Title: Florida breezes or, Florida, new and old,
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/FS00000069/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida breezes or, Florida, new and old,
Series Title: Florida breezes or, Florida, new and old,
Physical Description: Book
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Bibliographic ID: FS00000069
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida State University
Holding Location: Florida State University
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Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA1025

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3 1254 02941 9682

1'1N ,-4 f


resent any reflection upon his wife. Although his difficulty with
Dickinson apparently originated about a horse race, it was really
owing to insidious remarks concerning Mrs. Jackson, and there
is no forgiveness in his heart for such slurs, as there is no regret
or repentance for the tragic duel that followed."
f' And yet his popularity (I remarked) has withstood such acts
of violence !"
"Withstood what? Do you call killing a man that slanders
your wife an act of violence ? By George, sir Gen. Jackson is
incapable of an act of violence, and when he kills a man, you may
be sure that he is doing society a courtesy. Act of violence, in-
deed pray tell me sir, how is society to be regulated if not by
pistols and ten paces?'"
The mild answer that turneth wrath, was my only defence,
especially as I was more anxious to gain information than to in-
dulge in disputation, thus with tact I directed my companion to
further talk.
"Nothing (continued he) was left undone or unsaid to break
down the popular strength of the hero of New Orleans, forgetting
that if mutiny had not been quelled, the Creeks could not have
been conquered; if the Creeks had not been conquered the
British could not have been repulsed. Stealing Robards' wife was
a favorite theme., The story went that Jackson had taken the
wife of a Mr. Rodgers, and when the latter called on him and
demanded his wife, the General replied with a horse-whip, and
ordering him off, said: If you come again on that business, I
will shoot you." Another story was, that while under trial in
Congress for the execution of Arbushnot and Ambrister, Gen.
Jackson entered the Senate Chamber for the purpose of cutting
off the ears of Gen. Laycock, Macon and Benton, and that he
was only prevented from doing so by Commodore Decatur, who
observed that the deliberations of the Senate could not be dis-
turbed. Great hand-bills. illustrating six coffins, were placarded
in all conspicuous places. Death's head and cross-bones was the
Jackson symbol. Grave and reverend Senators were repre-
sented as leaving the Capitol with one ear the less, sometimes
none; the wives of the land were placed under lock and key,
members of Congress horse-whipped for daring to veto an act of
this military chieftain, whose messages were sent to the people's
representatives through an armed officer or guard, while he him-
self proceeded to the Capitol daily escorted by troops, with
artillery in advance. But, my dear sir, all such statements went
down under the overwhelming popularity of 'Old Hickory,' and
Jackson is President."
"Well, suppose he had not been elected ?"


"Well, sir, pistols and bowie-knives would have been at a
premium, that's all; for I tell you that there would have been a
lot of old scores to settle. But in proof of all I have stated, you
shall read a letter written to me during the campaign by the
General himself."
DR- : While absent at New Orleans, my political enemies
have opened a general and systematic attack upon me, the last
dying struggle of a desperate coalition. Clay has brought forth
Patrick H. Darby as one of his champions, and Clay has written
a book. Clay ought to remember the adage, 'Oh! that my
enemy would write a book.' It was intended to arouse me, and,
if possible, to bring me out before the public. This they cannot
do yet. But my friends mean to notice the book. As to poor
Patrick he will be left to perish in his own filth, unnoticed and
unpitied. I am happy the address of the Central Committee at
the City of Washington has reached you. Taking this in view
with Kendal's fifth letter to Clay, and it is conclusive of the bar-
gain. The whole object of the coalition is to calumniate me.
Cart loads of coffin hand-bills, forgeries and pamphlets of the
most base calumnies are circulated by the franking privilege of
members of Congress. Even Mrs. J- is not spared, and my
pious mother, nearly fifty years in her tomb, ant who from the
cradle to her tomb, has been dragged forth by Hammond, and
held up to public scorn as a prostitute. who intermarried with a
negro, and my oldest brother sold as a slave in North Carolina.
This Hammond does hot dare publish in his vile press, but keeps
the statement purporting to be sworn to-a forgery-and shows
it secretly. I am branded, with every crime, and were not my
hands tied and mouth closed, I would soon put an end to their
slanders. This they know, but suppose when the election is
over all things will die out, but not so. I look forward to the
first of December next with much anxiety as a day of retribu-
tion. I am charged with Burr's conspiracy. Were A. and Mc.
as free of perjury as Master Masons as I was of the Burr con-
spiracy, it would be a pleasant thing for their conscience. My
philosophy is almost worn out, but my enemies expect to urge
me to some rash act; this they cannot do until the election is
over. If my hands are not tied by the event, there will be a.
final settlement. Much of my time is taken up by my friends
here and abroad for documents and statements to enable them to
meet this attempt of the secret assassin to wound female reputa-
tion and feelings by raking up transactions that had slept for
thirty years, when almost all the contemporaries of the day slept


in their silent graves ; but Providence has spared as many of the
most creditable and respectable as will fully refute this base
attempt to stain the reputation of Mrs. J., and harrow up her
feelings in her declining years. When this is done, then, my
friend, the blood of this secret mover* behind the curtain must
atone for this wicked attempt. My friends from a distance say
that the battle is over, that coalition can only succeed by my
death, and to take care of myself and keep clear of -assassins.
There are a class of cowards that I have always thought could
not venture near me; still, where there are so many admonitions,
I will look out and be prepared."
And this was signed simply "your friend,
O'Neils is especially the home of Jackson's friends, and
although I have heard much that is interesting of him, I could
never learn anything to his disadvantage. Few men were ever
so idolized. Possessing, as he does, the powers of command, upon
which are engrafted the more gentle affections of the heart, he
exercises a wonderful power, attaching or repelling, as pleases
himself. His knowledge is of' men-of science, or books he
professes nothing; his followers are even proud of his illiteracy,
and boast that he is President because he did not study books.
He is far from ignorant, though ri';t a scholar, bad spelling and
rhetorical error to the contrary. *

Bleak winds and renewed catarrh admonished me that I
lingered too long in the neighborhood of mountains, and that I
must seek milder modes; via Wheeling, the mild shores of the
Ohio, and the picturesque palisades of the Cumberland, I
breathed again in the rocky town of Nashville, which stands like
a fortress on the precipitous river banks.
But to return a pace. Was't ever in Gondola, at Venice?"
That is one experience, and a trip on a Mississippi boat is quite
as distinct, Two blacks (*..ii-\ IiI my rmall trunk led the way
from the hotel at Wheeling to the ri er, along the shores of
which lay here and there a steamboat. The "getting up of
steam," and the passage to and fro over a narrow plank that con-
nected one with the shore indicated the Ellen Kirkman as the
boat that was to bear me on my journey. Pushing my way
through a crowd of blacks, who, as they rolled barrels and freight
across the plank, sang and jested merrily. I found the Clerk's
office, who, (on passage being paid,) called Minerva," and gave
*He suspected Henry Clay.


her orders to see that the gentleman" found his birth. Fol-
lowing this goddess of mulatto tint and yellow turban, we entered
a long cabin, with sky-lights, through the length of which ex-
tended a table already set for supper, spread with cold meats,
pickles and preserves, raisins and almonds, crackers cold and
biscuit hot, and seemingly everything but what one wanted. On
either side and same extent were two rows of shelves called berths,
and No. 10 of these was indicated as the locus in quo. I was to
rest or not to rest, which was a question with myself, as I saw
that the curtain of No. 11 (above me) was already drawn, but
concealed the form of one who perhaps snored or talked in his
sleep, and over-night revealed both and more, for the guage
cocks of his lungs now and then sent off a whistle that rivaled
the steam escapes of the propeller.
Women and children were grouped around a stove and had
evidently supped. The women gossiped and wondered who was
who, and talked of aches and pains, and their remedies; and
while they talked, they dipped curiously (to me) mall sticks
with mopped ends into boxes, which I :i, f r.l1- learned, con-
tained snuff. Sometimes several dipped into the same box, and
this was called dipping. One or two older women smoked pipes,
but they all reckoned" concerning all that surrounded them.
My type evidently puzzled them ; they had never seen anybody
that favored me, but they settled in their minds that I was a
" down easter," and wondered what I was a coming West fur."
These were soon wrapped in sleep, and the counterpart of the
picture were the men of the passage, who in profanity of lan-
guage, consumption of tobacco, and gambling excess, were be-
yond any previous knowledge, or even conception, on my part.
Far into the small hours of the night my sleep was rendered
feverish and uncertain by loud and rough demands of "what's
trumps? the devil it is! Diamonds-spades What in the h-
did you lead from? Go to h'-, and find out! Euchered, by
G-!- Go it alone? D- me if I do! Waiter! drinks for
four-two fin6. r-, no sugar! Waiter, d- you, hurry up! With
these were mingled the sounds of money jingling (for it was
Jackson money,) and the vocabulary of other games, such as
" Thar! I will go a $5, my cards, raise 'um. He is a jam-up
peart nigger. I'm d-d if I do! 1By G-, sir, she's the best four
mile brute in Kentucky, chip a chip. Queen full here, it's good;
give me three cards ? No, he's after that rich widow down in
Boscier, and a d-d likely lot of niggers. Two pair ain't worth
a damn. Old Jackson will knock h- out of that business. What
have you got-Jacks? Good enough! I'll raise you a cool $50,
Captain! He thinks John C. Calhoun the smartest man out oi


h-; killed him first shot down at Memphis; there ain't no
gamer breed in Mississippi. D- that flush! Now stranger,
nobody means to say that thar is bin cheating round this board,
but I do jess say things are spicious." Quickly as the charge fell
upon the ear, followed rebuff; rebuke and then tumultuous con-
flict, after which the usual calm. And this was the occupation
and pastime of two-thirds of all the passengers throughout the
trip, not only at night, but 'during the intervals of meals, cards,
drinks, and this in view of women and children. With some it
was not accidental, but constituted a livelihood, to secure which
they traveled with the boats up and down the river, seeking their
kind and entrapping the unwary.
The country along these Western waters presents a continuous
panorama of natural beauty. On either side are ranges of forest,
some places covering' precipitous hills, others extensive plains, in
that virgin wealth of luxuriance that presents a boundless con-
tinuity of shade, which with the rapid gurgling of the river
arouses the poet within, though he may not speak. The
sublimity of the wilderness is increased by the contrasts with the
varied life that floats on the stream that bears them on to a mart.
Steamboats meeting and ].':--ii_,. oftentimes engaging in races
that not oply peril life, but freight. Then there are flat-boats
and all styles of ark bearing grain to New Orleans, or moving
West" with the worldly goods of a pioneer, in horses, cattle,
hogs, fowls; and penates in wife and children, following-the path
of Daniel Boone or David Crocket, and doubtless many a little
tow-head that peeped from his mother's petticoat on this wild
journey will retrace the watery route in years to come, and tell
of the big grapes and sweet honey of their Canaan, that can only
grow bigger and sweeter by the adoption of such and such laws,
and under the guidance of such and such a President'of the
United States, the qualifications for which may exist in him-
self, which, by the blessed republican spirit of our country, can
be claimed and established as well in the'rude man of the West
as the polished scholar of the East.
In great contrast to the wild scenery of the shore and the float-
ing life of the river, are the comfortless huts that are seen at in-
tervals of miles in the wilderness, and which teem with occu-
pants as seen by the miserable bare-footed, bare-headed, almost
naked inhabitants that flock to the river's edge, when a boat
stops to wood. Question and answer, however, establish the fact
that there is no poverty among this class, but that cutting wood for
the many passing boats supplies all that the shot-gun and fishing-
rod leaves wanting; the horizon of life being very high and near
to them, luxuries were unknown and necessities were few. Wild


and new as it is, history has made footprints along the route in
Blannerhassett's Island, a solitude now, but once the home of
contented elegance. What wonder that ambition ran riot or
that daring planned perils amidst such untrammeled nature, that
unhampered thought developed desire for corresponding action !
" Wood-up" gave an opportunity to ramble through the treason.
nests of Aaron Burr, from which -hatched only regret and igno-
miny consequent of failure in a scheme, which, not betrayed and
blasted, would not have been treason. Another vault and he
most probably would have reigned in M..,il...,ii,.,'s Halls," and
the world would have applauded where they now decry. As I
walked the grass-grown paths and viewed the moss-coated remnants
of Blannerhassett's home, I sighed more for ruined hopes than
dilapidated walls, which the moon's soft gilding, with the solemn
notes of the Whip-poor-will, (fit pall and requiem,) summoned
by their enchantments. BURR, as the brave revolutionary sol-
dier, the man of charities and accomplished gentleman, the gallant
as romantic lover, in the perilous visits to the woman he had
chosen to be the mother of his daughter-Theodosia, (the gift
from God,) who by this father's training was made the most accom-
plished, the ideal woman of the time, and who became priestess
of this spot in conspiracy for conquest. The bow of glory was
beaming brighest, when the black cloud of disappointment arose
on the horizon, ending in a storm of bitter sorrowing and con-
demnation; blight sufficient, but as nothing in comparison with
the anguish that came breakingtthe heart of the father in the
unknown fate of the daughter, the child of his love and pride,
with whom died every great purpose of life.
But again afloat, we thumped and bumped over the rapids at
Louisville, where the river falls twenty feet in a very short dis-
tance, ,nd then t..i1..i I the inevitable race where boats attempt
to pass each other; one moment we were raking the shore, where
bows of trees swept the guards, and then dashing across to mid-
stream. Men shouted, women and children even lost all sense
of danger, while they clapped hands and screamed, "we are
ahead." The cloud of darkness that issued from the chimneys
told that the Captain and firemen were doing their utmost to
establish a character for speed, but at the moment that the honor
seemed gained, there was a crash that sent the blood back to the
heart, and for an interval there was-nothing. The table that ex-
tended the length of the cabin had been set for dinner, but con-
sciousness revealed that dishes, plates, and their contents were
scattered in fragments, cutting and breaking; and where all was
so lately well ordered, there appeared the ugly broken -i.i:ti- ..I
the engine, penetrating even the -k--l..!,t- of the '":t :t,,It boat.


"Struck a snag!" the quivering, quaking of the shock passed,
and gratitude beamed on every face on learning that we would
not sink; and, having won the race, was sufficient compensation
for any damage sustained or terror experienced.
Progress in'the same boat was impossible until repairs were
made. According to destination of parties, transfers were made;
passing boats were hailed, and in twenty-four hours those that
had lived as one household, were scattered most likely never to
meet again. The season of the year admitting large boats to the
Cumberland, I selected this passage to Nashville, which river is
more like the Hudson in its palisades than I was prepared to
expect. It is, however, itself narrow and shallow, but the
palisades and mountain growth on either hand make it most
picturesque. Thus I found myself in Tennessee, the State that
cradled Jackson-his birth-place they give to the sea and of an
immigrant mother, and not to either of the Carolina's. .This
State of his adoption can truly claim him, for it was her Legisla-
ture that gave him command of her militia to march against the
Creeks, when the government at Washington had declined his
services; but now the stone rejected by the builders has become
the head of the corner."
After seeing Gen. Jackson in the Palace at Washington, I
felt the more interest in visiting his home-the "Hermitage"-
which is situated twelve miles from the City of Nashville. I
found it silent and lonely; its mistress was dead, and her tomb
(within sight) gave an air of melancholy to the scene, which,
together with the absence of the master, took away much of in-
terest in visiting the place. The long avenue of sombre cedars
through which I approached the dwelling, the weeping willow
and solemn ivy of the tomb, seemed to need the accompaniment
of deep sounding music such as.we hear within darkened Cathe-
drals to satisfy; for I was ready for a High Mass in memory
of all the great men that had centered here, and especially so of
the owner-a feeling not lessened as the spacious halls and cham-
bers echoed my voice. The furnishing of the house was com-
fortable, and in some respects elegant, but the portraits were the
only objects of much interest. The General himself was repre-
sented at different periods of life, and in different styles of dress.
There were portraits also of the members of his staff-Col. R.
Butler, Gadsden, Coffee, R. K. Call, Dr. Bronaugh, Overton,
Houstoun, Eaton, Hayne, and one of Mrs. Jackson painted in
white, and the topaz presented by the ladies of New Orleans. I
stood by Stone River where the building of boats for Burr's ex-
pedition had nearly involved Gen. Jackson in the conspiracy;
I saw the clover bottom that was once the race course; the cock-


pits were not so fixed; but these, with accounts of duels fought
and combats encountered, made me marvel the more that the
Presidency was the goal attained by such training. In the
"social circles" of Nashville I learned of the hospitality, charity
and benevolence practiced at the Hermitage, which more than
counterbalanced all acts of violence attributed to the Lord of the
manor. Of what other commander, since battles were begun
and fought, can such a tale of tenderness be related as that of the
rescue of the Indian babe at the terrible slaughter of the Tallus-
hatches? From the bosom of its slain mother, the infant was
brought to his marquee with other prisoners, who refused to
nourish it, but advised that as all its people were killed, it should
share the same fate. But the General adopted it within his own
heart, and ordered it nourished on sweetened water until he could
send it home to Mrs. Jackson. This was Lincoyer, (so named by
the General,) and at the Hermitage he found, good friends and a
home, until consumption conveyed him to the grave in early
Gen. Jackson made the interest of his friends his own; whether
it was business or pleasure, hatred or love, he was commander-in-
chief as on the battle-field. The Hermitage was the home of his
staff, and whatever concerned them concerned him. One of these
married a niece of Mrs. Jackson, and the celebration was in their
dwelling. The guests had assembled, and after waiting some
time for the expected ceremony, the message came that the bride
elect was in tears and declared her purpose not to be married.
Gen. Jackson, in answer, swore "by the eternal, my Adjutant
shall not be treated with such indignity," whereupon he rushed
up stairs, and, without parley, offered his arm to the shrinking
girl, and conducting her below consigned her to the expectant
groom. And, on one of his staff receiving a rebuff from the
family of a young lady, he rails: "How sordid must be the soul
who would prefer riches to worth, the automaton of a man
because he possessed wealth, to a noble, generous and disinter-
ested lover, who alone appreciated the person beloved. How lost
to the real happiness of a daughter must they be, who alone view
riches as the only qualification of the man to whom they wish to
unite a daughter." Aunt Rachel, too, (Mrs. Jackson) was ready
with her sympathy, as the following letter discloses, which I was
allowed by the recipient to read, and of which I give a copy liter-
ally, to illustrate that educational accomplishments are not neces-
sary to high-toned sentiments:

'*DEAR SIR-With much satisfaction I have received your
friendly letter of the 11th of November. Therein I was informed


of the restoration of your health. Indeed I was anxious for you
on that account. But I hope your manly firmness, together with
a good constitution, will overcome every difficulty in your way
through life, and I sincerely pray that the cloud that has lowered
o'er and obscured your happiness for some months be succeeded
as the sun in all her splendor after a tempest in the morning;
that the meridian be without a cloud, and rest assured you will
enjoy and feel more real happiness. The great apostle says 'they
are lite afflictions' when he was in chains and imprisonment, and
all things are intended for our good. I think you will say I
can't believe it. I promised to write on a sertaine subject-it
was Decreed otherwise. We met in the roade between Florence
and Nashville; I co'ld not help exclaiming, '0 I am so sorry!'
She cout my hand as if she expected something from
mine, and she appeared a stricken Dear. O that the arrow be
drawn, healed and bid to Live. O, my friend, I would unite
full sentences, not by halves, and say many things to you, but
knowing you have two such faithful correspondents in Lieut.
Donaldson and Capt. Eaton, he has told you everything, I will
tell you something of my own concerns. You well know my
anxiety to return to my home once more. Well, it was so, as I
drew near Every Day I felt more happy, and the last day of our
tedious journey whom should we meet but sister Hays moving to
the fork Deer, with Dr. Butler and family. Then it was mani-
fest to me that joy was not to be in this world, no honey without
a sting, no rose without thorns. The General is not well, he has
a bad cough, but has set out for Florens. We have been to a
fine meeting. 0 how I was renewed in my strength. I feasted
at the table Jesus spread for his followers. Will you believe it
is true, there was joy without alloy, Hope as sure as the rock of
ages. 0, had I the tongue of a Seraph, or the pen of a ready
writer, I should fail. Farewell, and the blessings of that God
home I hope you serve and honor rest upon you, amen. May
you be happy is the sincere wish, warm from my heart, who
thinks of you as a son or younger brother.

In regard to some personal difficulty in which one of his staff
was involved, Gen. Jackson wrote advising:

"Be silent as to the past at least; with me you know you are
safe. I have before stated to you that my experience of human
nature has made me a judge of mankind; I am seldom mistaken.
You cannot have forgotten the advice I give to all my young
friends-that is to say, as they-pass through life have apparent


confidence in all, real confidence in none, until from actual ex-
perience it is found that the individual is worthy of it. From
this rule I have never departed, but still, in one or two instances
only, have I misplaced confidence. Rest assured I am not easily
taken in of late by politicians. I well know many of them stir
with the current, run with the hare, and cry with the hounds."

Concerning another affair d'honneur, he writes:

CAPTAIN C.-In prosecuting the business you have taken
charge of for your friend, Major E., you must steadily keep in
view that the man you have to deal with is unprincipled. You
will be guarded in all your acts, have everything in :. Itiih.- and
hold no conversation with him unless in the presence *r .,i. con-
fidential person of good character; he is mean and artful. It is
probable from what I think of the man that he will ip I1..-... rifles
or muskets. These are not the weapons of gentlemen, and cannot,
and ought not to be yielded to. Pistols are the universal
weapons (with one solitary exception,) of fire-arms gentlemen
use. These or swords ought to be selected, and as neither of
those concerned are in the habit of using swords, the offending
party will make choice of this weapon. The' next choice in the
opponent is distance-ten paces is.the longest-and although the
defendant may choose as far as ten paces, still if the offended is
not a good shot as the defendant, custom and justice, will bring
them to a distance that will put them on.a perfect equality of
position. To prevent accident, let them keep their pistols sus-
pended until after the word fire is given. The first rule is to let
each man fire when he pleases, so that he fires within one minute
or two after the word. Charge your friend to preserve his fire,
keeping his teeth firmly clenched and his fingers in a position
that if fired on and hit, his fire may not be extorted. Sometimes
when the-distance is long, it is agreed that both Tr either may
advance and fire. If this arrangement is made, charge your
friend to preserve his fire until he shoots his antagonist through
the brain, for if he fires, and does not kill his antagonist, he
leaves himself then fully in his power. Have every rule, written
down and signed by his friend; receive none but written answers,
and all open that you may inspect and see that they are decorous,
for this is the friend's duty-to see that no paper that comes
through him contains indecorous expressions. I have been
always of the opinion that a base man can never act bravely.
The attack upon Major E. was, in the first place, wanton; then
throwing the authorship on a diminutive black-guard printer
that no one would notice, oily with a cudgel, shows a meanness


and cowardice, with all his boasted courage, that induces me to
believe he will not fight. It may be he rather select me, as he
may think I will have nothing to do with him, and in this way
get off. Should he (by way of example's sake) just close with
him, I then have a right of choice of distance-take him at seven
feet, placed back to back, pistols suspended until after the word
fire, and I will soon put an end to this troublesome scoundrel. It
is possible from what I have heard that he may attempt to take
this ground, and I charge you on my part to agree without hesita-
tion. He is a man I cannot challenge, but if a villain will run
from one danger and hold out ideas of bravery, they ought
always to be taken in. I pledge myself on the above terms, if
my pistol fires, I will kill him.
(Signed) A. J.

Thus I gathered as 1 lingered within the precincts of Nash-
ville in reading and gossip very much that was interesting of our
soldier President. Of his many combats and duels, there is here
as elsewhere, divers of opinions as to their moral certainty, but
for bravery and boldness all agree he is fit to stand by Hercules.




In continuing the journey South my recent experience on the
water inclined me to the land route, and from this point (Nash-
ville) the known path is through the Indian Nation, which, for
mutual protection, is made in parties. We are four-and one a
young lady of beauty and refinement-all on horse-back, with
pack mules, and Natchez, the point of destination, trunks
having been shipped there by the river. Gen. Coffee, who had
fought by the side of Gen. Jackson for the possession of the terri-
tory extending to the coast, most obligingly gave us a list of
stations through the nation, promising, however, little more than
shelter from the weather. Indeed, we found the accommodations
very bad and long fasts very trying. The first Indian house at
which we stopped to take a snack there was no bread excepting
a few crusts, and no corn pounded out of which to make any,
and ..' meat only a cold fowl. Miss K. summoned her knowl-
edge of cookery, fried some of this, which we found appetizing
indeed. Her cheerfulness made each meal a feast to some ex-
tent. At the next hut we had plenty, though so greasy as to make
it difficult to eat, but necessity knows no law," so we swallowed
all without examining too closely, where nothing was wanting so
much as neatness.

