which leads into a laguna full of fmall iflands,
and has several communications with the great Laguna del Ejpi-
ritu Santo. About even miles to the Northward of this open-
ing, there is a remarkable high land, called Ropa Tendida. About
five leagues from the mouth of this river is

Rio 'fobe, in latitude 27 deg. 24 min. this alfo has. a commu-
nication with the abovementioned lake. About ten miles to the
Northward hereof opens the

Rio Santa Lucia, called in fome maps Rio Santa Cruz, lying in
latitude 27 deg. 33 min. This river has a communication with
the Bahia del Efpiritu Santo, and with the Rio Amazura, which
empties itself into the Gulf of MIexico. -4n this river S o landd i
-the year 1539.

Rio de Ays, three leagues North of Rio Santa Cruz, and in lati-
tude 27 deg. 45 min. has five fathom water at its entrance, which
leads into a fine harbour, within which, at about nine leagues to
the Weftward, is fituated Pueblo del Cajfique Sebaflian.

THE Tortolas are a ledge of rocks, beginning in latitude 27 deg.
56 min. in length about fix leagues, which, running parallel to
the coat, reaches to the entrance of a bay called

El Pahnar, fituate in latitude 28 deg. 13 min. This bay is ten
miles in length, lying almost North and South, and in breadth
about









OF FLORIDA. 23
about two miles, having at its entrance ten fathom water. From
hence the coaft firetches to the N. E. forming, at about even
leagues diflance from the Torto/as, the head-land, or cape,
called

Cabo del Canaveral, in latitude 28 deg. 27 min. which is the
Eaflermoft point of all Florida, and is surrounded with rocks, ly-
ing at about two miles off from the fhore; clofe to thefe rocks is
ten fathom water. To the Eafiward of this cape there are three
banks, which extend themselves fix leagues into the Atlantic ocean,
and have channels between them. To the Northward of it alfo
lies El Buey, which is a dangerous bank of rocks, having from ten
to twenty fathom water clofe round it; and to the Northward hereof
lies another fmall bank. The coaft now firetches to the Northweft,
qnd on it is a little bay, called

La Roque, lying at about nine leagues diflance from Cabo del
Canaveral; and, about four leagues to the Northward of this,
opens

Rio de Mofquitos. The mouth of this river lies in latitude 28
deg. 48 min. There is a dired communication through this river
by the Rio Ainazura into the Gulf of Mneico.

THE Mofquitos are a tribe of Indians, inhabiting both fides of this
river. The coaft now runs nearly North and South, and on it are
found

Barraderas, a mall bay, lying in latitude 28 degrees 56 mi-
nutes, as alfo Ayamonte, another fmall bay, in latitude 29 degrees
4 minutes.

El Penon is an Indian settlement on an island thirteen leagues
to the North of Rio de AMoI@iiitos, fituate at the entrance of the
Rio Matanzas, through which there is a communication to St.
Auguflin.

Barra
Iir









24 A GEOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT
Barra de Matanzas has eight feet water on it, but afterwards,
within the river, from ten to 15 fathom. On the North fide of
the entrance of this river is high land, called Torre de Roio.

Santra najlafia ifland is nine leagues long, reaching from the
Barra de Matanzas to the entrance of the harbour of St. Auguflin,
which it helps to form.

St. Augityin lies in 29 deg. 50 min. North latitude: the city
runs along the (hore, at the foot of a pleasant hill, adorned with
trees; its form is otlong, divided by four regular streets croffing
each other at right angles. Down by the fea-fide, about three
fourths of a mile South of the town, flandeth the church, and a
monaftery of St. Augullin. The beft built part of the town is on the
North fide, leading to the caflle, which is called St. :ohn's Fort.
It is a square building of foft flone, fortified with whole ballions,
having a rampart twenty feet high, with a parapet nine feet thick,
and it is cazemated. The town is albo fortified with baftions, and
inclo'ed with a ditch: The whole well furnifhed with cannon.
The harbour is formed by the North-end of S.in'a Ananjafia island,
and a long point of land, divided from the continent by the river
St. Mark, which falls into the fea a little above the caftle. At the
entrance of this harbour are the North and South breakers, forming
two channels, whofe bars have from eight to nine -fathom--water /
over them at low water. On the North and South, without the
walls of the city, are two Indian towns.

THE little fort is situated at the entrance of a river into the Rio
tALftanzar, about four miles South of St. Augtjlin, and at the end
of a marfh. Fort MIefa is four miles North of St. Augu/fin.

Ri; St. Stea/lia.n. This river runs out of a lake, and enters the
Rio Alatanzas a little to the South of St. Augqt'tin.

Rio St. M.Arco has communication with Rio St. nJan. It enters
the iea at the harbour of St. Adguftin. This river, with that of
St. Sebaiiian, forms an island, on which St. Aiuufliin is fituate.









OF FLORIDA.


El Can,:!l'' is a finally bay, about three league; North of St.
A't g','n.

Vigia is a little fcttlement about two miles from El Cmluo.

FORT Diego is situated on the North bank of the Ric s. ., -cc,
about twenty miles from S'. Ar.',.'[.n, in the road from that place
tO 7S ,u,1.

St. Jy'lL,, by fume called St. M3itib.o, is the moti northern Sp.':f
settlement on the Eaft coat of Florida. It it lituate on the .outh-
1ide of the R/.3 S. -. ",:, about nine miles from Fort Gcnr-. Rio '.,:'
St. (','u is a, large riv.r,, near l'ven miles broad at tI-e month ;by
this r'Ncr there is a conm unication, all through the pl. i ;fila, with
the Rio Ay.n,,azra, B,:hi;a del Ef/piri':1: S,.'to, and L,':. '..z del L/i--
riu Santo ; and very probably, by finnll craft, migl ,t be navigable
quite through into the Gui, of MA'xico.



A4n Accountn of the federal Expditions made to Florida, bv
the Englf, French, and Spaniards, from, t:h fif
Di-cvcry of this Cowntry to the prejcnt Times.

E.~\pl'it.i; of 7ohn Pc.ce:' de Lcen.

OiN the 3d of 2liar/i-, in the ycnr i512, 'J:.'., Pence de Lr",
a gentleman of Sain, ihiled with three hips from the port of
S:. Ge I.',!, in th-e island cf Pi ertc Ri;,. He fleered his courfe to
the North-wefl, and, on the eighth d.iy after, made the ifl.nd
Fiego, in 21 deg. .o min. North latitude, and anchi.red on the
next day under one of the CG.i-,,' illands ; thence Ihiling by the iicle
ifle of ,. ': ;i., on tl-e 27th he arrived at G::.'.'l';:.', (the tir; land
dif.uv,\i cd by Columbus) and, continuing the filme couriL-, hle a::in
i.c li.d on ihe 3d of Afiril, in the latitude of 3o de.. 8 min.
SE _North,








26 THE EXPEDITIONS
North, which, taking to be an island, he named it, as before men-
tioned, Florida. He went ashore with fome of his people, both
to inform himself concerning the inhabitants, and to take poireflion
of the country with the ceremonies ufed upon fuch occasions. This
being dune, he again fet fail, on the 8th day of the month, toward
the South, and, coating along the fhore, fill caft anchor, as he
perceived any of the Savages, or their hutts, appear; the next
day, having advanced a little way into the fea, he found fo flrong
a current against him, that though the wind was favourable, and the
veffels carried all their fails to it, they were not only unable to pro-
ceed, but with difficulty held their anchors. Here the Spaniards,.
being invited by the natives, ventured on fhore; the Savages, when
they were landed, began with hauling up the boat, and carrying.
off the oars, &c. To this the Spaniards made no opposition at firft,
being loth to irritate them; but when the latter became fo wantonly
furious as almofl to kill one of the soldiers, both lides fell to blows,
till night parted them. In this encounter, two Spaniards were
wounded. Going to water at a neighboring river, they were for-
tunate enough to make a prisoner of one of the Savages; him they
afterwards made ufe of both for a guide and interpreter. Upon
the bank of this river they placed a crofs with an inscription, from
which occurrence it is Rill called the Rio de la Cruz. Having pafT-
ed by the Cape of Florida on the 8th of 1Ary, they continued their
course to the South all down the coaft, till, in latitude 25 deg.
they fell in with a range of illands and rocks, to which the Span:ards
gave the name of Martyrs, from a resemblance the cliffs bore, in
their fancy, to men fixed upon flakes. A name of bad prefage,
as many hips have fince experienced to their deftruction. Ponce,
after this flight trial of the inhabitants, and not in the leafl fufpeding
Florida to be a part of the continent, fleered away to the North-
eaft, through the Lucaycs iflands, and fo to that of St. Jobn de
Puerto Rico, whence he had firft fet out.


E.%tedi1,&:C;j








TO F L 0 R I DA. 7



Expedition of Luke Y,'f7uez of Ayln.

IN the year 1520, Luke Vaffuez of Aylon, a licentiate, being ia
want of hands to work in the mines, entered into a resolution,
with fome affociates, to try if they could fleal off a number of
Savages from the neighboring iflandF, to be employed in this
bufinefs. For this purpose, they equipped two hips, and failed out
of the harbour of Plata, fituated on the North-fide of HiJaniola,
and fleered, either by chance or defign, which it was is uncer-
tain, a North-weftern course, until they came to the moft diflant of
the Lucayos islands; and thence, to what was then part of Forida,
in 320 North latitude, now called St. Helena. At the fight of their
flips making towards the fhore with expanded fails, the amazed
natives ran in crowds to view them, conceiving that they muft be
fome monfirous fifhes driven upon the coat ; but, as foon as
they faw men with beards and covered with clothing, land out
of thefe floating manfions, they fled in a panic. The Spaniards,
having flopped two of them, carried them off into their (hips
where, after having entertained them with meat and drink, they
fent them back again cloathed in the Spanif habit. The king of
the country, admiring the drefs, fent fifty of his people to the
hips, with a present of various fruits and provisions; and, not
contented with doing this, he made a party of his fubjedts attend
the Spaniards in the many excurfions into the neighboring pro-
vinces, with which, at their requeft, he gratified their inclinations i
where they were presented with gold, plates of filver, pearls, &c.
and received in the moft hofpitable manner. The Spaniards, having
made their own observations, as they paffed, upon the cufloms and
manners of the inhabitants, the foil, and climate, invited a large
number of the natives (after they had watered their (hips, and were
.prepared for departure) to an entertainment on board their veffels;
where, having plied their guefis well with liquor, they took that
wicked opportunity to weigh anchor, and fail away with thefe
unhappy deluded people towards Hifpaniola. Many of the poor
E z wretches









THE EXPEDITIONS


wretches pined to death with vexation, and from an obstinate refufr
of food; the greater part of what remained periflhc in one of the
veffels that foundered at fea; and fome of them, in vain appealing
to the violated rights of hofpitality, were hurried into a cruel and
hopelefs flavery. Vy/,fqe'z, instead of the punishment due to fo
inhuman and horrid a proceeding, expelked, and obtained of the
king, the reward appointed for fuch as discovered new lands, to-
gether with the ufual immunities they weie entitled to. Whiih,
when he had received, in the year 1524, hie leVt more fhips to TFiCr'.,
and was fo dated with the accounts he had from them, of the fer-
tility of the foil, and the great plenty of gold, silver, and pearL,
to be found there, that he haflened thither himil;f, the next year,
with three hips: but, having loft one of them, when near the
Cape cf .S'. IT'eln; and 200oo of his people, whom he had landed,
being entirely destroyed by the natives, more through their own.
negligence, and fopine flcurity, than the bravery of the inhabi-
tants; dilappointed.of his \vilies, and broken hearted, he returned.
back again to Ifnl cn/a!.


E.xht'it., of Panmpilo KX'arvez.

pAPIi I Lo NA.RV.\, not discouraged by the b.;d fuccefs of
V .Afcs, in the sear 1526, procured a patent from Charles
the Fich, Empnrcr and King of Sic.',, conllituitiig him gover-
nor of all the lards that should be dilcovcred from the iiver -of
Pa/lns to the extreme boundaries of Fklrida. In the month of March
1628, he let fail, with .00 foot and twenty ho.ife, on board of
his vfleis, out of the harbour of Xogue, on the South-fide of
the island of Cuba. After fome difficulties, he doubled the Cape
cf St. lIAneciy, the WVefiern point of Ciba, and flood along the
North-fide of it, as far Eaflward as the harbour of. Havar:a;
where, meeting with a breeze from the South, he obtained a
prcfptrous paffage over to FP'rida, and arrived there on the i2th
of April. He cafl anchor in a bay, from whence he could fee
the C.ttages of the Savages upon the continent. The dny following
2 he









TO FLORIDA.


lie lan&I3d pait of his forces, but found that thl- natives had Jcfeited
their hi ,ui.Is; in which, happening to fiid fome infl rt. n'. of god,
filled with hopes, lie i:nme.li tItiy difembarked the reft of lls troops,
and took polklion of the country for the King of ,~'S.:i, with
the ufual ceremonies. The Savages, foon after, drew near; but
what they meant r ,mnined a If-crct, for want of an interpreter,
farther than that they seemed, by their menacing air, t,- order the
S. h'.:irIs to leave thlir counliy. The govcrior, pro ce.Jing a lIt!e
way forward, found another bay of great extint, rea.hiing fir
within the continent: up which, having advanced a t-wv le -i.,eS,
he f ll in with fome Savages, who offered him maize. V,'hl;l he
was employed in gaining intelligence 1iom thefe people,- he t o nd
four wooden cafes, v.'h rein carcafls, covered wirh the ikins of
wild animals, and painted after the manner of the Savages, were
lddcn. Upon them there were laid pieces of linen and woollen
cllth, together with fome fpris' of gold, which, the natives infield,
they had from Apa.l.che/, a region far dillant from them, and very
rich in that metal.

THiE govIernor, flill railed into higher expectations by this infor-
mation, ordered his forces to march by land, and the Ihips to fol-
low, keeping along ihore, Crb'ca di'e Vl';ca, the treasurer, in vain
opposing him. On the firfl of May, having distributed to every
soldierr two pounds of bliquet, and half a pound of pork, he let
forw. rd with a light body of 300 men, forty of which were horfe;
and performed a journey of fifteen days, through a defol.te country,
void of inhal-itantc, and delitute of food, till they came to a river,
which they ci 'iTc, partly by Iwimming, and partly upon rafts made
out of what timber they could find. The Savages IHood on the
oppofite bank, and condu&ed the Spaniards to their huts, %where
they refrclhed them with maize. After refling here for a fort
face, .'r-a dispatched a few of 1hi, people to explore the fea-
coaft, who found, as far as they discovered, thit it was. full of
fhoals, and without ports; having travelled fifteen days journey
father, without fceing even the footfb-ps of an inhabitant, jt laif,
on the feventeenth of Jnune, he met one of the petty king:, cloathed
with a flag's hid:, elegantly painted, preceded by a minltitude of
rC' )









30 THE E EXPEDITIONS
Savages, fome of them blowing horns, &c. to whom he explained,
by figns, that his rout was to .ilCf:cie. The Indian gave them
to underfland that he was an enemy to the Apialan bans ; and, after
the mutual exchange of a few presents, and paffing another
river, he entertained them in his towns with maize and veniron.
Hence, through inofr harraiTing and almoll imp.iTible ways, on the
25th of the fame month, N.r'va and his party a, rived at palaceh;
and, falling upoJi the natives, who neikhtr expected nor were at all
prepared to receive fuch a viiit, the town was taken at the firfl at-
tack. Great quantities of maize, ikins of be.ills, garments woven
of thread, (for the mofl civilized of the Floridii,: make a decent
fort ofcoarfe cloth, out of the inward bark of fome trees which
abound in that country, as well as ropes, f&c.) together with other
commodities belonging to the inhabitants, fell into their hands.
The town confifled of forty low cottages, covered with (fraw, ex-
cellently guarded againfl accidents of winds, which, at times, are
very frequent in thefe places, and defended likewise on every fide
by ridges of lofty mountains, and a deep oozy ground.