At Natchez I had my first view of the Mississippi River. Of
course, as of all we hear so much in advance, the feeling was one
of disappointment, but familiarity increased my admiration and
wonder, and at this point in width and boldness it exceeds. The
town proper is on a high bluff, and it boasts of some ine houses.
Hospitality, as everywhere in the South, is generous and ready.
We attended some entertainments, which were mostly rating
frolics-gentlemen in one room, ladies in another. The assem-
bly balls were more attractive; the ladies were neatly dressed in
muslin, danced well, and were as intelligent as courteous. We
had at'these what is called the nobility-the Minors, Shotards,
Ralstons, Rouths, -and many other wealthy planters. One was
a very stately looking old lady, as cross looking as possible. She
thinks few good enough to speak to, or to be honored so much as to


dance with her daughter. Her son, as proud as she, as he seldom
dances with any but his family, but Miss K. was flattered by the
latter and I was honored by the other, which we jestingly ac-
cepted as compensation for the trials of the wilderness. Land
and negroes form the badge of aristocracy here. All other pursuits
are but for the convenience or pleasure of the owners of these.
Miss K. was young, and beautiful not merely because she was
young, but for her virtues, wit and gentle grace, which all
shone forth on our passage through the wilderness in such
patience, cheerfulness, merriment and usefulness, that the travel-
ers in gratitude and admiration addressed her in practical par-
lance as the "ministering angel," which, for the convenience of
daily use, we soon reduced to 'Angel,' and from henceforth I
shall thus speak of her-the more becomingly as she is in that
spring-time of life, early teens. The only treasure of her father's
heart, accompanied by him, she was en route to a Philadelphia
boarding school for the completion of her education, which here-
tofore had been conducted in the seclusion of home; hence we
had it in anticipation to renew the journey together as far as the
city of New Orleans, from which point she was to take the sea
for the North. An orphan boy without sisters, my lines hitherto
had not fallen much among the young of the other sex. I had,
however, worshipped afar and entertained a most chivalrous
respect for them, but had never committed that green indiscre-
tion of being in love; but this little girl in her native loveliness
of truth, amiability and sprightliness had strangely awakened
something very akin to attachment, of which I was made aware
almost for the first time when the day arrived for our departure
from Natchez.
The boat had arrived in her descent of the river and was at
the wharf waiting for freight and passengers, and while the one
was hurrying aboard, the other was rolled off and on amidst
cheering boat songs of the black crew. Evidently the plank that
bridged the boat with the wharf would soon be withdrawn, and
yet Angel and her father were not aboard. I had watched
eagerly the arrival of every carriage from the moment it came
in view moving down the hill, and the impatience with which I
walked the deck, and the delight with which I at last welcomed
the party, revealed to me that they were more than traveling ac-
quaintance; for the feeling of purposeless existence had given
place to one of genial contentment, the first step in the restora-
tion of health.
We were afloat-if one can ever be said to float-on this tur-
bulently rapid river, which dashes forward from four to six miles
an hour,. tearing and carrying in its mightiness acres of the


dissolved clay that colors its waters. As. we descend on
either side, the country lowers in its character, and there is not
much of interest until the hundred miles to New Orleans are
nearly traveled and we reach the sugar-cane plantations with
their villas embowered in golden fruited orange trees, especially
interesting to me in all the novelty of such scenery to a Northern

New Orleans at last-situated on a neck of land between the
river, and a swamp in the rear. The levees or embankments on
both sides have the effect of raising the waters at this point
above the city, which really sits amidst the debris, as if it
had been likewise washed down with the river's torrent'and here
lodged for a time, until some great flood or upheavel of nature
shall bear it farther on its course. But not more strange was the
scenery than the people among whom we landed. French,
Spaniards, Americans and negroes, furnished a greater variety of
the human species than I had ever seen assembled before, and
" a boat, laden with produce of the country above, is the signal
of gathering in numbers as eager as they are noisy; but so gracious
and civil, that I almost fancied that it was a special welcome or
reception of our party. Everybody knew the father of Angel,
and so everywhere I move in the South everybody knows every-
body, or rather, who is who; hence their cordiality. The '' French
market" is said to be the best in the United States. We de-
termined to. test this in a breakfast the morning'after our arrival.
In a fog almost equal to a rain, we made away to the Quartui
Francais, which is divided from the American part of the city by
a wide boulevard known as Canal Street, and the business and
social life of the different nations is kept as distinct as the
municipal. But the market, and Sunday morning, with for-
eign factors and negro lingo, made it difficult to retain one's in-
dividuality as an American, especially a New England man; but
it was as good as novel-such cafe, such bread, oysters, fish and
fruits could not be found elsewhere. I learned that Creole eggs,
Creole oranges, Creole chickens, or whatever Creole prepared, sig-
nified a preference; in other words, that what was raised within
reach of the city was necessarily more fresh, and therefore better
than those brought down the river exposed to delay and neglect.
Indian women, dirty and squalid, exhibited dried herbs, plaited
mats and scrubbing brooms, and their men wild game. Span-
iards and French were the fishermen, but negro women in bright
Sbandanas, and otherwise neatly dressed, presided over tables, and
were evidently the popular traders; and these were slaves, laugh-


ing and chatting, and apparently as free as the customer who
ordered his omelet or fruit; and I learned subsequently that these
women represented their owners,, and most generally the sales at
the market furnished the support of a family; and wherever they
possessed capacity above household work or field drudgery, they
were licensed as marchands of beer, cakes and fruit at street
corners, or with baskets of fancy goods which they carried to the
houses of patrons; and a more free, rollicking set of creatures I
never saw-slavery at least with them had little signification.
Near the market is the Place D'armes, a famous point in the city.
It was here the Spanish colonist transferred allegiance to
France, and here likewise the'ceremony of exchange took place
between the Fleurs de Lys'and the Star Spangled Banner. Thus
this square was the parade ground for three nations at different
times,.and from time immemorial, all distinguished guests have
been here welcomed to the hospitalities of the city. It was here
that more recently General Jackson rallied his forces to march
below to meet the British; and where he came again to receive
the highest award to well doing-the approbation of his fellow
men and women. The square opens to the river, and on the west
side rises the venerable and time-honored Cathedral whose dingy
towers an'd moss-covered facades tell of another peoples of another
time, and so does its sister in art, the Calaboose which adjoins;
the church and the prison standing side by side in the need of
man. And as these have done for two centuries, will others in
the future-the one receiving what the other rejects.
Sunday.night is selected by the elite of the French population
to attend operas. Did I go?.Angel wanted to know. Not long
subsequently a Boston paper reported that the Creole women
could not be called beautiful, but they were more, for they were
fascinating, and their toilets exquisite in taste." Some one had
seen them at the opera, and wrote of their "full evening dress,
eyes, neck and arms "-their vivacity without brusqueness, cheer-
fulness without noise; and of the elegant ease of the gentlemen
as they visited boxes between acts, the evening being more a
social re-union than a specular or musical entertainment.
In the order of sight-seeing, we drove to the 'battle-field,'
twelve miles below the city, our road that of Jackson's army.
Excepting the live-oak, under which PACKENHAM is said to have
died, there is nothing to distinguish the ground from other culti-
vated fields surrounding the homes of planters nestled among
orange trees. But the point where the Caroline lay when she
sent her broadsides upon the British, and the ditches where these
latter hid themselves, and finally the arrival of our army and the
conflict, was so well described by our cicerone that I involun-


tarily lifted my hat. He said (and he was a staff officer of Gen.
Jackson's on the occasion): "In my opinion the battle of the
23d of December is far the greatest and much the best fought
field ever won by Gen. Jackson. It enabled him to prepare for
and fight the battle of the 8th of January-the second great vic-
tory was the legitimate result and offspring of the first, without
which New Orleans would have been lost.". But if wind and
tide could have exceeded nature's limits it need not have been
fought at all, for on the 24th of December, nine days before and
one day after the first battle, 'peace' was declared between the
United States and England, at Ghent, by their respective commis-
"Yes, this is true, (replied the officer) but what would have be-
come of Gen. Jackson, he might not have been President ?" And
thus it is, wherever I encounter the followers of Old Hickory "
they have the one creed; that all men and things are subservient
to his will and benefit.
On the return drive to the city we were entertained from the
same source by an account of the conflict of martial and civil
law-the authority of Gen. Jackson and that of Judge Hall-
which he described as an eye witness. Under the first, Lou-
villier, the Mayor, and Dominick Hall, the Judge, 'had been
committed to the barracks for attempting too soon after these
battles to assume civil authority. But at last the city was
emancipated from martial law by Jackson's own order; prison-
ers released, offenses pardoned and the militia disbanded; and
among others released were the Mayor and Judge..
SIf Gen. Jackson claimed to be guardian of his country's safety,
Judge Hall likewise claimed to be the depository of her civic
honor, and assuming that this had been assailed in the disregard
of a writ of habeas corpus, issued by his Honor, and in his expul-
sion from the city by military authority, he straightway on his
return to the city issued the following order: "That the said
Major-General Andrew Jackson show cause why an attachment
should not be awarded against him for contempt of court."
Thus when New Orleans and Jackson" was on every lip and
in every heart, and Legislatures were voting thanks and swords,
the hero' of battles was arrested. Knowledge of so much made
the following account of Gen. C. very interesting :
"My encampment was on the opposite side of the river from
New Orleans. Hearing of the summons of the court, and that
Gen. Jackson would be arraigned and possibly sent to prison, I
hastened over to the city to inquire the truth. Upon Col.
Thomas Butler assuring me that the rumor was correct, I said :
'Sir, the army will not permit Gen. Jackson to go to jail.' My


friend replied: 'Young man, you do not know what you are
talking about; it is not impossible that Gen. Jackson may be sent
to jail, in which event you will probably be detailed to command
the guard to conduct him.' I was confounded, and I had been
so often selected for special duty, that I recognized the force of
what Col. Butler stated. We were, however, saved this mortifi-
cation. Gen. Jackson was summoned before the court, and the
following day set for trial. I waited near the court-house for
his arrival. From this point to headquarters on Royal Street,
leaving space for his carriage to pass, the cheering wherever he
appeared was tumultuous, and women from the balconies waived
handkerchiefs, and with approving smiles cast bouquets to the
passing hero. Arriving, he entered the court-house, followed by
the crowd pressing after him and. cheering until he reached the
bar, where he stood before Judge Hall. As one of his staff I
was very near him, therefore, saw and heard distinctly all that
passed. In a moment after reaching the front, the stillness of
death prevailed. However, the Judge turned to the Marshal
and remarked with perfect composure: 'The tumult is too
great for the court to proceed.' "
"Gen. Jackson rose, and with the utmost dignity, said: 'I
think there will be no disturbance, and I hope your Honor will
proceed.' Judge Hall took no notice of Gen. Jackson, but reitera-
ted his remark to the Marshal: The tumult is too great for the
court to proceed,' and ordered him to adjourn court until the
next day. Gen. Jackson retired amidst renewed clamors and
hurrahs, which continued through the streets to his lodgings.
Judge Hall was a large, portly man, near sixty years of age,
dignified in person, and in all respects birave and unflinching in
the discharge of his duties. The next day there was, if possible,
a greater crowd and greater enthusiasm; the excitement was in-
tense; streets and court-room were filled with enthusiastic peo-
ple. Arrived before the tribunal, there was perfect silence, un-
til his Honor, for the first time, seemed to recognize the presence
of the arraigned by ordering the usual form of interrogatories to
show cause why a fine should not be entered for contempt. Gen.
Jackson's counsel rose to read from a manuscript in his hands, but
the Judge declined to hear him, assigning as a reason that it
might contain matter improper for the court to hear. Every
assurance to the contrary was without effect. Whereupon Gen.
Jackson said: 'Under the circumstances I appear before you to
receive the sentence of the court, having nothing in my defence
to offer.' Judge Hall then proceeded to say that Gen. Jackson
was arraigned for contempt of the United States court, but in
conseqierice of his valuable- services to his country, the penalty


of the court would not equal the offence.' Gen. Jackson in a
tone of reproof, replied: 'Such language ill-becomes the Judge
on the bench. If I have offended, I am here to receive the full
penalty of the court.' Without noticing the reproof, Judge Hall
proceeded to pronounce a fine of one thousand dollars. Gen.
Jackson turned to one of his staff and ordered hiim to fill the
check for the amount. Then, with marked dignity, he advanced
to the Clerk's desk and signed it in .,the presence of the court;
and the officer handing it in turn to the- Clerk, received from
him a receipt. Amidst shouts of the wildest applause, the Gen-
eral and his staff withdrew, and on reaching his carriage (from
which the horses had been detached), he was lifted within and drag-
ged by human force to the 'New Exchange,' the applauding
multitude following. He was here carried and placed on a table
within the building amidst huzzas for a speech. Weak and suf-
fering, he excused himself-adding, however: 'Fellow-citizens,
I have shown you how to defend the liberty of your country, and
I now set you the example of obedience to its constituted authori-
ties, which I hope will be profitable to you.'" The citizens of
New Orleans, in gratitude to their defender, raised by subscrip-
tion the amount of the fine imposed, which was declined by the
General for himself, but to show an appreciation of their kind
intent, he requested that the sum might be given to the indigent
widows and orphans of the city.
As one most generally inherits religion, so had I my- politics,
which were, in my case, of the Webster school, that is strictly con-
stitutional, and in no degree sectional. I came South, therefore,
without prejudice for or against men or places. All Americans
were my countrymen, the whole land my country, and I would
not intimate for one moment that the opponents of my leader en-
tertained any opinions adverse to such feeling.
The respective fathers of all the sons of our soil had fought
equally to establish the great principles of freedom, and it is fair
to suppose that in the joint heritage all are working honestly to
maintain, or if needful, to fight again for them. Independent,
however, of party exponents of the country's needs, there has
risen a society, originating with the Quakers, which at first had
for its object the amelioration of the negroes condition through-
out the United States, but as this society has increased it has ex-
tended its purposes, and from the fact that the members have
petitioned Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Colum-
bia and inall our forts and arsenals, they are called abolitionists.
It is a society very inconsiderable and uninfluential, and has no
supporters in Congress, though their petitions have been ad-

NEW E1-. I .E -
nittL-l,- tin. ** ci.lt of petition" is a ..u.-ti tutii.:.ul one- but "
.... lthey hl:,v>. r.. .r i\ ,+,l I..I >.,, --i i ,:+nti,, -. "' '+ ^*^
Bhut I n iill, h.-ni' -.l. tie-\ lIa; .: Inore recently sent l.-,lirir-
t"l thl, l.l t tihe N'.rtlh.i l .1 uthiiiI too, to cry out again-t tlli-
S -in "-t-hi- ..rti-n- to 1iliii:ty-aiL--ilnd they go so far as to call it
" / ,.t il -tai II ol.on th.- HR l, -.lii> ,hi ,':i1r:t,: ,f th c.uutr v.
S (.'at-l.:;,l ,- t', pamjphlets have been circulated *ith c...nr- illu--
trations of man's inhumanity to man. Slave whipping and slave
hunting are presented in every view disgusting andl t;rr':" in t" i .
luniiiiil -iilathy. These have abused a corresponding element
inl-tlhe S.lut, \ Ilich pI'titii,- Congress that the literature of thi- .
l..... I -iall n.,t be admitted to the South through the United
S.t;Lte- mail. The denunciation of mischief makers has givi-u
importance L.. ti.. -'..-Lty, and they gain strength by proclaiming
S l- th,-ii-,lv- th,- rI.t;l.rii.-i- of the age, ready for conflict and inar-
t\ rdli. Tlir-,- i- one Garrison whose enthusiasm and persistence
S gives the power of numbers to accusations and threats, from
which bitterness, hatred and malice is fast accumulating; for the
S.i Iu ;oi tto'.k this pharisaical love of the negro afar in those who
are neglectful of home-bred poverty, in the want and woes of the
Ih it laboring class at their doors. So crimination begets re-
i-Timiilntii..l While the one proclaims it a sin, and prates ofthe
'unity of the races,' the other gives slavery divine origin, points
to Solomon's Temple as the work of its hands, and renounces in-
S 'li.iinatlv ti.. notion that climate makes the man. Living upon
-..il t;.ir ,1 hi.i their fathers have fought; themselves as brave in
later defence; law loving and law abiding; christians, intelli-
S --lt. i.;l ii.i.1 and accomplished; influences practiced in the faith-
tltl I.laii-e of an inherited ri--i;..i-ili1ity, the South stands
aghast at th,. a--nilt .4f impertinence, and contemptuously shuts
the door of investigation in the face of what she terms meddling
fanatics. The more so, that through legislation and associations
she has refused to accept for the negro the unjust edict t.,\\niil-
the descendants of Canaan, and long before England or France
awoke to the evil, had moved to abolish the slave trade and had .
emancipated thousands; andbut for untimely denunciation, Vir-:
.inia. Kentucky, and perhaps others would be enrolled among
free r:Ltm.--. With my "bread and syrup," age had ininiii-.1
homilies on the poor black creatures that produced the latter
under the lash of a cruel master; but so far from Ilirtyin. I
S i.tlh i- i nvi.l1 thi\i, as I did children whose ilit.-niity kIl.lt. cs n.10 y.
.- -it--. l.....-iin. -ilit of the evil, if there is any, in the good or
--.-rst., aniI I I.. ii.,t realize that maturity has developed in me-
li-i.i.-i- tc-a.iiil. than was insinuated with treacled bread; which
iput I._.isally i--if sugar, coffee and cotton, luxuries of slave

* I .~:. :


, hl..,r. "ure by their demand incentives to Southern agriculture,
aij IlA;\-> labor a requisite of this agriculture, what more readily
aboli-hel than slavery, if England, Franee and the Northern
United States would abstain from the use of these articles ? This
would destroy the value of the negro, and thus the object of own-
ing them. This at least, would be an atonement from the class
who now are onTy sentimentalists, compared to the Southern ,I'':.-
ple who suffer vicariously for the mistakes of a-former genera-
tion. These reflections were prompted by an impulse to visit
the 'slave market' in New Orleans, and I prepared to do so
alone, that I might be the more free to make inquiries and draw
my own deductions; and for fear too that some careless expres-
sion of word or look might compromise me with these hospitable
people and confound me in their estimation with a class as hate-
ful to me as them. For, with some in the South, even a d.-ul:t
as to its pecuniary value is regarded with suspicion. A 'gang'
of slaves had formed part of' the freight of the 'steamboat on
which I had descended the Mississippi River, destined for sale in
this city and the adjoining plantations. A man by the name of
Franklin had them in charge, and was bringing them from .Ken-
tucky. He was called a trader;" the first I had seen of a ?a-
assailed by the philanthropists of the New England societies;
and in the intercourse, prompted by curiosity, I found at h :kit no
spirit of brutality. His pockets are said to be lined with thou-
sands of dollars made in the negro traffic. Of course his thoughts
: and habits ran in this channel; he knew which planters needed
niegroes, and their ability to pay for them. And in this as in all
other trades, there was speculation. Cotton or sugar rising in
price caused a corresponding rise in the price or value of negroes.
The negro with him represented so much money, and their value
as such made him humane in his treatment and careful of their.
physical condition. Hi- human freight was transported on the
lower deek of the boat. There were no manacles and -no rigor as
to conduct. They were well clothed, well fed, all in good health,
and, as far as I could see, in good spirits, jii'lin, fi'r.,n the
almost incessant sounds of the banjo with c.ri"etl-L.p.liil, -...ig,
tn' 'Vi.laiin:. But I wished to see the same exiibitii t;.r- -ale.
ATui.,n other 'illustrations' touching slavery, I had seen in
Bo-)stn ;i representative of a slave mart." In satire the "Star
Spangled Banner" waived over an auction stand, l:efrire l hieh'
stood a negro. woman alone-" going!" "gi:iun'!" .wlile her
children were defined to be in another lot to be- ,li. P)abitr-.
hil, in Inul.1, \,ith all the seriousness of buyers, -t..,,l al,.tf,'.r
Iniill-dl i\\ithl ti-e crowd of 'blacks,' horses, cows nlu.l i'.'. ;all





~, -' .
a :


offered under a glaring advertisement of slaves, horses rinldA
other cattle in lots to suit purchasers." +
With some such impression I approached on the third day ut
my'stay in New Orleans a rude arcade, beneath which were
benches, and, it is true, an auction block' beside. Beneath this
ri :,f were seated in groups, less than a hundred negroes, oimst of
them" Franklin's gang," but he himself, "the trader," was not
present; an agent or commissioner evidently represented his
interest, as I gathered from his remarks, to several gentlemen
who seemed to be considering a purchase of negroes. The latter
appeared the least concerned; they were all neatly dressed;, all
were cheerful, some were merry, under the sweet influences of a
jews-harp or the melody of the banjo. The women plied the
needle or were knitting; children gamboled in the freedom of
Nature, and except when under-personal inspection, they were all
as much at their ease as if int their own cabins. These were
slaves from the Middle States-Vi'.iuia. Maryland and Ken-
tucky. The invention 6f the cotton gin had extended cotton
raising, and this with sugar planting was making drafts on the
border States for this labor, no longer so profitable to them.
Th'fs slavery drifts South to the rich lands of Mississippi, Louis-
iana and Alabama especially, and but t;.i'rthis n.-,,./..i t.., thi
: Soutl the negro would have been adrift, emancipated, idle and
neglected as expensive and unremunerative, and the South would
still be a wilderness, and Indians would yet pillage or murder,
So, taking a practical and philosophical view of the relation of
the negro race to the uses of man, we must admit he is a great
element in the pri..e-,+i of civilization-cutting down forests,
clearing fields, opening woods-nature's pioneer,, preparing an
S arena, where the higher genius of the white man can play a part
free from obstruction.
I had sauntered through the arcade, stopping occasionally to
ask a question, more to elicit the answer in negro dialect than to
obtain information, and was being answered with a pat juba "
of a Ilnr-t'...t-d ij];i.:k, when the agent accosted me with the ques-
tion. w..l.tIl: IP.,I:I,-,. field hands" or l...u- -irv:iiit- ?"; 'If
l h:- i :i-ke-l-it. I ~.,lld have boiled or baked babi. hie i.uiill rn.,t
S havt- In,,rt th:i'i:,ligli l startled my antecedents. .Vitllh.nt apyait-
c ing an answer, he continued in a monotone, as if reii i tiuL 'le in
S :-:,ill Uitii.,rized : I have both; good, healthy men and women ;
.i. nii:; >i.Ar h1id neumonia or pleurisy; good lungs;, no disease;
tlhe-.witn II ,l -i ; all of them mothers. Here are washer-
*; o.llll .,k~, I.-a '-tr--- waiters, 1r.i i. lt iiu thiee tii~il.-- of
S th .)ahl,-y-. th,i. Hardens,' tl... l':li.itri''- and the
S Harr.. ;'. -.:i... tl.r dlebt and no fault."
a+ -.




-' : I think before he finished his recital he discovered that I was-
not to the "manner born ;" he at least changed his manners; and
upon declaring that my visit was only one of curiosity, though
S polite, he evidently pitied one brought up in such ignorance of
the (to him) one important resource of the country. With the
stains of Ole Virginny neber tire and the Jay bird sitting6n on
de hickory limb," I went my way, remembering that *-iva.~ir--
and ignorance form the start, of every race, and that when,
men are fit for freedom, they will take it.. Was not a son of
Priam sold for a hundred cattle by Achilles ? and, moreover, the
descendants of Achilles and Agamemnom were reduced to
bondage. With such reflections I exorcized the sorceress before ": A
whom I had curtisied, for it seemed to me the flavor of the -
baked baby" was still in my mouth. By a strange coincidence
on returning to mine inn," I witnessed from my window over- -
looking the court" a scene exciting as strange. Handy" (a
negress) was nurse to a child belonging,to a family boarding in
the hotel-one whose respectful deportment, together with her' .
untiring devotion to her little charge had been remarked by
me; but provocation developed a torrent of passion and fury .,
that was as astonishing to me as unfortunate for her. The agra-
vating cause of trouble, was that Handy had taken some clarified
water to rinse a garment washed for her little mistress-; the
Mississippi waters being so muddy as to make the process of clarify-
ing necessary, but this being expensive was rarely done, except t
for drinking purposes. The man H. who kept the house a I ill- :
tempered and overbearing; upon discovering the liberty taken -
S with his cistern, without warning he struck the offender ; but if
he expected to do so again, or that Handy would receive it sub-
missively, he was mistaken, for she turned upon him like a tigress,
seized him by the throat and pumelled him well, and while she
was bursting with passion,.she cried: "I'll tell my master, he'll-
kill you for hitting his nigger," and when torn from her hold,
she shook her fist: You hit me! you hit me my master will
kill you! my master won't let no white man, hit his niggers!'
H., maddened, had run to his apartments, it ans ?aid 1. gl: .-,t \i
.pi- ,l-. The conflict had been reported to the ladies to whi.i. -'.
Haldy was attached; and by this time they appeared upon-the ';
scene and hurried the culprit to their rooms, where they locked- '. :
her for security from H.'s wrath. The whole house was aroused, ,._
and the entire sympathy of the inmates was with Handy.-; among
whom I followed, entranced to see the loving petting of the child
to the sobbing -nurse, who in no degree physically hurt, cold not
at once rally from the indignity of having been struck by .
stranger. There being a penalty, however, where a negro strike.

C I~. 'l.~f'Y I ~..I -----; Ii
" '




a white person, poor Handy was arrested by H.'s vindictive com-
plaint and carried to the calaboose, leaving the child of her care
in screams and her mistress in indignant tears. Money, how-
ever, soon satisfied the demand and peace was restored, but H.
lost the patronage of this family's wealth, as well as others who
condemned him for his grossness.
But New Orleans, good-bye !" The United States has other
cities, and bigger grown, though she has but one Orleans. I shall
7 take with me pleasant remembrances of the hospitality enjoyed,
of the elegance and taste of her society, where mingle so grace-
S fully -the best characteristics of the two peoples. And "good-
bye," ANGEL!' when we two shall meet again belongs to the far
S. -uture; a mystery and uncertainty that greatly saddened a fare-
I well.

- Middle Florida was my destination. Within a sailing craft,
and emptied by the father of waters through his Southwest
Pass into the deep blue of Mexico's gulf, I became conscious of
that indescribable sensation, only hinted at by what JOB terms a
"yearning of the bowels." Amid the intestine arrangement of
the oak-ribbed, copper-skinned leviathan, tossed up, down, over,
and so nearly under, I thought of the unfortunate one who set
out from Tarshish, and longed for the disgorging moment, which
finally came, after many days, when I heard the cable chains
rattle through the ships' eye as her anchor touched the sand in
the "Spanish Hole," of Appalachee Bay.
The next tide carried the vessel to St. Marks, which is a point
formed by the junction of the two rivers, Wakulla and St.
Marks, which affords a sea port for all central Florida and lower
Georgia. To this come ships laden with merchandise from the
Northeast and Europe, seeking the products of the country in ex-
change. I found here a quaint little village, amphibious-like,
consisting of a few dwelling houses, stores, etc., mostly built
on stilts or piles, as if ready to launch when wind or tide pre-
vailed. '
But the feature of the place is Fort San Marco. This is a,-
structure built of the limestone of-the country, quarried in the
neighborhood by the captive Creeks and Seminoles, on which
work they must have been employed many years. There are
two stones* that tell its origin. One bears the coat of arms of
Spain, Castile and Leon-Thunderbolts, Golden Fleece and
Crown; the other proclaims that the fort was built in the time of
hip Catholic Majesty, Ferdinand VI., of Spain, A. D. 1753.
*Now in possession of the author. .

* a , ' .







It has bomb-proof'walls, with bastions mounting a flat room,
and at intervals embrasures for guns, and there is a parapet finish.
The apartments within are vaulted, neatly finished with iron
doors.- Below and within the walls are comfortable officers' quar-
ters, stone lined floors, and at hand an excellent well, curbed
with the same. To the South, but connected with the fort, were
other buildings, and before this a garden of fruits and vegeta-
bles (green peas, turnips, cabbage, etc., in December,) extend-
ing the length of the point. .
To the North is a deep'moat connecting the two rivers over
which there is still a draw-bridge; but its record for defence
falls short of its fortification, as English, Indians and Americans
have assailed its strength and entered its walls with little resist-
ence. For the present all people of all nations are hospitably,.
welcomed by "mine host," who dispenses comfort in a moderate
way to all who are willing to pay for it. And here I rested from
billows tossed, in curious wonder, penetrating to its sepulchral
donjons which tell of skeletons, manacles and inquisitorial torture
of buried humanity.
St. Marks is supposed to be the Aute mentioned by Navarez
and De Soto, and the district Appalachee, extending north and
northeast to this, is claimed as the region of the numerous and
flourishing towns of Anhayea, at one time so productive and
prosperous as to induce remnant followers of those renowned ad-
venturers to settle in the country as early as the year A. D. 1500.
One of De Soto's companies reported one village of two hundred
and fifty houses occupied by fierce and warlike Indians. -As an
evidence of the fertility of the soil, he says "that the whole
Spanish army, together with the Indians in the service, (exceed-
ing fifteen hundred,) besides three hundred horses, subsisted on
S supplies taken at the first occupation; and when further supplies
were needed they were readily found within a league and,a half -
from the line of march. But I am advised that this country
referred to is a few miles northward of the town and fort of San
. Marco. A few real Indians, called friendly because they linger.
around ill.h nl.it.e man's settlements rather than join the hostile
in the, South and East, are here to be seen. Their style of dress
differs little from those described for them during the past two
S hundred years. Some wear a covering made of dried grasses,
others of buck-skins; bright colored calico shirts with much
ruffling is most usual. The head is usually tied with a handker-
Schief. The women I have seen wear the traditional blanket,
which is always dirty.
My first enterprise was fishing. Having already -ati fitl my-'
S self that the fish of Southern waters were best for the table, I was.

... . - ", .. 4" ^ .' ;

61" ST. *ARKS. 37 .

S impatient to test thp sport of catching them, and in doing so I
: admired new men as companions and new modes of conveyance.
'To this end the services of Swamp John "-Spaniard and In-
dian-with his canoe were engaged for two bits-which being in-
terpreted means twenty-five cents; but he would as readily have
:.. gone without a price. And let me here commend an Indian as
S fisherman; so quiet, so dexterous, that they gather fish from
S waters as fruit from trees. With the ebb we dropped down San
Marco into the spreading bay, threading the way among the net
S work of oyster bars, which, with the receding waters, were rais-
ing their rugged backs in fantastic shapes, suggesting ungainly
monsters of other seas. John shot his canoe on to a beach front-
ing the open gulf, and here we found the sand. covered with a
curious little crab, commonly called a "fiddler," owing to the
shape of one of their claws resembling that of a violin held.in
; position for play. There were myriads of the tiny creatures-
which live on the salt marsh and burrow in the sand. I was
much interested in their rapid movements and in the variety of
their coloring, in which a little imagination assisted in defining
a bouquet or basket of bright flowers on the shell that forms the
dorsal;,and still more strange, no two could be found exactly
-alike. John began running rapidly, like mad, in the line of a
circle, perhaps a rod in diameter, the fiddlers as fast gathered to
the centre of the circle from the line. John with each round
'contracted the circle until a peck or more of the tiny things
were piled one upon another; with a dexterous swoop a bucket
was filled and we had a supply of bait, when we pushed off into
deeper waters. The bay seemed alive with fish, which were
jumping from the water singly in sport, or rising in schools, the
effect of which under a bright sun was very beautiful. We at
last drifted between two oyster beds and then began such sport
as I had never enjoyed before, and which I had supposed im-
possible with such tackle, which was of the most primitive char-
acter; the lines were hand twisted and of cotton, attached to
stout bamboo canes, but they proved well suited to the capture
of the old salts we encountered that day. The hook of John
seemed fatal, and I had enough in attending to my own work.
Sheephead, red fish,,black fish, flounder, magnificent trout, and
now and then on the Indian's hook a great floundering, fight- .
ing grouper came over the side, and soon the little craft was cov- '
ered with our finny booty. Suddenly I felt a tug-another-- .* '.
sharper-whiz, whiz-and all my energy and skill were called.-
into play. I had hooked a stranger. His fight was new to me. 1
S Whatever it was, fine work was wanted. My blood was up-I -t.
handled him with all the art I was master of, and in the excite'-
, ,~


*- : T

ment I rose to my feet. Qarambo, go down, you maksee all
swim like h-," cried John as the canoe went nearly over, and
down I went just in time to save an upset, but notwithstanding,
held on to my struggling captive. Whiz-ziz, whiz, my line cut
through the water, and when at full play there came a rise and
a splash. I saw the dazzling sheen and glimmer of silver. -' Ah,
Carajo, pompo! pompo! pull quick; no let he shake; keep he
down." But the battle was over; the splashes announced sur-
render; one or two desperate lunges and I had my prize along
side, and John seizing, lifted it into the boat. Out of breath
and intoxicated with the excitement of the struggle, I was dazed
with the beauty of my prisoner, who looked fresh from a bath of
moulten silver and sprinkled with diamonds. A pompano-the
first that I had even seen-the grandest and choicest fish of
Southern waters. John said that several miles to the coastward
they were numerous, but rare about St. Marks. Well, in my
ife was never more excitement crowded into a few moments than
in taking this beauty from the briny deep. It weighed between
eight and nine pounds, and supper added my testimony to its
unequaled merits as a dish.
-': We started for a grouper bed, but the Indian was hungry,
consequently he shot his canoe upon an oyster shoal, on which
we stepped as dry as if on terra firma. An oyster! the name
i 'alone gives. vitality. Refreshing, life-making bivalve! delicious
everywhere, but the relish of eating them in the open air, on
. '{ theit own garden, dished in a bay, without price or charge, was
: a maguifiet nc that only dame Nature could command and a
revel only offeredd where privileges are not bought and sold, as in
S"more:pulated regions than this. The excitement of anticipated
S -anid realized sport allayed, appetite satisfied, Swamp John talked,
-nd I listened under the pleasing effects of tobacco's narcotic, as
'he told me, in his gibberish of mixed Indian, Spanish and Eng-
lish, of many things concerning the past.
My dusky companion was in the hey-dey of manhood when
the Spaniards left the province, and "we much sorrow when he
go, for he stay inside forts and give land to Ingins." Ingins no
afraid but old Jack." From which I gathered through much
circumlocution that his people had never had fear of any power
but that of General Andrew Jackson, and of this they have
surely had ample reason. In a half comic, -half tragic manner,
he described I the rapid march of the commander-in-chief through
Florida. "He was like mad hawk; he come down on the fort,
S:drive out Spanish and send him to Pensacola in two little boats,
Sand one poor Britisher go jump on his horse; he tell him no go.
S What for no go?' Old Jack say,." you no go, cause you make






4' -

Ingin bad." Interrogatory established that the Britisher was
ALEXANDER ARBURTHNOT, but the Indian continued to desig-
S nate him as Captan," adding that Gen. Jackson marched on to
SSd Juaane* and brought back to the fort more Britishers,
-"cause they make Indian bad too;" and with the motion of
,. shooting an arrow, he expressed the haste with which two were
put to death. From previous information I knew these to be
Arburthnot and Ambrister, two traders who unluckily provoked
the jealousy of speculating adventurers from the United States-
rivals for the profits of Indian patronage, and whose malicious
reports prejudiced the mind of Gen. Jackson and betrayed him
to a course of procedure which shocked and astonished nations.
The insufficiency of the evidence, haste in execution of foreigners
S engaged iln legitimate trade on foreign soil, may reasonably im-
pugn the justice of the court, and the mercy of the commander;
but the favorite of the people could do no wrong. On returning
to St. Marks, I induced jmy Indian friend to visit with me the
graves of these white men so summarily sacrificed, which he did,
i' leading the way over the bridge that spans the ditch at the north
end of the fort, conducting me to the spot a hundred yards more
or-less distant, where, with two or three cabbage palml to: mark
S the spot, were two graves otherwise unmarked. Thl iuti\reniiu
years of neglect left little to indicate their outline; but here
the remains of the unfortunates beneath the ".sighing r
which, with the songs of wild birds, afford a perpetual:
over their sad fate-for the one young and ardent.
life's hopeful dream before him, the other with t
Z, three score, years and ten. As we here rested, S
told me that for a long time after these men were buried,
dian girl, called Mallee, came every moon and laidii dD;wn
the grave of the young man, and "made sorry:" that she
S the "young man's girl;" thai she was "pretty like Spanis
squaw;" rode a fine horse and dressed like a senorita; that she
was at the grave when Ambrister was shot; stood as near as
possible and made much loud," and "she dead too," and then
Stake way "-all of which I interpreted as meaning that this
beautiful savage girl, felt as other true maidens would feel under
S like circumstances, and that overwhelmed by grief she 'had
,fainted and was carried off by her friends. Mallee was daughter
of the Chief Francis, whose town had been three miles distant on
the Oclockonee. John represented him as Big Warrior,"
J take much scalp," and owned several hundred nogroes, much
land, horses tind cattle, but "old Jack's mans fetch him on ship
S and hang him a short time before the execution of the traders.
:; *tSuwannle.

I' .h ,&..


,. -

: .l')'

" .*I /


'" '

'' l

:, ^
,, ,^


S Thus poor Mallee lost both father and lover by thiks etro.i.i'limi rv
invasion. To my inquiry concerning Mallee -ubiihieurijty, hi- '
S answered sullenly, "go away," pointing eastward, an l tI.iui thi-
fell into a gloomy reverie, suggested and saddened doubtless by
S all the sorrowful reminiscences my curiosity had aroused.
Old John greatly abetted my resolution to pass another
t%,\t\ -f,,ur hours at the St. Marks with other legends of the .
past. He told me of the Seminoles, that they were Muscogees
from the far West, who strayed to the Creeks, and then to find'
hunting, grounds, came to Florida and SECOFFEE was their
Chief; and he always supported the British power against -
Spanish and American invasion, and for this his people were
called Wild men or Seminoles." He settled east of San
Juanne,* but some invaders landed on Amelia Island in 1812,,
and drove his people from their homes in Alachua up to the. .
Appalachee district where they made many towns, which they
called Fowl Towns, and Chefixico was also a Micco or King, but ,,
each town had a Chief, and he was called Tustinuggee, for he
settled their civil concerns. Cahallahatchee was one town situ-
ated at the head'spring of the western, branch of the St. Marks
River, about two miles above the tLake of Tallahassee. Old
Tallahassee was Chefixico's town, and was on the south side of
the Lake, and there were subsequently the towns of the Chief
Neamathla. Tapalga, another town, was situated on -:Tallin-
S hatchee Creek, and Emathlochee was Chief. Allikhadgee was "
-ituaiedl n the St. Marks above the great sink. Estotulga was a
small village governed by Emathla-hadgo. Miccosocce, or King
Lake, lies northeast of Tallahassee, and here Kinhaizee governed.
Ayavalla is a great Lake-too and had many Indian settle-
ments, Ben. Burgees' town being the biggest; and there was a
town on Lochicochie. It was near here that Gen. Jackson, with -
Bill McIntosh, the half-breed from Georgia, entered the territory ":
in 1818 and destroyed Kinhaizee's and Ben. Burgee's towns,,then
marched down the banks of the Oclockonee to this fort (St.
Marks,) and thence on to the Suwanee, where he :le-t r .., .1 the'
S towns of Bolleck and Payne, sons of Secoffee; but Su, ail .lohn
said: McIntosh he do'de fighting, and.Jacks men do de eatin
and de hangin." My' companion further added that they had
.scarcely rebuilt these latter towns when the United States bought
Florida, and the Indian no where to go." And he told me,
as connected with this fort, the career of Gen. Augustus Bowles,
S who, having been a tory, came from Maryland to,live with the .
Creeks and they made him a Chief, and he sympathized %% ith tlie
British and operated-with the Creeks under Lord Dunmore
Suwanee. t Now Lafayette. I Rock Comfort.

C.I.TF ~l'y:



against the United States. In 1813 he came from England in'a
ship and proclaimed himself KING OF FLORIDA; and, forsaken
by his old friends, the Creeks, who now called him Capetunne
Loxe, (or lying Captain,) he appealed to the Seminoles, and
promised, with their help, to free Florida of the Spaniards before
the following Bosseketah. To counteract this appeal, the com-
mandant of this Fort-(St. Marks,) invited Kinhaizee, of Micco-
soce, to confer with him, and there was reason to suppose that
Kinhaizee would have co-operated with the commandant, but,
unfortunately, when the Micco came to the Fort, he smoked his
pipe in the presence of the commandant's "squaw," (for so John
called the Spanish signora,) and she ordered the interpreter to tell
him not to smoke in her presence. Without a word or a gesture
Kinhaizee left the apartment, and only after crossing the bridge
of the moat he turned, saying : When I enter that Fort again
it will be as conqueror." Thus woman's fastidiousness caused
Kinhaizee to join Augustus Bowles, and a very few days there-
after the Fort was surrendered to a beseiging force of all ages
and both sexes, and a powerful imaginary army, supposed to con-
sist of the whole Creek Nation. The commandant, with his
troops, were sent in two small vessels to Pensacola. Embolded
by his success, Director-General Bowles" declared war against
the King of Spain; and, the Indians, elated with the distribution
of stores, dispersed to gather their warriors for an attack upon
St. Augustine and Pensacola, for the conquest of Florida. They
had scarcely sounded the war-whoop, when several vessels with
troops and gunssailed up the Appalachee Bay from Pensacola,
arid obliged the intruders with Bowles at the head to sound a.
retreat, which they did, enriched with all that they could carry
S ff with them. The power of Bowles was broken. Spanish au-
thorities combined with United States agents to bribe the Creeks
and Seminoles to give him up; but it was a long time before
treachery succeeded, such was his power among the Indians.
At last, however, he was betrayed, and for safety taken to Moro
Castle at Havana, where, humiliated and broken-hearted, he
refused to eat and finally died of starvation. The Captain-
General of the Island, hearing of his melancholy, proposed to
visit him, but Bowles refused his sympathy, saying: Bowles
has fallen, but not so low as to receive the Spanish commandant
of Cuba."*
This legend, told in the broken English of the Indian, and in
a weird, unfamiliar tone of voice, and on the very point or scene
S of its principal action, seduced me into thorough forgetfulness,
Sand for a time I stepped backwards into the land of Don Quixotte
The author prepared this legend for an article for the "Semi-Tropicl."
^''. .- : *






I .,


and hailed his chivalry. Which indulgence I, however, exor-.
cised byl ii',lriui i .,f John" if the Indians had 1 il..%r 1-,.-. ...' f
i' G hut tin: iunl;ility to make him understand %lI:it I iiuit-t.,
:,id iy- .uvii, want of understanding of what he would (xlhiinu.
was, -., -l...- --tLv': t the 1ii-t.. ris. tower that I abandoned the sub-
ject. ~iIl'-iii'll i:itly, in ;a 1i'r. -h work, I found they,had had a
worship, but as described quite unworthy of tin-ir free iii- v '1
lit--. tEs.ry day they gathered at their cabin doors, before the
rising of the sun, and watched for the first appearance of the
great cause that gives light and heat to the soil,' producing the
life-supporting grains and fruits, besides its genial iuJfl Iii., .'I ,.,
i b. air in which they lived and breathed, and with the first ray
they ...xt.- ndl-I their arms, singing a hymn which is called the
act of admiration." In the evening they performed the "act
of gratitude"' by addressing to the sitting sub their thanks for
all bounties poured upon them during the day. And trl- had .
consecrated to the sun four feasts or holy days, corresponding
with the change of seasons. They believed also in a demon,
known as FOYA, to whom remotely they offered human -:.ri*il,
Their priests were called IAUVAS. And to quote further tir.,t .
this French work: "The Fl..i'i:h Indians of Apalatchy have
' consecrated to the sun four principal yearly feasts or holy days. '
At the very earliest dawn they assemble at the highest point.
There stands a natural Grotto, through whose entrance the, first
fires of the day penetrate. During the preceding night the
lauvas have lighted a large coal fire in front, of the Grotto.
They continue to throw on odoriferous plants, from which clouds
of perfume rise in honor of the divinity, and the high priest
t hrows upon it a libation of honey, whilst the people, at a dis-' '
S tance and in a respectful silence prostrate themselves on the '
ground. The Chief of the lauvas spreads on a polished stone a
certain il.aitiy of broken corn, intended for the nourishment of
the birds, whose warbling at every dawn celebrates the return of
the sun. This first divine office being performed, an innocent :
Sjoy pervades throughout, and they all abandon themselves to a
decent dance. At noon the pious exercises begin again.. The
priests, standing erect before an altar that bears no kind of orna-
.. ment, wait until the sun reaches its apogee. Instantly, as the
fiery rays fall j" ir ili .i1:'ii upon this altar, the high priests
light a pile of chosen pertumes, reserved for that moment. 4.
balsamic odor soon eyelopes the mysterious spot. On a sudden,
S cages, where flocks of birds have been collected, are ".'.'.I1 1\.
him, andl those ascending to heaven p.1 l.ilit express the delights
of freedom in songs listened to most attentively. Their flight is
S carefully observed, and more or less happy presages deduced

_ .; : .. *,. %- .. .- .... r. .

from the direction of their movements. Then the people, in
'great composure, carrying in their hands consecrated palms,
descend from the heights in procession. The Chiefs march at
the head. The pilgrims are last, and carry off part of the offer-
ing which every worshipper has with emulation heaped in pyra-
midal form around the altar. The remainder of right belongs
to the lauvas. In the month of April there is a festival agree-
ing with our Easter Day (the birth of Apollo among the Greeks,
the passage of Aries among the Egyptians), during which an
effigy of a deer or stag is offered to the sun. The skin of the
animal is stuffed with odoriferous herbs and covered with gar-
lands of flowers, to which hang as much dry fruit as they can
attach. Then it is hoisted to the top of a high tree, where it
"- remains exposed to the scorching rays of the sun during a whole
day. Whilst the lauvas perform this part of the ceremonial, the
devout assembly sing, in a choir, some hymns demanding from
the vivifier of nature an abundant crop.
In great calamities, man in a state of nature, as well as in the
S highest state of society, becomes degraded. Such must have
been the origin of the rite by which the Florida Indians sacrifice
to the sun a male infant, the first born to a family. In some
districts they immolate a young girl to the moon. She must be
the handsomest, and of a respectable family; and it is the duty
S of the mother to assist at this celebration so atrocious. The mis-
erable creatures, whose turn will come some day, dance around
S the mother and shout cries of joy or hbnor, which prevent the
wretched beings from hearing the screams of the victim. Then
there are sacrifices to the demon FOYA. In some parts of Flor-
ida.the evil spirit is known as Capai; in others, as Esawjetuh-
S Emissee, and his abode by that of Tecupacha, and heaven is
S called Hamanpacha, or the higher world. The lauvas are also
S the medicine men, with whom continual observation has cer-
tainly afforded some botanical knowledge, from which they de-
S rive prescriptions as applicable as most of those of educated phy-
sicians. They deterge wounds by the use of the lips. When all
remedies prove fruitless, the patient is exposed at the door of the
S cabin, his face to the sun, and the physician turns priest anden-
S treats the deity to complete his work. When the Florida
S aborigines prepare for war, the lauvas utter oracles which are'
supposed to be inspired. Their Chief, at such times, draws water
from a spring.and sprinkles it over the assembly, saying: Let
the blood of our enemies be thus spilt to the last drop.". Then'
pouring water on a fire, he adds: "May the enemy perish as
Quickly as this fire." This reads like romance, and published in /-
Paris with none to contradict, most likely-it was received as a


traveler's tale; for Ponce de Leon and other Spaniards had made
the Floridas a theme. All we know certainly of the Indian is
that Europeans found him here, but whether he had strayed from
the old to the new Eden, bringing ignorance with him; or that
this was the shadow of the wilderness, it is useless to speculate;
and the rapid strides of civilization make it difficult-to realize
such solitude for such people, but it is more difficult to believe
that these wild races could be subordinated to observances- and
acts of worship, that necessitated domination of mind and body
to the power of priests; for we would as soon expect the birds of
the air or the beasts of the field -i]-.~eltibl.- of training in the
arts and sciences of wn:ir-hil. as these children of nature, fresh
from the hand of the Maker.
In another talk with "John," he said: "Indian must go.
away-nowhere for him on de land-he go to the sea;" and
then, with melancholy painful to see, he reverted to the de-
parture of his people from this-portion of Florida. The'fact was
the United States had bought Florida from the Spaniards, but
the Indians were the real possessors or occupants, and immigra-
tion was not likely to be plentiful while the wild men" occu-
pied the best lands, which they claimed to hold by an indisputa-
ble title from God himself. Nor had the Spaniards or British
ever been able to expel them ; while they, with the aid of their
neighbors, the Creeks and runaway negroes, had at divers times
driven the occupants of the Forts from their strongholds. But
the American came, and he came in his individual sovereignty,
not merely the agent of a crowned head. He came in behalf of
himself. He came to stoy, therefore the Indian must go.
Troubled and distressed, many leading Chiefs visited Gen. Jack-
son at Pensacola, (when he came as the first Governor to receive
the transfer of territory) to inquire what was to be done with
Them and their people. Gen. Jackson told them that he was
glad to see them and take them by the hand in friendship,
and to assure them that the hatchet had been buried and
that their father, the President, never wished to see it
raised again; that the refugee. Creeks in Florida must
return to their own nation and Chiefs; that runaway negroes
must return to their owners in the States, and that the Indians
belonging to Florida would be gathered together in some portion
of the Territory, as they could not be permitted to live all over.
the land, for their white brethren must settle the country to keep
them from bad men and bad habits; that the British and Span-


iards hliuI made use of them and the province to annoythe border
S -,..ttl.i- ,i the United States, but the President would forgive
[rIt-iln ;aii-1 give them the same protection as the white man. To
i,.I i.. i of the (Ci. I- replied :" White people live in towns,
where many tih.'-.alll- work iiu.,th-i r on small ground; but the
- Seminole is a wild and scattered people, he silin- ti.- streams
:111i 1 1,-.1;i- 1 v .-c the logs of the u i.1- f..il--t in pursuit of gAme, and
i ;k';. thI i.." l.ilul wortola (crane,) that makes its nest at night
t'ir tf'r. the spot where it dashed the dew from the grass and
i. 1l i tli. li..,rin. F.r a hundred summers, the Seminole
warrior 1i:lI I-r- -il iI-ir the shade of his live-oak, and the sun's
o f a hundred iit r'- I.:il risen on his pursuit of the buck and
1...:i r, with n.'in- 't. .1u -tiI'n or dispute his bounds." TIn-..- .'lii>.l-
.1...... t1 the talk .',f ; ..\.. i.nr .ackson, and agreed to carry it to
their people and :i-- .il.. them from all the towns to hold a
S... ;il. liu this visit '1:I- the key-note of a mournful dirge
rlI;t % %:i. -..-.. .l thl.I'.1.h Florida from heart-throes for men,
women and .hlli'r.n 1 ii 'l.r.i.1.

Land -".' I L:t .-. were the greatest enemy to.the Indians at
l.. : ,. time. Anti.';i:tiu- the influx of immigration, numbers
flocked to the ituit .iy and bought lands of the Indians fora
li-il.. -,1',.i...-i.i- tl.i- titles good, and those who came to make
1 rl.ii. itut homes were disappointed to find the locations occu-
I. .I. 11r h.-1.1 by lqrt2o -'rnts. All, however, united in decrying
such 'neighbors; ';ll'..ii. that the Indian, ever an inveterate
-enemy in time ot war, and persistent depredators in time of
peace, weie entitled to no consideration; that these of Florida
were mostly fiit;v\.-- from justice of Creek tribes, and have no
rights to be regarded or merit to be rewarded-are not so much
as united among themselves, but are indolent, drunken, and ih-
-.'I. il.liitl. ; protecting a most rebellious element in runaway
negroes from the States, who, possessing the greater intelligence,
.,, I1-,.11 the masters directing assault and opposition to white
settlers. The purchase of Florida was worthless, unless the In-
dians were removed or confined to certain boundaries, and many
-Ic tl.i. seriously considered the necessity of abandoning the ter-
S ritory in that it was impossible to live as neighbors with these
l.-a r..1 ,1 people. To meet this difficulty, a council was invited
r. lir- i.-.1I near St. Augustine, in November, 1823. After much
i. 'ii-i;,-i-.ii, the !mij.ir.iiy of the Indians in the territory were.in-
lii,..1 t. rendezvous at Fort Moultrie, six miles below St. Au-

*.I.n-thii .' lutr -,-\'.r:; il tl (ti l 'hiet- rii.'u-.] t i.. i\- '.iIuIrni .in,..-
. th'l- ii.--ti.ln. There were many days of tlalklr;-pr..ii,> and
" thrli-, on one side, protest from th1 other. Finally, by the
:'._rr.-iieut that six of the most important Chiefs should hold'
. .,,-,i i the Apl.ai';lhi.i.li liiver, a number signed the treaty
by whii.ll 1..v I.uinl tihe- .-lve~ to live together within thi-
Alachua'dii-tri':c i ai In.-:vr mI'ir tn. tr,.-I,' beyond its bounda-
ries. The <.n.lllllll -i..l :ni.l.,itinti.I to i:..i1n-i with them promised
that they sl.'.ul uii nt I ti.il-u .l ii their (then) --_tti.l .-it- f...
the period of one \v-i r. The six favored Chiefs were Neamathla,
John Blount, Luki Hago, MAlittl. King, Emathlochee, and
G I .-ruIl1 Jackson was satisfied with three months of dignity
connected with the Governorship of Florida, when, i.--.iiuii.
Governor Wm. P. Duval, of Kentucky, was appointed 1!* till !ii-
place. The latter entered into negotiations with the Indians ait
Fr't MuIltrii-, and immediately after visited all 1h,.: towns, t...k
the census of their population, and by tIi. i.ii) intercourse con-
ciliated the Indians, and proclaimed to the Americans that they
were not to build houses or otherwise encroach upon settlements
for one year. This delay (li:k.:.l immigration, ;w.1l many who
had already come to stay left in disgust, proclaiming abroad that
Florida was but a sand bank; but others told of cotton fifteen
feet high, ten stalks of sugar-cane to the bud, and where the lands
had escaped annual burning, were found spontaneous the tender
plants of Cuba, in the hiaco plum, orange, mangrove, maguey,
and v\, I..li;-, on the extreme peninsula. The. big hammock
near the ('1'lli'tt village, covering Alachua district, were the
lands selected for the Indian, and to these they were to remove
from all points in the spring of 1823 according to the agreement
F.r't M.uitri. A military post was .established (Cantoune-
ment Brook) near the mouth of Hillsborough River, and it was
hoped that the wild men of the Wilderness would here locate and
become incorporated citizens of the territory.
At the expiration of the stipulated year the white man came
S i.t his wagons, teams, hogs and cattle, to build upon the Capi-
:itl -it. --- pl.it.iu a little to the northwest of Cowhonfonchee or
' 1.1 Ta:ill.ihi:i-.. 1i1 ii.- been selected for this purpose. But the
Indians still occupied the fields and were planting crops, besides
clearing land for more extensive cultivation. To enforce the
S agreement, would have created a famine among them conse-.
quently the time of departure was extended until they could
Make and gather the crops plailted, and November was fixed f1r
the fulfillment of the indulgence.
Neamathla was the great inan. He would' have been so .with


any people, but among Indians he was a most uncommon one.
For boldness, energy, prudence and respectability, he had been
made Chief of all the Tallahassee tribes." He governed by mili-
tary rule, and,while feared, was very greatly beloved. ,Recog-
nizing his influence, Governor Duval used every gursuasion to
induce him to go within the limits of the Indian boundary, but
he would only agree to remove to a 'reserve' on the Oclockonee;
and this provided he was paid six hundred dollars in silver for
his improvements at Cowhonfonchee, near Tallahassee pond. But
before the time arrived for the execution of the contract, Nea-
mathla had grown sullen and careless, insolent and threatening,
so much so as to send a command to the United States infantry,
stationed at St. Marks, not to dare to leave the Fort to ramble
the country; expecting to overawe and confine them as the In-
dians had heretofore the Spaniards.
Records further state that when the thirteen niembers of the
Legislative Council met, according to the Governor's proclama-
tion on the eighth' of November at the new Capital, (in a hastily
built frame house,) and reported at the Governor's office that
they were organized for business, the Secretary (George Walton,)
announced that his Excellency. was absent at -r. Marks on busi-
ness connected with the Indians. The Indians, not preparing to
abandon their fields as they had contracted to do, Gov. Duval
had commanded Neamathla to concentrate his people at St.
Marks on a special day for embarkation, but not an Indian ap-
peared. The Governor went immediately to Cowhonfonchee,
(Neamathla's town,) and there he found three hundred warriors
assembled; many armed, and all sullen and dejected. Gov.
Duval addressed them in their public square, and by threats and
pursuasions again obtained their promise to meet him within
four days at St. Marks, but when the time expired, few or none
were in attendance. There was another respite and another day
fixed for the exodus; and to enforce the mandate, Gov. Duval
ordered militia companies to join the United States troops at
Fort St. Marks. This or some other influence resulted in a very
large attendance, among whom was Neamathla, but his manner
was insolent and overbearing, and in conflict with pacific
measures. Governor Duval accused him of disaffection and
treachery; seized him by the throat and shaking him like a dog,
thrust him out of the assembly.; deprived him of his office of
Chief and bestowed it upon John Hicks, an Indian of quiet
determination, who, with a counsellor, was made the leader of
his people in the new home. To flatter him into gathering them
for a speedy departure, he was promised the title of Governor,
but this, Congress refused afterwards to sanction. Neamathla'a


S dissatisfaction had arisen from complaints of those who had early
,removed to the lands assigned the Indians, that they were poor
and insufficient'; and subsequent investigation proved the fact;
so that twenty miles more of territory was added to the twenty
sections first granted. After many days they were at last assem-
bled at St. Marks, from whence they were to go in canoes to
their new homes, the want of teams making their transportation
by land impossible. More than ten years have elapsed since
these poor creatures were uprooted and sent adrift, and it must
have been a sad sight, even to those who expected to be bene-
fitted by the removal, to see the men, women and children float-
ing away, and a feeling of doubtful justice must have prevailed;
at least I thought so, as Swamp John described the scene and
told me of the poverty of the soil allotted them; the want of
suitable drinking water; their accumulated sufferings compell-
ing them to abandon the limits and scatter over the territory,
maurauding and depredating until open hostility was declared,
which drove them to their hiding places, but from which they
issue at will to do direful evil. "Swamp John" says there are
a great many, however, (of whom he is one,) that are friendly,
who see no prospect for the Indian as a nation, and therefore
prefer to live among the white people and make a living by
sporting and hunting.