ALL the land they had hitherto paffed over was flat and fandy,
abounding with walnut, laurel, cedar, fir, pine, and low palm
trees, moistened with many lakes, or elfe encumbered with the
trunks of old trees. Numberlefs wild beats appeared wandering
about the woods: the country somewhat cold, but abounding with
beautiful pallures. In the courfe of twenty-five days, during which
they tarried here, they were alarmed twice by fudden incursions of
the natives, who retreated again into the marches. This induced
them to divide themselves into three several parties, in order to
fcour and examine the adjacent country; but they found nothing
more than impervious deferts, and fome miserable natives, deflitute
of every thing. The caflique, or chief, whom they kept in chains,
declared that his town and diftri& was by far the largeft in this
country, and that the regions beyond were much inferior, both as
to foil and number of inhabitants. Notwithstanding this affertion
of the caflique, they came, after a journey of nine days towards
the South, to another of their towns, called Aute, whole inhabi-
tants









TO FLORIDA.


tants were in confederacy with Apalache, and abounded in corn and:
other neccffrries, as being nearer to the.lea.

THE Sptar.'irds being apprized by experience, both of the poverty
of there regions, and of the treatment they were to ex:pet from
the Savages; who, lurking about their camp, found means to flay
their horses, under cover of the night ; wearied -rt with difap-
pointment, resolved to direct their march to the fea-coaft; towards
which they travelled for eight days, with the utmoft hazard and
fatigue, being ofren attacked by the natives from behind the buflles.
When they came to Aute, a bloody engagement enfued, wherein
the Spaniards loft fome people. Neverthelefs they took the place,
and found there a vaft quantity of maize, peafe, gourds, and various
fruits. Cabeca de Faca, being lent by Narvez- to furvey the fea-
thore, returned three days after with an account that the face of
the land was rude and difmal, the bays firetching far within the
country, and the fea remote. AffliRing news for the soldiers al-
ready too much disheartened. The number of their horfes was.
by this time fo much reduced, that they had no longer sufficient
to carry the fick ; therefore, leaving Aute, they moved towards the
fea, which was the only resource they had left. Boats were now
neceffary; and therefore, though in want of all materials, they
contrived, by fome means or other, to build five by the twentieth
of September. They twisted ropes out of horfl-hair; they made
veffels to hold water by fewing hides together; for fails they cut
up their shirts; and, after the fhme manner, got every thiig they
wanted ready. In the mean while, they \;ere not left undiilurbed
by the Savages, who destroyed ten of their men.

ACCORDING to their calculation, in coming from the bay of Santa
Cruz, where they firli landed, to this place, they had performed
a journey of 280 leagues. Embarking on the twenty-fecond of
Stp:e't'.er, the,' fet fail ; and, after having wandered about, without
knowing where they were, in the recefles of the bays for even
days, they came to an island divided by a narrow fIrait from
the continent ; which they crofed, and, fleering along fhore, di-
reL'ed their courfe for the ri\er of Palms. Meanwhile, they were
terribly









THE EXPEDITIONS


terribly ditMrc-jd for want of water-, faw but few Savages, and fup-
ported their miferable b:in,-s by tilhing. At length, having wea-
thered a promontory that I ty in their way, not without great peril,
and at"r kl., fg fome of their company by drinking too largely of
falt water, they again mnac for the continent; where, at Firlr, they
were very kindly receivLid by the natives, and refrefhed with drink
and fifth; but, b-.nlr- attacked by them in the niht, they narrowly
ef.iped from total dcf(ruction. The I7':e':: chlet' elpiv.., and the
governor wounded, they fled, in confufion anr! gre-t precipitation,
to their boats. After three days fail from hence, preliTd again by
the want of frefl water, they put to fhore. The inhabitants drew
near, and, after a mutual exchange of holtages, they granted the
Sp,?.'/i 'r leave to .ater. Nevertheless, ioon after, tlh..-y both
fierc:Iv redcinanded their own people, a';d detained the SJ 's
captive. This nation was of a greater feature than what they had
hitherto feen, with long lolfe hair: their kings were richly cloathed
with martens fkins. The flation here being but bad for vcliels,
thinking to avoid extreme danger, they bore a little out to fka;
but their boats we;e foon feparated by l'rcfs of \e.cather, and each
firove to reach what lay next before them. One of them, in which
the treafurer Cab~ca de Vaca was embarked, (to whom we owe this
narration) ran ground, and he, with his companions, landed
upon an illrind, as it aftcrw.ads was found. to be. The inhabicant,,
about an hundred in number, at firlt attacked them in a huibile
manner; but, being w\on by presents, theyI brought them plenty
of fih, hc. The Spaniards, having now wrecked their boat upon
tlihi iil.nJ, their arms, cloaths, and every thing elfe, to com-
plete their :ni.fortunes, being fvallowed. up by the leai, were
fiirpliLd with proi~.ins by the natives in their -cotta.gIe's, until
the thimfilves began to be in want. The flharnnefl of hung.:i
conquered humanity, and the famithing S:-,/.i;.'rds fed upon each
othrs i, .ei:, until, out of ciblbty PL .:pl-, only hIficcn r:maind..
Foir of .:h .le, Cabeca de Vaca being on', after l.in \.'an.ering;s ;.d
v\arioU- ac-clerts,_r too loig'to infrt hcrc, arrived at iaft in'the
pro-.ince of .I /', .:, whi-c t Oi other boats piU'ih.d; or what
fate atticr.kd t-.e gv wtrncr is rzct known. ~; w..I ws the third
._ 't,,.,., .. .. iti..,n into F'orida.
Expeditiai








TO FLORIDA.


ExK:di:ton / cf Ferdinand de Soto.

SFTER thefe unfortunate even's, Fr,,ida was neglected till
the year 1539, "'hen the memorable expedition of Ferdinand
de Sco took place. This gendniemn had fe~-ved with great reputa-
tion under ri'w.is Piz,'rro, in the conq_'iefl of Peru, which had
recommended him lo much to the Emperor Charles V. that he
conferred on him the government of C w,.!7, with the rank of
General of Florida, and the title of Marquis of the lands which
he should conquer therein. Having received his commiflion from
the court of Spain, he failed to the Hava.'a.lab, where he made
a thort flay, in order to put the affairs of the illand under proper
regulations, during his abfence; and then, imbarking hii forces, fet
fail on the twelfth of A1', in the year 539, with nine vefrcls, having
on board 350 horfe, and 900 foot, together with a great number of
mariners, and all things neceffary for fuch an expedition. As the
feafon was very fine, and the wind quite fair, they made the coaft
of Fhrida, to the Northward of the Gulf'cf Mexico, on the 25th of
the faid month, and came to an anchor in the bay of Spiritu Sanfno.
The whole army was foon difembarked, and, by the help of the
tides, the fhips were, eight days after, brought up fo clofe to the
land, as to moor juff under the Indian habitations. The army, as
they landed, intrenched themselves upon the fea-beach, near the
town. After a flight excurfion, to take a view of the adjacent coun-
try, the general, S-to, approached an Indian town, which he found
quite defeated by the natives, who, as foon as they perceived the fhips
upon their coaft, had every where given the alarm by fires. At break
of day, Colonel Lewis .'c M 'f'ofo drew up the army in three lines,
with a squadron of Ihcrfe to each body. In this order they march-
ed, making a circuit round the bay, till they came to a village of
the Savages, confifling of about even or eight houses, near the
fhore, built of wood, and covered with palm-leaves. On one fide
was a little lodge, which served for a temple to thce: idol, placed
F over









THE EXPEDITIONS


over the entrance, in the fhape of a bird, made of wood, and
gilded over. Some pearls were alfo found here, but of little
value, having been bored by fire, in order to firing them for
chains and bracelets, to adorn their necks and arms; ornaments in
high efteem among thefe people. This town ferved the troops
for quarters, and the general ordered the ground about it to be
cleared, for a pretty good face, both for the fake of ha,'ing 0oom
to exercise his cavalry, and that the Indians nimlit not approach
without being discovered, if they chofe to attack him in the n.,it.
Double guards were placed at all the avenues and dangerous places,
which were relieved every hour, and the c.'walry, re.dy for aaion
if neceffary, rode abo it and vified them. Here they were unfor-
tunate enough to lofe two ld'i::s they IdL taken prifoncrs, to fcve
for guides and interplcti,;i, who Lfc.iped in the i-ight by the care-
leffnefs of thofe that were fet to watch them. This lofs was the
harder to rep;iir, because the number of marines and w woodlands
prevented the horfc from pti fuing them.

WHILST the Spaniards remained here, Soto detached several
p.rtie- to discover the country. One of them, in marching by a
m.ir:f, about half a league from the camp, fell in with Ibme In-
dians, and took four of them ; whereupon the reft turned fort upon
the Si'.'.'.',r.;, and, though far inferior in numbetLr, drove t'ecm
back : t.eir'e c.u1np. 'ii;c: people are fo dct\kruus, fo ,fcl.c, and
fo .i.., t"":t it i. i:mp-Alible to gain an'l,, *j antae over them on
foot. Th;:y fly from thoFe who attack them, but, the mcnm-:Lt the
e-riemvi r.itic, they springg upon him. The dii'tajce of a bow\-flhot
is the fr.rithle-f they ever give way; and, when they make their
attacks, they are always in constant motion, running from f1iJ to
fide, to prevent the enemy from taking aim. They discharge their
n.rrj ws with incied.iLt.l celerity, and fo exacly, as very fI!domn to
mifs. Their bows are lr.nng, and their arrows made of rceds,
heavy, and fo keen, that they will pierce a buckler. The extre-
mities of fome they arm with a fitlh-bone as fharp as an awl, of
others with a tone as. hard as a diamond. One of the parties
above mne;tioned discovered, on a plain two clagues from the campp.
ten or twelve Inaians, among whom was an Eurcp:Ian, naked and
all









TO F L 0 R I DA. 35
a'l fun-burnt, F.I.' his a:-rmn paintd wi h divers colours, in the
manner of the I,.:';.,.s, from whom he c ii,.l n..it, in the i.1::', be
dilli.n.lh11. TheL Sav.ass dirperfrd, as foon as the horl :tni cd
thLrn, and threw tle:rm dives into a wood, t..ci.t;,iL lt\.:., .iio,
being wounded, were t.hien : At the fame time, one .'i the h,.; fe-
men rn 'wih his laun:e at the Eu-rolpean, who cried .;ut, G ..:''-
men, I am ,'! C/-.',''/,:,, do not .;'i me, nor th. poor people, .: have
-:.*.. me I,'. Ilercuji th : /:. ',: ; were L 'il.;:i U.': of tli, \\ ,.3,
with allii!al.ce of lhain"r nothlin to fear: TI'i' were at length
pree '.Cii Ld1 tup-.n to leave it, and all miuu.ti; .. b;l r tlic h. r mi.'-,'
this dt;aclmll.n: re' :. i a' :ln to the lwnC, where ti:.: wre re-
ceived with the uiivef:l joy and carte:i o the -' i.i and the
whole Iarnm'.

IHERE I ~ .'.i b:b.: I.aivc to igirf.- a ll.tl, in ori!er to tir.-l the



TuHs mnan, wvhof name was w '1's Or:.'Z, w\'s a n.'' o(f Sv./,t,-
and born of a noble family. He had served in the \ \i':.iii..n undLr
Nirvce, about twelve years before, and had th ;..i.d Lo.tLne to
cfCaipe back again to C, ba. Henc e he i'l.irn t 1'.r:'/a, in .
briiantine, b'. the defire of the Lodv of ANr-i, Z:, in o IL.c: ( f i.r
husband. At his rriv.'al upon this coatf, mnc:tini (.'ii 1.. '., I.'.",'
who pretended to have a letter for hin l'ro' .:0' 1. in .':n-
other were ralh enough to land, at their inm i-ati ,', in coo.i';mii, to
thel advice of the people on board. The /,. imm.iae-v liir-
rouindLd them, killed his companion, who off rd to nm.ke rtliitance,
and carried off O-,',, to their chief, cal3; L;J.;, nuoe <.n board
daring to land, to give himan a altii}.1nce. The i, tJ'i f-ntenced
him to be bur:t alitc, which had furely bere his i.te, but that a
fudden emotion of pity touched the heart of Uc:ita' daughter, w ho
prevailed upon her father to give him his life. Oi i'. \was then let
to g iid the temple above mentioned from the wolves, which often
came to carry off the bodies that were laid there. It happened, that
thefe animals feized the body of the fan of an I,:iL;In of confide-
rable rank : Oriiz purlfed them, and had the good fortune to kill
F 2 one









THE EXPEDITIONS


on'e of the wolves, and recover the carcafe. This action endeared
him to Ucita, who began to treat him more kindly. Three years
paffed thus, when an Indian chief, called Mocofo, attacked Ucita,
burnt his village, and forced him to fly to another place he hid by
the fea-(hore. Thefe wild people have a cullom of sacrificing the
lives oflirangers that fill into their hands to evil Fpirits, whom they
fuppofe to be pleaded with fuch vidims. This fate Ucita defined
Ortiz to; but the fame girl, who had faved him from the fire,
counfelled him to fly to Mc.cofo, who, flie faid, would treat him
well, and wanted to fee him. As he was unacquainted with the
way, flie put him into the road, and returned unperceived herself.
Ortiz travelled till he came to a rivulet on the frontier of the domi-
nions of Jl:cf', where he found two Indians fishing. As thefe
people were at war with thofe he came from, he was apprehen-
live they would treat him as an enemy, and the more fo, because
he was unable to explain his dcfign, and what brought him thither
to them, neither underflanding the language of the other ; to pre-
vent this, he ran to the place where their arms lay, and inflantly
feized them. The Indians, alarmed, flew immediately to the
town, whence their cries prefently brought numbers of Indians,
who furro'anded Ortiz, and were upon the point of killing him,
in vain crying out that He was the Cbr.ifian of Ucita; when, pro-
videntially, an Indian joined them who happened to underfland
his language, and appealed his companions by explaining the words
of Ortiz to them. Upon this four of the Savages were lent off
with the news to iAlcfo, who received Ortiz very cordially, and
promised, if any Chriltians flould arrive in that country, he would
give him leave to retire with them. Among thefe Indians, Ortiz
refided for the course of twelve years, and had long despaired of
ever lecing another European, when AkcoJb informed him that the
Chriilians had made a dcfcent at the town of Ucita. Ortiz, at
fi, fi, (lowed a difficult of believing him ; but the Caffique feriouf-
ly infilied upon the truth of this intelligence, and permitted him to
go to join thin ; adding, that, if he did not, he mull blame him-
d:lf alone, when the Chriflians were gone, fince the promise
made to him had been performed. Ortiz thanked the Indian ini
the rltcfulleft terms, who, at his departure, fent several of his
2 people








TO FLORIDA. 37
people to efcort him; and there were they, whom the above.
mentioned party, from Soto's army, met.

AT his arrival in the camp, the General prcirllted him with
cloaths, arms, and a good horfe; aflkiig him, at the fame time,
whetherr he had no knowledge of any part of this country that
abounded with gold or filver mine. Ortiz anf.creJ, that he had
penetrated only a little way farther than the habitation of :Mo:Jo,
but that, at thirty leagues diitance from his town, dwelt Paracoxi,
the moft puiffant prince of thefe regions to whom all the other
chiefs were tributary, and that he could give him fatisfadory light
concerning what was enq:uired after; moreover, that his country
was very fertile, and abounded with all the provisions of life. This
intelligence was highly pleading to Soto, who looked upon it as cer-
tain, that, in traversing Ib great an extent of land, he muft, of
course, find fome part of it very rich.

A FEW dAiv after, MOCofo paid the Spaniards a vifit, when, in
a handsome fit.,ia, he welcomed the general, and offered him his
fervkces. Soto 'i. cied him with suitable returns of civility, and
made him fome mall prLl-nts; after which he took his leave,
and went back to his habitation highly satisfied.