There are, doubtless, times when one may find a rapture on
the lonely shore," and music in the deep roar of the sea, and
"pleasure in the pathless woods," but it is the sickliest nature
that will not grow sicker under their perpetual influence. Thus
I hailed the desire for a change as an evidence of healthy life in
myself-solitude is sweet, but it even is more enjoyable with a
friend at hand to tell of its pleasures. John Savage had filled
his mission in the exhaustion of my purse. I had sighed suffi-
ciently, Lo the poor Indian," and had resolved to continue my
journey on the morrow to the interior-to Tallahassee, the Capi-
tal of the Territory, twenty-four miles distant, where I expected -
to join my old college chum, Guy McLean, whose affectionate
letter of invitation had inclined my lines thitherward. I had '
scarcely formed the resolution when the sound of rolling wheels, '
the echo of horses feet moving through the marsh, the barking
of dogs, the opening of doors and gates, reached me as I sat on
the ramparts of the fort indulging in the sweet do-nothing, in- ,
duced by the genial temperature of the atmosphere. The un-
usual confusion told of an event, and, as it proved, an arrival- -

-''. '-;:. r1J


and, who is it calls? and who else could it be-
arry! Guy! It was indeed a moment of exquisite pleas-
Sure that re-united we two college friends. How are you? all
right-only a little thin? What induced you to stay an hour
in this dull .town ?" and such a torrent of questions were poured
upon me from McLean's kind heart that I was almost speechless
from grateful emotion. If I had elected to stay perdu in an
New England village, I should have been left unquestioned to
my own devices, provided I did not commit murder or petty
larceny-but as my friend said, in answer to my inquiry, how
did he know of my proximity ? "Why, my dear boy, did you
suppose that you could pass unnoticed in this community with
that peculiar hat and choker? You are an exotic, and the indi-
genous were curious; they suspected that you had come to fill
an office under the government, or that you were the bearer of
secret dispatches, but when you lingered at St. Marks, the mys-
tery was maddening, and a man walked up, to the Capital to in-
form the Governor of all the Florida's that a 'stranger was
below,' hobnobbing with Indian John; and indeed there is no
telling how far suspicion might have gone, if instinctively I.had
not guessed it was you, and asked permission of our Governor to
come and investigate, fearing you might be annoyed in a strange
"A nice introduction truly for your friend, but I assure you
'Swamp John' has done the hobnobbing, though I am not in-
clined to ignore the friend who has enabled me to while away
the hours unregretted in this quaint fortress. However, I am
yours now, do with me whatever you will; deliver me to the
authorities or keep possession yourself."
"You are emphatically mine," answered McLean with another
hearty shake of hands, and nothing but strength and health
shall claim you from me or Florida."
Since parting with the father and daughter at New Orleans, I
had had no companions, and their good fellowship had made the
isolation that followed dreary and more sensible, and this in
turn now added greatly to the delight of renewed friendship--
while the rest, security, and the thousand nameless joys, restored
to me by this meeting with McLean in a strange land, can only
be reckoned by those with like experience, and for these I count
myself in nothing so happy, for the otherwise dull hours of the
remnant day were made lively by our kindred thought, speech
and sympathies as we talked of the "old class".of which we
were two, as well as of the "girl k?) we left behind," and of all
the people, places and things that make a young man's life.
Morning came, fast was broken, and the team that was to

!>."* ,


convey us to the Capital stood beyond the bridge and gate of the
fort. John was there, and the customary shake of hands was
Made more heartfelt by the douceur slipped within his tawny
hand.' "Mine host" smiled, bowed his' thanks and hoped we
would come again, and we were gone. The bed for a railroad
from the port of St. Marks to Tallahassee had been under con-
struction for some time. We availed our horses of its more easy
travel at intervals, but usually the road was very rough from
roots that seemed to thread the soil everywhere, which McLean
called alligator." Why, he could not tell me,-for they had no
connection with the American crocodile, but belonged to a low
growing palm that covered the country hereabouts on every side.
Where else the eye glanced was water and swamp-grass. Occa-
sionally a growth of black-jack and bay-galls relieved the
monotony of the scene, and wherever a hillock presented, there
were upheavels of the whitest sand, which my companion called
salamander beds, and the reptile within was a gopher. These
increased as we advanced into still greater calcareous soil and
higher pine lands. This was Florida!-but certainly not the
Florida of my anticipation. Where was the orange and its
golden fruit that I expected to cover the land-the fig and the
vine under which I had painted smiling patrial-the myrtle and
jessamine of song-the magnolia of Flora! Such was my dis-
appointment that I was surprised that my friend did not explain
or apologize; but he talked, and made even this barren prospect
"Do you see that sink hole ? that is unfathomable--plunge in
and perseverance will doubtless greet you from an oasis in
"And let me tell you, this is a curiously natural country-
(verily I had commenced to think so)-we have spontaneous
springs, sinking terr&, subterranean streams; lakes banish leav-
ing fish, alligator and turtle stranded amidst debris, and plains,
fall, submerging soil and forests in the cavernous water, which
rises,, flowing, fruitful in pisces and amphibia. On the coast we
find fresh water in the sea-salt, sulphur and iron amidst the
fresh, diving and rising rivers, architects of natural bridges."
Good manners requiring that I should acknowledge these
statements, yet a little afraid that my credulity was assailed, 1
ventured to suggest that creation was still in process.
Yes, in that you have expressed volumes of philosophy,
creation continues. But to continue myself, not far. from this
road there is a sink known as Alligator Hole,' of which there is
tradition coming through old Indians to younger; that from this
point there came a noise like thunder, and that then followed

y'". f : ^ .- ;' . ' ,. ,-,

ST. MARKS.' '1 ,

from this sink a spouting torrent of water that flowed in great
strength for several days, covering all the plain with water,
when it fell to its present level, which is far below the surface of
the ground above. And they do tell of one man who went to
bed with a field of corn lI -l.if.. his house, and, on awakening
next morning, there was a pond of as many acres at his door."
"That could not be true, MI,.L,.,u, for corn would never
sprout in this soil."
S' Oh, you are mistaken, but- hush !" and, in a "'i'lpp -d-' '
tone, my friend asked if my gun was in place with flints all right.
For a moment our horses had crouched in terror, and were
now plunging for a race, but Guy's skilled hand withheld them.
It was but a moment, when we found the cause in a big :..k, '
which started from a small thicket and darted across our road.
I raised my gun, but Guy, with positiveness unusual pressed
down my arm, exclaiming: "Don't shoot, there might be' In-
Indians!" the sepulchral tone of my voice '1hii'iiin:.' t,.' my- s
self. Oh !'to be again at St. Marks, anywhere but tIh r. where
land and water, and possible Indians outlawed nature. "'Tis
Indians, the country is more or less everywhere exposed to their
murderous intents; and within a few days an Indian, who was_
fishing on the Oclockonee, not far from the bay, was enticed to
the land by some mischievous white men and was then whipped
to death, an outrageous act which will soon or late bring retribu-
tion, and consequently the risk to travelers more hazardous.
This was an additional.reason for my coming to meet you."
"Arid you risked your own life for my protection ?"
Oh, we will hope there is no risk, but keep your gun as you
.see I do mine ready for action. A mile further on we will reach
old Smith's,' and there we will rest for an'hour or two; !,.1-,n.l
that there is no danger. Dissatisfied (and not without reason,)
with the district assigned them, the Seminoles have been strag-
ling over the country stealing and now and then committing
some outrage, and so far no effort has succeeded in ...hI .,
them within their limits. Authority is delegated to any one to
arrest'an Indian wherever seen and to deprive him of his gun.
Any justice of the peace can condemn him to a whipping, which
often results in death, owing to the malice and vindictiveness of
the lower class of white men. All such inflictions are followed
by house-burning and murder."
"Arrest an Indian and take his gun," vide Mrs. Glass. First
catch the fish and then kill it." Where the accomplishment was
so hazardous I should think it more prudent not to attempt the



first, not even to stand on the ordering of my own going, consid-
ering the modes of the wild man.
The welcome bark of a dog told of a habitation, and more
time brought us' before the residence of Mr. Smith, which con-
sisted of two log rooms on stilts, connected by an open passage,
upon the floor of which reposed a white man, who used a re-
versed hide-bottomed chair as a pillow. Peeping from a door
was a slouching white woman who wore a dirty sun-bonnet, who,
upon our halting before the gate, called: "Alik!, Alik Smith !
I keep on a telling on you to git up. Git up, Alik Smith! thar's
folks a calling on you at de gate."
Finally, the intelligence of Mr. Smith was aroused, and yawn-
ing and stretching, he came out to greet us:
An' I declar, it's you Mister McLean, to be sure. I hearn as
how you had gone down below." "My friend" was sufficient
introduction to make Mr. Smith as much at his ease with me as
if he had known me all his life.
"Light gentlemen; hitch your creturs; that d-d lazy scoun-
drel is nary time about when he's wanted; but there's the rascal
now. Hocules,* see how you give feed to them horses."
As we got under the roof of the building, (for it could scarcely
be called entering a house,) he called aloud to the woman no
longer seen, "Ole Sweet, push up the pot, for the gentlemin will
be agying hungryy" and with the diffuse manner of a grand
Chamberlain, he offered us seats, which he called cheers, adding,
"Make on yourself at home, gentlemin."
Then he placed part of his own body on a chair, while his
legs were extended up and down and over; resting on a rough
railing that partially empaled the passage, when a quid of
tobacco completed his ease, and he was ready for the enjoy-
ment of society.
"Well, gentlemin, what's the news? We are bin-a looking
for ,a mail down these hyah parts for sum time. When Joe
Brown goes to the settlement, he will get drunk; so the mail lies
like drunk, too."
"We earn down hyah as how the General, Call, is agying to
march. I reck'ond as how it was true, for he ain't one of. them
to stand back like; and I just know if de millish stand up to
him, we ain't gwine to want any regulars to keep Injins away
from the settlements,"
This and much more like conversation, or rather monologue,
filled the time, interspersed with the most astounding (to me)
ejectment of ambia, both as to quantity and dexterity in its rid-



dance; but the strength and self-reliance of the man very
greatly attracted me.
Hoculas, you d-d lazy scoundrel!"
S"Sah," answered the black, accepting the character and call
with an equanimity that puzzled.
"Fotch a pail of fresh water, you rascal," which *being
brought, the master turned to us with the same grand Cham-
berlain air, "Gentlemin, won't you be after a wash ? Thar's the
tin, and thar's the wiper,"-which we found in a basin and a cir-
cular arrangement of toweling that turned on a roller-the
length and breadth of which afforded satisfactory change. While
we were thus employed, he turned his battery upon Mistress
Smith. Ole woman, if you don't be up with the cooking, we'll
be after helping you. Whar's Vittals and Cloze ?"
From a sort of shed in the yard there came a cracked sound.
S"I ain't afear'd on your a helping on me, Alik Smith, and as fur
a 'vittals and close' I dun sent her to Sister Betsy Hales, to see
as how she couldn't borrow a small pasle of 'short sweetning,'
an' she ain't no turn'd,up yit." I ventured to inquire what this
strange-named feminine could be.
S" Waall, stranger, you must kilow as how niggers is mighty
high, and they is getting higher. It took my level best with five
crops on this poor piney woods land, to git done paying for Hoc-
ulas-and sure and sartain I can't buy agin right off-so you
seeded, to sorter help the 'ole woman,' I gin vittals (victuals) and
cloze (clothing) to a little nigger gal, and her mistress takes it
for hire, cause she ain't got no use for her nohow, and she helps
the ole woman right smartly-for she is mighty piert."
How mysterious are thy ways, fair Florida," I thought to my-
self. Finally, the strange cognominal returned, and in a neat
homespun frock evidently donned for the occasion, covered a
pine table with a clean cloth, and with all the necessary adjuncts
of a dining table, which, though of the most primitive order, were
sufficient. At last "Mistress Smith" appeared-this time in a
fresh sun-bonnet, and addressing herself to the lord of the
manor," she said, "Alik Smith, dinner, she is ready," and imme-
diately seated herself at the table, maintaining the most pro-
found reticence until the master, closing his eyes, said, Lord
Jesus help us !" Then madam played the hostess.
: Marners is complimints, gentlemin ; help yourselves; thar's
the fry, and here's the stew, and thar's flour bread, and here's
the hoe. cake.) And, stranger, will you tuk long sweetnin or
s hort in your'n ?" "Gin me my natural ole sweet,' said the
husband. Anxious to respond to the u it'- courtesy, I handed a
dish toward her; she startled my sense of fun, which was hard


to control, as she replied in the most self-possessed manner, "I
wouldn't choose any, if it's all the same to you. Prehal.. Mi-i'r,
you'll hev som ofthem corndoggers along of the greens?"
The meal was well cooked and clean, and we were hurrying,
S and we did full justice; and perhaps with more than usual read-
iness,'felt with the husband as he said on rising from the table,
;: "The L....1 L.rIl make us thankful."
-"Geutlehiun I ain't a doin of it to skear, hut it'C on the rise of
two clock; jedging by the sun, and my advize is fur you to be
getting along-for youmought and you mough'nt rin a.ini In-
gins betwixt here and Tallahass, fur they's bin a swarmin
since them white-livered scoundrels killed 'Snake Root' on the
Oecl...,,uy other day."
S **H'~i-, i!" (as loud as he could pitch his voice,) you riscal
you, bring-out them beasts and hitch up." And then in a -mni-
apologetic tone, as we' opened purses, he said: "Wall. g -utl-
men, fifty cents for feeding of the.creturs, and that'll pay back
St.e corn, but don't be of insultin my ole woman, fur she'll gin a
dinner just to be a seeing somebody."
"Stop agin, gentlemen, when you pass along," and we were
gone.. Refreshed, the horses trotted off. Turning to McLean, I
saw in his eye a question, while he smiled, to which I answered :
"There: was hospitality, sincerity, honesty, bravery and truth,
and Socrates said, 'he who had the fewest wants was most a
m ian.'"
This ride was long remembered by me, and I wondered then,
: as I often did afterwards, if McLean really felt, or affected the
i cheeriness he maintained, fr. I felt as a man is most likely to do
when every bush is supposed to hide a savage Indian in all his
; war paint. But gradually we grew less talkative, more restful.
We will soon be there," my friend said,.as the roads .changed
from the deep sand through which we had traveled all day to a
firm clay soil, on which the horses trod with renewed gait, as if
assured of the rest and food ahead.
It was in early December. As the day closed, we had seen
the set tin' sun color the woods and fire the tops of high trees in
advance of us. Shade had deepened shade, but there was no
twilight nor darkness, for the last ray of the sun was succeeded
by a silver shower of moonlight, heralded by the full notes ofthe
Whip-poor-will; and then there was the soothing sound of falling,
water, as we traveled the last hill, the highest aid largest of all.
It ika C:-nle. A clear and beh-autifi.il 4trenmi run..Eant oft
Sthe town, and near this road falls over a ri.ek twenty-tive tfiet
long, where it forms a bed, with a subterranean outlet."
"More Mysteries."


W'd.. '"* ... ,lar B.,ro:lay, tih tre can h' e u1..thii r 1'..re i tr', IIge t alln
.that you and 1, boyi in Bo-ston, are re-united as me in Talla- ..


I )u through the tI'Ln We passed, welcomed by a ho.:rli1 of
tIalrkiii .~ d a., ., ,: jp.i.mpai ',.l ,i r vari ', l 'y the hvilring ..r l.:..ip .
uing of boys. Lights tfrom- unshuttered and thinly draped win-
d.' w, -p.ike .f li" ue-lile si inviting'at, that hour, iani: ~. (h'1ring
i to a wanderer, but tht. streets had no 'illumination excepting a
S sho.mer at' niloulight that poured a wealth of beauty upon the'
ene. its etiulgenice, straminug on and through the dark green of
S'. utenary O)aks which lined thle streets, besides .ildinr_ all that
u. i-ly :' .-Iha l.yv. Brsi, e-'. it' tli,- eVe r n *-k iir t here Ely-
s inn tield-s., hadl c. -aed itr the day;. tliere were few pa'-ing. but
i'the raidd gallop '..f an e.j uertrian, or driving of a carriage, told'
that i-thers lbesidie :i.ur.v.-. were benighted. Our horses, seem-
S inl'l without d:liriectiio. turned from the street towards a gate
S which penued i a we IIppri.a:hed, and McLean's re-initin of
Edlmiul ti .ld that wc were expected: further p:rov.u\ hby the
.' ..l'i~:-ii I' ,1' ,i -. :I.'l.l.ip::rawi.:e- ,tf ii.lit-. and the i,:.m in. t;:irtlh of
S .rvaut-s. led. by the nmi-tres- ft the house, to meet us as we made
the swieep ',f a c:ir:-lt-d Ied tf shrubbery that laid b'eftirt a vine-
oi\ver,-l c.cttcage. .
Just a, if he %tas -le.-ruming me for the first'time, Guy shook
Sme again and again heartily by the hand, saying, "Under my
own'ro'of'l uant t ... ay w .le.rie," anu] tihe- mother aidil tat I was
S]i'r "..ihi'- tri iti l :tni.l that iantie Ier mine; and' s\ nipitletic' hu-
mor was reflected ih the good natured faces of the servants, who
took charge of big bundles and little, and then we entered the
c:o., .nfrtable home where Gly did it allove again, and ,as if he
"' wantc'l I everybody to parti.i.ipate he ailed to one to '" punt on -
clnlr lii'rhlhtl' .d, where there was a I.lazing fire; to another to
uutf the -annll-i e." a:ul tl ... an infiiitne n iii-iNr of small duties
l t[hat I ie-ci li:ear1- ..t I- t;:.r'o : bu.t tlyh .: :leet nas to make me feel
S in au in.redlibly -h'.rt time. a full flow of satisfaction. a- if I had .
; been Ilhre aln'as. .
My friend's hoIusehold consisted only of his mother, and an or-
,ilihane' niece: lthe last a 1,i'N, without whom McLean,'insisted,
'rny welcome was rn,.t ,.,muplt-e, arid alll-.ugh the mother remon-
strated. i3nnaulnv" wa's ordered to bring ".ur halb fr'.:;' her
il, a :l ic i' ..s., 'hl-epy pet was plai-ed in liher unLh-I'- arli,
ani d t,.ld to "kiss "'th-; gentleman," upon wh.im he l.,:ked ..''
c trtled eurili.iity. Uhile I was called upon to a.lmire l "the -'e-





and tiny feet," whereupon the mother said, "Don't plague your
friend with the baby."
A frame building, situated centrally of a square enclosure with
palings, and so hedged with shutters as to secure quiet and pri-
vacy in the midst of neighbors, made the home. Although
Squire Smith's frys and stews were sufficient unto the time and
place, we were nevertheless ready to do full justice to the ample
and excellent supper awaiting our appetites, and to enjoy a half
hour's pleasant chat with the mother, while we smoked; and
that dear woman rose immensely in my estimation when she de-
clared her willingness to tolerate the smoke at any Time that it
would secure her our company.
Good night to madam, and we went out again into the moon-
shine-down garden paths, under graperies 'and roseries, until
we reached a remote corner in which stood a two-roomed office,
white and pretty as a bride's cake.
Harry, an invalid must not be taxed with conventional ways,
therefore this is your house-the house built for you."
"For me?"
* "Yes, it is yours; but I will share it with you. It is yours as
long as you will make it so, and I should be glad to think that
could be always."
Guy, my dear fellow, I am most tenderly touched by your
kindness-a house built for me!"
Oh, that is a very common civility; to knock up a room for
a coming guest is an ordinary matter. Timber is plenty and our
negroes do the work-architecture not being considered; but in
your case I have been a little liberal, knowing as an invalid you
would require a little fire morning and evening, I have given you
a fire place."
And here, verily, was the coziest resting place; two rooms,
containing all the needs of a batchelor, fronted with a latticed
portico, that gave promise of many a charming tete-a-tete, and
that sweet do nothing of life, so charming at times. I should per-
haps have stumbled over an object sitting on the stoop, but Guy,
more familiar with incident habits, by two or three shakes or
*thumps, developed the obstacle into a live creature that answered
to the name of Boy," who with a rub of the eyes and a scratch
of the head darted within, and re-kindled a fire that had grown
dim under his somnolency, and in a moment, as if by magic the-
rooms were gorgeously lighted, and a genial, pleasant heat, like
that of the sun, seemed to penetrate within.
Guy said it was light-wood," a resinous wood from the heart
Sof pine trees, that made the flames; that it was made for the
negro, and sometimes he was inclined to thank the negro for it.

; 1', ' :' .': ;= ,


But you will admit it is very comforting to the white man ?"
He that made the fire was introduced .as my factotum. His
name is. really 'Yellow Hair,' supposed to be so-called because
his hair is especially nappy and black. His sobriquet of garcon
comes from the fact of his being the only son among several
To describe these rooms is not laborious; they.were simply
comfortable and neat in the comfort; this was Guy's, and there
was mine, separated by a partition that did not extend to the
roof, leaving space for companionship, which induced many a
talk that extended to the "wee sma' hours" of night. My apart-
ment was more particularly the company room, and Guy's love
for me was displayed even in its ornamentation, for his books
and his trophies surrounded. There were two sets of antlers, and
over these was draped a rattlesnake's dried skin, wonderful in its
length and breadth; stuffed birds of varied feathers, a pink cur-
lew, and an owl of wonderful proportions and concentrated wis-
dom of eye. All have a history, which you shall hear with the
exhalation of Havana's, when fresh feats are wanting." And
here toQ were law volumes, English classics, and some of the old
companions of college days, that might have seduced us into a
night of talk, but there came suddenly and loudly a long drawn
out call of" Oh, Boy !" across the garden, as if the voice meas--
ured the distance. The black bounded outward at. the call, and
returned in less time than I have taken to relate it, bearing on a
waiter a glass containing a rich creamy substance, which he
handed toward me with a bow: Mammy say-ole Miss say--
you mus drink dis and go to bed."
"My good mother has adopted you, Barclay, and you must
expect that henceforth to be her good night. It is with her a
sovereign cure for all run down conditions."
But what is it?"
"Only an egg nogg, and as my mother thinks quiet and
sleep must follow her remedy, you must drink it and say good
S night. Begone Boy' and see that you close the door after you,'
Close the door ?" 'said I.
S Yes; negroes never shut doors. You must tell them on each.
and every occasion when necessary."
But, Guy, don't you lock within ?"
Why, no; that is troublesome. I only ordered it closed be-
cause I feared a draught upon you towards morning. Oh, no"
one would be troubled locking up here. Good night again, you
are tired.".
And thus I fell offto sleep, fully impressed with the idea that
I had wandered into the happy valley of Rasselas ; the whis- :.-


pers of fancy," and phantoms of hope," had left no deficiency
in the day, and I never wished to soar beyond.
I slept' as tired nature will, sound and completely; and yet
With all the forgetfulness of sleep there seemed' to be a realiza-
tion, (a new one,to me,) of taking into my lungs all night big
draughts -of fresh air, without any chilliness to my bddy. In
this thin boarded and roofed house of mine, there was no
possibility of breathing the saine air; it was pouring in below,
fresh and cool, rushing out above little charged by its short pas-
sages; and I felt- that first morning, and realized afterwards, that
this fresh breathing would make for me red blood, and from this
I hoped for vigor and renewed health. But I did not awaken
voluntarily; a roaring, cracking, blazing fire, and the conscious-
ness of a presence caused me to open my eyes, when I partially
realized the standing by of 'Boy,' apparently with the same
waiter, goblet and errand. Not allowing for the passage of time
and startled into some fancied neglect of, madam's attention, I
exclaimed, I did drink it all."
"But Ole Miss say you mus drink dis here and Gus added ..
from his alcove, "This is your morning draught, my friend."
And I might as well state here, that for the period of my stay
under her roof, this valued friend never omitted this morping
and evening tribute towards my re-establishment of health, either
in an egg nogg, or mint julip, and I love to think it was her
genuine sympathy, together with the delicious climate, that led
me on to renewed strength.
Mass Guy, git up; Aunt Peggy say de rolls be spilling, and. '
I dun clean'd yourn boots, and his'n too; I clean'd his'n good."
And Guy called to know if I heard the mandate: Aunt Peggy
will be in a bad humor the rest of the day, if we keep her break-
fast waiting."
"Who is she?"
"The cook, and she is majesty here, and very jealous that her
cuisine should not suffer in reputation."
There was general comfort in making my toilet by the brightly .
blazing fire; there was" refreshment in the quick walk across the
yard, and there was joy in the kindly, tender greetings of .the
mother as she welcomed us to her well spread table, where we
found her seated, ready to administer to appetites as ready for
appeasement. But the hot rolls, hot cakes, eggs seemingly laid :
to order;' butter and cream, such as comes of green fields ; well,
as I concluded subsequently, these things belong to the climate.
Fast broken, madam said we must visit the chief of these
good things, or else offend her dignity. A few yards from the
house in her kitchen, we found Aunt Peggy, whose very ap-


Spearance advertised goad living, and from the date of her ac-
quaintance, good biscuit in my mind are inseparable from big,
black, bare and muscular arms, such as hers. She dropped a
kettle as we entered, hastily wiped her mouth and hands on a
long, blue checked apron, which she untied and laid aside with
a sleight-of-hand truly wonderful, displaying the clean dress be-
neath, which, with her bright bandana head turban, made a pic-
ture. Advancing and extending her hand, she made me a cur-
tesy, taking me in at a glance,) and said: "Why you is pint
blank like Mass Guy; I inflected in a manner you is kin folks,
but I reckin that's 'cause you went to school one with otherer"
Upon my acknowledging the implied compliment: "Oh, Ise
mighty proud on my young master, for *all he's so spilt; Ise
slapped him many a time; I tell you I never see'd his match
when he was growing like. I jess 'member the day Mass Guy,
when you break'd the donkey."
And you told me I had found my match. Great wits in
conjunction, Barclay-Aunt Peggy and Sidney Smith."
Ah, but Sidney Smith couldn't make such hot cakes as Aunt
Peggy." Which appreciative remark brought upon me a broad-
side of good wholesome laughter, presenting a double row of
faultless teeth-sound as white.
Such cooking will soon cure me. "Well, let -on when you
wants ony ting pertickler, and I'll fix it up. You don't some
Time look like dem Yankees I seen, for I tell you, honey, that
some on dem look so mean I would not ask dem for a chaw of
baccaa, or so much as a picayune. But don't anyways hold back
when you want ony ting. Ise many a time cook snipes, and de
like,for Mass Guy, by ten o'clock o'night, when he and his young
men have suppers."
"'Yes, you old humbug; and you know when to please."
Well, dat's right; how poor nigger gwine to get along, if she
don't sarve somebody."
This pleasant way of identifying the servants with the hospi-
tality of southern homes, I found to be general, and accounted in
a great measure for the comfort and pleasantness, of their attend-
an*.; they seemed as responsible, and to take as much pride in
the best appearance, as the heads of families'themselves.
Then we went to the stables; two horses whinnied as we ap-
S preached; they were pretty matches, and Guy said one was to be
mine so long as I pleased to use him. I could say little, but I
attributed it all to the climate. Then on the porch of our sanc-
tum, kin December,' we smoked, and talked of the lang syne, and
of the present.
I shall keep your arrival secret until you are thoroughly re-






freshed, besides I intended'to be selfish in the enjoyment of your
society, for when one's known, you will be inundated with invi-
tations. Our ladies manage matters social here, and they permit
no idleness in their service. There are banquets, balls, picnics,
literary clubs, quilting, dinners and suppers, all the time."
Diversion is the business of the country, but Guy will your
friends admit a Massachusetts man into their social life ?"
"No trouble about that; our negroes themselves recognize a
gentleman, and sometimes sooner than their masters, and are not
slow to report any direliction. You can be at ease; 'Boy' has
already endorsed you, for when he brought me my books this
morning, he whispered : 'I made his'n shine; for I injudged iii a
manner he was used to it.'"
I did not think it necessary to inform my friend, that perhaps
a "bit," and promise of more, had secured me this confidence.
"Yes, you must stay still awhile; let one of our physicians '
make a diagnosis of your case, and my dear mother will do the
nursing, and thus you shall soon he well."
At this moment, a strange figure-tall, well built; arrayed
'in a red calico shirt, fringed with yellow beads and feathers
forming a head dress; leggings and moccasins covering the other'
extremities-crossed the garden in a quick, direct walk, and
reaching us, threw a wild turkey and a bunch of quail at Guy's
feet, and without salutation, muttered, "fifty cents."
"Fifty cents, Tiger, you are extravagant."
"I want whiskey and baccaa; I bring you turkey and par-
The bargain made, Guy introduced him as a Seminole; friend-'
ly, and as one who spent his time in fishing or hunting for the
- town. A cigar made us friends, and though morose in manner .
at first, he relaxed, and when we.asked for news he talked read-
ily. Oseola down South, he say he no go away out, but stay,
hold up tomahawk, stay kill, but no kill woman, no kill child,
ugh! ugh! I hide,.I hide, 'till after fight."
Later in the day, I saw Tiger Tail re-pass; the whiskey had
taken effect; he was astride a pony and had a jug tied l,-lhinii
him. Boys were pelting him with sticks and chips, but ly i e i
naturedly looked back as he galloped, half triumphant, yet chal-
lenging. When in one of these simplest moods, the cork came-
out of the .jug, and after it the whiskey, which frightened the '
pony ; he started in good earnest; the Indian checking the bridle
suddenly, caused the pony to land him on his back in the middle
of the street. The boys were uproarious, and even Tiger Tail
was good humored.:as he arose and ran after his pony.
In the morning Gus had told Tiger that I was a sick friend,