SOTo immediately dispatched Bahltlb,: r de Ga!kgos, at the head
of about thirty men, into the province of Parcc'oxi, to gain infor-
mation of what Florida farther afforded. At their arrival here,.
they found the caffique had retired out of the town, but fent thirty
Indices, to enquire what they fought in his country, and wherein
he could be of service to them ? Gallegos thanked him for his
civility, and testified his inclination to confirm a fincere and lafling
friendship with him s for the fake of doing which, he defired him
to return to his habitation. The ?Indi anwniered by meflengers,
that he was indifpoled, which prevented him from coming. Gal-
legos demanded, if they knew any province that produced gold or
filver ? They anfivrred, he would find one to the Weft, called
Cale, which was at war with a neighboring diltric, where the
Spring bloomed throughout the year, and gold v as Ib plenty, that
the








38 THE EXPEDITIONS
the pe'-).rc marched a in'i thofe of Cale with h.c r.; ma-de of
this metal on their heads. U : the ....':, < c i a:..;- i.t:.in the y
on" made pretences, for tle fake of ga'n.; L.::.', 1 ti.) Ccu.'.1
betake thmfelves to fime place of f :.,: ; and j11. Inj, if he 1i:!-
f :lti the Inaan in; mT. i :Ci to i~p. rt, they wo'.:J not return ,:.in,
p'.i them in iron, and fent to acqui..:it Sft ouf his pr.:L.ciu-.,;
it.',':, wbkich :..c:e. i, !'. I. ,1 a i r,.'-; number .LI men to d,, d
the port, nI ~ i,. I \v.'h all the re' joined G. .: :in.i, without
dcj i,, flt onward to Cale. He fo.uJ,, in his w...., fume :r;,.;li vil-
i'.l..., and took an L'...'.. for his ,ii. '.h tL un to
t!c '- f a x:rvy ra.pi river. -Ii!I:'g pid this with fume
di ; cii S who had headed the .J'a..crd .'ar1 f-i.t to ha-
flen t. main byd), b cc.,'.:c the j,,iey was rI g, .1.. he ..i
appreLt.niV" that provision might fail them. At ln :h, he ar-
rived nt Cale, but found the town de'irted. Il.re he halted for
the rc-li of the arm'., now Atremely fjtiun..J with hungLr :...d .i
ways; t ir the goirnd was p or, nlayi i in nany p!ac or c\G;EcL
wirh thick :'c..d s. All their pri\ovli.iins were '.onliuned, f, that
they were olliged to feed upon beet leaves, thiii'ks, and 1n..I',
which thcy devoured ftalk and a!l; fo outrageous was hunger grwin.
But the holfcmen Soto had fent back to thml, brought the com-
forting news, that there was plenty of maize at Cale; all that was
ripe of it the general ordered to be cut down, and a flore
was laid up, fuilicient for three months. One of the .Tdi,:.r
who were taken infiirmed Sc.o, that, fLv.-n leagues bevor.d this
town, there was a province ve;v large and fertile in nmaiz, vhich
was called Pa.'aci. Whereupon, he fct off imniediately from Cri"c,
with a body of horfe and foot, leaving Co'oncl Lc.is dI' .L'/jIj
to command the reft, with cxprels orders not to dLcamp, unless
he should receive a cornnai.,d to do fo under his hand.

DoN Fcr/,'.b:ar, de S )! left Cale cn the eleventh day of A/yn:./i
1540, and lay ftil at Hna, next at Pcetc:', then at L''im,:.'..a, alid,
on the fourth day, at a pl.ice called, by the Se,.. rds, 1 ai.'.'
Hence he came to a place called C/,',,ip:'i, ; and, after two daVb jour-
ney through adefai t country, he arrived at Ca!.:7t.cwT. Here it was inti-
mated toSolo, as he was inquiring cunccrniiig the p:uvince ofP.,rcbr,
that









TO FLORIDA.


that ",: vez ha.d not penetrated into the country i cy) n 1 where they
now were, being unable to find either path or lhadliatins: Thit
it was more deigi:le to abandon F/,:r;i, and retu n, than run the
rilk of perihiing by the fav1agcs, or liunger, in thofe dFulate
re i.ns. BLit the general paid no regard to fuch remonftrances:
On the revcrfe, he ordered all to hoL'd themselves ready to mrir,
and fent older, for 3!jc!.fo to. join him with the utmoft exp .liti.n.
This was immediately done, though tie troops Li.rt.ied n:u!. h, in
pafiing though a country entirely laid wafte by the genei.il, in his
paaige through it.

SoTO marched from Caliquen, with the whole army, on the
2oth of September, taking the caflique away with him. In five
days lie arrived at Napetaca, during which the Indians federal times
opF lilc to him, prying that their chi,.f might be fet at liberty.
To whom he answered, that he did not inteiid to detain him by
force lo,,ir, than till he f(ou'd arrive in the dominions of U:a-
chil, a chief who was related to the calfiqje of Ca1iqul,. Mean-
while, :l.'u Ortiz learned from an I'../i,/:, that they had resolved
to aflinlble and attack the arniy, in order to fet their chief at liberty
by force. The general, bcing appiiz:d of this, ordered all the in-
fantry and cavalry to arm, and to remain fo prepared in their quar-
ters, not to give the In../.,:ns any fufpicion, who, to the number of
400, in armi, were polt,'d in a wood a little way from the camp.
Thus flationed, they f-nt two men to demand their c,.ffique of the
governor; who, taking him by the hand, and talking to him, the
better to fatisfy the Indians, advance I near the place where they
had posted themselves; but, obferving them to be preparing for
battle, he coinmm:iidcd an alarm to be founded; at which all
the Spaniards ruled out with fuch fury, that the Iv'ians, furpri-
zed ii:d thrown into confusion, thought only of flight. Forty of
them were filed d on the fpot by the fpear, and the retl threw
themselves into two nt'ghbouring lakes, wheie the S.'pniards fired
up:.i t!,nrm, as they were fimni;ng, though to little effect.
Soto, not i'.'.inlg people Lurugh for b'oth, furro indd only one of
the !l.. out of which the Indians endeavoured to ef:inF by livim-
ming ILr iy to the banks in the night, covering their heads with
wva'eCr-








40 THE EXPEDITIONS
water-lilies; but the horfe, perceiving the water to be put in mo-
S tion, pushed up to the belly in the l.ke, and drove them back
again. A great part of the night having thus paffed, without any
repofe on either fide, Ortiz called out to them to fubmit to the
govcr:or, fince there was no poffibility of cfcaFing: Which they,
at laft, agreed to do, compelled by the severe cold tlhe felt in the
water. They all furrendered except about twelve, w.I' refolutly
determined rather to die in the lake; but the Indians of Paracoxi
threw themfclvcs in, dragged them out by the hair, and tih- were
immediately chained together. All the reft were di, idd!L a!i ,nglt
the .paniards, to ferve as flaves. The mif.ry of this very was
fo intolerable to thofe Savages, that they resolved to free themfelves
from it; and, for that end, one of them, who acted as intcr'i-e-
ter, undertook to firangle the general, whillt he was talking with
him, by throwing both hands at once fiuddenly upon his ricck ;
but, in the infant of attempting it, Scto ftrucl the India.'i upon
the face fo furioufly, as, in a moment, to cover it over with
blood. All the Indianr were routed at this signal, and a ter-
rible battle enfued; each Savage ufing, for a weapon, the club
with which they bruised the maize, or the ford or launces of their
mailers, that happened to lie near them, and managed them
with as much dexterity as the Spaniards themselves could do ; till,
at lat, after having given wonderful proof of valour and intrepi-
dity, they were overpowered by numbers, and the whole body,
confifiing of about two hundred, taken; several of whom were
fastened to flakes, and fbot to death by the arrows of the Paracoxi
Indians.

FRoM Napetaca they marched, on the twenty-third of September,
and fLon arrived at Uzacbil, which had been ab..nrloned by its in-
habitants, upon the rumour of the Ilaughter made at the fore-
mentioned place. Great quantities of maize, pulfe, and tucUim-
bers, were found in the town. The firlt was as fine as mi!P'r,
and the la.t better than thofe of Spa.hn. Th- parties, a'' that
were detached to fcour tho country, picked up about ioo0 i, as,
who were divided among the fbldiery, to be ufed for carrt .g of
baggage, peeling of maize, and other fervile offices, in whic.I the
chain









TO FLORIDA. 41
chain they were faftened with, by the neck, did not much hinder
them. As for the women and children, they were suffered to go
unchained, whenever they had come fixty, or a hundred miles,
from their refpedive homes. Thefe were very ferviceable, and
learned Spanif(hin a little time.

THE general now quitted Uzachil, to go to Palache, and, on the
second day, arrived at Axille, where the inhabitants did not wait
to receive him, but retired to a neighboring wood. He left this
place the next day, being the firft ot O07ober ; and, having thrown a
bridge over a river that lay acrofs his road, was preparing to pafs
it with his troops, when the Indians presented themselves on the
other fide, to difpute the paffge; upon which, Soto commanded
the crofs-bow men to advance, who forced them to retire. The
whole army then paffed over, and arrived, that evening, at Vitachuco,
a town, in the province of Palache, which the Indians had fet fire
to, and the flames were not yet extinguished, when they entered
it. This province is well peopled, and fruitful in maize: houfes
and villages appeared on every fide, till they came to Anbayca de
Palache, the residence of the callique, who commanded the whole
province. The SpanilZ forces were quartered round the town, at
a fmall difiance from which were other villages, whence they drew
great quantities of maize, cucumbers, beans, and dried plumbs,
better than thofe of Spain. The trees which bear there plumbs
grow fpontaneoufly all over the country.

SoTo, who knew that the fea was not more than ten leagues
diflant, fent out a party of horfe and foot, who, pafling by Ocheta,
fix leagues from their quarters, came to the fea-lide : They conjec-
tured, from the bones of horfes and other vefliges, that Nar-ve
had, there, conftru6Ced thofe barks in which he was lhip-wreck-
ed. As foon as the governor was informed of this, he fent Dan-
hufco, at the head of thirty horfemen, with orders for the party
left at Babia del Efpiritu Santo, to fet out directly for Palache.
Danbinfo marched with all the secrecy poffible, that he might not
alarm the Indians, who were now returned to their towns, which
the Spaniards had paffed through; and thus, in no more than fix
G days,








THE EXPEDITIONS


days, he arrived at the port. Here he embarked with all the foot,
and rowed along the coat, till he came to Panacbe, which was not
till the twenty-fifth of December. The horfe returned with the
party that were fent for by the general.
4
Soro, having determined to discover the country on the Weftern
coaft, ordered Mallonado, with a fall body of infantry, to march
by the fhore, and to make himfclf acquainted with the harbours,
if any, thereon. While there things were doing, many mall fkir-
mifhes happened between the Spaniards and Indianm, with various
fuccefs, until the time that Maldonado returned, who brought with
him a native of a province called Ochufe, fixty leagues from Pala-
che. He had found there a harbour of good depth, and well thel-
tered, which was very pleading to the governor, as he had hopes of
diliovering, on this coat, fome country rich in gold. The better
to accomplish this end, he dispatched Mablonado for warlike imple-
ments, to the Haivana, with orders to meet him at the port of
Ochul', whither he intended to go by land; having determined to
undertake nothing of confequence, before he should have vifited
that place.

JuST after Maldonado was gone, it happened that a young Tnd:an
was brought before the governor, who had been taken at Nape-
taca : He affured him, that it was not from the country above-
Smentioned, but from his own, c.illed Tlipa.ha, far distant, on the
Eastern coaft, that he mult feek for gold; describing the manner
likewife fo minutely in which gold was extracted from the ore,
melted, and refined, that all thofe in the arny, who had been
converfant with the working of mines, declared to Sco, that it was
impoffible for him to fpeak fo juffly concerning this hufinefs, unlefs
he had fetn it done himfelf: And thus this relation of this Indian
palled for indubitable truth. Therefore, with minds filled with
the ideal riches of Tu-:,rha, the Spniarnds left Palache on the third
of March.

THF general ordered every man to t.ke provision with him for
fixty leagues of defert, which they were obliged to carry themselves,,
as









TO FLORIDA.


as the ITianN prisoners had, for the moft part, perifhed through
the winter's fatigue. After four days march, they came to a river,
over which the army paffed, by the alliltance of a large canoe,
that enabled them to fallen a great rope across, and, by thele means,
to flem the rapidity of the dream, holding that as they went.
This bufinefs colf them the labour of a day and a half; at laft,
on the eleventh of MlVarch, they arrived at Capachiqui. The hInians
were every where in arms, falling at times upon the Spa, i.dards
that ftraggled, or were detached to get wood, &c. and, when purfued
by Solo's horfe, they threw thelmfelves into the marches where
they were unallTilable. The general left this place, and arrived at
Toali on the twenty-firft day of the month. The holes here ap-
peared very different from any hitherto feen by the Spaniards in
Fbrilda: They were covered with reeds ranged like tyics, very
neatly. The walls were made ofpole,, interesting each other fb
artfully, as to feem built of fone and mortar. Th':v light large
fires in their houfes during the night, which make them b1 warm,
though the climate is rather cold, that they want no covering.
The granaries wherein they lay up their corn are railed upon four
pofI, with a flocr made of reeds. Thefe people, in their drefs
S and building, are more civilized than the rell of the F/cr.i'ans.
The deer-fkins, which they make ife of for clothing, are dyed of
an excellent fcarlet, and they weave a fine kind of linen out of the
moft tender infide bark of a certain tree.

THEY marched from Toalli on the twenty-third of March, and
approached the town of Accfi, the inhabitants of which retired on
their approach ; but, their cifique being fent f:.r by them, appear-
ed, and addreffed himrflf to the general in a handmrne fpecch,
defiring to know what he looked for in their country, and
wherein he could be of service. S,,o thanked him for his civility,
told him, that he was the fin of the fun, and that le had left the
place of his abode, to feek the greatest lord, and the richeli pro-
vince, which was in that country. The caffique iave him guides,
and an interpreter, to lead the army to a difi ict called Ocuta :
This civil behaviour fo pleaded the general, that he fer all tie
prifuners he had taken iM his dominions at liber.v. jull before his
G 2 d'-parture,








THE EXPEDITIONS


departure, Soto fet up a wooden crofs in the town, and only told
the Indians, that this fign was ereted in memory of 'e/'fs Chrij,
who had suffered to fave us : That he was both God and man, and
had created the heaven and earth; and that, therefore, they muft
look up to that token with profound refpe& : Which they promi-
led to do.

ON the twenty-fourth of April, the troops arrived at Altaraca,
and, on the tenth, at Ocute. The caffique of this place fent 2000
Indians to the governor, with several presents, and, among the
refl, many dogs, the flefh of which, for want of other meat, was
as much efleemed in the army as mutton. The Indians are not
reduced to fuch traits; for, with their bows and arrows, and by
the help of many engines and inventions, of which the Spaniards
had no knowledge, the), kill and take plenty of all forts of game.
But, even if they had, neither time nor circumstance permitted the
soldiers to purfue it.

THE governor left Ocut" on the twelfth of Apri, after the caflique
had given him 400 Indians for service. The army marched then
to Cqofqui, and thence to Patofa. The chief of which lalt dif-
tria, hearing of Soto's approach, came to fee him, and defired his
friendship in a fet speech, which was answered in the moft obli-
ging manner.

THE face of the country, from Ocute to Patofa, for the fpace of
fifty miles, is very beautiful ; the foil rich, and finely watered with
many rivers, and the people of a feet and amiable temper; but,
from the Babia del Elijiritu Santo to the former place, it is low,
fandy, marfhy, or covered with high bushes; whence the fierce
and warlike inhabitants ruli out, or where they retire to,. and are
fec'Ured againil all afTaults of horfe or foot.

SOTO being upon the point of leaving Patofa, the Indians of
that country infitled, contrary to the affertion of the young Tupa-
ban above-mentioned, that they had no knowledge of any region
to the Eaftward ; but that, to the Nor,h-wefl, there was a very
fertile,








TO FLORIDA.


fertile, and well-peopled province, named Coca. Neverthelefs, the
callique left it at Soto's discretion, to take his people, whom he
gave him for guides, either way he should chufe. After having
interchanged marks of reciprocal affedion with this good calfique,
the general began his march, which continued four days, through
a road that grew flill narrower, and at laft disappeared, the Yupa-
ban Indian leading the way. The fatigue of this journey was much
increased, by having fome large and rapid rivers to crofs. There
difficulties to heightened the general's vexation, that he threatened
to carl the young ldian to the dogs, for his treachery in thus deceiv-
ing -him ; the army having been on the march for nine days, and
provisions growing very fhort, both for men and horses. The Indian
confefiTd he knew not where he was; and this confeffion would
have coft him his life, but that he was the only one of the Fcori-
dans who could make himself underflood by bfhn Ortiz. The
general himself, attended by a few soldiers, made an excurfion
in search of a road, but returned at night, quite disconcerted, not
having been able to discover the leail track of a way, or trace of
a human habitation.

THE next day, a council was held, to determine whether they
should return or proceed. They were deterred fiom returning,
when they considered that the country behind them was quite
exhausted of provilion, their own almoft conlunied, and both men
and horfes fo enfeebled, that it was doubtful whetherithey would
be able to reach any place of rcf'cTfhment. Moreover, the Inita,;s
moft probably, taking advantage of their disorder, might fall upon
them. The general, therefore, resolved to fend out l~eeral par-
ties, in different directions, to feek for fome inhabited ipot; but
they returned, almoll tired to death, without any fuKcels. The
next day, Sto appointed four commanders ..r this work, whole
courage and fagacity he was well affured of. Their names were
Gallegos, who marched tup alori the fide of a neighboring river to-
wards its force ; Denbu/./, whio followed the course of the fame ri-
ver, downward ; Romo, and La:/./io, who advanced different ways into
the country. In the mean time, the soldiers u ere allowed only half a
pound of lelh each day, and owed even this to Seto's having brought
fev'eral








46 T HE EXPEDITIONS
federal fine with him into Florida, which produced a great num-
ber of pigs. As to the Indians of Patofa, they were difmiffed
when provisions began to fall fhort, though thefe poor people
showed an extreme defire of serving the Chriftians, and much
regret at leaving them in this diflrels.

DANHusco returned foon after, with an account that he had
discovered a town, about twelve leagues off; news that revived
the dying spirits of the whole army, whi'.h decamped on the twen-
ty-fixth of April, in quell of this place, where the general, with
the belt mounted, arrived the next day, leaving the reft to follow
as fall as they could. They found in this town, called by the
bIitans I oneJy,, a granary full of maize, and took four of tl- inha-
bitants; one of whom, being compelled by threats of infant
death in cafe of denial, contefled that another town lay at no very
great dillance, called Cat,/fach:qui. Thither the general haflened,
and seized three Indians on the road, who told him that a lady held
the sovereignty of this country. Upon which the general fent to
offer her his friendship, and fhe, in return, fent her filter to bid
him welcome ; and, foon after, appeared herfelf in a canoe, which
had an awning in the poop, supported by a launce, under which
the female caflique fat upon two cuflions, accompanied with a
number of Indi',n women, her attendants, and many other canoes.
Thus equipped, fhe came to the bank where Solo waited to receive
her, and addreffed him in a handsome fpeech. After which
(le made him many presents; among the rell, a pearl necklace,
the beads of which were of a great lize ; and, during his flay in
her town, fent him every day a quantity of fowls.

THIS country is very pleasant, fertile, and watered with many
rivers, and no more than two d.ys journey from the fea, as the
natives declared. There is not much thicket, but plenty of nut
and mulberry trees. The people are tawney, well made, and more
polished than any they had hitherto feen in F/crida. They all wore
cloaths and drawers in their manner. The young Indian fo oiten
mentioned told the governor that they had now begun to enter into
the rich country he fpoke of; and, as he underiluod the language,
S'oto









TO FLORIDA.


So'o futffered himself to be fo persuaded, and, at his requeff, per-
mitted him to be baptized, by the name of Pedro, looking him from
the chain which he had dragged all the way hither. All the
troops wcre of opinion that this was the proper situation for them
to fettle, it being lb advantageous a port for all the fhips from
nA1' Spa-bi, Pru, St. iLrtha, and the main, to carry on their
trarfi k in, as it lay in their road to OJ' Spain ; that the land was
good, and commerce might be there eilabliihed with great profit.
But the general, who had nothing lefs in his head than the treasure
of A.abilifYa, and hoped to find a like mats of gold, could not be
prevailed upon, by the preflTng intreaties of all his people, to fix
here. He replied, that the country was not capable of fupplying
them which provision, at prel'nt, for one month; and, were it
otherwise, he was indifpenfably obliged to march to O,%iif, where
he had appointed AM:,!onrd. to wait for him : That, at woril, they
might any time return to this country, which they would then
find fown for another crop by the I:,'dians. In fine, he had been
informed, that there was, at the dillance of twelve days journey
from Ca/if.'chLiqui, a province called Chbiaba, whither he revived to
march: And, being (although he was willing to attend to every
other opinion firfl) a man utterly inflexible and Deremptory, when
he had once fixed his own, no one, nrttwithilanding he was guilty
of great error of judgment in quitting this dillridt, would venture
to oppose him.

ON the third of' M',, the Sadiarfids left C:t.:f':laciqui, at which
time a col'lefs avFL' on the part of the female canitque, who had
even a defign to m.ke off with her I,.'lia:ns, without Il.aving the
army any for guides, or to carry tle bL'igage, owing to the milbe-
haviour of fome of the 'i.pa..;,/s to ler people. For the like of
preventing this evil, the g:ivcrrjor put the callque under an arreit,
and treated her iln a niin:lr until rthy of the kindnel;) he had
teftlied bc lore, to. him and hl, t:rccs, olliging her to travel on
foot with her atteiijdans. Nevcrthelcfs, to ingratiate herself into
his favouir, he ordered her Indians to carry the baggage, and her
commands- were every whcre otbyedl with wonderful alacrity. For
even days, they marched through a. wretched country to C/al,;,u/e,
l the








48 THE EXPEDITIONS
the chief of which diflri&t fent two deer-fkins to Soto, by way of
present, at his arrival. This province afforded fo little, that the
army left it in a few days, though both men and horses were ex-
tremely fatigued.

THE distance between Ot!g and Catifachiqui is reckoned to be
about 1430 miles, eighty of which are desert; and from the latter
to Xualla, about 250 miles of mountainous country. During our
march thither, the female caffique eloped, and concealed herself
fo well in a wood near the road, that the Spaniards could never
find her. This was a matter of great vexation to the general,
because he had a design to carry her to yXa/xule, where the terri-
tories of the caffiques, that did her homage, end. She had alfo taken
with her a cafket made of reeds, containing pearls of great value.
They learned, afterwards, that fhe was at Xialla, with an hInian
man that ran off with her, and who cohabited with her as a huf-
band; and that both had relblved not to return to the Sparniards
again, but to go back to Catifachiqui.

IN five days time, the army arrived at qaxilla ; which province
like the reft of this country, is but ill provided with maize : The
general was, therefore, obliged to fend an Indian to the cafique of
Chiaha, defiring him to collect a quantity of maize in his country
for the ufe of the army, which designed to refreth there for a
few days. Two days after, in the way to Cunafa~ia, Soto found
twenty Indians, each laden with a panier of mulberries, which they
presented to him. Through the whole extent between this diftrict
and Catifachiqui, great quantities of mulberry, nut, and plumb
trees, grow, and bear, without culture, as fine fruit as thofe which
are reared with care in our gardens.

AFTER five days march from this place, through a defert, fifteen
Indians met the governor, near Chiaha, with a large quantity of
maize from the ealTique ; who acquainted him that there was much
more at his service, together with himfelf, his people, and country.
The general, in return, affured him of his gratitude and affection.
The Spaniards found here lard, which the natives faid was bears-
fat,









TO FLORIDA.


a:', and likewise fome honey, the firf( they had fcen in. F:'..':;
having, bdiore, never obli-rved any beet thcr:.

THE town was fituated upon the bank ofa river, which, divi:i-g
itflf into two branches, formed a little island, fomev'hat more thani
a mile long, and two bow-fliots across. The land, cn each fide,
was Iown %.ith rice. The army incamped round the town, under
trees, at a diflance from each other, and without order. This iire- u-
larity w.s fuffired by the general, in onfiiderationofthe fatigue which
both the men and hoi -s had undergone, for fame time pati, without
having had leifi're tu refre h tlheinelves. And, indeed, it was wel f. r
tlie ,pa:iards that thcfe lI'!ia':.'s were a pIcific people, they being,
at pre.nt, in a very Bad condition for defending th.mtnfilves: Dur,
as every tling fpoke peace, the fo.,licrr let their horses gaze, during
thie Inight, in the meadows near the camp, where, thie patluraJ
be:ng admirably good, foon made them grow very plump.

THE general allowed the army thirty days, to repolc thlcmflcve
here ; at the end of which, he was raihly prevailed upon to desire,
of the caffique, thirty Ih:;ans, to carry the baggage. The caflique
replied, that he would propose the thing to the principal Inda.:'
but, before he could return an anfwer, the irnhab'tants, and all their
families, fled. The general would have purined them, had not
the caflique prefknted himself before him, and, in a pathetick man-
ner, accused his people f.r their dilbbed;ence; oft-ring his own
service, to afilifl him as a guide, in fcl;ing them, and bringing
them back'to their duty. The general, upon this, fet out, at the
head of fixty men, horfe and foot, and was condu6ced to an illand,
formed by the river to wlich tholIL people had retired, to ar'o:d the
attack of the cavalry. Aln 7In!i'' \as fent to tell then, the', might
return, without danger, t', t ]r Ihabitations, lince citingg was
demanded of them,. lut fum'- v. of ti eir nunLer to calry the
baggage. The I:,da.. agic:d to tl is condition, and returned
home.

\V1HIL. tlhefe thirns \vere tra!,ra"Li,_j, the calTiiue of A cce, came
to oaicr his feivice to ... who .,:-;'rid of him, whether he knee.
Ii of








THE EXPEDITIONS


of any rich or fertile country? He anfwered, that, more to the
North, there lay the province of Cbh ra, where copper was found;
and another metal purer and livelier, which, though more
beautiful than the former, was yet not much ufed, because it was
fofter. Charmed with this relation, Soto determined to make fur
Chifca: But, being informed that mountains interpofed, craggy,
and impenetrable to cavalry, he thought of avoiding the direct
road, and to pals fome way about, if poflible, through a peopled
country, where both men and horfes might find better fublitlence,
and he more perfect intelligence. To accomplish this the easier, he
dispatched two Spaniards to Chifca, with an interpreter, and fome
Indians acquainted with the country,. who were to meet him at an
appointed place.

SOTO now took leave of the cafique of Chiaha; and, having
made him fome presents, with which he was greatly pleaded, march*
ed for Aco-j', where he arrived on the twelfth of J/y ; and, ha-
ving pitched his camp at a finally distance from the town, entered
it himself with eight guards. The caffique received him with
much civility; but, as they were converting, a few SptanjZ, foldiers
entered the town, in quefl of maize; and, not finding any to their
liking, they began to ranfack for it in the houses; which to pro-
voked the Inlians, that they fell upon the soldiers with clubs, and;
beat them severely. Scto fiw his danger; the natives were en-
raged, and his person in their hands:. On this occasion, therefore, he
deigned to diffemble, though very diflgreeable to his nature; and,
fiiatching up a flick, ran, immediately, and affitled the Indians to.
beat the Spaniards; dispatching, at the fame infant, a man to the
camp, with orders for the horfe to advance, well armed. Then,
taking the hand of the caffique very affeL ionately, he drew him,
infenfibly, while converting, into a path in fight of the army ; du-
ring which, the horfe, advancing in file, surrounded,. and carried
both him and his I''dian.s into the camp; where the general con-
fined them, and declared they shouldd not regain their liberty, un-
til they had furnitled the army with guides, and thole Spaniards,
who were lent to Cb'ca, flhould have returned in safety.


THREE








TO F L OR I D A. st
TH REE days after, they returned, with new; that the way,
w\herein the Indians conduLed them, as the belt, was b mrifciably
lugged, and the country fo barren, that no army could poflibly
march through it; and, therefore, feeing it would be to no pur-
pofe to proceed, they had resolved to turn back again. Upon
this intelligence, the army quitted Acl.e, and marched to 7/ai, and
the calTique having furnished them with guides, was fct at liberty.
They arrived at the lafl mentioned place on the ninth of J7:l ;
the caflique of which received them kindly, and allowed then
fome Indians to carry the baggage. For fix days, they marched
over the lands of the caflique of Cofa, at n which place they arrived
on the fixteenth of S'u!. This chief, fitting upon a litter, car-
ried on the shoulders of his moff considerable fubjeds, came out of
the town to meet the general. His robe was made of martins Ikins:
He wore upon his head a kind of diadem, made of feathers; and,
as he advanced, federal Indians fing round him, playing, at the
fame time, upon inlruments. He addreffed himself very civilly to
the general, who thanked him; and they entered the town together
with great joy. The caffique complimented the general and army
with the ufe of the houses of the town, and the granaries, in
which were plenty of maize, beans, &c. The country was
oi well peopled, that the towns feeued to be planted amidfl the
corn-fields. The many rivulets, that water the-land, contribute
greatly to its beauty, making fine pafturage; and their banks are
cloathed with vines, that climb up to the tops of the trees, among
which plenty are found that bear the Spanijh plumbs, as well as
thofe peculiar to the country.

HITHERTO Soto had been accuflomed to fet a guard upon the
Indian princes, and flill to carry one with him, until he entered
the territories of another; making ufe of the natives, that chofe to
follow their chiefs, for the service of the army, and difiniflng'them
all when he came to a different province: But the Indidns of Coja
were not to tradable. Unable to bear the thought of feeing their
chief in confinement, they all fled to the woods; and it was not
without fome conflicts, and much feverity, that Soto humbled them
H z fo









2 THE EXPEDITIONS
fo lfr a5, at the intcrcefton of their own calTlque, to fubmit to the
doing of the Spanj' diudgeqy.

SOTO left Cf.i on the twentieth of Agufi, and marched, firfl to
Tal/'mnuchaje, and thence to Iava, where he was obliged to wait
a few days, for the decreafe of water in a river, which had over-
flowed its banks. He then continued his march to U//ibNl/i, where,
from the hollile appearance cf the natives, he imagined they had
bad designs. This was sufficient to keep him upon his guard during
the time he laid in their town, which was fituated on a rivulet,
and pallifadoed about. On the other fide of the fiream, dwelt
the caflique, who, being fent for by Soto, came, without refiflance,
and granted him several male and female Indians for service.

THE Spaniards marched hence to Toaji, proceeding at the rate of
about five or fix leagues a-day, when in a peopled country, but with
all expedition poflible, when traversing a desert. From Teali, in five
days, they came to Talljfe, a large town, with a well-cultivated coun-
try about it. In this place Soto difiniffed the caflique of Cofr, and
took what Indians he wanted at Tali, e. After repoling heie twenty
days, he fct our, with the army, for Tafcahica, where he encamp-
ed in a wood, near the residence of the cailique, and lent Lciics de
JlIkcf to give him notice of his arrival; who found the calFique
in a balcony before his houfe, upon cushions, played on a carper,
and surrounded by Indians, at a little diflance from him : The moll
considerable of whom flood neareft to him, and one of them held
an umbrella, made ofdcer-fkin, over his head, to defend him from
the fun, about the fize of a target, and fo beautifully coloured,
th.it, at a diflance, it looked like taffeta. This caffique had render-
ed himfelf very terrible to his neighbours, and his dominions ex-
tended very wide, and over well-peopled countries. lHe was of a
great feature, firongly built, and finely proportioned. As lfon as
Alfof hil] made his address to him, all the horfemen, who at-
tcnded, made several paffadoes to and fro, pushing sometimes al-
moft to where the callique was fitting. I-Ie observed them with a
fixed gravity. Meanwhile, the general arrived; and, feeing the
caffiqie made no motion to meet him, went up, and took him by
the








TO FLORIDA.


the hand, and both then fat'down together upon the bench, on the
balcony, where the catfique aJdreffed Soto in a fet speech, and of-
f-red his services. The general thanked him, and gave him to un-
derltlnd, that he should be under a neceffity to take him with him.