'.-' ':


come to Florida for health, to which he replie-d: H-e it cw;II l
he live like good Indian-drink whiskey; he nu,-lie, huit duri uii r
,-' like de fig on de trees, and go to de.great Spirit io aIe air." Hii-
S afternoon escapade amused me the more from his. advice of the
-early day.
In Florida, negroes and Indians! The one promising me dain-
ties, the other health I remembered ,my gruff old doctor at
home, and I blessed him that he sent me South. How readily
we adapt ourselves to new places and to new modes, however
S rapidly they follow. A few weeks only have transferred me from
one extreme to the other-a change not greater in the thermom- .'.
eter than in social surroundings. Where I had ice and snow, I
have now green fields, fruits and flowers, not on gala days alone,
but every day and enough'for everybody-black and white-for "'
this is the distinction here, not rich and poor; for although all
: may not be rich, there are none of the last-no wretchedness
asking succor from cold and hunger. Everything is new l :,
are earnest and hopeful. Scarce a decade has passed since the
Indian shared these wilds only with the deer and wolf, one not
less tame than the other; but these hold their places no longer.
The blacksmith's hammer, wagons,, and teams, the trades and ,
professions tell of different occupants, while beauty and elegance
and hospitality, declare it not less a Paradise for the change-for
the wilderness was gladdened.
Cloaks, tippets, furs, and over-shoes are put away, (I should -
Slike to think forever,, and I step forth sure of dry and
warm footing; while I fairly bask in the delicious sunshine until
I feel it permeate to my very marrow, and I drink the life-giving
ether way down deep into my lungs, which bring a ventilation
Sand freedom of breath that has been long a stranger to these vital
threads. I feel as if I wanted to hurrah! for something or some-.
body, or like the fabled cow, jump over the moon. Under this
new birth of vigor, I am in danger of frivolity; I love everybody '
and everything. How delightful is existence in this rural coun-
try, far from dust .and crowds!


The aboriginal name of Florida was Cautio, and the famous
spring which the Spaniards sought, was Biminci. Tallahassee
means- "old fields," and these were cultivated by the red man,
and here were once the towns of Chefixco, and later of Neamath-
la; and here now stands Florida's capital-not on a common, but
in a City of Gardens, which are bowers of roses, and this in De- '


cember, under the glorious blue of celestial skies, pink, fragrant,
and beautiful, as if it were June.
Well! have you seen a doctor?"
"Yes, Dr. Taylor; he says that he was once an army sur-
That is so. But what is his advice ?"
"I have not sufficiently accepted his pronunciamento to repeat
it with composure."
Why what? My dear fellow."
"Do not take it's seriously; it is neither death or suffering
he threatens; indeed, he is rather flattering as to my present
condition of health, and congratulates me that I took time by the
"What then is the trouble ?"
Why, he says, nothing short of two years in the South, will
cure me, and that even at the end of that time, I may find my-
self obliged to remain here altogether, to secure me permanently
from a return of bronchial disease."
"Then, is Florida so uninviting that you cannot stay with us
two years?"
"But apres, Guy ? A man at my time of life is laying his bed
for the latter days thereof, and if I idle away this period in places
not mine, my lines will be rather entangled at the end."
"Fall in love, man The girls expect it, besides common civil-
ity requires that you should."
That might give occupation for the present, but the future
thereafter! With my previous education I am not prepared to
give up all purpose in lif6, and settledown to a continual holiday.
What can I do? Transplanted from one, extreme to the other,
can I take root and grow ? Dwarfed I must be."
"Oh, no! We will make a hybrid of you-better than
What can I do ? that's the question. As to love, one does
not always escape unhurt from such engagements; besides'south-
ern belles do not much affect northern alliances."
Cela, depends;. but buttors are going to place all civilians at
It is astonishing how women prefer those automatons, with
their 'holiday and lady terms,' their chit-chat talk about the.
order of the day, and stuff about rank; but, Guy, you speak as
one jealous."
"Not at all; but even so, the remedy is at hand, for we may
all be called upon to turn*idiers. Your hint, however, sug-
gests an occupation ; suppose you write of our war."



"A book! Be Ossian to your savages, because a 'book' is a
book, though there is nothing in it?"
Well, then, dash into 'Political Economy,' a safe name for
anything doubtful or obscure-or study the Flora and Fauna of
"Bertram, Audubon and Wilson have covered that ground,
and I see nothing left in a literary way, unless it be a parody
Supon Mrs. Leo Hunter's inimitable poem, substituting your Alli-
gator for her Frog."
"Suppose you write for us, and tell of your old time witch-
craft; the stories of Anna Hutchinson and Mary Dyer; of Cotton
Mather, and the ministers of Salem and Boston, skilled in nec-
romancy, who taught that toleration was not a virtue, and ren-
ders witchcraft a science; of the wealth and power of those days
arrayed against poverty and ignorance; of the religious bigotry,
and malicious craft"
Stop awhile; do you know, Guy, that a witch was found and
hung on Virginia soil?"
"You don't tell me so !"
"It is a fact; but, really, my people are so fed on the calen-
dar of crime, recital of murders, poverty and destitution,, and
the horrors of mobs," consequent on lack of employment, that I
apprehend a skulking Indian's outrages will scarcely satisfy them;
and I see that pauperism, and even crime, are almost impossible
here. Your working class, owing to the supervision of good
masters, are protected from both."
iureka! You shall write for the benefit of your Massachu-
setts men-women, and their women-men, a'dissertation on slavery.'
Not as it is, for they will not read it. You must give them the
horrors painted for 'Exeter Hall.' Poets are prostituting their
gift, orators their eloquence, fiction its talent, to vindicate imag-
inary wrongs to the negro; your's is the opportunity to seek
through the hospitality of our homes for material, from which
you can manufacture a romance so hideous that you will precip-
itate Massachusetts into a crusade upon us, as did Peter the her-
mit, Europe upon Asia."
"And you might add, one as senseless as the other."
Sufficient unto the period were the things of Peter. At this
time some of your people are equally bent on a fanatical crusade.
Out of this humor you shall make a book, that will sell; I will
help you, and we shall share the profits."
"You wound my sensibility by the mere suggestion."
Come, let us consider ; you must certainly corroborate all the
lies already in circulation. First, there is the story of a.young,
and, of course, beautiful negro girl, who is sacrificed at the ac-


customer festival of every young man arriving at majority;
dwelling particularly upon the pride of said young and beautiful
creatures in being selected for the occasion, and the eagerness
with which they lend themselves to be fattened for the celebra-
A dazzling commencement, certainly, and as negro girls cost
from six to eight hundred dollars in your market, the sacrifice
makes a very ostentatious entertainment. The effect must be far
beyond wax candles, must be truly magnificent when twins come
of age."
Yes, of course; put down two girls for such cases, and both
young and beautiful."
"And fat."
But only fattened for the sacrifice. Then there is the cere-
mony of ownership, where the purchaser knocks out the left eye
of the negro, and puts it into his own mouth, and spitting it forth
upon the ground, proclaims himself master. When eyes are
exhausted from change of masters, they substitute ears and noses;
these exhausted, no title can be secured, consequently no one
will buy, and the negro must expect no further change."
e "So probable, Guy! and yet I know of quite as preposterous

"And then, there are our dog-hunted, starved and whipped;
how mothers silence their children by twisting whips for them to
lash little negroes; how our fair women handle cow-hides. Oh,
we can make a most dainty dish, over which your man-loving
gourmonds can smack their lips."'
Quit such absurdities; you and your neighbors are in all
respects like other men, and it strikes me forcibly that here
where negroes are not free, they have more liberty than with us.
It is especially absurd that so many in old and New England
should be grieving for supposed abuse against their rights and
well being."
Nothing easier than to be generous and philanthropic at the
expense of others; but it is certainly very unfair to seize excep-
tional cases as they do, to condemn a people as intelligent and as
refined as themselves-cases that would be equally condemned
with us. And let me tell you, that the most exacting and severe
masters and mistresses in the South, are northern people; indeed,
the only mistress I know who whips grown negroes with a cow-
hide is a northern lady; and it is said that she keeps this weap-
on under her pillow for the correction of her husband."
"Ha! ha! That will do to tell my maiden aunt Hepzibah, at
least. But I see clearly that in the South slavery is but a name,
and I believe it is the exceptional rose, that would acquire sweet-


ness under another. I recognize the patriarchal relation exist-
ing in the general benevolence extended, and the happiness
secured by it to the negro; at the same time the great responsi-
bility of the master dawns upon me, and in all there seems more
a perseverance in good than in evil. I am especially interested
in the care that the proprietor gives here to his laborer, when he
is sick, and to his morals when he is well; while the capitalist
North does neither."
No; with you he says, work or starve; while the southern
man says, seeing first that the negro is well, warm and able, now
work, or I will whip you."
The only argument for laziness, whether in black or white.
Slavery has existed at all times in different forms,'and must al-
ways exist -as long as there is poverty and wretchedness and
ignorance; want is an enslavement, but never before has slavery
existed as it does here, and, I believe, it is the feature of chattel-
ism that offends; this seems a wrong practice against the dignity
of man-man as differing from beasts."
That idea has grown with an independence of such labor as
the negro affords, and an ignorance of the negro's character. The
sentimental poems, and many fictions written on this subject, are
by persons, perhaps, who never saw a negro, and don't know
that slavery alone is the civilization of the negro. Slavery is a
necessity to the negro, and the negro is a necessity to the South.
A labor that can be controlled must work here. A power that
can control must civilize the negro. Slavery and the South is
the school in which the negro is restrained from vice, and trained
in the ways of men and humanity. Besides, when did the negro
arrive to the dignity of manhood ? He is no more like a man, as
we recognize men, than he is like a Chimpanzee. He has under
southern training, grown less like the latter, and further progress
may make him more like white men, but he is far from it yet."
"Yes; in all progress, man is the instrument to develop and
to perfect; the God that is within man urges a fulfillment."
"Just so; give us time and we may make an intelligence of
the negro. It is only by looking backward that you can realize
what southern civilization has done for him."
Europe was peopled, Asia was peopled, Africa, too, had her
population; one on her borders, and another within. These lat-
ter, so different, as scarcely to be people. But they were all
crowding Europe, Asia, and Africa. There were feuds, enmity,
and wars, and there were plagues and pestilence. Space, greater
space, was the demand. That great ever-working mystery that
man seeks, Providence, had waiting a vast land of fifteen mil-
lion square miles, washed by oceans, veined with rivers, mined


with ores, covered with forests; its waters and woods teeming
with animal life. Nature here was plethoric, and in the fullness
of maturity; she cried for the higher life which use and perfec-
tion bestows. 'This wilderness of nature had a people, (the In-
dian,) but, like the fig tree of scripture, they yielded no return
for the blessing; they must give way to a broader people, and
the need of the old crowded lands was found in the space of the
new. Three columns of men advanced, but at long intervals and.
of different nationality. The Spaniards came first to the South,
the English to the Eastern borders, while the French entered
from the North. Towns were built, and ships brought food, but
the forest stood like an impenetrable wall, from which issued
savage assault. Men must be soldiers, fields could not be opened.
The Spaniards and French had intermarried with the Indian;
the result was an inferior type of man. They tried to enslave
them,,but thousands died. The invaders at last lived in forts,
and left the wilderness to the natives. Builders came, Holland-
ers came, Swedes, and thousands flocked to the new land. At
last, there was starvation, and the land must be abandoned, if
constant, systematized labor, uninterrupted by military or civil
duty, could not be supplied. Where was the labor to come
from? God's universal law of harmony provided it. There was
a central country, unexplored ; from its jungles came wild beasts,
serpents, apes, ourang-outang, and another creation like these
last, and yet so much like man as to be classed in the same genus.
His form was different, his hair wool, color black, redolent with
effluvia, covered with parasites; his instincts, animal; in moral-
ity, a brute-Canibals ; no law but that of the strongest; slaves
to slaves; eating ants, snakes, or each other-their passion cap-
tives, of whom they made victims. And there is no history to
prove that they were ever otherwise; there are no monuments,
no hieroglyphics to show that.they ever belonged to a higher
race. They seem always to have been savage heathens, without
reason; they had enjoyed Egyptian, Phoenician, and even Roman
civilization, but the African to-day is what he was in the time of
the Pharoahs. The necessity of the western wilderness was their
first step towards civilization, of which we have record. The
Dutch were the agents of the harmony of nature; they brought
these wild men to wild lands, where, under the direction of in-
telligence, morality and benevolence, the one should be hu-
manized, the other utilized. The kings of the semi-man learned
that it was better to sell the captives of their continual brawls,
than to eat them ; so thousands were bought with beads, calico,
and tobacco; and brought to a people of different gifts and higher
capacities, and the two became joint instruments in a great work


-the opening of a vast wilderness where both should expand and
perfect. The heathen was brought captive, but captive to a
higher order.of kings or masters; those who would not eat them,
but in exchange for their work, give them clothing and food;
and henceforth he was freed from the burdens of war, and direct-
ed in felling forests, clearing rivers, building cities. He was the
"mustard seed, less than all the seeds of the earth ;" he is fast
becoming a tree, shooting forth great branches, fitting and filling
the necessity so -beautifully, that the relation can only emanate
from the same great source that created all things.
It was in 1500, when the Spaniards carried them in ships to
the West Indies, but it was not until 1600, that the Dutch
brought the first Africans to Jamestown. After this,;a great
trade'was developed. Every nation that owned ships, carried
them where labor was needed. Thus a great want was supplied,
and the enlightenment of a people commenced-a humanizing of
heathen brutes started. We wanted muscle; in return, we dis-
ciplined them. There was no compact; further relations were
not considered. What followed, grew out of the difference in
race, the superiority of one to the other; they could not have
been enslaved had they been equals. They did not come; there
was no betrayal; they were brought as tools, not as men-no
wrong to them was purposed, but great good resulted. But the
Britons were true to the, instincts of a high born race- There
was no marriage; they were in the wilderness, but they were
Britons still. Hereditary slavery does not seem to have been
contemplated. It grew out of the nature of things, just as water
finds its level. However, this semi-man lost nothing in the ex-
change of African habitudes ,for those of America, which was a
transition from inhuman to human masters. He came where he
was worked, not eaten. The best was done' for him at the time;
his bestial nature allowed nothing more. Privations, toils, free
air, and free purposes, made the white man brave, active, adven-
turous, enterprising, sympathetic and generous. Subjected to
such influences, the negro became docile, humane, industrious,
affectionate, clean, and to some extent, intelligent; and thus the
leopard has changed his spots and the Ethiopian his skin. A new
world was made, a new society formed of which history had no
previous history; and this was southern society, based upon slavery,
and so it was fulfilled, Japheth will be enlarged'; he shall dwell
in the tents of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant." Was this
an accident-a chance ?
You are quite logical, and as negroes were sold and brought
equally from Maine to Georgia, it does not become, those of the
North, now that by your patient care you have advanced the ne-
9 .


gro in manhood, to revile their teachers as inhuman brutes-for-
getting that they, rather than tolerate their deficiencies, resold
them to you in the South."
Yes; the northern people were commercial; they required a
more intellectual labor than the negr afforded, and a cheaper
labor for their fields. They could not agree to feed and clothe
negroes twelve months, in order to secure three months labor out
of the year. From expediency and not philanthropy, they re-
nounced the negro from the start. But the first difference was
entirely political, and had its origin in the formation of the com-
pact, entered into when the first Congress formed the confedera-
tion, and proportioned the expense of the war; which was pro-
posed to be borne by the separate colonies in proportion to the
population of each, excepting only Indians. The colonies were
at that time, as you know, all slave holding. There were, negro
slaves in all the States, but they preponderated in the South.
The representative from Maryland in the first Congress, offered
the amendment, that the words white population be inserted,
because negroes were property. With that proposition sprouted
the germ of dissension, your John Adams planting the seed, by
asserting that "negroes were persons,'however." This was the
first sound of the tocsin, that has rung forth difference and dis-
cord on the ear through all the time since, but no one then but
glorious old Patrick Henry seems to have noticed the inharmo-
nious diapason. He told them at home of strange and fatal am-
biguities in resolutions proposed, but he was ridiculed for useless
My recollection is that they agreed in enumerating the pop-
ulation that five negroes should count as three."
"Yes; after the display of such sectional feeling, that Gouv,-
erneur Morris is credited with saying: If our differences are
real, instead of persevering in the effort to bind incompatable
things, let us take a friendly leave of each other.' And as much
as I love you, Barclay, I wish they had acted on his advice, for,
really, though we declaim on all occasions about the 'glorious
Union,' it has really never existed, and never can, I fear."
Don't say so, Guy. What becomes of the past, and what
must be the future without one nationality."
Dissolution would certainly be a serious thing to you of the
North, but for us-"
"Treason! treason Guy; don't utter it!"
All men are born free and equal! What a set of Jackanapes
those old' signers' must have been to endorse such a proposition,
especially when they had three races of men under their noses,
Indians, negroes, and themselves, that contradicted the proposi-

'":* *4 -

tion. But do you know, it is said that the slave trade was in-
corporated into the first draught of the' Declaration of Inde-
pendence,' but a further importation from Africa being reprob6
ted, the clause was omitted out of deference to South Carolina
and Georgia ? /
I did not know it; these States had done noble service during
the Revolution, and were certainly entitled to consideration. I
suppose they needed more laborers."
"Yes; Virginia fearing too large an increase of this popula-
tion, had tried to restrain the further importation even before the
Revolution, by frequent appeals to the King of Great Britain,
but England's ships were too much interested, and the Northern
States were a little tender on this subject for the same reason.
The House of Burgesses tried imposts to prevent the trade, and
it was a movement from the South that prohibited the slave
trade at the first Congress; and it was persistence from Virginia
that made it piracy in 1808, twenty years nearly before England,
with all the energy of a Wilberforce, could accomplish that end."
I suppose they had done their work in Virginia,and she was
ready to get rid of them."
Yes; for a time Virginia, in all collisions, assumed the apol-
ogetic tone; there was a pitiful acknowledgment of an evil."
Don't you think the British emancipation in the West In-
dies started a new era of thought everywhere ?"
Perhaps so, with other developments. About that time there
was an insignificant effort at insurrection, on the part of a negro,
(Nat Turner,) in Virginia, who was instigated by some bad white
men, which created special legislation on the subject of slavery.
The nature and value of the institution was canvassed, and the
desire to emancipate was almost universal. But what to do with
them was the serious question. Colonization societies were form-
ed, and a purchase of territory on the Monte Serado River was
made, and called Liberia, which was beautiful, and of a fertility
unsurpassed; and it is statistic that the people of the South have
expended more money in emancipating slaves, than religious so-
cieties have done for all the benevolent purposes besides, at cost
and sacrifice, individually, while all movements of the kind at
the North are done by subscription."
The rescuing of these heathens from a benighted existence
was certainly a grand work, and could come only from the same
beautiful order we see in all creation; but, now that they have
accomplished the work for which he was brought, why not let
him go, make a free agent of him whom slavery has taught the
habitudes of civilized man."
"That would be gratitude of a doubtful character. What

'' ,. ., *.....


could become of him in his helplessness? The master no longer
responsible, would not protect him ; there is no place at the North
for him; he would be exterminated on the principle of the.
weaker yielding to the stronger race. Slavery is civilization,
protection and salvation to the negro; besides they are still the
basis of all progress in the South; they are part of our social and
agricultural life. The United States have been put one hundred
years in advance of time by their importation, and though for-
ests are felled, and woods opened, yet sugar, tobacco and cotton
make them still a necessity; these have given him a greater
value than ever before, and if they were turned from the culti-
vation of these, a great wrong would be done to the world."
And I suppose Eli Whitney, a Massachusetts man, has added
still more to their value by the invention of the cotton gin."
Yes, by thousands; simply a tooth pick and a lock of cotton,
added a rivet to slavery."
With us,as you know, men and prejudices are against it; but
practiced as it is said here, they have really all the enjoyments
that freedom would give them, and with some amendments to
this condition, I cannot see what more could be asked."
"Surely; and but for ill-timed interference, all might have
gone well; they might have advanced intellectually and morally
,gntil we of the South even would have, insensibly to ourselves,
S.gemancipated them, but the whole secret lies in the political power
" that the negro gives the South. Jealousy, nothing but selfish
jealousy. With the acquisition of Louisiana came the cry that
rings from that day to this: 'No extension of slavery.' The sole
purpose of the Hartford convention was based on this jealousy.
and there was the first effort to curtail southern progress. Then
came the New England 'anti-slavery society,' which held that
man cannot consistently, with reason, religion, and the eternal,
.immutable principles of justice; be the property of man.' Then
came the American anti-slavery society,' which insisted on the
total abolition of slavery, and cunningly petitioned Congress to
put an end to domestic servitude in the District of Columbia, as
its existence there was a foul blot upon the national escutcheon.
The Quakers, however, were the first to petition Congress; then
came all the wrangling about the right of Congress to acceptsuch
I think Congress ought to have admitted the right of petition
at once, or never to have done so, for her halls are now often-
times the scenes of disgraceful debate in consequence of hesita-
The result is unfortunate to the negro, for this interference
in our domestic life has created a corresponding action in the


*1 ~

South; no more emancipation, no more colonization. Every
mind is now studious to find right and reason in favorof slavery,
and the South has made it her special purpose to protect and de-'
fend it, and no southern man dare do otherwise; slavery and
politics are henceforth inseparable."
That may be so; but there are a large number of people,
North, who are not aware of this. With them the contest is not
with whips and gags, comfort or discomfort, but the question is,
shall man be brutalized ? (I use their words.) Can slavery be
happy ?"
Not with those educated to freedom of thought and action;
but this slavery has reference to a people, who, until civilized by
humane and intelligent masters, never thought so far as per-
tained to the cleanliness of their bodies, and suitableness of food.
They may, in time, progress to a point in the dignity of manhood,
that will render bondage irksome, but it will be done under the
training of slavery."
I have refrained from reading you a letter from Aunt Hep-
zibah, in which she urges me not to be deluded, adding that she
has known persons to come South, fortified with the heat of
christian principles and education, yet yielded to the seductive
influences of southern life so far as to renounce former teachiifgs,
and themselves become slave holders."
"I wish your aunt, and all yankeedom, could come South aa .
judge for themselves. We have nothing to fear from an inveM *
gation, and I think that the greatest mistake we have made is in
prohibiting public discussion of this subject in our own lines."
Yes; that would have been the surest means of counteract-
ing the vile teachings of preachers and politicians, to the north-
ern people."
"There it is in a nut shell; they respectively make a living
out of false philantrophy for the negro; more and a better living
than the master makes by his labor in the cotton field."
Well, dear friend, you have made the subject clear in its
history. I will watch the practical modes at your fireside, and as
I am independent of book-making, I can afford to give the truth
untarnished, and from that 1 think you have nothing to fear in
any report; besides, I want no office. There is none in the gift
of man that I would have, unless it be that of President, and
that must be of all the States united-not one missing."


It was Sunday, one of those days on which it seemed a luxury

- < '**'





to live. Frost enough in the air to make the body active, an an
" ethereal mildness," that subdued all excitement of mind. Mc-
Lean said we must go to church;" he wanted my first view of
Tallahassee to be from that standpoint. There is no church
building here, but there is a Tyng,* which is a good name and
true-synonymus with sound teaching, present usefulness, and
ancestral claims. The place of worship is the arena of many
purposes: sometimes a court-room in trials and pleadings; again,
of political discussion; at night a dancing hall, and sometimes
these players live their mimic life. The congregation was well-
dressed; gentlemen in fine blue cloth, brass buttons, high black
socks, and stiff, sharp cornered collars, and ruffled bosoms,
though a little out of date, gave none the less an air of marked
elegance to their appearance. They wore watches, chains, and
seals, and my friend said, many had their genealogical parch-
ments at home; for there were here Meades, Randolphs, Eppes,
Keiths, Carringtons, Bollings, Walkers, Taylors, Calls, besides a
score of other good Virginia names; and there were ladies who,
as everywhere, were becomingly dressed, and gentle in bearing.
After the psalms and prayers,-the surplice of the priest gave
place to the long black silk gown of the teacher; even on this
roAtrum, and in this case, it was especially becoming. I never
remember texts, and I conjecture from the rambling style of
many preachers, they must forget it themselves. But we had a
good and pleasing discourse this day, which reminded us of the
physical and morally beautiful in life as emanations of a God;
that the appreciation of these should fill the human heart with a
deep conviction of a great and supreme power, and develop with-
in a struggle for a higher condition or perfecting of'one's self, and
that this appreciation and struggle is what we know as soul;
and furthermore, he said, the affections of life, and the perform-
ance of duty, are the first and great principles of life, and that it
is only through a rigid practice of these that God is established
in the heart of man, and much more in the same vein.
A very wholesome sermon," I remarked, as we walked home-
Yes; he is always sensible; he never says a foolish thing. I
like him too, because he never takes advantage of his profession
to utter absurdities; by absurdities I mean those things some
preachers assert, as if from positive knowledge, and of which,
from his very humanity, he is as ignorant as other humanities."
It is satisfactory, too, to have a man uphold a broad look-out
on creation, starting in the minds of others corresponding great
and generous thoughts."
*James Y.Tyng, and ren-rs to, ubsequent work In Church and Schools.

"And presenting a Creator worthy of the great accomplish-
ment, that the mortal part of us can see and appreciate; but
preachers paint, generally, such a vain, whimsical, tyranical, re-
vengeful Power, that we are more inclined to dread a vindictive
overseer-ever ready to chastise-than to reverence and love
Deity, as nature would teach if permitted or directed aright.
Mr. Tyng's religion consists in active benevolence; he has done
great work in schools and churches, and he comes to us as one
who has never left his Parish in debt to any one but himself. As
yet he is only a missionary, but we will build him a church soon,
and in time make a bishop of him. He has, however, received
inducements to go elsewhere, but we will hope that he will not
leave us in the wilderness. He evidently holds the Christian re-
ligion superior to symbolic charms and superstitions."
"You mean he has good common sense, and the practice of
that will make any man sufficiently religious. But Mr. Tyng
has other traits; he is generous to a fault, and never thinks of
himself when others are concerned; we love him very much."
Then others joined us, and we talked of the weather and prom-
ised balls and parties, and one said:
I am the bearer of an invitation, McLean, to you and your
friend. The Councilmen go home to-morrow, so they give their
parting supper at Pindar's, to-night."
McLean turned to me, and I ejaculated, Sunday !"
Rome and the Romans, my friend."




At the appointed hour we found ourselves, with numerous
others, filling the hall of the tavern. Hats were piled like a
haycock in one corner, and rose ceilingward at an early hour;
and with nothing better to amuse, the assembling crowd tell into
jests upon the measurement of said hate, as compared with re,
spective brains of owners thereof; in which mingled much good
humored personality. But there was a restless moving to and
fro, with an air of expectancy, while men and their servants
opened doors mysteriously, and closed them emphatically. The
manner, bearing and expression of face of the gathering party
were as various in character, as I suppose they really were in in-
telligence and refinement. The tyro was joyous, noisy and ner-,
vous-the old wine-bibber and feast-loving was taciturn, as if re-
serving self for the coming indulgence; others were cooly indiffer-
ent, as if willing to trust to the evening hours for the promised
cheer. But every face brightened when well-dressed black ser-
vants, with the importance of the occasion, invited the party to
rooms within, where leading members of the Council received
with great empressment-some with an ecstacy of manner that
was embarrassing-by an earnest hand-shaking as if they had
not met for years, though the greater number present had seen
each other perhaps twenty times each day for two months or
At one end of this reception room, stood a broad side-board,
on which were placed huge bowls of punch, apple-toddy, curacoa,
ineraschino and noyau, and there seemed to be a reception and
a side-board committee, for as soon as one was met by the first,
he was led by the other, like a submissive lamb, to the initiatory
ceremony, from which there was no escape; and as I* had heard
it was drink or fight" in this climate, I began to ponder which
would be the most serious alternative in my case; numbers, hVw-
ever, proved a protection, allowing a civil sip to answer the for-
mnality. Apples, oranges, raisins, almonds, and filberts, covered
lesser tables around the room, and of these, guests partook ad
libitum, and irregularly throughout the evening; and the nuts


cracked by the teeth or the strength of hands, were like pistol
shots sounding amidst loud laughter and periods of speech.
The crowd soon separated, some in clubs for cards; many
walked arm-and-arm the floor, talking as they walked, or stood
in parties; others reclined or sat on tilted chairs, oftentimes at
an angle alarming to a nervous looker-on ; and among all, passed .
to-and-fro, servants bearing lighted candles, in one hand, and
salvers of cigars in the other, from which guests helped them-
Judging from the conversation of this assembled company,
generally, there seemed to be but two places of interest in all the
habitable world, and these were Washington City and "this
Territory," the changes of which were politics and office-holders.
Manner was -restrained for awhile, but, with more frequent at-
tacks upon the side-board, conversation lost its formality, humor
was free, and amidst the rising smoke, munching of apples, suck-
ing of oranges, and the cracking of nuts, the scene became merry
and noisy; and these republican sovereigns, in their equally re-
publican shirt-bosoms* and collars, were at least monarchs for
the time. There were many others present who were not of this
melee. Men that had, and would grace any circle, by their in-
telligence and dignity of bearing; and while I observed the one
class, it was very great pleasure to mingle with the other, and
listen to their discussion of men and things. There were two
candidates present for the place of delegate to Congress. One,
Col. Nutall, a lawyer, tall, handsome and affable; Col. Gadsden,
the other, a South Carolina gentleman, and a veritable soldier.
Like Gen. R. K. Call, and Col. Robert Butler, (both also pres-
ent,) he had been with General Jackson in every battle he fought,
and moreover by his side as Aids of the Field. And there was
Gov. John Branch, late of the navy department, and another
Governor, Wm. P. Duval, and there also were judges, several-
Randal, Allen, Breckenridge and Knight. There were colonels
by the score, and also majors and captains. Lawyers, old in the
practice elsewhere, and those with their first brief. Doctors too,
and they had an advantage that none others had, in that, while
enjoying the present, they could contemplate the harvest that
must follow to-morrow in head-aches or indigestion.
Besides, there was present a born prince (Achille Murat,) one
who had put the past behind him, and claimed the pride of being
an*American citizen.
Among them all was such bon hommiie, such recognition of
neighbor and friend materially, that social life seemed perfected;
*Detached fr6m the main garment and made of linen.


and here are some of the kernels of the nuts I cracked as I moved
from group to group:
What are your prospects, Nutall?"
No ken; you know the balky jade of public opinion goes
easily enough while the road is smooth."
Very much given to kicking when you least expect it, eh!"
Yee; the gilded car of fame should move with an automatic
That is involved, or supposed to be, in the qualifications of a
"A good thing if it were so."
"So John H. Eaton is going to be your successor, Governor
"Yes; I saw what was coming when I was in Washington
City a few weeks since. Gen. Jackson had to do something for
Eaton after dissolving his cabinet, so the best was to send him
off; but he will not stay long in Florida; he is soon to have a
foreign appointment--pain, perhaps; anything is likely with
General Jackson, when his friends are in question."
Will Mistress Eaton accompany the new incumbent?"
"She will cut a dash with us new country people, certainly;
but she is the new overseer's wife, and must be received."
"Well enough for you to say that, Mays, who have no wife."
'*There is much conjecture, certainly, and of no amiable
"I shall call on the lady, if my wife will let me."
"Well, I hope, if our ladies are in a new country, they will
show that they have a due respect for themselves."
"What an outrage upon a free people, as we profess to be, to
have all our executive officers, strangers, who cannot be expected
to know anything of the interest of the country, and rarely have
any permanent interest among us."
"It shows certainly a disrespect for the spirit of freedom, which
should be kept alive in every American bosom, and especially a
disrespect for the interests and feelings of the citizens of, the
It is but fostering upon us, broken-down office-seekers, par-
tisan governors, and judges."
I started with the territory, (said Gov. Duval,) was one of
its first judiciary, and her second executive; (General Jackson
himself being the first); there may be, however, something in the
old adage, of a new broom,' etc., but of one thing I am sure, and
that is, that our Indian troubles will greatly embarrass a new
j''. .


S"Speaking of those, what do you expect, Duval, as the result
of the Payne's landing treaty ?"
Nothing; the Seminole gives many reasons for not abiding
by it. In the first place, the country (west) to which they are
ordered to emigrate, is unsuited to them in climate; besides, their
old enemies, the Creeks, are already there, and they clinch their
opposition with the fact of the want of lightwood there. This
seems a trifling objection, but think of the reliance to a wander-
ing, houseless savage. Equinoctial storms prostrate, particularly
our pine trees, succeeding sun's make of them dry and resinous
logs, a blow on a gun-flint sets it ablaze, and just so long as the
burning log lasts, has the Indian local allegiance, provided ad-
joining hammocks and fields afford game; those failing, then
other logs and other fields."
"I believe you reported the limits assigned them within this
territory, inadequate to their numbers."
"Inadequate, sir! a more miserable country I never saw.
Covered with water, and yet none to drink; and, sir, insects
alone nearly devoured me. I explored it all. I went as far as
Chucachatty town, and myself witnessed their distress, and it is a
shame to expect, and an utter impossibility for human creatures
to live within the limits."
"If they will not emigrate, will they fight ?"
Fight! Not like white men, perhaps; but they are not going
to give up Florida without struggle; as proved by the fact that
'Tustenuggee, Jumper, Alligator, and Sam Jones, who went west
to see the country, have returned, and do not dare recommend
emigration to their people; their lives are even threatened, in
that they were persuaded or paid to sign a treaty on their way
home. But there is Gen. Call; let us ask him if Indians will
Indians fight? One that was at Talledega, Emuckfaw, and
Tallashatchee, cannot have a doubt on that question."
I see from the newspapers, that Col. Duncan Church is or-
dered to Florida."
"Yes; and he is already located at Fort Deane, and is going
to raise sugar extensively, which means permanency; and that is
significant; besides, he has written to the secretary of war, advis-
ing pacific measures, and by no means to employ the militia, for
they will.breed mischief."
Well, (answered Gen. Call,) I do hope they will never join
militia with the regular troops, for the latter are too slow; and,
if united, both will be useless and disgraced; but the militia will
suffer most in reputation, owing to army reports, for it is always
so. Give me ten gallant young men, in command of equally gal-


lant companies, and I will engage to drive the Iudians within
their boundaries in less than a fortnight. ALo.ur %aht, 8~i. n.
Alfred Fisher, raised a company of fifty men in twen~tiur
hours, and his brother was the only man to shoot an Iundiau on
the expedition."
And do you know that that same Indian cameAto our town
lately, and asked Fisher to let him see the gun:with which he
shot him, and offered to buy it ?"
It would be better,if hostilities were declared, for these pacif-
ic measures only give license to the Indians to burn and kill to-
day, and then to come into our midst to-morrow as friends."
The Fishers are not more gallant than, yourself, Gen. Call,"
said Prince Murat; "but what a beautiful deception was prac-
ticed upon you by the ugly foe, my General; when you talk with
so much complacence to, the savage that he visit you at Jack
Bellamy's-sixty, seventy, one hundred; when you remember
that you seek the Indian ; after much time, he come to you him-
self at sundown; you tell him to stay tranquil all the night, and
that you come early to him in the morning to make good terms.
And then you go two miles to stay all night with Col. Jack Bella-
my; but, alas! when you return with daylight, your friends, the
Indians, have departed-tout-a-fait."
Yes, it is too true that we played hide and seek, on that ex-
pedition, for a week, and we certainly made every effort to secure
the late murderers; but you must not forget your own gallantry,
Murat, for when I proposed to go alone to meet the marauders,
fearing our numbers would scare them off, you insisted upon
going with me."
Certainiment; the aide must go with his general; but in-
stead of danger, I only shared your disappointment."
I shall'petition for a bounty to secure the settler on his im-
provement, for certainly homes are the best fortifications, and a
loaded gun sufficient protection, and such will be the only de-
fence, unless the secretary of war will pay our volunteers."
"-General, when I was lately in Washington City, (said Col.
Charles Downing,) I saw Mr. Poinsett, and I told him that all
you asked of him was to have the militia paid; that no one out
of the, territory could appreciate the situation of its people,
sparsely populated as the country was. Appeals for protection
were pouring upon you, and yet your hands were tied, because
you could not positively promise to volunteers payment for sers
You might have told him that men are ready to go out for a
few days when the lives of neighbors were threatened, but we
must have an established force, paid and commanded."


"I ii. l~ it i- 'l- really very much irritated by your cor-
r, --.nD..l ,it t ;t 1..-t he admitted that he was anxious to ac-
i....Iu.'l.i.-. .i.wi ...rI.iI do whatever the law allowed. He
Sil i ~ -;,\-ioi., t.li 'en. Call to remember that Gen. Jackson
ilntr, l'. -..I lIii, to m e."
"Yes, I.lI. I .;-. Duval,) while Poinsett is studying the law,
women, clhil'lr.u IIil men are being murdered. I, for one, Gen.
Call, value the manly outpourings of your indignation, on this
subject, while lacerated and goaded by an unfeeling set, who are
as incapable of appreciating your worth and virtues, as the eye
of a tom-tit is to view the world at a glance. I have known you
long, and before God, I am convinced no man in the territory has
rendered it so much service, and that often at the sacrifice of
your interest; and:I tell you now, that there is little prospect of
your receiving any thanks, even at the hands of those who owe
you deep and lasting obligations."
"Thank you, Duval, but I must ignore self for the time, and I
am ready to stake life or property, for the protection of our in-
habitants; but I do not believe that anything can be done to-
wards expelling the Indians, or subduing them, except through
a,summer's c(.i.i:tiL,. by which we can penetrate to their plant-
ing grounds, and where they conceal their women and children."
Verily, that is so ; but the authorities at Washington don't
seem disposed to aid the militia to accomplish this, and the regu-
lars like their summer quarters too well, to go festering down
among the mosquitoes and sand-flies."
"There is no glory in Indian warfare; it is like domestic
brawls, nobody's interest but those involved."
I don't know; I think 'one or more hope to ride into the
Presidency by their achievements within the Everglades; besides
it will be the novitiate of every West Point graduate."
"These officers, some of them, make it convenient to believe
that it is mischievous white men who commit depredations, and
not finding Indians when, they sally forth from camp, after
alarms, (who, of course, keep out of their way,) they are con-
vinced of it."
It is certainly very absurd, their manner of declaring the
war at an end, absolutely and unequivocally whenever some chief
surrenders at Tampa, who remains in camp until he and his peo-
ple are fully refurnished, while at the very time others are mur-
dering, perhaps not fifty miles off."
Yes; I hear ten escaped lately from there; so we may look
out for squalls."
"Twenty Creeks have surrendered on the Oclockonee, under


Satofa, and Hoparte Tustenuggee is coming to join our volunteer
I don't believe much is to-be expected from the ('r-e-Lk,;
they hate the Seminoles, but they hate white men more, and they
have wrongs to avenge; so I think that we shall be between the
two fires of Georgia and Florida savages.'
By-the-by, I saw Neamathla as I passed through Georgia,
lately; he seems sullen and broken in spirit. He had much to
ask of Florida, and I endeavored to persuade him to return and
live upon his reservation, on the red lands of Chattahoochie;
and there was a world of sarcasm in his reply, which was the
question, will not a white man steal ?"
Poor Neamathla."
"He told me to tell you, Gen. Call, whom he called, 'my
friend,' that since he had been in Georgia, he had associated with
so many blackguards, that he was no longer a gentleman."
"Well, Neamathla was a gentleman, and naturally a great
Fascinated by the conversation, I lingered near Gen. Call,
that I might learn more of Florida.
I came before the 'exchange of flags,' as one of Gen. Jack-
son's staff, but we had little idea on that precipitate march, that
at not, a far distant day, our commander would be Governor of
Florida, and that his aides would settle in the Province. But
my first visit to Florida, was when we drove the British out of
Pensacola, in 1814, a few weeks before the battle of New Orleans.
I commanded guns there myself. I am proud to say, that with
them I put to flight two or three vessels."
It was another expedition, then, on which Ambrister aid
Arburthnot were condemned."
"Oh, yes; four years later, Gen. Jackson marched down
through Georgia ; ordered me with transports to meet him on the
Appalachicola River, taking supplies from New Orleans. The
Spanish Governor opposed his passage through the territory, and
I was the medium of their correspondence, which was character-
istic of both men."
"What did you think of Governor Jackson's treatment of
Callava ?"
I always feel ashamed of it; it was an outrage. But Gen.
Jackson, ever ready to suspect foreigners of treachery, was- im-
posed upon by the reports of subordinates. Callava was a gal-
lant, high-toned gentleman, as much so as Gen. Jackson himself;
generous and hospitable, for at the very time of his arrest, he was


being entertained by the American officers at a dinner party,
which was a reciprocal compliment."
"How was it ?"
"Some papers were demanded of Lieut. Dominga Sousa, who
declining to deliver them in the absence of his superior officer,
Callava, he was arrested and carried to jail. Upon its being re-
ported to Callava, and he thinking it was only sufficient to in-
form Gen. Jackson, through his adjutant, that Sousa was not re-.
sponsible, and to express his own willingness to comply with the
demand, did so, but the adjutant returned, saying that Gov. Jack-
son maintained the order for arrest, adding, 'tell Col. Callava I
shall also send him to jail.' "
"And he (Callava) was actually taken from a sick bed to
jail, and when Judge Fromentine issued a habeas corpus, for his
release, Gen. Jackson re-enacted the trouble with Judge Hall, at
New Orleans, by ordering Fromentine's arrest."
But his popularity carried him through every complication."
Col. Gadsden was one of us, then; (I will introduce him);
and he was the most gallant of that day."
Only older than yourself, Gen. Call, not more gallant."
But, Gadsden, what will our old Chief say to the change in
your politics; once an officer of Gen. Jackson's staff, now a. nul-
I have fought as much as he or you, Gen. Call, to extend the
territory of the United States, and men who did this through
famine, pestilence, and mutiny, rescuing a country of savage pos-
session, from Tennessee to the Everglades of this Peninsula, in-
cluding the glorious triumph at New Orleans, have a right to
speak on this subject, and thus I exercise the privilege, though I
differ with my gallant chief and comrades. Prating of our coun-
try and the flag, does not prevent traitors in the camp, and when
the power of a majority annuls the right of a minority, nullifica-
tion is the only remedy."
Gen. Jackson has provided another, and the edict has gone
forth, 'the Federal laws must be obeyed.'"
I don't think that his edict has had anything to do with al-
laying the question; it is only averted by a modification of the
offensive laws, through the intercession of Virginia's commission-
ers. If the threatened rupture had occurred, neither Virginia,
Alabama, Georgia, or Mississippi, would have consented that a
sovereign State should be coerced."
Annihilation of State sovereignty is a bugbear raised by dis-
appointed politicians."
"If you refer to Mr. Calhoun, he is greater in the master-
thought of nullification, than if he had been twice President. No


man can act or think independently, so long as he expects posi-
tion, by the joint action of sections opposed geographically, and
therefore, politically, as the North and South are. He will find
some plea always to give the advantage to the strongest. Even
Clay and Webster will not prove exceptions. The constitution-
al support they advocate, will not help either to the goal they
seek. Yes, sir, nullification is the only remedy for the violation
of any contract. We, the States,' therefore, (who formed the
compact of union, for material protection only,) have a right as
' we, the States,'to annul laws that.not only !-i to give protection,
but by the power of numbers, effect our destruction."
It is homeopathic, (said Mr. Hawkins,) similla, similiabus,
"Just so ; we have very out-spoken disunionists in South Car-
olina; some that fear the question may be delayed too long."
We, the States,' can correct any abuse or excess, whether it
be a question of tariff, or any other imposition, better in the
union than out of it; (continued Gen. Call.) It makes my blood
run back upon my heart, to consider for one moment, seriously,
the consequence of independent action on the part of any State.
It would be a home thrust, terrible to dwell upon."
"Sentiment and injustice are incompatable. Thus it behooveth
us, (as Mr. Calhoun says,) to calculate the value of the union to
the South. If it is to bring imposition of tariff, and interference
, irh 't it.- jurisdiction,'we might as well be subjects of any other
I can never believe that one portion of this country would
oppress willingly the other. The old Republic, in its pristine
simplicity, will be uppermost in the hearts of the people."
"Not so much simplicity as you imagine, Gen. Call. Always
greedy and eager for power, the North is ready to secure it by
fair means or foul."
"Well, Gadsden, (added Mr Hawkins,) you have escaped
hanging this time; but 'tis said that the yankees have taken the
hint, and hence, started multiplied rope walks.' "
The hanging will not be confined to South Carolina, if it ever
It was you, Gen. Call, (said the Captain,) who introduced me
at the White House; and I remember well an evening spent in
the reception room, where there was no one present, excepting
Gen. Jackson, Col. Donaldson, you and myself. It was in 1833,
the period of the nullification threatened by South Carolina.
Conversation took a wide range, but was principally of a politi-
cal character. I can never forget the appearance of Gen. Jack-
son, as he spoke of nullification, and the menacing attitude of


South Carolina. He rose, as he warmed with his subject, his
fine person erect, his grey eyes flashing fire, as he walked to-and-
fro, denouncing tle action of the convention of South Carolina,
and declared his fixed determination to repress any practical re-
sults, at all hazards. He reminded me of what I conceived of a
grand old lion, stung and irritated into rage by the spears and ar-
rows of the hunter. About this time, Warren R. Davis made a
speech in Congress, in which he used this language, Give the old
man something to amuse him ; give him a tee-to-tum.' It is said
that when Gen. Jackson read this remark relating to himself, he
burst forth enraged, swearing by the eternal, 'if Davis don't take
care, I will make a tee-to-tum of his d- d head."
It was well for Davis, (remarked a by-stander,) that he was
not in camp, or on Spanish territory."
"And Jackson in command."
Then the speech would not have been made."
"No, never!"
"What a man he is! Nothing can exceed his dignity; he
would adorn any position. I doubt if George the Fourth, the
first gentleman of Europe, was more noble and princely in man-
ner. I remember hearing my parents speak of the surprise of the
notables in New York, when he visited that city in 1817. Instead
of the uncultivated, uncouth man, from the wilds of the west,
they were astonished on beholding a gentleman of the finest ad-
dress, and most noble presence."
He is the greatest man I ever knew," emphasized Gen. Call.
Yes ; and he is the man of a period that will end with him;
after him a new order will begin."
But you will see that by his extraordinary popularity, that
he names and will elect his successor."
"Martin Van Buren sees that, and for this, it is said, that he
has created the breach between Jackson and Calhoun."
The brilliant talents, pure and ardent patriotism, and the
otherwise high and noble qualities of Mr. Calhoun, should make
any man proud to be his friend," earnestly remarked Col. Gads-
den, returning to the charge.
Handsomely said; yet I am sorry that you are a nullifier,
for I remember your gallantry on so many fields."
And I am glad to know that they were southern fields, main-
tained by southern men."
I am going to add, (said Gen. Call,) that I should like to see
you send such a hot shot into nullification, as I saw you do into
Garcon's fort, on the Appalachicola River."
The sovereignty of principle is what nullification demands;


that is all; it does not aim to denounce any section, or impose
upon any people."
Who are these approaching ?"
"That's the union bank, or rather the men who have started
it, and promise thereby to make Florida, roll in wealth."
"Ah !"
"Yes; it started with a capital of a million, and that is in-
creased to three million, by exchanging the certificates of sub-
scription for territorial bonds, which were sold in Europe. They
found purchasers in London, Menertzhagen and Huth; a won-
derful success, considering the resources of the territory, and
could only have been accomplished by men so well-known.
Gen. Mercer represented Virginia in Congress for thirty years,
besides he was president of the colonization society, which gave
him eclat in England, and Col. John Gamble is also known
abroad-I believe he married in London."
"You want to know how it operates ? Well, you see a man
can mortgage his land or negroes; draw from the bank two-
thirds (in money) of their value, which will be re-invested in
more land and more negroes. One or two crops of cotton will
redeem all obligation to the bank; so you see that it is the best
thing afloat; a man can just go to sleep, and wake up rich."
Going to sleep, (remarked one,) is a good suggestion, but un-
fortunately too many are wide awake, spending money in display,
when- the very shovel and tongs in the kitchen belong to the
bank. But asleep or awake, there will be night-mare with some,
before they shuffle off that coil."
Oh, no; the bank gives the greatest possible opportunity for
relief. In a few years every man will be so independent, that he
will have a surplus of means to expend in public enterprises, and
Florida will then become a State of which the union will be
"I should think Gen. Mercer's two projects would conflict.
Cotton and tobacco demand negroes, and the bank lends to buy
'them; on what then does the colonization society feed?"
Oh! I think all, even Clay, are tired of that hobby. You
see that it is running into abolitionism at the North. At any
rate, this bank settles Florida as a slave territory, and yet there
were those who wanted it differently. Lafayette, for instance, has
been trying to colonize French and Swiss on his township, with
Sa view to the culture of wine, olives, and silk, but they will not
stay now. The white man and slave will not work together-the
latter degrade labor, but Col. Murat can tell you all about our
r,.. li.-.-- ; hI- i- one enthused."
C, (. taint.iiinl ; Florida is empyrean. Nature has been lay-


ish. I believe that there is nothing that will not thrive on her
soil, except always one poor man; what will make him poor in
Louisiana, will make him more poor here, and that is laziness."
S"I thought it was porous," said one of those incorrigible wits,
who are to conversation, like buzzing flies, distracting and annoy-
ing; but the prince continued, too intent to mind the impertin-
ence of words.
"Oh, yes; porous on the pine lands, and there, I feel assured,
the coffee of Mocha will do well; and there is the olive. It will
grow wherever the orange will stand. Jefferson wrote from Eu-
rope concerning this, saying that the olive was both meat and
bread; and Bertram has said that you cannot have better vines
than those nature has placed on this soil. Then the native
morus in the hammock show it is the home of the silk moth; be-
sides, we can try capers, peppers, bene, palma christa. What
does man want beside, with cotton, tobacco, and sugar, unless it
is 'eau de vie.' Even medicines you have, and dyes, for I see
among wild shrubs, some of the family of chincona, and there is
certainly indigo."
"Yes; the British derived large revenues from indigo, when
they owned Florida, and the seed of their planting still sow the
"And, (continued Prince Murat,) there is another resource in
the 'quercus cerris,' not the oak itself, but the deposit of the in-
sect,' cynops quercifolu,' upon its leaves, which accumulate and
hardens into a nut, which is the gall so important in medicine
and coloring. It is now an article of commerce from the Medi-
terranean, costing fifty or sixty dollars per cwt; and it is not in-
S digenous in any other part of the United States; and what a
beautiful as well as useful parasite, is the gray-flowing moss."
"And yet I heard you had land to sell, Col. Murat."
Oh, yes; one tract, and my friend,' Bob,' said he would take
it, but afterwards he come to me in chagrin and say, 'Colonel, I
bought a lottery ticket, and when* I told you I would take your
plantation, I expected to-well-not to have drawn a blank;
e'est fini."
"Where nature is so prodigal, fortune must ever smile."
Ah, mon Dieu! Here is Capt. Brown; ask him relative to
Oh, yes; the dame has her eccentric humors here, as else-
where; frost and storms destroy in a few hours the hopes of years,
but a few months recuperates.
"I lived here, (Mr. Doyle interrupted,) with Indians; Ham-
blyn and myself traded with them; it is the white man who has
brought frost-done so by clearing the land of forest trees."

L -. . -


I came from Virginia, old Farquier, on the Rappahannock,
(continued Capt. Brown.) I had there a superior farm, with the
reputation of a good farmer. : The style of my buildings and ar- ,
rangements for hospitality; were Virginian, while my mvland was
wearing out, besides being subject to freshets. A clunitie lu'st.
be made. Florida was the theme; consequently, I c:.a me on a
visit in 1826, bringing sixty negroes with me. I then saw cotton
of the preceding year in bloom; sugar cane, green and growing
in January, and corn was waist high in February, and this was
the case during the two following winters. Delighted with the
climate, I entered land on Lake Jackson, hired out my negroes,
ahd returned to Virginia for my family, having passed an entire
winter without frost. The next year I transplanted all that I
loved, and all that I owned, to the picturesque shores of Lake
Jackson, where I co,:uidl,.,:l myself anchored for life. And such
was my confidence in the climate, that in the year 1828, I plant-
ed 130 acres of sugar cane, and erected extensive .sugar works,
costing $20,000; but workmen and material being difficult to
command, I was backward in completing my arrangements for
turning my cane into sugar; beside, I had no fear of frosts.
Unfortunately, (as it proved,) I had been elected to the legisla-
ture, or territorial council, and this of course obliged me to be in
the town to attend its sessions. Suffice it to say, that there not
only came a frost, but a freeze, and by it, I, good easy man, had
my plans and cane .nipped tbgether-equally to the root."
"Yes; it was April in that year, when the forest trees were in
full sap, that many were killed to the ground, besides orange and
fig trees, supposed to be over one hundred years old, were killed
in St. Augustine."
Give us more of your Florida experience, Capt. Brown."
"Well, to proceed, the next year I planted cotton, but receiv-
ing only four or five cents per pound for my crop, I determined
to quit planting; but disliking to entrust my negroes'to an over-
seer, I brought them into town with me, and hired them out,
.while I opened a hotel, and thus you find me, subjected often-
times to more blasting disappointments, than unexpected frosts."
How many families, Captain, do you board for the pleasure
of their company ?"
No matter about that, (said another,) this recent story of the
ducks settles the Captain's amiability. It was a case we had in
court a few days ago. A man was accused of stealing a pair of
ducks, which charge he admitted, but allowed (to use his own
expression) that the ducks did not belong to the man who made
the charge, but to Capt. Brown, from whom he seemed to think-
that it was perfectly legitimate to steal."