AFTER two days march from this place, the army came to
Piach', a town ficuated upon a large river, over which they paled
by the help-of rafts, made of reeds. Soon after, a Spaniard, pur-
fuing an Indian woman, who had eloped into a wood, was killed,
or taken by the Indians: Upon which, the general threatened the
calTique with perpetual lofs of liberty, if the Spaniard was not pro-
duced. He, alarmed at this, fent to Malille, a large Indian town
in their road, under pretence of ordering them to prepare necel-
faries for the army; but, in reality, the purport of this nellage was,
to order the caflique of that place, who was his vaffal, to al'emble
all the Indians, in order to fall unexpeaedly upon the Spaniard.-
Soto, with the advanced guard, arrived at Maville on the eighteenth
of Olober, where he met a foldier, that he had fent to oblfrve the
motions of the lldians, who informed him, that fome bad delign-
feemed to be on foot, hecaule he had feen a great number of the
natives enter the town in arms, and that they laboured very hard
to flrengthen the pallifade made about it. Soto, however, could not
be persuaded to ineamp, but resolved to enter the town ; where he.
was received, by the catfique, with the found of inflruments. Eight
of his guards, and a few horferen, attended him on foot. As foun
as he had lfated himself on a balcony, the caflique of 'Tacaluca en--
deavourcd to perfuade him to proceed no farther; but, perceiving
lie was not likely to fucceed therein, nor to withdraw himself from
confinement, he retired to a houle where many of the natives were
ffelmbled, and would not return, though the general lent for him
several timts; but, at length, fiercely answered, that he would not
quit the place where he was, nor proceed any farther : That he
advised S'to to go, while he might, in peace, and not-prefume to
think of carrying him forcibly out of his dominions.

TnE general perceived, by the haughty behaviour of the India n
chief, that he had forces at hand, and, therefore, relflved to fe-.
wvhat








THE EXPEDITIONS


what civility would do, and whether lie could both hin into com-
pliance: But the Indan turned from him, with a Fpr.:,ud and con-
temptuous air, nor would, afterwards, either fee, or ipeak to him,
nor hearken to any proposition from him. In this lraiit, S:,o cal-
led to an Indian, of fome confequence, that happened to pals by,
and defired him to acquaint the cafflque, that he was quite at li-
berty to depart, provided he would grant him a guide, and ibme
Indians for service : But, this man refuting to take the meffage,
a Spanij officer, landing by, feized him by the cloak, upon which
a firuggle enfued, when the enraged Spaniard laid him dead upon
the Ipot. This a6lion routed the Indians ; and out they all ruled
from their houses, fending great flights of arrows at the general
and his people.

SoTO was fenfible how vain it would be to refift, and, therefore,
determined to fly for it; in doing which, himself and the rell were
wounded, and five out of the number llain. The Indins drove
fiurioufly on, beating down with their arrows all that flood in their
way, and took their countrymen that carried the baggage, and
conveyed it into the town ; releafing the Indian prisoners, they arm-
ed them with bows, to fight again, the Spaniards, all whole equi-
pages, together with many valuable pearls, and all the arms which
the soldiers had left with the baggage, fell into their hands.

SOTO, in the moment he faw himself out of danger, wheeled
round, and charged, at the head of fome cavalry; and, having
flain three of them at pufli of pike, drove the reft behind the
palliiade. It happened that a monk, a fecular ecclefiaflick, and
a fervant of Sotc, were left in the town, and they barricaded the
door of the houle they were in, to make the bell defence in their
power. The Inians, feeing the door fo well defended, were
mounting to the roof, in order to uncover it, and to detlroy the
Spaniards within with arrows, when the whole army arrived be-
fore Maiaille. Here they held a consultation, to determine whe-
ther they shouldd form the town, or only befiege it, as the attack
would prove very dangerous: But, the former method being refol-
red upon, Solo ordered all the belt armnd to difmount, and, ha-
ving









TO FLORIDA.


ving formed them into four battalions, marched directly to the
gates of the town. The Indians, reliving to die rather than turn
their backs, with much intreaty, prevailed upon the caflique to re-
tire, and take with him all that was found moof valuable among the
baggage of the Spaniards. The governor being apprized that In-
dians were feen flying out of the town, surrounded it on all lides,
in order to fet it every where on fire, and oblige the inhabitants to
fight in the open field. The final was then given to engage, and
a horrible carnage ensued at the entrance of the gates; for,
the Indians behaved fo bravely, that they repulfed the Spaniards
several times. However, the monk and clerk, above-mentioned,
were refcued,. though at the expence of the lives of two brave
soldiers, who ran firfl to their affiltance. The fight lasted 10
long, that the Spaniards, being quite faint with toil and third,
retired to drink at a pool, clole to the pallifades, where they
fwallowed almost as much blood as water. They then returned,.
and made fo furious a charge upon the Inlians, as put them in fuchl
disorder, that the general, with his horfe, broke into the town,
and the soldiers fet fire to the houses. The miserable inhabitants,
every where befet, both within and without, urged by defpair, fought
hand and hand with the Spaniards, but with great disadvantage ;
the latter mowing them down to furioufly with their broad words,
that multitudes threw themselves into the flames, and were con-
fulmed to aflies. 2,500 Indians pcrilied, on this occasion, by fire
and ford. Of the Spaniards were loll eighteen, together with
all the baggage, cloaths, pearls, and valuable ornaments of the
army, all which were entirely deflroyed in the fire, being forgotten
in their ardour to accomplish this enterprise, though the fuccels of
it could hardly recompenfe fuch lots.

UPON this account, Soto, though he had learned that AMaldona,la
was at OchuJf, even days journey diftant, forbid Ortiz to publiflh
the news in the army; having determined, fince he had loft the
moll valuable of his acquisitions, to give no intelligence concerning
himself, until he should have led his people into fome rich country,
that would pay them for their disappointments.









56 THE EX P E D-I-T I O N S
ON the egltecntlh c c.-ve ;r,:i e:-,, therefore, a.fier flcvir.g a mntr,
in tlhi fi:-rtil: country _,r the fake of th: wound:'l, thie gov;trr-r
l'brke up hiV camp, and marched, through a desert region, into the
;.rsvince ofP.,jah/'YV ; in puffing through which, they were tinp-
ped by a river, lined \vith Iia,',,:s on the oppofi:e ihore : How-
ever, by the' help of a boat, which they made in four days time,
'/," lent over thirty men, armed, who, notwithllanding the threats
of the ldia:!s, landed ; which oi terrified th.e Savages, t!at th:l
ia.llantlv retired to the cover of the reedy .riarfhes. The 'whole
ir-mny then croil:d it, and found towns, on the other lide, ltored
with maize, beans, ;''. From hence, [arlhiung five days through
; ddert, another river occurred, where the I,.dia:s, once more,
flood ready to dispute the paffage : But Si,.o, chuling to avoid an
engagement, lent an Indian to demand peace of their calique. In-
rlead of granting which, they flew his mefTenger, and retired, let-
ting up loud cries. The palT.ge being thus force, the army came
to C'I:L.:L. on the eighteenth of Dican-,,r, where the go\vrnor was
-obliged to winter, the cold growing too severe f'r the army to
proceed.

THIS was a fine frtile country. One of the I;'dr:as they took
here persuaded the general, to end for the caflique in a friendly
manner; who came, accordingly, and offered his ferviccs and fub-
jedst to Sois, bringing with him two other I,,i'Ji chiefs, who pre-
i-nced the g:nclral v. ith a great number of mantles and kiins. He
of C'.::ca came frequently! to vilit S:."o who lent him a horfe for
that p'urpl.1.

Tills I.'in.r: con;p!.ined much to him of one of his vanlls, and
be-',.d alinlance to punill his revolt; which was accordingly
t.raitcd, to the nun er of thirty horfe, and eighty foot. The e
l-i.-n. ii..ad by two hundred kI:tarns, S:i.c accompanied the callique
to S,:.;'..vI-.'.v,', the rciiJcnce of the tibel chief. They found the
t ..wn ieklrted, which the I'idic of Cl.;c.rca immediately fet file
to. At thiir return from this expedition, the general flalied the
Ocique, and his principal attendants, with a regale of tvine's fleh ;
,\lhh the I:.,':'ls, who had never tailed any pork before, thought
\fQ








TO FLOOR IDA. 57
fo favoury, that they ufed frequently, afterwards, to kill, and fleal
the pigs, by night, from the houses where they were kept, at a
fmall distance without the camp; till, at laft, the general was obli-
ged to put two of them to death that were taken, in order to deter
the reft. On the other hand, fome violence having been offered
to the Indians, by a few Spanijh horfl, near the fpot where the
caflique refided, Soto, as foon as he heard it, ordered the soldiers
to be feized, and condemned two of them to death: Which fen-
tence would moft certainly have been executed, (the general being
inflexible, and the Indians arriving, at the fame time, with re-
monfirances againfl them to Soto, upon this account, from the
caffique) had not the addrefs of Ortiz, at the infligation and
folicitation of fome noble Spaniards, dexteroufly changed the
purport of the Indians mcfifge, by making it, according t.
his interpretation to Soto, in the conclusion, defire their par-
don as a favour. On the other fide, Ortiz affured the Indians,
that the offenders were in cuflody, and that the general would pu-
nilh them in a moft exemplary manner. By thefe means, they
efcapcd.

THE governor having determined to leave Chicaca in March,
demanded Indians, for service, of the caffique, which the latter
promised to propofe to his people: But Soto perceiving, after he
had repeated his demands, that he only fought to elude him, and
was meditating something fatal, ordered Mafcofo to keep a good
guard all that night ; which was yet, unhappily, neglected. The
general's fufpicion was but too well-grounded. The Indians fell
upon the Spaniards, in the night, from several quarters, with their
horrible war-hoop, and rushed into the camp, even with their
own centinels, fo that the town was half on fire by the time the
noife of the enemy was heard, owing to the cowardly behaviour
of the advanced guard, who suffered the Indians to enter it
without refilance, where they waited for the Spaniards, as they
leaped out of the houfes, unarmed, blinded with the finoke, and
pierced them with their arrows. The disorder and confusion was
fuch, that a general panic feized the whole army, and prevented them
from making head against the enemy. But it pleaded providence not
I to








THE EXPEDITIONS


to fuffer the Indians to perceive this advantage ; on the reverfe, they
imagined the horses, which had broken Idofe from their halters, and
were running through'the' streets, to. be fquadrons forming to charge
them. Things being in this ituati6n, Soto was the' only man who
could get on horseback; and pufhing, with one attendant, towards
the enemy, flew, with his launce, the firft he met with ; bit as,
in this disorder, his horfe had not been well faddled, the force of
his own blow threw him to the ground. The danger of the go-
vernor drew many, immediately, to his ifl'rance, even' of thofe
who were flying; and, the night continuing, deceived the imagi-
nation of the Indians, who fill miftook the trampling they heard
for troops ready to attack them. This blackened their fury,
and they retired from the town, which was now entirely confumeI,
and in it all that remained to the Spaniards, from the burning of
Maville.

TWELVE Spaniards perished on this occasion, and fome others
were muchihurt by the flames: Fifty horfes, and four hundred
pigs, were burnt Great part of the army had loft their clothing,
as well as their arms, in the fire; and suffered exceedingly from the
feverity of the weather, till a certain foldier invented a covering for
himself, made of dry grafs woven together; which, though, at firfl,
it served for matter of laughter, proved fo useful, that they all were,
at laft, glad to wear the fame fort of clothing. In this condition,
had the Indians repeated their attack immediately, they mull have
entirely destroyed them. The general thought proper to move his
camp to where the caflique resided, and found, in that place, very
fine afh-trees, of which the army made launces, as good as thofe
ofBifcif ; and, by the force of induffry and contrivance, the caval-
ry, in eight days time, was again made ready for action.

ON the fifteenth of MIarch 1551, before day-break, the Indians
returned to the attack. Providentially, the Spaniards were now
in a condition to receive them. As the alarm was given in proper
time, the governor and the cavalry were on their horfes in an in-
flant, and charged the Indians fo furioufly, that they fled with pre-
cipitation, leaving forty of their number dead upon the plain. Some
1 prifoners









TO F L ORID A.


prisoners were taken, whom they kept for guides, and marched,
on the twenty-fifth of April, for Alimamu, where they found but
little maize. The general, therefore, detached Danh.zjo, with a
party of horfe and foot, to feek provisions, having a defert foon to
pafs of feven dias-journey. This partizan found a ftrong pallifade,
where the Indians waited for the Spaniards: He faw them walking
there with their arms and their bodies painted with various colours,
difpofed in bands and fillets about them: Some had plumes, others
horns, upon their heads; their village blackened, and their eyes tinged
with red, to render them more hideous. In the moment the.Spa-
niards were obferved by them, they fent up the war-hoop, and
rufhed out to meet them. Danhbufco ranged his foot with their
crofs-bows and fields, before the horfemcn, and thus flood ready
to receive the Indians, who advanced to fkirmifh in fmall parties.
The general, who prefently came up, refolved to drive the enemy
from this poft. The cavalry were ordered to difmount, and attack
the pallifade ih four divisions. Their fhock was bravely fuftained
by the Indians; but, at length, being very roughly charged, they re-
tired acrofs the fiream, and defended the paffage, by pouring over vaft
flights of arrows upon the Spaniards; who, not being able to find a
ford, were forced to retreat, Ibveral of them being wounded upon the
occasion, and 'fome killed. The general was blamed in this af-
fair, for hot having better considered the ground, and fought where
to ford the river, before he had attacked the enemy.

How much foever the troops, particularly the wounded, might
want repofe, scarcity of provision obliged the governor to. decamp,
and march to izquiz, their way to which lay, for even days,
through deferts, marches, and woods. The Indians of this place,
having no notice of fuch, a vifit, were all furprized in their houfes;
and, among others, the mother of the caffique was taken, of
which Soto fent advice to her fon, promising to deliver her up, and
the reft likewise, if he would come to him. The Indiarantivered,
that he would not, unlefs they should be delivered up firfi. This
Soto, to humour him, consented to, in consideration that the army
was quite fpent with hunger and fatigue, and difmiffed the chiefs
mother in the mofl obliging manner. On the next day, inflead
I 2 of









THE, EXPEDITIONS


of the caffique, several Indians appeared in arms, which made the
Spaniards have immediate recourse to theirs. Upon this the former
retreated to onme distance, and, after an hour's deliberation,
fix of the principal ones came to the camp, and told the ge-
neral their errand was to view the people he had brought: That
they had heard from their ancestors of a white people, who were
to conquer their country, and, therefore, their chief had fent them
to present his services, and fime mantles and fkins, to the general.
After which they returned, and the Spaniards heard no more of
them.

THE general now advanced to the Rio le Grand, where there was,
plenty of maize, a good elation for a camp, and no want of wood
for building boats to pafs over. Soon after they had pitched here,
fome Indians landed, and told the general, that they came to give
him notice, that their mailer, a great caffique, lord of a large ex-
tent of country on the opposite fhore, intended to vifit him:
Which he did, in effect, attended by 200 canoes filled with Indians,
armed and painted, after their manner, and adorned with feathers
of all colours. That which carried the cafique had a pavilion at
the poop, under which he fat. All thefe boats ranged themselves
near the bank of the river, whence the caffique addreffed Soto in a
very polite manner, and fent- him fome canoes, laden with filh,
and a fort of cakes made of pate of plumbs. To this civility Soto
replied with many thanks ; befeeching him, at the fame time, to
land : With which request, though often moft preffingly repeated,
neither lie, nor his people, could be prevailed upon to comply..
But, fiom all their mctions, it very plainly appeared, that they
lay upon the watch to furprize the Spaniards, had they found them at
all off their guard: An omiflion they had paid too dearly for already,
to be guilty of again. IMeanwhile, the boats they had been build-
ing, to transport the army over the river, were finished; and the
gcneial embarked, on board of them, twelve horfemen of approved
valour, to try the puflage ; who, getting off about a quarter of a
league above the camp, because the fiream was very firong, rowed
ti!l they came within bow-fhot of the opposite fhore, where, en-
tering on horfeback into the water, they loon found a firm fandv;
fhore









TO FLORIDA.


thore to land upon; and, as they faw no enemies, thus made them-
felves masters of the paffrge. The boat was then fent back, and
the general, with the whole army, crofled over before fun-fet.
The river here was about a mile and a half over,, very deep, and
very rapid.

THE army having croffed this water, the largest of Florida,.
found themselves in the province of oQuixo. Soto then detached a,
party to bring the boats up to a town, upon the banks of the river,
abandoned by the natives on their arrival, where the army in-
camped; but, as the course was not dired, and they were obliged
to make many turns, the Indians, who well knew the navigation,
attacked them with flights of arrows ; and, being both fear-
ful of committing themselves to the main fiream, and in. danger of"
deflrucion, if they kept near the fhore, their difirefs was very
great, till the crofsbow-men arrived, who were fent by the gene-
ral to alifl them.