. '4 *'%*




Ha ha! Well, Captain, we will make yougovernor some
day, on the score of amiability."
"Notwithstanding your experience, (returned CoL Murat,) I
giY Florida great preference; but I write to my friends in Eu-
Sthat different parts of the United States offer different ad-
vantages. To them I say,* if you dislike trouble, and your for-
tune will permit you to live on your income, go to the old States.
There you will find the arts of Europe ; her luxury, her polite-
ness, and a little more of her hospitality, but will be a stranger
for five years, and then all the faults you have committed during
that period will be counted against you. One cannot live here
without employment; he would be withered by ennui, and lose
all his consequence. If one thinks of devoting himself to com-
merce, or if Esculapius has obtained his homage, the old States
offer most resources. It is only there that business, commercially
speaking, becomes important, and patented murders will be lost
in the crowd, while the touching recital of a miraculous cure,
adroitly inserted in the evening Gazette, will place in your hands
the life and purse of a new flock of patients. Agriculture in the
North will yield nothing, though it employs all the time; it is
really only profitable to -those who can themselves follow .the
plough. The Bar there opens a wide field, but you must meet
in rivalry the first men of the nation ; this part of the
country is more like Europe, and therefore suits a European
best;. so I tell my friends that if they have the courage to come,
they must plunge at once into our manners, our laws and our
forests. They must give up past pleasures and arm for a strug-
gle. If he turns to commerce, he must create a market where
none exists; if to the Bar, let him be the first advocate of the
first cause, at the first term of the new court. If he is a physi-
cian, let him establish his reputation where no one, not even the
dead, can contradict him. If he looks to agriculture, let him
drain his new fields alone, without a neighbor, depending solely
on himself, and he will be liberally remunerated."
"' I wish Europe would send Florida a hundred thousand emi-
grants, such as you describe, Col. Murat."
"They know nothing geographically of the United States, in
Europe. It is positively true, one of my uncle's general's asked
a gentleman of Philadelphia, just arrived in Paris, if he had come
all the way in a diligence!"
What is a dillagance?" asked a far county councilman.
But Europeans will come to Florida in preference to any part
of the United States, (continued the Prince,) when they learn her
attractions. I was myself among the first pioneers of the middle
*Murat's letters on the U. 8. published in France.



district of Florida. I have seen its many improvements raised
up as by magic, in the bosom of the wilderness. I have seen the
members, comprising a delightful society, arrive one by one from
their distant homes, and it seems to rme that I shall always love
the town in which I saw the first stone laid, where I had myself
cleared a part of the ground. I like to see new laws, a new social
edifice, elevate themselves where the savage yell of the Indian
scared his timid prey; to hear our interests discussed, or sinners
terrified, by the wild accents of itinerant preachers."
"There is one objection to immigration, and that is the num-
ber of rascals who -will flock in."
That's what.I say, what I do say about them thar railroads,
(said a territorial Lycurgus,) and I jist voted agin the charter,
for I know it will just be a bringing into the country a setof ras-
cals to break down our govinment, Besides,'we ain't got no dis-
ease here now, even so much as the measles, but if we go a having
of a railroad, and bless me if we don't catch the koleray, and all
them furrin sicknesses."
"That may be; but as to the rascals, honest folks will sooner or
later get the upper hand, and I know nothing more amusing or
praiseworthy, than to expel these fellows ; it is a picture of a rev-
olution, as the chase is an image of war."
Our equinoctial storms are sufficiently revolutionary for me,"
said a prosy man.
Well, they are a God-send to the wreckers, you know; and
besides blowing down forest trees, or lessening the perpendicular
of a house, they do no harm."
Alfred Fisher knows something more about storms than that;
tell us, man, about the perils of the Gulf."
"I don't think that I can describe what I experienced in
anxious dread, on the occasion you refer to, not on my own ac-
count, but that of the children in my care," answered a young
man, responding to the foregoing address; but he continued:
"I was at the light-house, near St. Marks, for the health of my
six year old nephew, having with him two older boys as com-
panions, and I occupied a double log cabin on the east side, and
separated from the light by a creek. The storm of which I shall
tell, came up in the night, and by noon following the tide had so
risen, that the water stood two feet on the floor of mycabin, and
as it was still rising, I ordered the boys to' climb the bed and
tables, while I undressed, determined to cross the creek for a boat
to.transfer the children to the light-tower. By swimming and
wading alternately, I crossed the lagoon, but found it impossible
to move the boat alone, the force of the wind holding it tight
against the wall of the light-house. There were two or three

; i ^


young men boarding in the house; I entreated them to help, but
when learning my purpose, they pronounced me crazy, especially
so as at that moment we saw the cabin containing the boys, fall,
sinking into the rising waters; but even before I revived from
the shock, I saw faintly through the rain, the three boys on the
roof, as it were, floating off to sea, to which they told me after-
wards they had climbed soon after I left them, seeing how fast the
water was rising in the house. Capt. Crosby, (light-house keep-
er,) and an Italian sailor, were wading the creek to their arm-
pitN trying to save seines, rods, and what effects they could. I
made signs to them to come to me, for they could not hear me
call. When they came I ordered them to jump into the boat."
What is the matter," inquired Crosby.
"Jump into the boat, or I will murder you," I cried, in the
wildest excitement.
"Impelled by my manner, they entered the boat, and instantly
I cut the boat's rope loose, and by the force of the wind, it shot
into the stream; and then I told them that three boys were
washed to sea on the house roof, and we were going to save them.
Crosby swore and raved, declaring we must perish. Yes, said I,
unless you keep the boat trimmed above the water and before the
wind; and thus we went, blinded with rain and hail, the Italian
at the helm, silent and obedient, Crosby with the paddle, and as
I screamed, 'let her go right out to sea,' he groaned, and swore
' we must be lost;' but with all his imprecations, we moved on
as if by some demoniac power. At last, in a lull of the wind, we
saw the roof, driven, like ourselves, fast on out to sea. The
anxiety and suspense of that moment as we steered for it, em-
braced a thousand years of every day life, and correspondingly
to me was the relief to find on nearer approach, the boys still on
the float-the two youngest clinging quietly, but the oldest wild
with fright; and as I jumped from the boat to the roof, my little
nephew caught my hat which the wind blew off. After many
efforts, we got the children into the boat, where they lay famished
and almost frozen for hours, but my nephew I hugged to my
naked breast, to give him all the warmth I could. Crosby
wanted now to turn towards the light-house. I railed at him
for being such a fool, and told him the boat must run; it was our
only chance to keep from sinking; in a despairing howl, he
pointed to the bottom of the boat, which was half full of water.
We were fortunate enough to find a fisherman's bait.bucket un-
der the seat, and with this, for many hours, we kept the water
down, but almost at the cost of life from exhaustion. The wind
changed to east, then south, and finally south-west, but we kept
on riding the waves amidst wind, rain, and hail; above all which


could be heard Crosby's curses and groans; the Ire--t" nr 't A
silent as the occasion commanded, A 'Mother C'arvIi '; .-ken,,
swept by, uttering its fearful note. Crosby threw .li n his Iad-i
die and fell on his 'knees, entreating 'the Lord to help us.' I
seized his paddle, and moving towards him, told him T.1j.uld
kill him if he did not take it and continue work. Keep -in.eep
on, it is our only chance for life.' In terror, Cr-cv wa-'a If'
at work, when a second chicken passed over his h~-i.., ;laI .-.i u
he went again on his knees, and again I had to thre.ite-n tli thr.,~.
him overboard. 'Where must we go,' cried the t'rr-ilie.l i u.
'Where we can, straight on,' I replied. Just before dark we came
to a top of a tree, projecting from the water. 'Thank God, (said
the keeper,) I know at last where we are; this is Pine Island;
shall I catch hold of the tree as we pass.' Don't you dare to
touch it; we will be swamped. Let well enough alone; doubt-
less we will strike the woods directly;' and soon we began run-
ning between and over the bushy tops of trees, which often
scraped the bottom of the bqat, and higher tops were falling
around us, now more threatening than the sea's waves. Later,
we were able to secure our boat to a stump of a tree, where the
water was seven feet or more, but where we where somewhat shel-
tered from the wind; more than a quarter of a mile, however,
yet to dry land. Here we passed the night in bodily misery, but
comparatively easy in mind. At last morning broke, and the-
sun rose brightly, fs if in mocking of our previous fears, and the
tide had so far receded that we determined to gain the shore,
which we accomplished by wading and jumping from log to log,
I always carrying my nephew, in my arms; and then we started
for a habitation which we judged must be still twelve miles dis-
tant. Arriving at last near Hand Walker's, I sent the Italian
ahead to borrow a pair of pantaloons for me, and thus advertised
of our approach, Walker gave us a plentiful breakfast, and sent
us afterwards to St. Marks in his carriage, where our arrival
created great astonishment, for Mrs. Kennedy had come from
the light-house since the storm abated, and reported us lost; and
it was the more astonishing that we were not, since seventeen per-
sons were washed off and drowned from the light-house. Among
them, a negro woman and her seven children, belonging to Hark-
ley, he having sent them to the light-house for the woman's
You were certainly bold, and your narrative is most inter-
As to boldness, I had no alternative; it was on, on; to have
halted was to have lost the boys."



.: n that, L it is said you thrashed a store-keeper before
'" gBeen in St. Marks ten minutes."
f re. nain, I had no alternative, and I was certainly in no
hu mor to be trifled with. The twelve miles walk through briars,
a rnettes:, bare-legged and bare-footed, beside exhaustion,
anvthinng rather than the appearance of a man to be trust-
Sthe man asu med the peculiar manner of merchants when
e case. I only gave him shaking; I did not hurt him."
a" It became f the Italian?"
S %I wint t. make him prosperous, but I fear I shall only make
of hin a drunken vagrab.nd."
Here great doors refolded, conversation ceased, cards were re-
jected, and by some electric influence, the crowd moved simulta-
neously into the adjoining room-silent and solemn, as if im-
pressed deeply with the importance of the supper now presented
for enjoyment. A crowd of men, eating and drinking, present a
picture so devoid of sentiment or grace, so roughly carnal, that
however satisfactory to participators, there is' small gratification
in the remembrance. Mind, and with.some almost courtesy, were
gone for the time-the.animal prevailed; it was a knife and fork
struggle; conversation eeasefl; body and soul were abandoned
to the pleasures of appetite, and there was no mimicry ; the sup-
per was good and the party was voracious. There was the roast-
ed ox and the fatted calf, and at least one dozen young swine,
which, with rosy apples or golden lemons, fixed in rigid jaws,
illustrated passion strong in death, (a savory sarcasm on poor
piggy.) But how describe it. The -quantity was Brobdingna-
gian; the quality excelled, and appetites gigantic. The round
table was never more burdened, nor its knights more valiant,
than the legislators and social magnates who presented bold
fronts, as frequent libation filled with one guest after another.
There was no jubilee, but like true knights they challenged on,
fearless as ready. The laugh of politeness assumed loudness,
thoughts were running fast, and language in trying to keep pace,
broke into speech and sofg ; and there were toasts, sentimental,
patriotic and humorous; so with the clamorous repetition, one
could be persuaded that he was already responding to the call,
poured forth amidst noise and smoke, in doubtful strains, such
Come to the crag where the beacon is blazing,
Come with the buckler, the lance, and the bow;
Trumpets are sounding, war steeds are bounding;
Come, stand by your arms."

Inspired, doubtless, by the belligerent spirit of the verse, Capt.


'* 1'.'



Myrick, with stentorion voice, ordered,' put out the lights.;' qnd
draw your knives to defend yourselves," the fulfillment ofihich
made, in darkness and confusion, a pandemonium worthy of Satan
and his peers; but though tempestuous and- blustering, the effect
was also'sobering, for most stood not on the order of going, but
went at once, through doors and windows; but of those who fell
by the way, deponeth speaketh not. It is an accomplishment td
play the fool gracefully when occasion demands, though head-
aches may prevail next day; however, it is not always necessary
to affect the party of the first part.
| *

Monday morning, and going home. The assembling and ad-
journment of the "Council" are the events of the year, in
this territory, from which citizens date; the interval doesn't
count. There are a thousand nameless ties, kindred thoughts,
and deep sympathies, that make a chain of friendship for these
country people, who are as one family in all that affects their
hopes or fears, pain or pleasures; so in predominance of such
feelings, neighbors rallied before the tavern door, to see "the
members" off, though all present were not without selfish mo-
tives; for a side glance revealed more than one store clerk, as if
ashamed of his errand, slipping upon his victim with the abom
inable and garrulous request, that he would "please settle his
little bill before leaving." Billy Wilson, who, they say, suffers
himself from a plethora of liberality, regarded the demand of one
of these fellows, as a reflection upon the hospitality of the town,
and in respect to an honorable member railed forth: D-
your bills; can't gentlemen talk without such impertinent inter-
ruption. Go to h-- with your bill, and I will pay it myself."
The humor of which no one seemed to realize but your humble
The country is considered alive with dangers from Indians, so
the Honorable Body of Florida's wise' men elect to travel the
woods on horse-back, in pairs or parties, and their equipment in
holsters and rifles told of direful purposes, while the distended
saddle-bag promised solace to the ills. foreshadowing, and spoke
of more spiritual comfort than shirt dicky's afford, had not the
projecting corks revealed the fact.
"Good bye; will see you.back next year," and they were gone
on their diverging ways.


It was mail day, for twice each week a lumbering stage-coach
brings the news, thus maintaining communication with the world

, ^ :. **/ -y i
- <*
< '


I :







beyond; and long before its arrival, the distant and prolonged
notes gf the driver's horn tell of its coming, electrifying the town
into action; driving those with one expectancy or another, and
those who move because others do, alike to the shanty, yclept
post-office; an assembling which the stage driver accepts as an
ovation to himself, judging from the oft-applied whip, as he turns
from the road into the street that brings his coach and four
into view, and the horses, too, seemed to partake of his vanity,
as if in that dash they would hide their mud-spattered limbs,
that tell of rough roads and weary hours. But one must live re-
motely to appreciate the importance and excitement of the scene.
Then how hearty and universal the welcome to passengers, if the
absent returns; how scanned, if strangers, to establish the who
and what they are, in the suspicion ever uppermost of a new
official appointee, or a minister plenipotentiary from Washing-
ton, with powers to wipe out existing rule and substitute new;
for these are the influences that animate here; glad to.see every-
body, but one that comes without a mission is regarded as an
anomaly. But ".Bill," the driver, was to me as he was to the
little boys, the interesting individual of the moment; so boister-
ous and self-asserting, and yet so reticent; for, as if in fealty to
the one mail bag he threw to the ground, he declared, "there
ain't no news up the road worth dividing," and then with an air
of overwhelming importance, he directed his steeds and coach to
the tavern, to deposit his living freight.
The mail might generally be carried in the pocket of a post-
man, and its delivery would be a short ceremony, but for the
delay consequent upon paying the.postage. Men of known credit
had it "charged to account," but, otherwise, when the requisite
twenty-five cents was demanded in advance, there was much
time occupied in persuasive explanations, or impatient demand.
One young man, under these circumstances, most resignedly de-
termined to leave his letter in the office, for after viewing the
subscription, he- said, "Oh, pshaw; I know all ma's advice.by
heart, and I ain't got no twenty-five cents."
. But more amusing still was the indignant outburst of a white-
haired old gentleman, who did not receive the letter he expected.
SAfter much wrath expressed against dubious agents, he settled a
remedy, by declaring, emphatically, I'll git Nat Macon to see if
he can't git something done about this here detention, for I be
d--d if I can stand such arrangements. No letter in that thar
bag, when I knowed letters is bin a written! Macon knows they
don't-practice such ways in North Kalina, and I know Gineral
Jackson ain't going to 'low it no whar, when it comes to his
knowledge." Such a cataract of vehement declamation came







near proving too mij y self-possession; and with amuse-
ment was wonder and- tion of the faith of men everywhere
in the omniscient pow 4Andrew Jackson. He is theMagnus
Appollo and Jupiter Tonens of every southern man; even more,
as I heard one man say to another, on an occasion of solemn as-
sertion, "4 believe you as much as if Gineral Jackson, or Jesus
ChrL-t. h daid it."
-. gs week, (and this, the popular day,) and it makes a -
se on at the capital.
44 viS wings, social or political, are re .for this time.
fom afar come to enjoythe hos~ friends. It is
,tance" to see some one or morM eecially; itis the
,'in short, for all that perta -q business or pleas-
e two hotels wer 'crowded, ad 'ry private home
g welcome to guests. : .
SOn this day, at an early hour, the townwas in prep~irtiion for
a transfer to the tract, which lay to the north about a mile from
the capital. McLean proposed a tandem team for the drive to
the grounds, and as we had taken the post-office en.route, we
were early on the road, but late enough to find many others
moving in the same direction. There were teams, two, three,
and four, attached to barouche, carriages, and landaus; these
last swing like a bale, between the coachman's seat and the foot-
man's stand behind ; and others were gigs and sulkeys, while
ladies and their escorts, on horseback, galloped onward. Pedes-
trians lined either side of the gay road, and some lessened dis-
tance by short cuts through fields.
It was February; the sassafras buds were peeping from their
brown cups; the "red bud" on Judas tree, in the distance,
showed a fiery column ; the yellow jessamine, that most graceful
of vines, twisted its spirals over tree and shrub, or twirled to the
ground its golden convulvulus. Birds flitted here and there,
giving their early notes, and it seemed that my heart was in the
same condition as the buds of trees, and humor of birds, swelling
to bursting with a new impulse, and ready, too, to break into
song. It was a charming day, and nothing can surpass a fin'
Florida day; though bright in sunshine, there is a sort of ha!-o
ness that gives a peculiar softness to the atmosphere, that-ea ds
to a most lulling influence on the heart and energies; so6riudhc
so, that I exclaimed, who could entertain an evil thought, or
contemplate a wicked deed in such a climate?" For which 're-
mark my friend gave me a smile of indulgence.
That carriage and four bays passing, are Parkhill's, and that
following-is the property of Col. Parrish, four thorough-breds."-
"And I recognize the young lady with the latter as Miss

, 4



-JIM i:'

i Br.,no. but Il.w diirenitly hlli. itlli or without I11.n-
t-- 'e- ,e i.i ila y the car1-.. li- 'Ili* I, iin \ sport, with l hiit
Seils, but t;rmratelvnihiin- .'aun li- e a prettywoman.
S"That i, Mr-. Can'l; i Bellamy, and Leigh Reil.1, in the I;Ir-
riage, aid I,.n. ('all i .l .in h.rsebac.k; and that i' a cha rnliji
belle from Aii.'ii tl, with George P. Walker. %, li.. r\ [Jl.:

i: I here, e,. li the e,-nitri., ,f c-I. n,' i,-r'-." .
S" Ye .'it.l. il ? I :.i:' u ~.itic u of d e atuhII ir 'arlaM
c-. .. A i ,ri trM .: thfoe t. o',lctpes u t l.
in th "in- r 'atti-r: u l t il i V tle ..1 L .
..r .;luli ; i' .il'k .. vei. l- ..
i ilbl:,.,. ."t.'/ ti ,t':,l \\il -r- 'id n,: ilIl.d--, lbuit, tli B l
'- thl,:. ". 1g.- t .i arrant it. '
i" r-ithl ,i;',t).,tl' u r.,itMl at 14 r cent- lw-r pund?'" u"
N f; t:,r eixt eao it, pri.i.- may be ,.,nly furor five-; mbt
; of ortlr .dhlr .;itiz,-,n are office-holders ; the.younger are launched
-- into t he..l:,r'.,>. --iu-. therefore too much depends upon the planter."
FIril. ....--lu- to' have had no i:hrua;i l- state socially, *,r
S ven fina. ,;i.,lly, ;s usual to new settlements."
S -" That is apropos of our talk on slavery. Society comes: '-f
leisure more than wealth. The tasks-eor inferior part of our lifi.
is left to slaves. They plough and dig, illustrating what I wished
to set forth, the inferior supporting the superior; we have thu-
leisure for higher purposes, to which the practice of courtesy an I
the i-j..i .ii-l ..f society, afford recreation."
Ah' it i- rtir ladies here, as i-very wi.. r! that make society .
here they preside, sovereigns reign; without goodness and grace .
in them, there is no motive for excellence in men."
S"I agree with you ; and will even declare further, that I b.--
lieve any deteriirati.:' in them, will effect men correspondingly.
S aul finally if..- ratI.e-. Our ladies here are far from being mer-
S.ll. ets. "l' :1-:,ire ; for \ irl ..it .in .-\::.e pt i.,. they : ..rii' ni...
inLuttni 'iiiti.-. The position .'. -iut herii matron of a nece-
,it *:leiiian.i- it : but their individual lives are so harmonized :I-
mit .i e"ire responsibility, with leisure for improvement."
1 er j, ;-..-- a splendid team."
Slhelnu- to Gotten, and it is the real ore that you see
Sl .h liii- n-I"., and carriage; the four-in hand followii.-

? -ant turn out, but alone; only a dog on the front

"He is a bachelor, and I suppose would remain so."
"Well, what more about the ladies ?"




Only that I believe that they are a little more clever here
than elsewhere, or we have better opportunities for testing their
merits. As you have'doubtless observed, most of our ladies are
married, and though mothers, they do not ignore the claims of
That is very charming, for in the old "+tlr. lady is socially
dead as soon as married. Church-going and nurseries are their
only discussion ; so somebody has said, they live for an obituary,
and for this they work on in stolid virtue, until they step into
tli.- .-,a ; but you permit no martyrdom here."
"N,; nor exclusiveness, for you may notice that their yoke
fellows are proud of their social accomplishments. Slavery is the
cause of this, (a riddle for you); the disparity in all respects be-
tween servants and mistress, place the latter so high in the scale
of being, that men seek their society for the refinement they be-
stow, and the distinction they give."
I think I comprehend you, though the sex is ever more or
less enigmatical."
"True women, (such as I have in my thoughts,) require, hon-.
est, unaffected, manliness of demeanor and of thought, in all in-
tercourse, and with this inspiration of confidence, they will not
easily be moved to frivolity by jealous or prejudiced' representa-
tion; for, though, lenient of judgment, they are constant, and
very appreciative of what is expressed in noblese oblige.' I
have lived all my life in the atmosphere, and under the loving
influence of refined, and cultivated women; I early discovered
the requirements, necessary as passports to their confidence."
And surely, there is. no earthly shrine of equal purity, at
which a man can worship with such true, .-.iih.-ni 1. and human-
izing devotion, provided there is mind and heart united with cul-
tivated beauty."
The most beautiful woman of whom imagination can conceive,
without education and sweet culture, (the fragrance and crown-
ing glories of her nature, in its earthly [.-i 6l 1.,n.) would weary
the soul and vex the spirit of any man possessed of a right ap-
preciation of the real constituents of female excellence, and with
correct perception of the substantive worth and exalted mission
of woman."
'* Certainly ; and it is so true, that I have knov. 11 Vi..III "II i1-
dowed with a single feature that could be consider .I I .'1.''..
whose faces would break into absolute beauty (the ii,..- : i.
from this wealth of heart and intellect, which ,Illtilmnl .. uiy
"I am somewhat chivalric-old school, perhaps-in my feel-
ings; but I could kneel, and almost worship before such, while

. 96

.^., ..-


the impassive or expressionless beauty, with no sunlight on her
. fae, and with features fixed as marble, could only receive from
S me the cold tribute of admiration, or the passing one of a sigh,
-over .ich a waste of womanhood."
.. No woman can shine attractive among men, worth her knowl-
edge, and whose admiration would be graceful distinction, if des-
titute of cultivation; hence, so many fail in their mission, which
is to gentleize nen, and move as ministering angels among
"Yes; women do too often undervalue their mission, and it
recoils in that they fall victims to selfish infirmity."
"You spoke of beauty, without mind or heart, as it palls upon
the taste of high-toned and cultivated men, but what more sor-
rowful or pitiful to see than a woman full of capacity, radiant in
soul, yoked to a coarse bestial man, or what is, I believe, worse, a
simpering nonentity."
The more deplorable because without remedy; marriage, like
death, fixes; but we have wandered from local interests."
We were talking of Tallahassee, which was never provincial; '
*Indians, foreigners, and immigrants from all parts of the Union,
gave a very considerable range to the tone of life here, from the
start. We were, however, a very frugal, unpretentious people,
until recently; now more money is a necessity."
What has made the change?"
Little pieces of tissue paper, engraved with the usual vig-
nettes and promise."
"The Union bank ?"
Yes; that i- the source i'f many of those handsome equipages .
that pass and re-lahs."
"Fictitious proi:I'prity."
"Some of it; but.oeton-, sii.mr, and tobacco, will soon square
accounts, and ie look forward t.: an Eutopian society."
Bad for you, as lawyers, are not embraced in that vision of
'"Who is the lady on h:i-rl :-:k ; she sits well."
'"Miss McMullen, e:.-,:..rt.el .by her fiancee, the nephew of our '
delegate to Congress, Oscar White; and in connection with
him, do you see that clump of shrubs ahead ? Well, just there
oepurred one of the most desperate encounters ever met by man i
with max, and White was one of them."
a V AR ,.iul.?"
Yesirh t .thl-r party was Leigh Read, and they were both
Kentuckians. White followed his uicle to this land of promise,
and Read came, as others, seeking new life. and was a law stu-
dent of Gen. Call, beside being a member of his family, for his


house is especially the home of strangers from the west, and
. Read is very gallant and debonair-a great favorite, especially,
S with the ladies."
Gen. Call and Col. Joe White were candidates for Congress ;
the friends of both were very asserting, and a difficulty grew out
of some invidious remark of Oscar White, which called forth the
resentment :f .Midl. ii1 hence a challenge; and it was Sunday
morning wh.-u thL-y i-,t on the spot we are passing. I came
across the fields with the surgeon, D. Macklemore; was early on
the ground ; found Read, and his second, sitting on that log be-
fore us, and when White and his friends arrived, soon after, the
most polite salutations were exchanged between the principals
and seconds."
SWas there no effort to stop proceedings ?"
Of course not, though friends of both had come out from town
S in numbers to witness the meeting. The terms were severe. They
were to fire, once at ten paces, and in the event of neither falling,
were to close with the use of bowie knives. Shots were exchanged,
without damage to either, and then they closed, and a more des-
perate struggle was never beheld. They fell together, and the
crowd looked on as if spell-bound, and Walker, (Read's second,)
though Read was undermost, stood over the two with cocked pis-
tol, threatening to shoot any man who interfered. Read was
greatly enfeebled by a late illness, and White seemed to strike
without force, but the very close contact was in their favor, and
so they struggled until both were exhausted,"
"'And it ended in mutual murder?"
"Yes ; they lingered in mortal agony a few hours, and then
Oh, certainly; your smile reminds me, and I am heartily
glad to have seen them both in the flesh to-day. Such modes
bewilder me, but how did it end ?"
Finally, a murmur arose in the crowd, to the effect that it
was a shame to let men fight like wild beasts, but really it stopped
because they could strike no more, and with all their efforts to
kill each other, they escaped with harmless punctures of the skin;
but Boston abroad, will you tell them at home that our territory
is a land of gentlemen, or a frontier of murderers ?"
"Considering the atmosphere, I will withhold my opinion until
out of reach of pistol shots and dirks."
Enough at any rate of such barbarities, for here we are, and
we will give the tandem in charge of Sandy, while we visit the
'ladies stand.'"
The tract was a good one; a circled mile enclosed on either
side, with the judges' and ladies' stands inside of both lines, while

. 98

NOOTES I. 1:[1.A\N.\. .I1 "

carriages and vehicles surrounded the whole. Ei.i'.-tri.iij-. I..
sides both ladies and gentlemen, rode to-and-fro, nith !._ -.it -1 i rt.
to most eligible points. Many of the fairer sex -remainl. in,
their carriages, and these were surrounded with courtiers, :i.il t..
one we made our bow, while I was introduced to Misse- I.i.,-
ble, Greenup, and Watts; cousins," said G.I. :;i.l "'ltr'." IIin.-
Virginians,"' and that is enough to say in .,i liut .t' :ti\
girls. -
Through the melee we made way, and as we passed rl..- r'--
freshment saloon, a bland, watery-eyed individual in ....ult v
jeans, slapped M3.-L-.: on the hbqok, vinz: "Come; y..i :iii:
your II:i .1i, take a smile with n ;- I;" I'.. \. e. li.-it.. u.1t t. i f.i -
was to offend, but by a happy allusion to the inviting siil.- un. i
the stand, and a promise to see him again, we were exce--,l .ir,
the time.
The racers were already on the track, curveting and pliw'-Ii.r
under the mesmeric influence of respective jockeys, wh .. I,-.1.,-
much to the gaiety of the scene by their I ii .. suits, whi'.-I li I
well to relieve the anxious faces of owners.and bettelr-. \l...
moved nervously around, i'. in': j':irt'ii injunctions, Th.. -t.k.-
were high, and there were horses from North Carolina andI I.,,,-
gia, and there was Bacchus, Rienzi, .iI.l .1 ,.ir-. of Florid.i i-'I'- '-
For a time the ladies were busy with bets; gloves, a- n-I:ii.
(varied with fain or books,) made the stakes, stipulatio:- ii.-i,
with such gleesomeness, that l.ir.-'.-i the result, the o... ..i-i..n
paid in good humor.
The stand was radiant with plumes and flowers,'velvet :.nl
silk, but the beauty of freshness was supreme in the wh;t- .il--
lins and silken scarfs,.as worn by the young ladies in such i .,...-
ful becomingness. Costliness is severe in the woods, l.lt il;
mingling of the old and the new fashion, by tasteful fi ..-, I- ;-
like the out-door blooming of jessamine in February; it I. l..i_-
SIn green velvet, with 1 .1' flowing white plumes, was tr. u-ii-
Governor's wife; she that I had seen a few weeks before 11 th.
-Federal capital, and here, as elsewhere, she was surrounds. I" i l
admirers, but these all gentlemen.
There was Captain Hawkins who laughed, and talked ..- !..
laughed; and Judge Randall, who was classical, quote. L:ail',.
and translated it, and Dennet beckoned the muses to her enter-
tainment. If ugliness existed anywhere, it was hidden by li ..
sure polish of success, and she was, as ever, replete in fascina-
tion; though she confesses not to-like the social atmosphere here.