THE army, next day, marched,to the province of Pacha which,
according to the report of the Indians, bordered upon that of Chi.ca,
where that metal was to be found, which the governor took to be
gold. In their way, they came to a finally river; but, as it had
overflowed the banks, the troops were obliged to march through
the water, till fun-fetting, as high as the waift: At length,. they
arrived, to their great joy, upon firm ground ; and, the day after,
they came to the province of Cafjii. This country is higher, and
drier, than any they had hitherto found. It abounds with nut,,
mulberry, and plumb-trees, which were as flourishing as any in
our belt cultivated gardens: For the land produces but few briars
and thorns. Two da-.s march the army proceeded into this pro-
vince, before they came to the ordinary residence of the caffique,
to whom the general made overtures of peace and flierd(hip;
which were anli\ered, by the chief, in terms highly fatisfatory.
The Iduians here did not abandon the towns through which the
army paired, but received them every where with joy, offering
Sto. fflnb, and fruits, Cc.


WH-LE;








THE EX P ED IT IONS


W\rTHLE the general was encamped here, the caffique presented
two blind men to him, defiring him, as he was the fon of the fun,
and fo puiffant a lord, to cure them. To this Solo replied, that
the Matter whom he ferved, who dwelt in the heavens which he
had formed, who had created men and all things elfe, could alone
grant them that favour; to whom, therefore, he recommended them
to afk for whatever they had need of, in the name of the Chrillians
God.

By this friendly lnlian, Soto was informed that his way to Pa-
caba lay over a lake, which formed a kind of gulph in the Rio
Gramte, or great river; adding, that he would fend InTians before
him, to build a bridge over it for the pafTage of the army ; which
he actually did, and the bridge was finished when the governor
arrived at the banks of this lake, the current through which was
both deep Mnd rapid. The bridge was built of girders, laid upon
trees planted upright in the water, with ftakes upon the top, for
thofe that were pafling to hold by. The caflique joined them here,
with his Indians armed, and proceeded with Soto to the confines
of the province of Pacaha, the caffique of which being at enmity
with that of Cafqui, the general fent him promises of protection,
providing he would grant him his friendship. The Pacahan receiv-
ed this meffage with difdain, and retired with his people into the
woods. Solo followed them, with all the cavalry, and took fome
in a town not far diflant. He delivered there prisoners into the
hands of the Indians of Cia0ui, who were much mortified at being
prevented from maifacring them. -

THE general entered into the town of Pacaba on the nineteenth
of 'fune, and lodged in the caifique's houfe, which was large, pal-
lifadoed about, and fortified with turrets, pierced with holes for
footing through. The country adjacent was covered with maize,
and several well-fortified towns appeared at different diffances. The
caflique of Cafqui undertook to deliver him of Pacaba into the ge-
neral's hands ; to accomplish which, he ordered the canoes up the
river, and came himself, by land, to the army, attended by many
of his fubjecs. After fome fearch, the Indians in the canoes dif-
covered









TO F LORIDA.


covered the Pacaban and his people, in a little island; upon which,
five or fix Sp'aniards entered into a canoe, to take a view of them,
who being feen by the Paca.nns, they imagined all in the several
canoes to be Spaniards allb ; which Jb terrified them, that, although
5,ooo or 6,000 in number, they threw themselves into the water
with fuch precipitation, that many of them were drowned. The
Indians, as well as Sfaniards, took great booty on this occasion;
but the former, fearing left the Spaniards shouldd make free with
theirs, loaded their canoes, and returned to the caffique of CaJiui,
without taking leave of the general. Incenfed at this ufage, Solo de-
termined to join the callique of Pacaba ; and, for this end, immedi-
atcly made overtures to him of friendship and protection, defiring,
at the lame time, to fee him. Which requell, after fome hefita-
tion, he complied with, came, attended by many of his fubjects,
and devoted himfelfand people to the general's service: In return for
which, all the Pacahan prisoners of note, who had been t.1ken, were
fet at liberty. On the day following, a mefrTnger arrived at the
camp from the caflique of Cy/;';, imploring pardon, in the moil
fubminive manner, for the rafh Ilep his people had taken, which
Soo granted, only upon condition that the Cafquian chief should
come immediately to him. When this was done, the governor was
desirous to terminate differences between the two cafliques, and, for
that end, made them both eat together at his table, which had the
delired effed.

D oRI N thefe tranfadtions, thirty horfemen had been fent off to-
wards Cabl.ca, to find, that way, a road toChi/ca ; but they returned,
after (even days march through a drcir, without having had any
fuccefs, and almoil dead with fatigue and hunger. Sc'o, perceiving
the country to the north to be fo poor and barren, was direded by
the .iianis to a great province, lying muthward of them, called
Ziigate, and abounding with all kind of provisions.

AFTER a repole of lorty days, throughout which the two caf-
fiques vied \with each other in kindnels to the general, the army
began its march back again through Ca/qjui, to Q.igate, where it
arrived on the fourth of Ag.,'gl/. This was the largest town the
Spaniards








64 THE E EXPEDITIONS
Spanl, rds had feen in all Florida; but Soto, having reason to fuf-
ped the Indians, who had quitted it, burnt that part of it
which was not occupied by his people, fearing it might otherwise
prove a cover for the enemy. The caffique had fled to the woods,
whence he was taken, but not without great difficulty, and in-
formed the general, that, to the North-eaft, the province of Coli-
coa was fituated, at the foot of the mountains. Soto, and all the
army, took it for granted that they flhould find, beyond thefe
mountains, the wealthy country they expeaed, and resolved, there-
fore, to march to Coligoa. So, leaving the chief of the laft oro-
vince in his town, they took an Indian for their condudor, who
led them through woods for f:ven days: The worft circumstance
in which was the mar(hinefs of the iIil, where they were fome-
times obliged to fleep in the water. Thefe marches were fo full of
filh, that the soldiers could take as many as they pleaded with
their hands.

THE people of Coligoa had no advice of the army's approach,
and fo great was their furprize, that they threw themselves into a
fiream which ran by their habitation; but the Spaniards, befitting
them on every fide, took a great number of them, both men
and women. From ,cigate. to the town of Coligoa the distance is
about forty leagues, and the latter is fituated at the foot of a
mountain. The land around it is rich, and produces fo much
maize, that the inhabitants usually throw the old away, to make
flowage-room for the corn of the new year. Cucumbers grow
here larger and better than thofe of Spain, which, being flewed,
have the flavour of chehiuts.

THE caffique of this place granted the army a guide, and they
marched thence, in five days, to Pafrlema, where they found the caf-
fiqle's houfe lined with deer-fkins, fo well coloured that they might
have been taken for fine tapeftry. The country here being very
rude, and the dwellings far divided, the army made only a fhort
flay in this place, and marched to Taftlicoya, the canique of which
Soto took to fhow him the way to Ca)as; where, when he arriv-
ed, finding the country thinly peopled, and the habitations fcat-
tered,









TO FLORIDA. 65
tered, contrary to what had been alTerted, thinking himfelfimupo-
fed upon, Soto grew fo angry with the callique, as to threaten him
very severely ; but all the Inlians conllantly affirmed, that they
were now in the province of Cayps, and that it was a fruitful and
good country. The army proceeded to the chief town, called
T'anico, and encamped upon the banks of a river. They found a
number of mantles, made of fkins, left for them, though the inha-
bitants were'gone, which is a landing token, in this country, that
there is no enmity Lublifling.

THE army remained a whole month in the province of Cjyas,
during which t'me the horses grew fo fat, that they had never been
in fo good a condition, throughout the whole expedition, as now,
owning to the superior quality of the maize and t1raw, and flill
more to the water of a neighboring lake, which was of fuch
excellent gocdnefs, that thele animals were never satisfied with
drinking it. Hitherto the army had been deflitute of :lit, but here
they found plenty of it, which thefe India,,s barter with their neigh-
bours for mantles and 'kins. They make it into loaves along the
river, where large quantities are left by the waters, after overflow-
ing. They put it, land and all, into pans wide at top and narrow
at bottom ; upon there pans they caf water, which falls into a vef-
fel placed underneath; this they then boil, and when the water is
evaporated, the fElt appears at the bottom of the pot.

IT was fome timp before any of the natives would venture near
enough to give the SpanViards any opportunity of converting with
them; but, as Loon as that offered, Soto enquired concerning their
catlique, and was answered by the Indians, that their chief defired
to remain at peace with him, but did not dare to truff himself in
his presence. Soto gave them repeated affurances that he mighr,
with the utmoft fafety, and lent a guide and interpreter to conduct
him; who not returning in three days, the general went thither
himself, and feized the chief and federal of his people. The ufual
queflions were afked, whether they knew any good country, or
any great chief besides ? To which they replied, that, about a day
and a half's journey towards the fourth, lay the province of Tul/i,
K to









66 THE EXPEDITIONS
to which the cafTique promised to grant the Spaniards a guide
lur,, as the people of that region fpoke a different language, and
had been conflantly at enmity with thefe of Ca'as, which had pre-
vented all communication, an interpreter was not to be procured.

Tir general, upon this, let out himself, with a party of hcrfe
and f.or, to fie if it was pracicable for the army to march through
T.,l.'a, but he hardly left the camp, before the natives arole, and
attacked him upon the way in fmall parties, wounding several of
the Spaniards, and leaving fome of their own people dead upon the
fpot. Solo, tearing the consequences of proceeding, retired back to
the camp, where he arrived onhe on e morrow, and marched thence,
with the whole army, for 7riula; but could not find, among all the
captives, any one that underflood the language of that place. After
fome days march into the country, the natives fet upon the army
with bows and poles, in the form of pikes, but were very roughly
handled by the Spaniards, whofe general cut off the right hands
and nos of ix Indians, and fent them al ay to inform the caltique
of Tu'.'a, that, unlefs he should fubmit liinlI-l and people to the
Spaw.',: forces, their general was relLlved to treat them all in the
fame n anner. This brought on the witlcd-for qonfequences, and
foon after fiine of the natives arrived, who testified, by their be-
haviour, the utmoll marks of affection nJ orbecdicen-e ; but, what
rejoiced the governor moll, was, that a person, capable of aAing
as interpreter, was found among thofe who brought in the pre-
fents of cow-hides, &c. without which afhiilr.ce it would have teen
very difficult to proceed Farther into T6/.r: L. The general, there-
fore, \erv carefully guarded this valuable I,./t.::;, fending the others
back with full al'irances of pardon to the cain;que, desiring allo an
interview with him ; to which the latter complied, and, follow-
ed by twenty-four I.'ians, entered the camp all in tears, to de-
monfirate their borrow for what had pa.fid ; which is a cultonI
always ufed in this country on occationc rf I1how irg their grief for
a fault. They brouglit with them imany cr.'-'.kiin-, which were uf
gre-t service in io cold a region, beca.1Uii they :re covered with a
wool as fine as that of fleep. The ciliqe of "Ta': addrcfrd
hiiml'lf to Soto, both to apolog;z: for his conduJ1 and ctffer his
own









TO FLORIDA.


own and people's services to him. It is not improper here, to ob-
ferve, that all thefe princes, and their envoys, expreffed themselves,
in their several languages, with as much elegance and precision, as
the moff celebrated orator among Europeans could do.

SOTO, informing himself concerning the qualities of the coun-
tries adjacent to Tulla, found that, fouth-eaftward, there was a
province named Autiamqui, about eighty leagues distant from
'Tulla, full of large towns, and very fruitful in maize; and, as
the approaching feafon would prevent him from marching during
three months at leaff, and provisions would be with more difficulty
amaffed, where the towns were to thinly dilperfed ; the Indians
likewise describingg a great lake at Autiamnqe, which, from
the manner of their difcourfing about it, he guclTed to be an arm
of the fea, by means of which he not only hoped to fend intelli-
gence of himself to Cuba, but alol to draw from thence a recruit
of frefli men, to fupply the places of what he had 1ol0, which h
already amounted to 250 of his troops ; he, therefore, determined
to make Autiamque his winter-quarters, and to feek tome lea-
port in the spring.

HE, therefore, difinifed the caffiques of Cavas and Tithla, and
began his march towards Antianmqii, \vhich lay over very rough
mountains. In palling them, he was informed of another pro-
vince, called Guahat6, abounding with maize, and very populous.
Neverthelefs, as Autiamnque was nearer, Sclo continued his rout, till
he came to the town of Anourxi, and, from thence to Cua,1uava.
The next day the army arrived at Autiamque, in which town thev
found a great quantity of maize, fruit, &c. The general pitched
his camp at a dillance from the houfes, the better to avoid fire,
and fortified it with a wooden palifade. Some Indians waited upon
the general with presents from the caffique, who never appeared,
but only desired to know how long the army intended to remain
in his country; to which Soto made no answer, knowing he fliould
halt there a confidcrable time.


K 2E


Ti E










68 THE EXPEDITIONS
THE caffique of Autiamque, anxious to clear his dominions ofthefe
guefls, employed fome fpies to lurk about the camp at night, one
of whom was killed by a sentinel, clofe to the pallifade. The
general, routed at this, determined to keep his people alert, and
frequently made faife al.:rms, in order to put them upon their
guard, always punishing thole who were not found upon filch oc-
cafions at their stations. Provifions they had in great plenty, and,
among other food, abundance of rabbits, which the idjian:s taught
them to catch. They took them in the green corn, especially in
frofly weather, or after a fall of -now. Some of there animals were
as large as the biggest hares, thicker, and broader backed.

TiE army left Au!iiarnque on the fixth of Afarch 1542, and the
general resolved to go to Ailco, because it was faid to be fituated
upon the banks of a large river, his design being to march along
that to the lea-fhore, and there wait for fuccours. For now he
had no more than 300 men able to bear, arms, and about forty
horses, several of which were lame. His disappointment and afHic-
tion were greatly inhanced by the death of 'John Ortiz, who died
at Autiamqut, leaving none to fucceed him as interpreter, except
the young Indian of Catifachiqui, before mentioned, who now
underilood a little SpaniJIt, but fill fo imperfectly, that much time
was loll in laborious explanation ; and, frequently, vexatious and
miserable mistakes arofe from misinterpretation.

THE way, after they had quitted uAntiamque, was exceffively
broken, marlhy and dangerous, fo that, in many places, the army
paffed by fiwimming. At length, it arrived at Tiftepina, a town
defeated by its inhabitants, and definite of provisions. A lake lay
before it, in palTing which the general loft one of his officers, the
waters being both very deep, and running impetuoufly into a neigh-
bouring river; hence, after three days march, they arrived at Tianto,
the firlt town in the province of 'Nitcco. The general detached a
party to prevent the Indians from carrying off the provisions from
their dwellings. Before the army came to the habitation of the
cafilque, they.paffed through four large tons, and, on the fifteenth
of March, without any molestation, Soto, with all his forces, march-
ed









TO FLOOR ID A


ed into the town of Nilco. Of all the parts of Florida they had
-et feen, Palache and CoJa excepted, this country appeared to be
the mofl fertile and bell peopled. Soon after their arrival, an In-
diani, attended by fome more of the natives, came to vilit the gene-
ral, and made him several presents in the name of the caflique,
which S:to recompenfed with fome trifles, that he knew thefe
people were fond of. Hitherto the Spani.ards had made little ac-
quaintance with the natives, but their granaries, where they laid
up the corn, were conflantly robbed in the night, by a gang of
them, who carried their booty acrofs the river: To prevent this
evil, Soto fet a guard near a lake, from which the Aldim7li ufed to
come, and was informed by two of them, who were taken by thefe
means, that the Indiaa we mentioned above as vil'ting So:c., was a
fpy, fent to examine his ftrength, and to know whether he intend-
ed to proceed farther, or fettle in this country. The general
hereupon ordered a detachment to pals the river, but, the moment
the Indians perceived it, they fled with fuch precipitation, that very
few of them could be overtaken.

THE river that runs by NKilco is the fame that waters Cayas and
Autiainmqui; it empties itself into a larger stream, that flows near
Pacaba and A4uixo. Their junction is made near Guachba, the
caflique of which diltri& was now at war with him o.Ni:ico, and
came up the river to offer his ferviccs to Soto, by whom he was re-
ceived with much honour and dtiiinwftion. H-e made the general
many presents of mantles and fkins, and addreiffd him in very fub-
miffive and handsome terms. Sofo feafled him and his attendants,
after which he enquired concerning the circumstances of the coun-
try, in proceeding down the river. The caflique replied, he knew
of no other townv than his own, bat that, on the other fide of the
vwatr, there was a province governed by a chief, called ~gi./.!an.
Soon after S.to resolved to vifit Gia;,bcya, to know how near it lay
to the fea, and whether there was any convenient place to relide in
whilil lie contruded two brigantines, in order to fend for fuccours
from Cu,'?a.


N 1HEN









T H E EX P E DI TI 0 N S


'WHEN the Indians of Gziacl'ya faw the Spaniards on the march,
as they were navigating the river in their canoes, they fpread
fo firong a rumour through the country, that Scto was coming
to attack them, as made the caffique, during the night, fly with
all his fubje&s, and whatever they could carry with them over to
the oppofitc bank of the great river. The army arrived at Guiad'oya
on the Ievnteenrh of Aril. The great river is called, at this place,
7an:alif'u '; at Ni'co, Tapatu at Cfai, AMico ; and, at its falling in-
to the fea, Ri.

As foon as the Spaniards arrived at Gutachboa, an Inl.ian came, at-
tended by federal others, lad~ with presents for the general from
their caflique, who, presently after, arrived himself, and made a
very handibme harangue to Soto, excusing, in the beftt manner he
could, his precipitate retreat, and offering to ferve him with all his
power. The general thanked him in the moft grateful terms, and
dtlired to know whether he could give him information in any par-
ticulars relating to the fea-coaft. The ldian' anifvered, that the
moft potent lord in all thofe quarters refided about three days jour-
ney down on the opposite fhore, v.'hole dominion was called ,ui-
gl'o.':. Upon this intellic;i.ce, Soto dispatched Dan,.hic, with
eight horlnmen, to proceed down the rier, and inform himlflf
whether the fea was near. After marching eight days, the party
reurned, having been pble to mnke but little progress, because
the ri\vr, in its course, touk great findings, and the country was
fo encumbered with woods and marnlhes, as to be almoll impene-
trable. This dilheaitening news atfi'eed the general fo deeply, as
to throw him into a fever ;which did not, however, prevent him
from fending to the caflique of 'i.ga./tl, to require his fubmiflion,
and the pleasure of feeing him, which, he acquainted this chief,
was a homage hitherto paid him by all the cafllque, e whole[ domi-
nions he had yet paffed through. To this nmelThge :',igi[lta:t
replied, that it was not his. cuffom to vifit any, but that all his nei-h-
bours visited, fr\ved, and paid him tribute, either willingly or bv
force: That, if Soto had any thing to offer, he was welcome to come
to himi as a friend ; but, if he flIould chufe to adt as an enemy, he
8 waited









TO FLORIDA. 7i
waited for him in his town, whence he would never ftir an inch,
either for him or any one elfe.

ALTHOUGH Scto was suffering under the violent attack of a fever,
when the Iniann brought this answer, he fill felt more from a If nfe
of his present inability to challife this haughty caffique, who rot onlly
defpifed his fummons, but, as was reported, intended to attack the
Spaniards: Apprehending this circumflance to be no v.gue intelli-
gence, the general redoubled his guards, and kept a good watch. The
horle patrolled nightly round the camp, and the crcfsbho.-men guard-
ed the river in canoes, to prevent any furprize on that fide. S':v, to
render himself flill more dreadful to the i:da:fns, detached a party
to Ni/co, whether, as he was told by the natives of Gunch'17,0 7, the
inhabitants were returned ; the caffique of the latter alfo feat feve-
ral canoes upon the fame expedition, laien with armed I./,'i.s..
This party, which confided both of horfe and foot, advanced to
the town with fuch rapidity, as to furprize the inhabitants, in num-
ber about 5000 fouls, before they could escape, who, prefling in
crowds out of their houses, there was hardly one horfeman that
did not fee himself surrounded by many Indians. As the SpaniJb
commander had ordered his people to give no quarter to the men,
a horrible carnage enfued, wherein more than a hundred of the In-
dians fell, besides numbers which were wounded, by the SpaniItrds,
fome of whom carried their cruelty fo far, as to murder the inno-
cent women and children. The Indians of Guac io'a halted
peaceably at a distance from the town, while this inhuman 1ene
was tranadting, to fee the event; but, as foon as they perceived
the Indians were broken, and the Spaniards chacing them, they
ran to pillage the houses ; and, having loaded their canoes with
the booty, returned, before the Spaniards, to Gaccboya, where they
related all that had happened, with dread and atlonifhment, to their
callique.

M1EANWHILE; the general perceiving his diiTolution near, af-
fembled the officers and the bulk of the foldiery, to whom he made
a very moving addrefs, acknowledging the great goodndfs of pro-
videnc t








THE E-XP ED-ITIO0 N S


evidence, in granting him a full pofTeflion of his faculties to the
laft, thanking all the commanders and foldiers for their faithful
servicess, fidelity, and the af'cl;ion that they had, upon every occa-
fion, teflified for his person, and recommending to them the choice
of fome leader, to command tlmr in his lead, as the laft request
he shouldd ever make, and which would, in fome measure, allevi-
ate the uneafinefs he felt at being obliged to leave them in a bar-
barous and unknown country. WVhen he had spoken thus, all that
were prefcnt broke into mofl pathetic demonfirations of farrow,
and earneflly requefled himfdf to chufe a fucceffor for them.
This he readily complied with, and named Le:is Af,,fc/ d'PA '!-
rad1, who being univerfally approved of, they all fwore fidelity to
him immediately.

ON the morrow, the twenty-firfl of .ay, the brave, the virtuous,
and magnanimous Captain Don Ferdinand de So o, governor of Cuba,
and general of Florida, yielded up his foul to God. I-is death th.
Spaniards endeavoured to conceal from the Indians, who entertained
fo high an opinion of his abilities, that they looked upon him to
be immortal; and, left a conviction to the contrary might encou-
rage them to revolt, the body was buried by night, juff within one
of the town-gates; but the Indians, who had conceived fome fuf-
picions of his death, were observed to eye the earth, that had been
newly removed there, with much curiofity; for which reason, the
Spaniards removed the body, on the night following, and, wrap-
ping it up with a great deal of fand, carried it into the middle of
the river, and buried it there.

DURING there events, the caffique of Guacboya frequently en-
quired concerning Soto, whom he called his Lord and Brother;
and Mlf/ofo' having affured him that he was only gone a journey
to heaven, which he often had done, and that, intending to make
fome flay, he had appointed himself to a6 in his room, the Cal-
fique no longer doubted of his death, but fent two handfome young
Indians, who he defired might be flain, to accompany him during
his journey, according to the cuftom of this country. nAafcofo de-
fired the caffique to fend for the young men again, for the gover-
nor









STO FLORIDA.


nor was not dead, but gone to heaven, and had chofen from among
his own peoFle fume to attend him, and befought the calTique to
forego fo cruel a cuflom. He then delivered up the Indians, char-
ging them to return, which one of them refuted to do, declaring
he would never leave AMs/-fo, who had fi ed his life, but live and
die with him.

AFTER thefe tranfadions, A'ficoJ called a council, to consult
which way the army flould now direct its course, whether over
land, westward, towards the SpIanh, settlements, or whether they
flould endeavour to reach the fea, and from thence fail over to
Cuba. This latter determination being rejected, from an appre-
henfion of their inability to conftruft a vellel capable of endu:-
ing the violence of fuch a voyage, and for want of a pilot,
charts, and compaffes, &c. the common resolution was fixed to
march away by land ; and therefore the general, having received
a guide from the calTique, to lead them to (baguate, quitted Gus-
cloya on the fifth of jiine, and arrived at the former place, on the
twentieth, after marching fix days through a defert.

THE caflique of this province had vifited Scto while at Autiam-
que, and made him federal presents; nevertheless, the Spaniards
miffed one of their people, who had fallen lick, julf at entering
into his town ; upon which Affofo acquainted the caflique, that he
expected to receive the Spaniard from his hands again ; and, unlefs
le should, declared he would never leave him, or his people, till
he had destroyed both, and carried fire throughout his country.
The caffique immediately appeared, bringing the fick man with
him, and made the general many presents, affuring him, at the
fame time, of his fidelity and integrity, and that his design had been
to cure the fick man and bring him again as foon as he should have
been recovered. Afofof received his apology with great good-nature,
alledging that he had fulpeded him of having behaved in the fame
manner that several other calliques had done buefre him, but that the
teffimony he had given of his affedion and fidelity, obliged him to
love him as his brother.

L T'lr









74 T I E E X P E D I T I N S
THE caflique accompanied Mofcofo to the town, dillant about a
day's journey, in their way to which they paffed by a falt-manufac-
tory, where the Spaniards provided themselves with fome of that ufe-
ful commodity. They remained here fix days, during which the
general informed himself concerning the country weflward, and
learned that, at three days march fiom Ch/gna.,', he should find the
province of Aguacay.

HERE the army arrived on the fourth of IJuly, and found the
town abandoned; nevertheless, the caffique fent federal of his
people to AM1o-oJ, with presents of mantles, fkins,' &c. In this
place, the Indians alfo make fault, in the fame manner as they do.
at Cayas.

THE Spaniards left .guarcay on the fime day, and, four days.
after, were in the province of Mayd, and encamped, on the twen-
tieth, in a very pleasant wood between that place and Naguata.
Soon after their arrival here, fome Indian fpies were observed ho-.
vering about the camp, two of them were taken, and' the reft
flain. By this accident, the Spaniards got intelligence that the caf-
fique of Naguata, in league with other chiefs, intended to attack
the Spaniards that day; and, indeed, while thefe Indians were un-
der examination, the enemy appeared in two bodies, and, perceiv-
ing themselves to be discovered, charged the Spaniards mof furi-
oufly; but the latter, fuftaining the fhock vigorously, they fled with
precipitation, and were purfued by the cavalry. While there things
were in agitation, a great cry was heard at a finally dillance from the
camp, towards which AMoojof detached twelve horfemen to know
the cafe, who found there fis Spaniards surrounded by a great.
number of Indians, to which fiperiority, without alliflance, the
former muft have fallen a sacrifice,. though they fought like lions:
However, this reinforcement turned the fcale fo much, that the
greater part.ofthe Indians were flain, ,and one of them taken,
whom. eofcofo, after cutting off his right arm and nofe, fent,
in that condition, -to the caflique of Naguata, to give him notice,,
that, on the morrow, he would enter his country, and lay it walte
withfire and ford; and that, if the caffique should be defirous of
preventing






A "


TO FLORIDA. 75
preventing it, he muft meet him at his entrance. The army marched
next day towards the township of Naguata, the houfes of which were
feparated from each other. The residence of the caffique was on
the opposite fide of a river, where the Indians flood ready to op-
pofe the Spaniards in pafling over; which, however, the latter ac-
complifhed, in fpite of all obftacles, and entered into a country
well furnished with provisions, and all the necelTaries of life. AMof-
cof had not been here long, before the caflique of Naguata fent
a p.rty of Indians to obferve the behaviour of the general and his
people, and to acquaint the former, that he intended to vifit him,
which he did presently afterwards, attended by a large body of the
natives, all in tears, according to the fashion of Tulla, which
is not far diflant: He made a profound reverence to the general,
and demanded pardon for his offence, throwing all the blame upon
the bad councils of one of his brothers, who fell in the battle:
lie enlarged much in the praife of Mocofo and the Spaniards, whom
he profeifed to regard as a people something more than human,
and concluded with offers of service and obedience. When he had
finished, the general received him into his favour, and promised
to consider him as his friend, provided his behaviour should corre-
fpond with his words.

THE army foon after decamped, but was obliged to turn back,
upon account of the fwelling of the river, which appeared the more
extraordinary because no rain had fallen ; but, as it frequently hap-
pened, and always at the increase of the moon, it should feem to
be owing to the tide, though the Indians had no knowledge of
any fea; nevertheless, they found means to pafs it eight days after,
and, in three days, arrived at a village belonging to te caffque of
MiAj bc-ne, a barren and ill-peopled province; thence they wander-
ed through a wild didlri"t, called Lartn:3, and, loon after,- arrived
at the province of .Mclndacco, the caflique of which prefrnte the
general with a quantity of fih. le was r -ceivcd very kindly )-and,
as f:on as the army had'provided themselves with fubfift-fice:they
received a guide, antid nirchtd towards Soccnatio. In journeying
thither, they palT.d through the province of A,7s, the fierce- inha-
bian1ts of which harr.:fiLd the Spatn-iards, continue. lly, cduricg their
L .: .'c









THE EXPEDITIONS


march to G?'qro, Where they arrived, after having suffered incredible
hardships and fatigues ; and, finding maize furficient for their ule
here, they loaded their horses, and marched to Nagicojfia.

IN fine, having travelled long to no purpose,, through miserable
deferts, frequently bewildered, and quite at a lofi which way to
proceed, perpetually engaged in perils and alarms, and uncertain
fill whether famine would not be their dellrudion at lail, the
general called a council, wherein it was determined to return to
Vilco, and there build veffels to carry the troops down the river,
and lb to fome of the Spanmfl fettlements by fea. This refolu-
tion was far from giving content to all; many there were among
the Spahiards, that would rather have taken the higheff probabi-.
lity of perifhing in Flrida, through want, than have returned
thence low and disappointed ; neverthelefs, thefe, not having num-
ber or icc to oppose, were obliged to submit to the general de.
termination.

THE troops had already marched 50 leagues to the weft of the
great river, and now they repented of having laid wafte the coun-
try through which they were to return ; but the inconveniency was
lefs than the expecation of it, for they found the town of Naguata,
which had been burnt, now rebuilt by the Indians, and the houses
well flored with maize, the country being both fertile, and well
peopled. They make here earthen dishes, not much unlike thoje
of Eljremos and MAontemnor. The Saniards, left Naguata, and
came to Chaguted, and at length arrived at Niklo; but found lb
little maize there, that they were entirely thrown into a dejetion,
nearly borded lg upon defpair, feeing no means of fubfifting du-
ring the time requifite for building the vefll.s to carry them out of
Florida ; not owing to flerility of foil, but to the neglect of the
Indians, who had been too much frightened to employ themselves
in tillage, while- the troops refided at Guacbhya : For the province
is extremely fertile; which made the S .Mi-dscozfident. of finding
fubfiftence here. The ti'ldieis no11W n to c.urie the resolution,
to pufh on their discoveries no farther vellward, and to look upon
the defign of putting to fea as absurd and chimerical to the lafl de-
gree,









TO FLORIDA.


agree, they being totally unprovided with every neceffary preparation
for shipping. The unfortunate Narvaez was frequently recalled to
their minds, who was lolt upon this coaft ; but the heaviefl of all
their misfortunes was the want of food, without which it was
impofible for the men to labour.

THEY had now no resource left, but to recommend themselves.
to divine providence in prayer, for his immediate affifance, and ho
heard them, fending the Indians of ANilco, with great fubmiffion,
to inform them that there were, at the'diflance of two days jour-
ney from them, upon the banks of the great river, towns of which
the Spaniards had no knowledge. The country was called Minoya,
and very fertile. Mof-ofo, upon this, dispatched a captain with a
party of horfe and foot, attended by the Indians of Ni/co, who.
were at war with the people of thefe towns, one of which they
'inflantly feized, and entrenched themselves in it, having found a
great quantity of maize there. Great was the joy in the camp at
Shearing thefe tidings, and all the troops fet forward immediately,
though the weather was very bad, being rainy, attended with a
Cold north' wind, and the ways very full of water, yet they fur--
mounted all difficulties, and lodged themselves in the beft of the
towns, at a quarter of a league from the great river. Hither they
brought all the maize from the other towns, amounting to fix thou-
fand bufhels. Thd place alfo afforded wood, .better for the build-
ing of vefiels than any thing they had yet feen in Florida.