I feel hours du monde, but Governor Eaton will make Pensa-
cola the home of his family."
Mrs. Branch, whose husband had been of the navy, and Mrs.
Call, whose husband had taken an active part in persuading Gen.
Jackson from his arbitrary course towards the lady, were.also on
the stand, and the meeting here of li-i..'i'l.iut elements brewed
S in the national capital, i. -t1., an undercurrent of intentional
sarcasm in this appointment for Florida. But the Governor is
himself a most clever gentleman, and very much respected per-
sonally, and the madam well adapts herself to those who are
The wife and sister-in-law of the present delegate to Congress,
were also of the party; both brilliant conversationalists, vast
tact, and of fine personal appearance; and they are here (they
say,) to electioneer for the suffrages of the people, in behalf of the
incumbent, who remains at his post in Washington; while these
two young ladies, accompanied by one or more young men of the
territory, have canvassed every county in the interest of the
S absent candidate, much to his advantage, as Mrs. White is said
to be the cleverest man of the two; but an able letter just pub-
lished in the journals, to the people," appears as a prepar-
ation for a future declaration of war, during the spring campaign.
Is he a nullifier ?"
And madame prated so gracefully of people being born Feder-
alists, and others nullifiers; that the revolting dogma was for the
time, covered with flowers; but Capt. Hawkins rallied national
S love, by a humorous interrogation:
"A freak of nature ?"
No, not at all; nullification is conformity with nature, be-
-- cause it acts and depends on general truth."
Nous verons, as Ritchie says," ejaculated one not of Paris.
You have been to Europe since last in Florida; tell us about
the Pope."
I see that you have heard of my interview with good Pius,
who is a very charming gentleman. When Col. Wilde requested
a presentation to his holiness, I was told by the chamberlain or
cardinal, that excepting the, daughters of crowned'heads, ladies
were not received at the court of the vatican. My promptitude
of reply admitted me to the exceptional class.; for with a pride
that I felt, I replied, that I was an American woman, and there-
by the daughter of a sovereign.-entitled to all claims of a priv-
Si. 1 class ; and my spunk so pleased the cardinal, that I was
admitted to the sanctified presence, whom we found affable and
courteous as any other gentleman."
. "Tell me, did you kiss the slipper ?"


Oh, no; 'he seemed to anticipate the awkwardness of an
American protestant woman tbus humiliating l-r-.,- f and at the
proper tlin. I..--,it., his hand, and I kissed the handsome ring
with great unction, and in return he gave me such a blessing that
I fancy that I feel the apostolic mesmerism still upon my brow."
'"Happy pope; blessed and blessing," whispered one of the
lady's satellites.
S The citizen, Prince Murat, and madame, were also on the
stand, and I thought looked jealous of familiarity with his holi-
ness, and Italie, for in their recent sojourn in Europe, they were
not permitted to enter the kingdom of this father, King Joachin.
Life abroad has in no respect destroyed the love of home in
Madame Murat, who of unusual personal beauty, possesses the
charm of fascination, with a most amiable temper and heart. S In-
has, too, the womanly gift of conversation, to which her broad
Virginia pronunciation, gives richness in tone.
Ah, yes," she said, "it was a great disappointment to Achille
and iny-..11 to retire from Belgium, for it might have'led to
greater things, and it was a very congenial life for us."
S "London is a great city, of'course," continued madame ; but
you must be ii Ei.ili-li.lu to be at home there; rth-i' ignorance,
and consequently want of respect for the United States, was hu-

"To them, not to v, .1.
As you please; but some expressed surprise to hear an Ameri-
can speak the English language so well as I did, and 1...1t.-u.-. -
I think, only prevented the expression of wonder that I was not
We will invite them over to a Fourth of July dinner, and
better instruct them."
"All that I said of our growing civilization was received with
surprise; they cannot comprehend the possible existence of in-
telligent and i iii-.I society out of England."
Mr. Van Buren and Mr. Rives were notable examples of na-
tive elegance and intelligence, and should have taught them
"Certainly; but they regard such as diamonds, from vast fields
or mines of coal. They give us no ..-.. _r:Iili. For instance,
we dined with Sir Emerson Tenant; Achille loves science and
liti-.,,...- .im1 we were thus invited to meet some of the literati
of London, on this occasion. A Virginia raised girl, without
opportunities of education, I very 1i ru.i.i f.-lt a dread of insuf-
'- i..'i..y r., Iinet such a class, and only hoped to be overlooked-;,
i- t :r 'liuijii... i. ;1, seated next Professor -- he opened at
i ;;..- upon me a l1.itl,-i of *in. -ti..-, relative to slavery. Ifor-
H B i& + .'... '*. + ': -:,:'. '. J


got all diffidence, and told him that it was easy enough for Eng-
lishmen to put a stop to slavery ifipthey would abandon the use
of cotton and sugar, but he most undauntedly replied, 'but Louis-
iana is not a slave State.'"
S I hope you gave him mo-las(h)es plenty."
"I told him, and not with a 'candid tongue,' that he, at least,
ought to know us by our fruits, and chastised him as well as I
* could; with the valor of that member."
Do they know," inquired Mrs. Goldsborough, "that New
Orleans is a city, and not a river?"
"One Parkenham knew it before he sank in death at the foot
of the memorable live oak, at all events."
Mrs. Goldsborough is a daughter of the gifted Birt, and has in-
herited all his fluent speech. Her husband is of the. navy, and
in a firl' u-.h of four years, he is developing a plantation in an
adjoiini.. 11 unty, for which he is importing Swiss labor, and ex-
.perimen ting in many fields. Courteous, intelligent and accom-
plished, the couple add much to this Arcadia.
Of the same attractive assemblage was Mrs. R. K. Calf, who,
Beautiful and genial, with the fortuitous advantages of indentity
with the Jackson regime, of Washington City,b had been a na-
tional belle, not more distinguished in this, than by her wondrous
domestic acquirements, that render her a great favorite and
most influential in this rural metropolis. Married at the Her-
mitage, she was the following winter, (as the wife of the delegate
S of this territory,) in the Federal city, was there domesticated be-
neath the same roof with the Nation's guest," Lafayette, shared
in all the festivities incident to his visit, as well as the political
honors extended the hero of New Orleans, (as the possible and
probable next President) ; and was present at the election thrown
into the House of Representatives.
Tell us about it."
"Well, there was the usual levee at the White House, on the
evening of the election, which from the expected attendance of
all parties, created a Washington social rush. Many surprised
and many disappointed with the political aspect, rallied to show
their own fortitude, or to see the want of it in others, for Mr.
SRandolph's denunciation of 'bargain and corruption,' was sus-
pected by many who had not the courage to express it. Mr. Clay
was self-contained ; Mr. Crawford was ill,and his friends, sullen;
but the minority rule only made Gen. Jackson's friends uproar-
ious and threatening. Under these circumstances, all were cu-
rious to see how the late candidates would meet, and as you know
through the Gazette, I. was the lady referred to as occupying the
right arm of one, when they did meet. It was in the east room,

a'~~~r T 1~~4ll~R I T~ -I
NCE F RDA 1O'8ir

t: ~ *


SThen Miss Lockerman, who ever laughs at her friends, and
whose scalping knife as often scathes herself, remarked to my
I-saw you across the hack, speak to the ladies in the Welaw-
nee carriage."
"Yes; I only stopped long enough to whisper bah, bah!' lamb
like, into the ear of Miss Catherine."
"Did you finish with the inquiry, 'how much wool have you
"No, indeed; the Shepherd was near at hand, and these
grounds are yet too redolent of the code; beside, Shepherd is
every inch a man, and certainly a lucky one in the venture."
"Perhaps it is not so; but I heard her mother was buying
S edgings at' Welford's' yesterday, and you know that means a
: marriage."
Or a birth," said another; "besides, I have noticed a ring
on Catherine's hand lately, that I never saw before."
"Poor M.; but they say that he has taken to billiards, and
woe unto him who plays against him in his present mood."
"And Walker, they say, sings from morning until night, a
strain from 'Alice Grey,' sighing forth, 'there's nothing true but
heaven;' and Butler murmurs, the last link is broken,' but I

L c.. ^-. -: 1 ; -

that the two men most talked of, met; and Mr. Adams, with the
laurels of success, was the one to show embarrassment, but Gen.
Jackson wasperfectly well poised, and without, a moment's hesi-
tation, said' on their meeting: 'How do you do, Mr. Adams; I
give you my left hand, sir; the right, as you see, is devoted to a
lady. I hope you are very well, Mr. Adams.' And Mr. Adams
was very stately and frigid, and rather with a suspicion of annoy-
ance, said: "I am very well,-sir; I hope Gen. Jackson is well."
"Now, tell us something of the French General."
"Oh, he is charming, vivacious, amiable, good, and very
Most men could be so with a gift of two hundred thousand
dollars and a township of land, and in view of his land being in
Florida, he should have visited the territory; and we understand
that be promised Gen. Call that he would; but is it true that he
is lame, and wears a reddish wig ?" "
And present were the two married daughters of -'Duyal,
but none the less belles on that account; and it was tL ine -of
these that Wm. Q. Butler, of Kentucky, addressed those lines,
'Tis but an hour since first we met,
Another, and our paths will sever;
Nor deem it strange it wakes regret,
To think that we may part forever.



-'^ "

. *'4




see that he has bought a new hat, so the merchants may thank
her coming to town for that."
"It is a curious truth, (said on' of a photographical turn of
mind,) a young man is induced to pay a lady attention, and from
her often expressed preference for a fresh, inexperienced heart,
and her faith in the indistructable union of young hearts, and her
talk of first love, so well, and with qo much romantic favor ex-
pressed, is led into tender confessions; but no sooner a widower
comes along, and all is retracted, especially if he has a half-dozen
That must arise from the gregarious disposition of the human
Confound it; can't we break him down-run him off."
"Never; for there is a majority of four (children) against
either of us ; too late."
"Then Miss Casey said, she would bet on a Georgia horse, and
while Mr. Read opposed her with 'Nullification,' the South Car-
olina entry, he affected to think it useless to take stakes.against
Georgia, and in some enigmatical way, referred to its ladies dash-
ing through or taking possession of a whole Parrish."
Which I suppose had meaning, as Miss Casey replied:
I don't think he is to be pitied to-day, attending as he does
Miss Lizzie, in hisluxurious carriage with fine horses."
His heart may be (h) ossified."
"Oh, he is rather in a Brown study."
Ah, you can't make me believe that he has bolted, though I
must admire the skill with which you keep several, neck and
You certainly test my patience; but why do you spend your
time altogether in the favor of others ?"
Well, promise to take me-for the home stretch."
Too much; but I will give you a dance at the ball to-night."
Then the races were over, and those who were judges said it
was all fair and fine; of course, a little jockeying. And there
was much drinking, but this was all among gentlemen, and these
are so much a matter of course with juklp, or julep with gentle-
men, that you scarcely know which takes precedence. If a gen-
tleman is cold or warm, 'tis a julep; if tired or rested, follows the
same; sleepy, or otherwise, sick or well, wet or dry, a julep; be-
fore breaking the fast, or dinner, or supper, or the intervals,- a
julep supplies; it is the.hospitality of the land, and here they
make it, stirring, mixing, tasting, and the invariable "your health,
sir," would make one suppose that these people are in imminent
danger of sudden dissolution; or, like St. Paul, of dying many
times, daily! As we repassed the saloon below, Guy's country

~p-~:- -:~ __---rrr~-
r -

r!i~'t:- .~i~":;ou%h~ial~i~i~

r~. .r

r :'-


, fri'i-n.l iusitelI that r sh-,iiiI drinkk something, and escape was
S iimp1.ssihblt this lime. E\'verydy discourses public matters here,
consequently, I nm ,flien embarrassed to answer questions I never
' inlv\tigatl- : thui. \when we had clikllt'-_l e. (which is part
of the drinking ceremrl ny,) our host asked me if I did not think
the times were fearful, and tell me,", said he, how does the Gin-
eral fake it; I ineliu nI:l Hickory,for they tell me you see'd him
lately ;" and then he added: I'm not for hanging people most
in general, but it jist seems to me, a little rope would help them
S thar nullifeers. What is your idee?"
S A labvy in swaddling is not more helpless than I felt; but I
made a random shot, which was to the effect that General Jack-
son was equal to any emergency, which I was glad to see satisfied.
The drive homewards was highly exhilerating, but compliments
and thanks exchanged on the grand stand, induced us soon to
leave the main road, and wend our way through a woodland,
within which, in advance, and others following, we .tlppel before
a gate that opened upon a luxuriant garden, and this was the
home of General and Mrs. Call; the house setting back fifty
yards from entrance, was here hid fiom view by shade trees and
shrubbery, but as we approached, everything expressed welcome..
The golden bells of the jessamine seemed to ring it forth, while a
few blooming orange trees in perfume gave it soul,,emphasizing
the y,.'u i '. welcome from the General himself, who met us
before we reached the house; and as we stepped from the flower-
ed porch into the parlor, the frank, joyous manner of the mis-
tress seemed to say, you see we wanted you;' and I was glad
more than once that we had gone.
It was a collation, and all the clever and gay on the grand
stand, were re-assembled, more clever, gay and social for the
transfer. They drink Sherry and Madeira here, and sometimes
Port, but it must be genuine, for they know the difference. To-
day, we had these, and cakes with and without plums, fruits and
float, but more than all, the thread of amiable genialness, spun
early in the day on the race ground, was unbroken, and gener-
ous cheer still turned the wheel of good humor, thus filling the
reel of enjoyment.
Mr. George K. Walker stood next in order to the General, at
Home; and Dennet and Leigh were his fellow-students, and Miss
Theresa whispered of the first: He is our Sir Charles Grandi-
And who represents Miss'Byron ?"
You think then every Romeo has a Juliet, and otherwise
this circle impossible ?"





"Let us reason together," said Mr. Mays, as he handed to
Georgia Belle a bunch of dried grapes.
And she declared: You would have me in wandering mazes,
"No; reason shows us which we should eschew."
"And by comparison, learn to choose."
Your poetry makesme melancholy ; dpn't you think a choice
should come from a higher impulse than reason."
"You think then that the heart goes before, and illumes-the
And she told him, for fear he had no more followers in that
bouquet, she would give him a rose bud--Atypical of hope.
"For me?"
SFor thee."
Say for both."
And they talked the language of Dowers, for Mrs. Wirt* and
her accomplished daughter, have made it fashionable.
Another swain was not so fortunate with the ladies, as I heard
one say, I do not like you Dr. Fell," etc., etc., to which he ur-
banely replied:
"Of all the evils heaven can send, save me, Oh Lord! from
the candid friend."
But it was my special pleasure to wait on the lady of the
house, and at her instance to walk the garden; and I lingered
through the afternoon, grafting rose trees and fruit, glad to re-
ciprocate in any way so much gracious hospitality. And there
were little children running about, real little Floridians, among
the earliest born in the new possession, an infant and older, with
a tender for each ; and mammy," the superior nurse, who super-
vised the noisy crew, whom she petted and scolded in the same
breath. It was a beautiful relation, this of the black nurse;
a mother-lieutenant, whose authority scarcely slackened in the
presence of parents; mutual devotion and dependence, making
fast friends of the two. The very dress of "mammy was pic-
turesque; a white cotton and blue checked apron that went
round her waist, with a string, and the apron was checked like a
chess-board, and her head was enveloped in a white handkerchiefs
that contrasted strongly with her black skin, and it did duty as
often wiping the tears of her little flock, and their hands, as a
receptacle for the bugs, burrs, or berries, collected in their ranl-
This home was suggestive of satisfied comfort, and its surround-
* ings characterized old-fashioned plenty. The house was a plain
*The wife of Wm. Wirt, U. S. Attorney-General, and author of the language
S of flowers.



lildiun- of several rooms on one floor, wiitli .:util'l- chiiumn.-l s and
porches; the latter covered with the petite roses of the monti-flort,
which crept to the very eves and roofing. Nearer the gate. stood
a smalloffice, where Guy said the general's three law -tudl'rits
hybernated; but in summer here, men forsake the roof, and
live under the trees.
Now, the day is over, and it is like trying to fix the colors of
the rainbow, or the ray i if the sun, to picture the charm of sucl
mingling, the spirit and humor of this wr ll-bred, vivacious assem-
blage of ladies and gentlemen, with the pleasant nonsense that
seasoned the whole. Some talked well even of things not under-
stood, and there was knowledge, too, and pleasantries, mingling
S with winning manners. No centre of culture could have been
more inexhaustible, or more pleasing in its entertainment, than
was gathered together in the several days of the races.
They seem here to put in practice the highest philosophy, that
of present enjoyment; though such.a faith may not bear a uni-
versal adoption, it is very delightful among these good people.
What matters it what one does not know, so we know what our
special position requires; and are we not educated to small pur-
pose, unless we secure happiness and pleasure; to know thing,
more than books, to hate wrong, to love all that is beautiful and
good in nature, seems to me the best knowledge to practice ; but
for the present, with pulse still throbbing with the days delight, I
sing, vive la bagatelle." And the race' ball endtld the week's en-
joyment, which was very much the same as everywhere, mere
dress parades; but the ladies here dress well-so well as to sug-
gest that they get their dresses from abroad. W
No, indeed; they make them at home, themselves," said my
S And there were present the same number of blue eyes and
black-curly locks, more or less of brown, puffed and flowing; and
there were little feet, and (whisper it) perhaps big, but there
were no bas bleu, and all was cordiality and pleasantness.
The ball was at the City Hotel, and the dancing hall had the
usual evergreen decorations, and the committee wore jockey club
badges, and were active in making everything agreeable.
There is more latitude at a ball than other entertainments,
more freedom for flirtations, which ladies, married nal dinJle.
- comprehend. The company of this evening was peculiar to the
occasion, the best of whom I had seen elsewhere. The Virginia
girls were here, but Georgia and the Carolinas' had their repre-
sentatives, too. Mrs. Trollope, recently, in her book of travels,
says all Americans are vulgarians;" but surely there are ex-
ceptions, leastwise among ladies.

~ :~-


he. h pa S lnih '.ian1 is pe.,lii' i Fl..ril:. It is a gliliii-,.
S .In-U iiovei n particularly aila t,,l to i..i piaiy graceftui
4 it'..but as intriica.l- to me in it.l-valutionI, asthe labyrinth of
.rdne. to ier i iur..uers; but tb',dannee it well here, and it is
bItiiuT itilli
I admired to have advance with a very young lady, and she
Asked how I liked the climate, a question I could now answer in
my sleep; she also wanted to know if I said keow's," (cows,)
and guess. In return I asked if she had ever been North.
"Oh, my yes; I was in New York once, and there was so
much noise, I couldn't hear myself speak; and it was so cold in
May; we had to have blankets. I nearly froze to death. And
they wouldn't let me cross streets, except at corners;' said it
didn't look right, and the streets were so crowded; I reckon
there was a hundred people in sight all the time. I felt like I
wanted to sit down and wait for them to get by, but pa said 'twas
no use; 'twas so, he reckoned, all the time."
"Where did you stay ?"
Why, at Mrs. Brown's," she said, with perfect confidence
that I knew Mrs. Brown; but this was a fresh country girl that
S suggested blue violets and butter-cups; pretty in her ignorance.
But the supper! There was Pompey's head," but I will not
undertake to say of what it was made; I only know that it was
good; there were "bone" and boneless turkeys," "spice
rounds," "salads," and "oysters;" birds and ducks; cakes that
towered in beauty; leaning'" Pisa, Colossus of Rhodes, Temple
of Diana, and Cleopatra's Needle," all stood in frosted art, (sugar
and eggs,) and blancandjaune mange set forth birds' nests, and
birds themselves, in amber jelly, were here and there; and all
with,syllabubs, whips, and wine, were abundant.


"An invitation to dinner, and from Ralph Ringwood."
"And who is he?"
Doubtless you have read his experience as sketched by
Washington Irving ?"
"But that Ralpla-is- classical, and I cannot see the connec-
Only that your classical Ralph, is one and the same with the
Governador de las Provincias del as Floridas."
"What, humorous Ralph Ringwood a Governor ?"
Just so; dignified and accomplished as humorous; sends his





Messages to our C'ouuoil bothh the Spani-h and FrenoB
guage, and (-nn pauley or fi iidian- quitt as conveniei
SOf e.'uz- e i weil:
." Prepare your elt then TfOenquine enj.i tiymen r or"w -
have the voice and oure of b hi r, which, i nris in .. 1
reproduction of his stories; there is a rin I "i his bo, e and a
Twinkle of his eye that makes .the most ordinary remark teem
S with fun.": .

Guests generally had assembled when Gov. Duval pretentdl -
Shimself, entering his parlor hastily, still wearing a high straight
hat, and without a word of welcome, or sign of recognition, he
gave a quizzical look at the circle gathered, the effect of which-
was strategic, in dissipating all reserve and in initiating ease
and congeniality. The Governor is- under size, of full figure;
large head, a broad ruddy face, radiant with good nature and
humor, with a drolling voice and rather a blustering manner.
Excuse me for being late, but I lost my hat, (and this you
see is an infernal sight too small for me,) and I hurried so that I
feel like a great muscovy-duck cooked in its own grease; but
! here we are; has Nancy given you something to drink? I know
she.hasn't by the look of your eyes." 4
The Virginih mint julip is the sine qua non in the commence-
ment of cheer throughout the South, whether it be one or two
S gathered together, or more. The sideboard is generally the
S. finet. piece of furniture in a house, while the mint bed is the best
g. rowin. patch of the garden. These, and well filled decanters,
rotund like Dutchmen, declare the prevailing hospitality.
S- ",Gentlemen, here is 'old rye,' Monongahela,' and some first-
rate French' O,' (eau de vie,) and a tumbler and spoon for each
S man."
No water in mine, (says the Prince;) water is for the beasts
Softhe field; I drink whiskey in this country, because it is the
Yes, (said the Governor,) whiskey is the vernacular of the
"Certainement; it makes much language oftentimes."
"The aroma of this mint would revive a dead man."
Without the bath of whiskey ?"
Stir, stir, stir; and finally the sugar is I .Ilv-l, the mint
-teeped, jingling of glass with glass, and incantation of well wish-
Sing, and then in, mysterious silence 'comes imbitition, antil the
*goblet is inverted, drained of its last drop.
Thu- s,:.ialility is established, and the effect of the choosing,

SI ,


mixing, stirring, and tasting, is electric, for the knights of the
coming table gave premonitory, symptoms of hilarity, even as we
returned to the with-drawing room. I ventured in my sim-
plicity to admire the Governor's house.
Yes, I live here; but I don't know to whom it will belong;
you see it is not finished."
Governor, (said another,) I thought that you had arranged
to have it finished."
That story got abroad, did it ? Well, my plan was a good
one, and would have succeeded if I had had a spring of unfail-
ing punch; in that case my work would have been finished, and
those fellows would never have known when they did it."
Tell us about it."
"Well, 1 had spent all my money, and work consequently had
stopped, so I determined to give a mechanics supper right here,
where they could be inspired to complete what they had com-
menced. They all came; were mighty reserved at the start;
hung back like and looked doubtful. I prepared to teach them
to make punch; told them to sit down like gentlemen, and not
to be in a hurry, and so while they squeezed lemons, I undertook
to squeeze them. I told them that they were the bone and sinew
Sof the land, and there was no muscle without them; they rilust
put down the aristocracy, and I told them how I favored all
sorts of bills in the legislature for their protection, and so forth,
until I got them to feeling real good, and then I touched the
generous chords of their nature, and they became vociferous in
promises; they were fine fellows, but I reckon they will own the
house in the end."
And Mr. Hagner made a pun, which Braden pronounced
good, because it could be built upon, which was followed by like
gossamer nonsense wafted in this atmosphere of good humor.
The fact is, one thing is almost as good as another to make so-
ciability, and when that is secured all goes pleasantly; for this
reason, a party composed of common place people, stands a bet-
ter chance of being entertained, than one of all bright particular
stars, for there must be listeners and laughers, otherwise the
philosopher and anecdote man get stupid for want of apprecia-
"Dinner is ready, master," with a bow, caine from a respecta-
ble looking, well dressed negro man, as he opened a door into
the adjoining room. Nothing is more observable in these south-
ern homes than the pronounced respect extended to the master
by the head servant in every family; a respect endorsed by a
mutual friendship, in which mingles confidence and reliance;
and no amount of familiarity seems to make the first less a hero





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