THE general now fet- very person that could be ufcful to
work: He collected.alJ the iron that could be gotten, even the
chains from the prisoners, and wood. was immediately felled for
timber. Providentially there was found among their number fome
one artificer qualified to ferve for every ufe. In fine, after great.
fatigue and perseverance, even brigantines were finished in the
month of June; but a difficulty, very hard to be overcome yet re.
mained, and that was to fet them aflnat; for the Indians,had de-
clared," that the great river role only once a year,. at the time when
the inows were melting, which had already happened, and
io rain had fallen for a long pacee. However,, it pleafLd God that-
tha









THE EXPED IT ION S


the river felled suddenly, upon the increaf- of the moon, and
came, as it were, to fetch the brigantines away; fo that they were
floated into the bed of the river with great eafe. A thing which,
but for this event, would have been effected not without great
labour, and the hazard of (training them, and opening their f-ams,
in hauling them down to the water. And thus, on the second day
of July in the year 15t-3, the Spaniards were all embarked, and
departed from Minoya. Mlofojb appointed a captain to each bri-
gantine, and made them fwear to obey him in the lame manner as
they did when alliore. This being done, they proceeded to Gua-
choya. Leaving this place, they found the current very firong, and
advanced at a great rate by the help of their oars, till they came
to Qigaltam. Mofcofo fent, -from time to time, parties ashore,
and found great quantities of maize in the houses, which were
afterwards embarked. on board of the veffels. While they were
paffing through this province, frequent attacks were made upon
them by the Indians, in one of which the Spaniards loft about
twenty-five men, with their commander John Gafiman, who was
detached with this party in canoes to attack the enemy; by whole
canoes, much larger, and more numerous than his, he was loon
surrounded, when the Indians throwing themselves in multitudes
into the water, and laying hold upon the Spaniards canoes, over-
turned them all in an infant. Thefe brave men all perished, being
carried to the bottom by the weight of their armour.

THIs fuccefs Ib encouraged the Indians, that they omitted no
opportunity of annoying the veffels during the whole.time of their
falling down the river, sometimes making a flew as if they intend-
ed to board them, and conflantly kept up a.continual discharge of
their arrows from the banks of the river. The Spaniards loll a
considerable number of men upon this occasion : They, at lal',
lined the gunnels and quarter-decks with a brealt-wo, k made of
double matts, fo thick as to prevent the arrows fiom penetrating.

WrrhrEN they had arrived at about half a league's diflance fio,n
the mouth of the river, the general landed his men, in order.to
cfrefh them, as they had been greatly fatigued by rowing. Here
they









TO F L OR IDA.


they (laid two days only, as the Indians flill continued to alarm
them. The eighteenth of u/ly they put to fia, with a favourable
wind, and after a paflage of fifty-two days, arrived at the mouth
of the river Panice, on the continent of Mexico, on the tenth of
September i 543, having undergone various fatigues, dangers, and
difficulties, as well by lea as by land, and loft above one half of
their number in this unfortunate expedition.



Expedition of JOHN RIBAULT, a Frenchman.

T H E expedition of Soto into Florida, having been followed by
Sfch a train of melancholy and fruitlefs events, the Spaniards
Sno longer turned their views toward there coaifs. It did not, how-
ever, deter the French; for, in the year 156.2, Jqbhn Ribault fail-
ed from France, with two men of war well manned and' vi6tualed,
having on board a large body of land-forces; and, after two months.
Lail, made the fhore of North America, in the latitude of thirty
degrees north. The coaft was low and flat, being clothed all:
over with very lofty trees. No harbour appearing, they fleered
northward, keeping the land in fight, until they came to a beau-
tiful river, which they called May River, that being the month it
was discovered in. They entered its mouth, which was deep
and capacious : The country was fine, and the inhabitants received
them kindly. Silk-wornis were observed upon the mulberry-trees,
which grew here in great numbers.

'LEAVING this river, and firetching farther to the north, they,
landed at various places; the inhabitants of which, at firff, appre-
henfive of mischief from the sudden arrival of firangers, fled into
the woods, but were foon lb much reconciled, as very willingly to
converfe with the French, and make them prelfnts of flins, and
bafkets (very ingenioufly woven out of palm-leaves), and aib a few
pearls. Ribault, being defirous to form a settlement upon this
fpot, founded his people concerning it ; and finding fix and twenty
~CL









THE EXPEDITIONS


of them contented to winter here, raised haftily a fmall fortification
for them, which extended fixteen poles in length, and thirteen in
breadth, calling it Carolin; and, appointing Albert, his lieutenant,
governor of the colony, to whom having given proper intrruaions,
lie fet fail, and arrived at Dieppe in France, on the twentieth of
'July in the fame year.

ALBERT applied himself, to obtain information of the late of
the neighboring provinces, and vifited their various little princes,
endeavouring to ingratiate himself with them ; which he effected
to fuch a degree, that they very readily supplied him and his people
with provision, and often made them presents of pearls, cryftal,
and silver, in large quantities.

THESE advantages could not, however, prevent the fate ofAl-
bert, who fell a sacrifice to the licentious humour of his people,
irritated by the fever reftriaions and discipline he laid them under,
which yet were the beft means to preserve their safety among the
natives. But the colony were foon convinced, after he was taken
off, thai they should be able to fubfift no longer, especially as the
supplies expected by them from France did not arrive: Upon this
they resolved to depart; and, having laid in what provision they
could colled, fet fail for France : But, meeting with a calm for
twenty days together, this unforefeen accident reduced them to the
horrid diflrefs, for want of food, of killing one of their companions,
to fufiain life by eating his flefli, when luckily they met with
an Englih (hip, which fet them ashore upon the coall of England,
whence they were conducted to the court of Queen Elizabeth; and,
moft probably, their narrative firft made her turn.her thoughts to-
wards Florida. 7






E i
et
Expedition









TO FLORIDA.


Expedition of RENE LANDONIERE, a Frenchman.

FRANCE, during this period, had been too much encumbered
with intestine broils to think of fending supplies to Caroline;
but, thofe being now allayed, Rtne Landoniere, who had made this
voyage before with Ribault, was fent thither in April I564, with
three fhips, and arrived in the river 'iay, on the July following,
at the fame place which the French had left, and built there a little
town, and fortified it with a rampart of earth, and called it alfo
Caroline. Both he and his people were kindly treated by the inha-
bitants of the country; and, by their alfiflance, he penetrated into
the more interior and remote parts. Still, as he moved, he made
friendships and treaties with the various chief, among whom he
had the art of flowing an emulation of gaining his gcod-will. He
refifted the endeavours of thole caffiques who were deliroi s of ob-
taining his afliftance against fuch as they were at variance with, and
made it his ftudy to reconcile all differences between the petty prin-
ces adjacent that, by their help, he might be enabled to cruth all op-
ponents in thofe inland parts of Florida, about the Apalachian moun-
tains, where he had good reafon to believe mines of silver and
copper were to be found.

WHILE thefe considerations took up his attention, his people
began to be in want of provifion ; and, by a failure of the Indians
in not bringing supplies as ufual, were reduced to fuch extremity,
that, to avoid perishing by hunger, they had resolved to return to
France, and were preparing two barks for that purpose, the (hips
that brought them hither having failed back again fome time before,
when they were fortunately relieved, by the purchase of a fhip
laden with provisions, from one Hawkins, an .Enghlman, that
happened to arrive upon this coaft.


DURING









T HE E X PE DITI ION S


DURING thefe tranfaaions, Landoniere had been accused of va-
rious mifdemeanours, contrived by fome enemies among thofe who
had been fent back to conduct the (hips to France, in order to ruin
his reputation at the French court, which were to fuccefsful, that
John Ribault was difpatched with a commiffion to diveft him of
his government, and fend him to France. Ribault arrived in
F'orida on the twenty-eight of Augufl 1565, juft as Landoniere had
prepared every thing for departure. As foon as the news of the
arrival of Ribault was rumoured among the Indians, their several
caffiques came to vifit him, made him presents, and promised to
conduA him to the Apalachian mountains, out of which a certain
rcdifh metal was digged, which they called Sieroa Pira, and be-
lieved to be gold.

WHILE thefe things were in agitation, fix large Spanift veflels
entered the mouth of the river, and came to an anchor there. Ri-
bault who had come higher up the fiream, and had only three
mall hips with him, feeing himself unable to cope with the
Spaniards, flipped his cables, fearing what the purport of their
intentions might be, and put to fea, whither he was clofely pur-
fued by the Spaniards; but, outfailing them, the latter put about,
and entered the mouth of another river, about eight leagues from
that of MJ.y, where they landed their men, and began to fortify.
Ribault, whole ihips were now returned to the port, called a con-
fultation of his officers, and resolved to attack the Spaniards before
they (fould have built a fortrefs, as it were, under their nofes; and,
for this purpose, embarked the beft of Landoniere's foldie s, leaving
him in the fort of Caroline, with eighty fouls, men, women, and
children, mroft of them fick

RIBAULT put to fea on the tenth of September, where he was
overtaken, about fifty leagues from the fortref,, with fo dreadful
a tempeft, that, unable to withstand the fury of the wind, the lhips
were all dathed to pieces among the rocks; and though Ribault,
together with his people, efcaped the rage of the fea, they could
not efcape that of the Spaniards, who inhumanly flew them all,
contrary to the faith of nations, after they had surrendered, maffa-
cring









TO0 FLOOR I DA. 83
ringg more than 600 in number : And, bent upon entirely rooting
out the name of France in Florida, having paffed woods, lakes,
and rivers, with incredible celerity, were at the fort on the nine-
teenth of OEober before fun-rife, although in the rainy feafon, and
attacked the French fo unexpectedly, that they furprized them in
their beds-,-and, after a little opposition from the guard, broke over
the rampart into the parade, when a promiscuous laughter of old
and young, women and children, fick and well, enfued. Lan-
d.nicre, with great difficulty, being not yet recovered from a fit uf
ficknefs, efcaped with a few of his people, through the marfles,
to the hips that Ribault had left, and, at length, returned into
Franoe. The reft were all flaughtered.



F~pediti.n of DOMINIQ.UE DE GOURGUES.

T H I S ter ible deflruaion of his countrymen, in Florida, though
paffed over without resentment by the French king, either be-
caufe of the diffentions which, at that time, dillraded the court
of France, or from his hatred to the Proteflants, of whom the
greater part of this armament had confifted ; routed, nevertheless,
the refohution of Dominique de Gourgues, a native of Gafcony, to re-
venge it; who equipped, at his own expence, three (hips of a mo-
derate fize: And, having embarked two hundred soldiers and eighty
feamen on board of them, failed from France on the twenty-fecond
of Azigflt 1567 ; and, pafling through the fireights of Bahama, ar-
rived at the mouth of the river May.

THE Spaniards, mistaking them for their own people, faluted
them with a discharge of artillery, which Gourgues, defirous to
confirm them in their error, returned again, and, failing on for
about fifteen leagues, landed his people at the river Thoat~couru,
where he was joyfully received by the natives, having fignified to
them that he was come from the French king, to bring friendship
and protection to them, and to revenge all the injuries they had
M 2 received









84 THE EXPEDITIONS
received from the Spaniards. Upon this, mutual pledges of faith
and alliance were exchanged, and the Indian forces combined with
the French in keeping thefe tranfations a profound fecret from the
Spaniards.

BESI DE the fort called Caroline, now repaired by the latter, they
had built two more lower down the river, on the opposite banks,
which they had mountedwith the cannon taken from the French,
and had garrifoned the whole with four hundred chosen men.

THE forces of the French, in conjunction with the Indians, be-
ing affembled, Gourgues proposed to attack the Spaniards by fur-
prize, before day-break, but the badnefs of the ways made it im-
poffible to come in fight of the forts before the fun had rifen, of
which, when Gourgues was apprized, he led his forces about through
the woods by a more commodious, though a longer way; and,
paffing the river, marched up to the SpaniJh fort, which was fitu-
ated on the right-hand bank.

AFTER the firing of a few cannons frorn the rampart, the In-
dians tumultuoufly ruffed upon it, and Gourgues immediately
following, the place was taken; and, with no lefs rapidity, the
Savages, by swimming and he in a boat, with eighty mufqueteers,
landed on the opposite thore, alfo took that fort by form, and pillaged
it. The flying garrifon was intercepted by the natives, who lay
waiting in an adjoining wood. One hundred and twenty Spaniards
wer( llain on this occasion, and thirty reserved for punishment.

CAROLINE fortrefs yet reniained to be taken, in which was
the governor himself, and a garrison of three hundred men, who
hoped to faftain a fiege until fuccours should be fent to them; bur,
Gourgues having learned from the prisoners, that the Spaniards
imagined his forces amounted to 2,000 men, thought no time ought
to be given them for finding out their miftake ; therefore, having
prepared eight fkiffs, and making ufe of a Spani/l captive officer
for his guide, he came by morning in fight of the fort. Here,
after planting Indians in ambufh among the woods interfperfed
on









TO FLORID A. 85
on every fide, that no outlet might be left to the flying, he de-
termined to make his attack upon the loweft part of the rampart,
where the ditch was lialloweft, the commanding officer of which
part detached thence fixty of his people, to inform themselves of
the fate of the French; but, being intercepted by the Indians,
Gourgues flew every one of them to a man.

THE Spanifi governor, affrighted at this cataflrophe, endeavour-
ed to retreat into the neighboring woods with his people, where
they were almost entirely intercepted. Thus, the forts, ammu-
nition, and baggage, fell into the hands of the French, who hung
the captives up. n the nearest trees, with this observation, that they
were not punished because they were Spaniards, but as traitors and
murderers; retaliating the Spanijh governor's observation, when he
butchered the French on the fame fpot, that lie did not deflroy
them for being Frenchmen, but because they were Lutherans.

AFTER thofe tranfac6ions, Gourgues perceiving his forces not
sufficiently numerous to maintain there forts, persuaded the natives
to demolish them, and returned to France, wiih the cannon and
the reft of the fpoils.




Sir FRANCIS DRAKE'S Expedition to Florida.

IN the year 1585, fome private adventurers in England fitted out
a fleet of twenty fail of Ihips and pinnaces, having in the whole
on board to the number of 2,300 sailors and landmen, the com-
mand of which was conferred on Sir Francis Drake, as admiral
in chief, having under him Mlartin Forbif/er, as viceTadinral,.
Francis Knolies as rear-admiral, and lieutenant-general Chrijtopher
Carlile, as commander of the land-forces. This fleet failed- in the
month of September, with orders to cruize against the Spaniards,
and make defcents on their colonies in the Teft-lndies. In their
way









86 THE EXPEDITIONS
way thither, he touched at St. Jago, one 'of the Cape de Verde
iflands; and, having backed and burnt the chief town, called Praie,
proceeded for the ifland of H'fpaniola, where he obliged the inhabi-
tants of St. Domingo to pay, by way of ranfom, 25,000 ducats,
to preserve their town from being burned.

FROM hence he fleered his course for the barbour of Cartlagena;
the attack of which being resolved on, they made themselves ma-
flers of it, after a bloody and obilinate defence. Some part of this
town was drliroyed, but, at lafi, a random of I o,ooo ducats was
paid to preserve the remainder. From this place, he fleered for
Cape Florida, which, when he had doubled, he coafled all along,
not touching any where, till, on the twenty-eight day of May 1586,
being in the latitude of 30 nearly, in the morning early, they
perceived a flru&ure, which seemed to be ere&ed as a beacon, or
look-out. The admiral judging thereby that fome Spani/h settlement
muff be near at hand, determined to land and endeavour to find it
out, as he and every one in the fleet were entirely unacquainted in
there parts. Accordingly, landing in for the (hore, he ordered the
pinnaces to be immediately manned, and he in person, at the head
of the land-forces, marching up about a mile along the fide of
a river, perceived, on the other fide thereof, a fort, as alfo a town,
about three miles higher up, built of wood. Had a fufficient
number of feamen been on flore to make entrenchments, the ge-
neral would that night have paffed over the river, and invested the
fort, till cannon was landed to ereA a battery. However, the
lieutenant-general, in a row-fkiff, went to reconnoitre it; and,
though he ufed all precaution to prevent his being discovered, yet
.the Spaniards took the alarm, and, after difcharging fome pieces
precipitately abandoned the place, imagining the Englif were ap-
proaching to attack them with their whole force. However, he
returned without knowing that the fort had been deferred, till a
French fifer, who had been detained there as a prisoner, coming
.over in a little boat, and playing the Prince of Orange's march, in-
formed the guard thereof, at the fame time offering his service to
conduct them over.


UPON




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